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- 12/16/16--10:29: _Nigeria: Nutrition ...
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- 12/16/16--11:44: _Chad: Tchad : Filip...
- 12/16/16--13:12: _Nigeria: UNHCR chie...
- 12/16/16--13:38: _Cameroon: Refugees ...
- 12/16/16--15:23: _Burkina Faso: Secre...
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- 12/17/16--13:57: _Nigeria: Norway giv...
- 12/17/16--14:58: _Central African Rep...
- 12/17/16--18:17: _Mali: Communiqué co...
- 12/17/16--23:05: _Chad: Water, Livest...
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- 12/18/16--23:11: _Nigeria: Nigeria: H...
- 12/18/16--23:32: _South Sudan: WFP So...
- 12/19/16--01:40: _Nigeria: Displaceme...
- 12/19/16--01:49: _Chad: Tchad: Profil...
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- In Yaounde, Helene Caux: email@example.com, on mobile +221 77 333 1291 or +237 669 0642 47 - In Yaounde, Djerassem Mbaiorem: firstname.lastname@example.org, on mobile +237 69 114 1218 - In Yaounde, Johannes Zech: email@example.com, on mobile +237 69 114 1210 - In Geneva, Leo Dobbs: firstname.lastname@example.org, on +41 79 883 6347
- 12/16/16--13:38: Cameroon: Refugees from Boko Haram Languish in Cameroon
- A Famine likely occurred in April-August in some IDP enclaves (Bama and Banki towns) and in other nearby inaccessible areas of Borno state facing similar conditions of limited access to food and health services and before the impact of Humanitarian Assistance.
- There is an elevated likelihood that famine is ongoing and will continue in the inaccessible areas of Borno State assuming conditions will remain similar or worse to those observed in Bama and Banki towns from April to August of 2016.
- Humanitarian assistance has improved food security and may be preventing Famine in various IDPs concentrations but sustained humanitarian access is critical in many areas.
- The current response is insufficient to meet the very large emergency assistance needs.
- The Government of Nigeria, with support from its partners, to step-up its efforts in providing secure access for aid organizations in the affected zones;
- ECOWAS and the International community to respond to this food and nutrition emergency in order to save lives.
- The present report is submitted pursuant to the request contained in the statement of the President of the Security Council dated 11 June 2015 (S/PRST/2015/12), in which the Council requested me to keep it informed of the activities of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA). It provides an assessment of the major political and security trends in the Central African subregion since my previous report, dated 25 May 2016 (S/2016/482) and provides an update on progress made in the implementation of the mandate of UNOCA and on efforts to implement the United Nations regional strategy to address the threat and impact of the activities of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) (see S/2012/481).
The political landscape of the subregion continued to be dominated by preparations for and the conducting and aftermath of electoral processes, a number of which were marked by serious tensions and violence both before and after the electoral processes were conducted.
The fight against Boko Haram, including in the context of the Multinational Joint Task Force, continued during the reporting period. The significant progress achieved by the Joint Task Force notwithstanding, the Boko Haram crisis continued in the Lake Chad basin. In parallel, national, regional and international efforts to combat LRA continued, against a backdrop of the planned withdrawal of Ugandan forces from the African Union Regional Task Force and its likely impact on the strategy to counter LRA.
The challenging economic situation in the subregion, owing to the slump in global oil prices and difficulties in diversifying the economy and achieving progresin economic integration, continued to contribute to political and social tensions.
Protect the lives and fundamental well-being of civilians affected by conflict or natural disasters
Strengthen self-reliance and facilitate durable solutions, including through integration and voluntary return
Ensure life-saving emergency relief is provided to the most vulnerable people affected by conflict and disaster
Reduce food insecurity and malnutrition to below emergency levels
- 12/18/16--23:11: Nigeria: Nigeria: Humanitarian Funding Trends (14 December 2016)
- 12/18/16--23:32: South Sudan: WFP South Sudan Situation Report #156, 17 December 2016
Market access and harvests continue in Equatorias region in spite of ongoing conflict.
General food distributions are ongoing in Northern Bahr el Ghazal to assist 500,000 people—a reduced figure from the previous quarter in line with seasonal harvests.
