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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Nigeria

    Shelter & NFI

    Of the 140 collective settlements sites, most were self-made tents (50), followed by government structures (25, down from 32 sites in the last DTM assessment) and schools (22, down from 30 sites in last assessment). The decrease in number of schools acting as sites for IDPs could be, as per the declared intention of the government, to relocate IDPs from schools.
    However, overall, schools continue to host the most IDPs.

    29.4% of IDPs surveyed were residing in 22 school sites, followed by 24.9% living in self-made tents and 19.6% in government buildings.


    The average quantity of water available per individual in 56 sites was between 5 and 10 liters; in another 56 sites, it was between 10 and 15 liters / ind; 39 sites had more than 15 liters/ind, and 11 sites had less than 5 liters/ind.

    Open-defecation was found to be rampant. 103 sites had evidence of open-defecation, while 60 did not. Another key issue was non-functioning drainage system, 153 sites had no drainage system.

    Food and Nutrition

    Of the 164 sites accessed, 141 sites had access to food, which was either on- or off-site. Most, 99, had access to food onsite and 42 had access to food off-site. 23 sites had no access to food. There has been a steady increase in the availability of food at sites over the last two assessment periods.
    In terms of frequency of distribution of food, it was irregular in 102 sites, down from 109 sites in the previous assessment, never in 24, twice a week in 4 sites, once a month in 7 sites, every two weeks in 7 sites and once a week in 3 sites. In 17 sites, up from 10 sites in the last assessment, the distribution of food was daily.


    Malaria continues to be the most prevalent health problem in most of the 164 sites assessed. 112 sites cited malaria as the most common ailment, followed by fever in 16 sites. 95 sites (up from 76 in the last DTM round) reported to have regular access to health facilities, against 140 sites that had some kind of access to medical facilities. Most sites (73) had on-site health facilities within a range of 3 km. 50 sites had off-site medical facilities that were within 3 km and 24 had no access to any medical facilities at all.


    In the 164 sites accessed, 123 (up from 99 in the last assessment and 67 in the assessment before) had access to formal and informal education facilities and 41 did not. In the majority of sites, education facilities were located off site (69, up from 59 in last assessment), 58 were on-site, and 35 had none. The nearest education facility is within 1km in 80 sites (down from 100 sites in last round), and 33 sites had education facilities at a distance of 2 km. 41% children are not attending any form of school, whether formal or informal.
    In 44 sites less than 25% children attend school, and in 35 sites, less than 50% of children attend school.


    Small scale agricultural practices were the most common type of occupation in 47 sites, followed by working as daily labourers (44), petty trade (40), and collecting firewood in 25 sites.
    A high of 126 sites reported they had access to incomegenerating activities, and 50,889 households said they had source of income. Livestock was seen in only 70 sites out of the 164 sites assessed. Whereas 74 sites reported that IDPs had no land for cultivation and 89 sites said they had.


    Radio (54, up from 44 in last assessment) overtook local leaders (39), and family and friends (36) to become the source of information for most residents. Mobile phone followed at 19, site management (i.e. humanitarian actors or government staff) was cited in 11 (up from 7 in last assessment) sites; and only 5 sites mentioned authorities as a source of information. Safety and security were the main issues displaced people wanted to know about in 66 sites, followed by the situation in their place of origin in 56 sites and information on distribution in 20 sites. In 29 sites, respondents complained of serious problems due to lack of information.


    In 136 sites, formal and informal security is being provided, while in 28, there is no form of security provided. Security-related incidents were reported in 48 sites, while 116 sites reported no security incidents. Theft was the most common form of security incident.

    The most common form of security in the majority of sites (68, followed by military providing security in 45 sites, police in 6 sites and none in 28 sites. As many as 131 sites have no lighting in communal places, in 21 sites, the lighting is inadequate and adequate in only 12 sites.

    Domestic violence was the most common kind of gender-based violence (GBV) reported in 29 sites, followed by ‘unknown’ in 8 sites. No GBV incidents were reported in 122 sites. Early or forced marriage (2) and forced family separation (5) were the most common type of physical violence reported. Forced recruitment incidents were reported in one site. No incident of physical violence was reported in 125 sites.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria


    • Some 73.4 percent of respondents in this assessment have poor food consumption, meaning that households’ diet is inadequate. On average, these households consume cereals for 4 days, oil for 2 days and vegetables for 1 day in a week, with exceptionally limited or no consumption of fruits, meat and dairy products.