Rapid assessments in Lafon, Kajo-Keji, Torit and Kapoeta have indicated generalized food insecurity; however, harvest and market access continue, albeit limited by the conflict. WFP continues to closely monitor the food security and nutrition situation while continuing existing programmes, including food assistance for assets and food for education.
UNHCR reports that the arrival rate into Uganda has increased in recent days, amidst ongoing clashes in the Equatorias region. On 13 December, more than 7,000 people from South Sudan crossed the border to Uganda
- Data collection for the Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring System (FSNMS) is ongoing. The data will feed into the next Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) for which analysis is expected to begin by the end of January.
Le Haut-Commissaire pour le réfugiés est en déplacement au Tchad où il s'est notamment rendu dans la région du Baga Sola où vivent plus de 100 000 personnes qui ont été déplacées par des militants du groupe Boko Haram, y compris des ressortissants du Nigéria et du Niger. Cette visite de Filippo Grandi se fait dans le cadre d'une tournée dans la région qui vise à attirer l'attention sur les besoins des deux millions de personnes qui ont été déplacés dans la région du Bassin du Lac Tchad. À Baga Sola, le Haut-Commissaire s'est inquiété des conditions difficiles dans lesquelles vivent les familles de déplacés, en dépit des efforts du HCR et du gouvernement local.
La stratégie militaire consistant à isoler les insurgés du groupe Boko Haram sur des îles du Lac Tchad après avoir déplacés les populations a permis d'améliorer la situation sécuritaire, mais les attaques se poursuivent néanmoins et les déplacés ne sont pas prêts de regagner leur foyer.
Le HCR a donc mis sur pied des programmes de pêche, d'agriculture et d'élevage pour assurer leurs moyens d'existence et relancer l'économie, mais beaucoup de personnes continuent de dépendre de l'aide humanitaire.
Une part importante du lac demeure en effet inaccessible pour des raisons de sécurité, et les ravages écologiques ne font qu'aggraver l'étendue des problèmes.
Aussi le Haut-Commissaire se rendra vendredi au Cameroun pour lancer un appel de fonds inter-agence pour venir en aide à environ 500 000 personnes touchées par l'insurrection de Boko Haram.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi today in Cameroon launched a multi-million dollar inter-agency appeal to help almost half-a-million people in Niger, Chad and Cameroon affected by the Boko Haram insurgency, including more than 183,000 Nigerian refugees.
The 36 partners (UN agencies and NGOs) of the 2017 Nigeria Regional Refugee Response Plan (RRRP) are asking for US$241 million for next year to help some 460,000 people – Nigerian refugees, internally displaced people and host community members in the three countries. More than half (US$154.29 million) is required for Niger, with the response in Cameroon requiring $67.25 million and US$19.61 million for operations in Chad.
The appeal for next year is a US$43 million increase over that of 2016, which is only 43 per cent funded. With today’s launch of the appeal, UNHCR and the other agencies making the appeal are urging donors to respond with greater generosity to help people in urgent need of help.
“This is one of Africa’s largest displacement crises and the world cannot afford to brush it under the carpet,” said Grandi before launching the Nigeria RRRP at a ceremony in Yaounde. “The suffering and desperate conditions in the Lake Chad region are among the harshest I have seen. Refugees, returnees and host communities who have survived violence and trauma by the Boko Haram insurgency urgently need help,” added Grandi, who this week has visited refugees and internally displaced people in Niger, Chad and Cameroon and plans to visit Nigeria in the coming days.
Despite increased security, people still face tough conditions and insecurity in all three host countries. The main daily challenges include insufficient protection, durable shelter and lack of food, health care, malnutrition, education and livelihoods. Environmental damage is also a concern and the need for water, sanitation and hygiene.
With the situation unpredictable and no immediate prospects of a resolution or significant return, stepped-up funding support from the international community is vital. Humanitarian needs must be urgently addressed and UNHCR and partners need the funding to build on progress made in 2016.
In addition to this, it is critical that the international community immediately invest in development programmes for both refugees and host communities. During his field visits, the High Commissioner witnessed innovative development oriented activities that benefit both displaced people and host communities, including gas distribution projects in Diffa, Niger, and boats for fishing communities in Baga Sola, Chad.
The High Commissioner committed to advocate with development agencies and donor countries to invest in programmes in the Lake Chad basin so that this crisis can be tackled with creativity and innovation.
After another year of continued conflict, displacement and suffering in an area of extreme poverty, harsh climatic conditions, disrupted economic activity, and limited or destroyed infrastructure, the need for continued protection and assistance is more compelling than ever before. Humanitarian aid agencies must be resourced to work with governments to reach more people in need, and development money must be urgently invested to take advantage of the new opportunities to provide services and improve lives.
Aid groups are also, in a separate appeal, seeking over US$1 billion from donors to help some 1.8 million displaced people within Nigeria, up considerably from the amount sought in 2016.
MINAWAO CAMP, Cameroon, Dec 16 2016 (IPS) - Tears spring to Aichatou Njoya’s eyes as she recalls the day Islamic militants from Boko Haram arrived on her doorstep in Nigeria.
“It was on May 24, 2013. My husband was sleeping in his room while I was on the other side of the house with our six children. The youngest was only one month old,” she mutters, pausing to collect herself.
Njoya told IPS when the armed insurgents broke into the house, they grabbed her husband and dragged him into her room. “They brought him in front of us and put a machete to his neck and asked him if he was going to convert from Christianity to Islam. They asked thrice, and thrice he refused. Then they slew him right in front of me and our children,” she said, still holding back tears.
The widowed refugee said an argument ensued among the assailants as to whether to spare her life or not. They finally agreed to let her live. The next day she escaped with her children to the hills and trekked for several days until they reached the border with Cameroon, where the UNHCR had vehicles to transport refugees to the camp. The camp had just been set up, she says.
Njoya, now 36, has been living in the Minawao refugee camp in Cameroon’s Far North region for more than three and a half years now, with scant hope of returning anytime soon.
IPS spoke with Njoya and others during the Dec. 15 visit of Filippo Grandi, High Commissioner for the United Nations Refugee agency UNHCR, to the camp. Grandi called for the financial empowerment of Nigerian refugees to help them cope with insufficient humanitarian aid.
The camp hosts about 60,000 Nigerians who have fled their homes since 2011 because of attacks carried out by the Islamist terror group, Boko Haram.
Grandi spoke with refugees, representatives of national and international NGOs, and officials of the Cameroonian government who gathered to welcome him. Cameroon is the third country he is visiting as part of his tour of countries of the Lake Chad Basin affected by the Boko Haram insurgency.
Grandi said his visit was intended to encourage donors to provide more aid to affected countries and governments to work together to reinstate peace in the region and facilitate the return of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) their homes.
“We have made efforts to improve aid, but aid is still insufficient. I have listened to complaints of these refugee women who say they do not have any income generation activities and I think the UNHCR and its partners should begin working in that direction. Help them help themselves,” he said.
He had just listened to representatives of the refugees and refugee women discussing the difficulties they face on a daily basis, including food and water shortages, scarcity of wood, insufficient medicines, and insufficient classroom and medical staff in health units in the camp.
Growing population, funding gap aggravate living conditions
According to Njoya, and every other refugee who talked to IPS, including Jallo Mohamed, Bulama Adam and Ayuba Fudama, living conditions are growing worse by the day. They all complain of joblessness. Njoya says even when they leave the camp with refugee certificates as IDs, Cameroonian security officers still stop them from going out.
“This hinders the success of the income generation activities we are yearning for,” she said.
“When we just got here, they gave each refugee 13 kg of rice monthly. It was later reduced to 10 and last month (November 2016) it dropped further. The rationing for wood has also declined. Nowadays when you go to the health unit for headache, they give you paracetamol. If you have a fever, they give you paracetamol. If you have stomach ache or anything else, they give you the same tablets. And when you go there at night, there is no one on duty,” says Jallo Mohamed.
Reports say there are periods when as many as 50 births are recorded per week in the Minawao camp.
“You can’t blame them. They sleep early every night because they do not have TV sets or other forms of entertainment. That is why the birth rate is as it is,” said a medic at the camp who asked not to be named.