    • The main source of food for 33.3 percent of households is loans in the form of food to be repaid at a later date. Another 24 percent of households rely on purchased grain (with cash) while 20 percent access food through market purchase on credit. The use of these unsustainable sources implies that households are highly vulnerable to further food insecurity due to the impact of price increases.

    • Returnee households are more food insecure than displaced households (88.9% vs 60%) while female-head households are more food insecure than their male counterparts (91% vs 83%).

    • The mean Reduced Coping Strategy Index (rCSI) among Internally Displaced Population (IDP) households is 26.2 as compared to 20.1 for returnee households. Similarly, the mean rCSI among female-headed households is 22 as compared to 18 for male-headed households. Higher CSI indicates severe food security conditions and therefore, the higher the rCSI, the more severe the coping strategies applied by the household.


    A rapid food security assessment was conducted in Gubio as part of the Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM) from 5th to 7th December 2016. The RRM is a joint mission between WFP and UNICEF which is designed to assess and respond to rapidly changing needs on the ground in hard to reach areas. The key activities carried out during the RRM include registration and general food distribution to vulnerable households along with the provision of nutrition supplies for the management of acute malnutrition in children under 5 years.

    A total of 149.709 metric tons of food was distributed to 18,725 registered beneficiaries as general food distribution and to 1,500 beneficiaries as Blanket Supplementary Feeding following a nutrition screening conducted for children (6 -59 months).
    The objective of the rapid food security assessment was to evaluate the current food security situation of beneficiaries to inform programmatic decisions and to establish baseline food security information on the most vulnerable groups.

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    Source: Public Library of Science
    Country: Cameroon


    Lambed Tatah, Tefera Darge Delbiso, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Julita Gil Cuesta, Debarati Guha-Sapi


    Hosting refugees may represent a drain on local resources, particularly since external aid is frequently insufficient. Between 2004 and 2011, over 100,000 refugees settled in the eastern border of Cameroon. With little known on how refugee influx affects health services of the hosting community, we investigated the impact of refugees on mother and child health (MCH) services in the host community in Cameroon. We used Cameroon's 2004 and 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys to evaluate changes in MCH indicators in the refugee hosting community. Our outcome variables were antenatal care (ANC) coverage, caesarean delivery rate, place of delivery and child vaccination coverage; whereas the exposure variable was residence in the refugee hosting community. We used a difference-in-differences analysis to compare indicators of the refugee hosting community to a control group selected through propensity score matching from the rest of the country. A total of 10,656 women were included in our 2004 analysis and 7.6% (n = 826) of them resided in the refugee hosting community. For 2011, 15,426 women were included and 5.8% (n = 902) of them resided in the hosting community. Between 2004 and 2011, both the proportion of women delivering outside health facilities and children not completing DPT3 vaccination in the refugee hosting community decreased by 9.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.9±14.1%) and 9.6% (95% CI: 7.9±11.3%) respectively. However, ANC attendance and caesarean delivery did not show any significant change. Our findings demonstrate that none of the evaluated MCH service indicators deteriorated (in fact, two of them improved: delivery in health facilities and completing DPT3 vaccine) with the presence of refugees. This suggests evidence disproving the common belief that refugees always have a negative impact on their hosting community.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad


    • La région du Lac, déjà fortement vulnérable à cause du sous-développement chronique, est sévèrement affectée par l’impact de la crise nigériane depuis début 2015. Les opérations militaires en cours et les incidents sécuritaires (attaques contre les villages, vols de bétail, mines et UXOs), particulièrement dans les zones frontalières avec le Nigeria et le Niger, ont entrainé le déplacement de près de 120 000 personnes et affecté les communautés locales déjà vulnérables, qui ont vu leurs conditions et moyens d’existence se détériorer davantage.
    • La fermeture des frontières avec le Nigeria et la prolongation de l’état d’urgence, ainsi que les restrictions de mouvements qui en résultent, ont un impact négatif sur la situation économique et alimentaire des populations hôtes et des personnes en situation de déplacement (augmentation des prix des denrées de base, perte de débouchés économiques, pêche fortement réduite à cause de l’interdiction de naviguer, zones de transhumance déviées et pâturages réduits ...), augmentant les risques liés à l’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition.
    • Les populations continuent de se déplacer, fuyant l’insécurité et à la recherche de moyens de subsistance. Après des déplacements massifs en 2015, des mouvements secondaires de plus petite ampleur ont été enregistrés en 2016. L’assistance humanitaire est souvent la seule source de subsistance pour la majorité des déplacés et la population locale. Les populations bravent les mesures sécuritaires au risque de leur vie pour se rendre dans leurs localités d’origine en quête de moyens de subsistance (agriculture, pêche, élevage). En l’absence de perspectives immédiates de retour pour les déplacés, il s’avère essentiel de mettre en place des solutions durables et d’envisager le développement d’activités socio-économiques pour renforcer leur autosuffisance et faciliter leur réinsertion dans les villages d’accueil.
    • L’accès aux services essentiels de base reste limité pour les populations de la région du Lac. La région ne compte que 10 médecins et le taux de scolarisation primaire de l'année scolaire 2015-2016 est seulement de 37%. Au-delà de l’insuffisance d’infrastructures, de ressources humaines, d’équipements et de fournitures, y compris les médicaments, la vulnérabilité économique et certaines pratiques traditionnelles ne favorisent pas l’utilisation des services sociaux. Dans ce contexte, les déplacements exercent une pression accrue sur ces services et en limitent d’autant plus l’accès. Il est donc important d’appuyer les structures de santé, d’éducation et accroître la capacité des infrastructures d’eau et d’assainissement pour améliorer l’accès aux services essentiels de base dans la région.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Spain

    MADRID – The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) has welcomed a donation from the Government of Spain to support its management of the United Nations Humanitarian Air Services (UNHAS) in Mali, Mauritania and Niger.

    The contribution, which amounts to €300,000 equally distributed among the three countries, will help maintain regular air transport between the capitals and the areas where humanitarian assistance is needed. UNHAS transports humanitarian staff working for NGOs, other UN agencies, their partners, as well as officials from donor countries and journalists to reach vulnerable people in remote and insecure areas. Like WFP, UNHAS relies entirely on voluntary funds.

    “WFP aviation services are essential in many places where alternative transport is non-existent or insufficient to support life-saving activities carried out by humanitarian organizations,” said Eric Perdison, Chief of WFP Aviation. “Spain, among other donors, fully understands our role in providing humanitarian access, and WFP is grateful for the diverse support which Spain provides annually to our operations.”

    Long distances, poor infrastructure and insecurity pose challenges for road access within Mali, Mauritania and Niger, making air transport the most efficient means for humanitarian staff to reach the communities in urgent need of their assistance. UNHAS also facilitates the movement of essential light cargo, such as medical supplies, specialized nutrition products, and telecommunications equipment.

    “In humanitarian crises, the work of UNHAS is vital for humanitarian staff to access the most vulnerable populations, and to ensure safe travel amid often challenging security conditions. We fully support the work of UNHAS and that, therefore, the contributions provided by Spanish citizens are reaching those most in need,” said Luis Tejada, director of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID).

    WFP operates flights that link several destinations with the capitals of each of the Sahel countries, facilitating humanitarian access to remote and hard to reach areas. For 2017, UNHAS still requires over US$10 million to fund operations in the Sahel region for the duration of the year.


    For more information on UNHAS, please visit

    For more information on the 8th Global Humanitarian Aviation Conference (GHAC), please visit

    WFP is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. Each year, WFP assists some 80 million people in around 80 countries.

    Follow us on Twitter @wfp_media

    For more information please contact (email address:

    Lucía Fernández, WFP/Madrid, Tel +34 672 068 169 Lourdes Melendo, WFP/Madrid, Tel. +34 697 10 52 25

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    Source: Fund for Peace
    Country: Nigeria

    Although the number of reported conflict fatalities in Plateau state has fallen in 2016, the effects of displacement and violence continue to reverberate in the lives of women and girls. Continuing to monitor trends and incidents of VAWG, and how they are interrelated to other conflict drivers, is critical to understanding the effects of violence on the lives of women and girls and to better inform prevention and response efforts. Domestic abuse, rape and sexual assault accounted for most of the reported incidents of violence against women and girls in Plateau state between January 2015 and September 2016. This included domestic and sexual abuse by male family members – fathers, husbands, cousins and uncles – as well as by trusted authority figures, such as pastors and members of the security forces.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    Depuis le début de l’année 2016, 10.240 personnes (soit 213nouveaux arrivés en moyenne par semaine ) ont été enregistrés au camp de Minawao.
    Au 30 Novembre 2016, la population totale de réfugiés s’élève à 59.581personnes. 62% de la population totale du camp à moins de 18 ans, les femmes et les filles représentent 54% de la population totale du camp.
    Avec un taux de croissance de 8% par mois, la population du camp commence à exercer d’énormes pressions sur les ressources naturelles.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger


    • A la faveur d’une production céréalière nationale estimée à 5 856 530 tonnes qui dégage une hausse de 9 pourcent par rapport à l’année dernière et de 24 pourcent par rapport à la moyenne quinquennale, les disponibilités alimentaires nationales sont suffisantes pour les besoins de consommation. Cela se traduit pour la plupart des producteurs par des stocks normaux qui facilitent l’accès alimentaire et renforcent les revenus avec la vente des excédents.

    • La plupart des zones se trouve actuellement en situation d’insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) qui va perdurer jusqu’au moins mai 2017. La consommation alimentaire des ménages comprend des aliments diversifiés dont ceux issus des cultures de contre saison qui procurent également des revenus normaux aux producteurs. Toutefois, avec l’épuisement précoce des stocks paysans suite aux déficits céréaliers dans les zones agricoles de Maradi (Dakoro, Mayahi), des formes de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) apparaitront en mars 2017.

    • La situation pastorale est marquée par un déficit fourrager estimé à 12 235 881 tonnes de matière sèche par les services du ministère de l’élevage. Une dégradation précoce de l’embonpoint des animaux et de leur valeur marchande sont attendues et une situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) va apparaitre à partir de mars 2017 suite à l’insuffisance des revenus pour couvrir les besoins non alimentaires dans la zone pastorale des transhumants des régions de Tahoua, Zinder, Agadez et Maradi.

    • Dans la région de Diffa, une situation Minimale (Phase 1 ! de l’IPC) grâce à l’appui humanitaire et Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) subsiste actuellement à cause de la perturbation continue des marchés et des activités de moyens d’existence de pêche et de vente de poivron et du bétail. En raison de la persistance de l’insécurité et sans la poursuite de l’assistance humanitaire, il est attendu des situations de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) et Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) à partir de février 2017.

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    Source: US Department of State
    Country: Senegal


    Senegal is a colorful country known for the vibrancy of its music, the delight of its food, and the splash of color in its clothing. Yet, it is also a country suffering from poverty, food insecurity, and a lack of economic growth despite a stable democracy and a functioning government. As a Presidential Management Fellow, I had the privilege of serving on a rotation at Embassy Dakar last fall. But I had no idea how far away from the bustling capital city the job would take me.

    Northern Senegal is an arid region which suffers from decreasing rainfall and desertification. Like most of the region, the province of Matam in northeastern Senegal is plagued by poverty and illiteracy: one in two people live in poverty and only one in four people can read. Three consecutive years of drought from 2013 to 2015 sent malnutrition rates soaring and led to an acute need for food aid.

    I organized a week-long trip to northern Senegal for U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Senegal James P. Zumwalt so that he could see first-hand the lingering impacts of this drought and vital U.S. assistance programs in action. As part of that trip, Ambassador Zumwalt and I traveled to a USAID-supported hospital treating severe cases of malnutrition.

    Despite all of the preparation and all of the briefing papers, nothing could have prepared me for meeting with one of the mothers and her four-month old child who was so malnourished she looked like she had just been born. It was in this moment that I recognized the critical role of our country’s Global Food Security Act in helping people in these dire circumstances. For what could be more valuable than investing in a system that allows a mother, and countless others, to grow more bountiful and nutritious crops so that they can feed their own children?

    In July, Congress passed the Global Food Security Act and allocated $7 billion to support smallholder farmers and improve the nutrition of women and children worldwide. Our trip to northern Senegal allowed us directly observe some of the most important aspects of the program, like providing training and capital to jumpstart agriculture entrepreneurs or supporting women farmers with training and supplies so they can provide for themselves and their families.

    One of the most inspiring people we met on the trip was an entrepreneur in Matam that founded his own agricultural supply shop. While USAID played an essential role in selling him high-quality seeds, it was really Abdoulaye who stole the show. He worked with local farmers to educate them on the nutritional value of various crops and to train them on best practices for cultivation. His store formed the bedrock of the town.

    Senegal is a poor country that struggles with unpredictable rains and low agricultural yields. But Senegal is also a country with a proud and resourceful people. By choosing to invest to increase productivity and improve nutrition before drought or other disasters hit, the U.S. government enables people like Abdoulaye and Demba to support themselves and their families -- and to help them create a more prosperous and resilient society.

    About the author: Zach Blackburn serves in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs at the U.S. Department of State.

    For more information:

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    Source: Danish Refugee Council, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, World

    Monthly regional mixed migration summary for November 2016 covering mixed migration events, incidents, trends and data for the West Africa region.

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    Source: Danish Refugee Council, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, World

    13,740 migrants and refugees arrived in Italy by sea via the central Mediterranean route despite worsening sea conditions. This is over four times the number who arrived by sea in Italy in November 2015. Nationals from Nigeria and Guinea accounted for the largest number of rescued migrants and refugee.

    An estimated 718 people died or went missing while trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea. By 30 November, 4,699 people had died or gone missing in 2016 while crossing the Mediterrane- an, surpassing the 3,771 people who lost their lives in 2015.

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  • 12/20/16--00:21: Niger: Sahel Food Crisis
  • Source: Famine Early Warning System Network, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Food Programme, ITHACA, UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria

    Rains only come once a year in the Sahel, last year they were below-average. Over 15 million people are at risk for food insecurity. In an effort to respond to early warnings, this tool is a collaboration to strengthen the data sharing in the region.

    Below-average rains began in late 2011 and resulted in drought conditions across the Sahel early in 2012. Based on poor vegetation growth, higher food prices, poor crop yields, and regional violence, there are predictions of widespread food insecurity throughout the region - with a particular focus on Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad. Recent reports from UN have shown increased population movements in the region due to violence in Mali. In areas where food insecurity and malnutrition are already chronic, there are predictions that food insecurity will grow as populations try to cope with the continuing drought conditions. The UN estimates over 15 million people are at risk.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network, US Geological Survey
    Country: Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan

    The water point map viewer, which monitors 234 water points from Mali to Somalia, will help a range of government and non-government actors understand the current availability of water for livestock and human consumption. This will inform food security analysis, humanitarian assistance planning, and a range of other activities

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: South Sudan


    • Displacement surpasses 3 million

    • Bentiu PoC site population increases to 120,300 IDPs

    • IOM commences PSS programming at Malakal PoC site

    As the crisis in South Sudan enters its fourth year, the total number of civilians displaced has reached more than 3 million people (a quarter of the population), with more than 1.87 million displaced internally and over 1.1 million displaced to neighbouring countries. The UN Refugee Agency reports that 414,500 South Sudanese have left the country since the surge in violence in July 2016.

    Humanitarian space in South Sudan continues to shrink, with the UN reporting more than 90 access constraint incidents in November, 70 per cent of which involved violence against aid workers or assets. Relief agencies are continually denied access to populations in need, particularly in Greater Equatoria and outside of Wau town, Western Bahr el Ghazal. IOM continues to seek access to areas beyond Wau, where aid agencies have been unable to provide consistent assistance since July due to bureaucratic constraints and check-point blockages.

    The displaced population seeking protection at the UN protection of civilians (PoC) site in Bentiu, Unity, increased by 19 per cent over the month of November, with a current population of 120,300 IDPs. Insecurity and corresponding increases in humanitarian needs in parts of Unity are likely driving the increase in displacement. Fighting, particularly in Leer, is likely to continue prompting people to move to the Bentiu PoC site or more stable areas of Unity.

    Concerns regarding insecurity and humanitarian needs in the Greater Equatoria region are increasing. An IOM assessment team traveled to Mundri East and West counties, Western Equatoria, in late November to assess humanitarian needs in the area, which has been hard to reach due to insecurity throughout much of the year. In face of growing needs, IOM is implementing a combined water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and shelter and nonfood items (S/NFI) response. Teams are distributing shelter materials and WASH items, repairing boreholes and conducting hygiene promotion activities to reach an estimated 4,000 households.

    A rapid response team has deployed to Yei, Central Equatoria, to provide emergency primary health care assistance to displaced and conflict-affected populations in the area, where thousands are in need due to recent insecurity. IOM teams are supporting the ongoing health support provided by Africa Action Help International.

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    Source: Government of Niger, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger

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