Cameroon currently hosts more than 259,000 refugees from the Central African Republic and 73,747 Nigerians. Funders led by the U.S., Japan, EU, Spain, Italy, France and Korea were able to raise only 37 per cent of a total of 98.6million dollars required in assistance for refugees and IDPs in Cameroon this year – a funding gap of 62.4 million dollars, according to the UNHCR factsheet.
The funding gap for requirements of Nigerian refugees, according to the UNHCR, stands at 29.7 million dollars. Nevertheless, High Commissioner Grandi remains positive that empowering refugees to earn incomes will improve living standards at the Minawao Camp.
Regarding the wood shortage, he said he saw fuel-efficient cooking stoves in Niger and Chad and will encourage stakeholders in Cameroon to introduce the models in the camp. He also reassured refugees that an ongoing water project will provide the camp and host communities with clean pipe-borne water.
The High Commissioner’s mission to Cameroon also includes the launching of 2017 Regional Refugee Response Plan for the Nigeria Refugee Situation.
SECRETARY-GENERAL STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES
The following statement was issued today by the Spokesman for UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon:
The Secretary-General condemns today's attack against a military post in Nassoumbou, Province of Soum, in the north of Burkina Faso, in which Burkinabè soldiers were killed and injured. He extends his deepest condolences to the families of the victims and to the Government and people of Burkina Faso and wishes a speedy and full recovery to the injured.
The Secretary-General reiterates the commitment of the United Nations to support Burkina Faso in its efforts to sustain peace and reinforce security in cooperation with the other countries of the Sahel region and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). He thanks Burkina Faso for its important contribution to the stabilisation and peace efforts in Mali. He encourages the authorities of Burkina Faso to launch an investigation to bring the perpetrators of this attack to justice.
For information media. Not an official record.
Despite government and partners efforts to assist population in need, an elevated risk of famine is ongoing and will persist in inaccessible areas of Borno State in Northern Nigeria
Cadre Harmonisé (CH) analysis at Senatorial Zone Level in October 2016 confirmed a very severe food insecurity and nutrition situation in Borno state, projecting the population in CH Phase 5 will increase from 55,000 to 115,000 people. A FEWS NET IPC compatible analysis of lower level Local Government Areas (LGAs) and selected IDP concentrations in Borno State conducted in November 2016 further confirmed the alarming situation and revealed an ongoing IPC Elevated Risk of Famine in the inaccessible areas that will likely continue into 2017.
A multi-partner IPC quality assurance process has reviewed the FEWS NET IPC-compatible analysis of Borno State, Nigeria, and has confirmed that there are enough evidence indicating that:
The worst affected area is the Borno State in Northern Nigeria, especially IDP concentrations and areas inaccessible due to conflict.
The most affected populations are those without humanitarian assistance in inaccessible areas and IDPs. IDPs in the northeast region are estimated at 1.8 million, of which 1.4 million in Borno State and one million are in and around Maiduguri, the state capital (IOM DTM report, October, 2016).
The main factor contributing to the widespread food insecurity is the persistence of conflict, which has resulted in mass displacements. Severe food insecurity has also been driven by below-average crop production, disrupted livelihoods, and the financial crisis linked to the local currency depreciation.
RISK OF FAMINE: Despite evidence pointing to a famine situation, an IPC Famine cannot be confirmed according to IPC guidelines with the information available.
Members of the Food Crisis Prevention Network (RPCA) convened in Abuja in December, 12, 2016, urge:
The IPC Global Partners also call for immediate access to insecure areas to respond to humanitarian needs and facilitate data collection to further ascertain the situation. Vigilance is also needed to monitor the evolving situation and update the Cadre Harmonize (CH) analysis.
16 décembre 2016 – Le Haut-Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, Filippo Grandi, a lancé vendredi au Cameroun un appel de fonds pour venir en aide à près d'un demi-million de personnes affectées par l'insurrection de Boko Haram au Niger, au Tchad et au Cameroun.
Les 36 partenaires (agences des Nations Unies et ONG) du Plan régional 2017 d'aide aux réfugiés nigérians ont besoin de 241 millions de dollars pour l'année prochaine afin de venir en aide à quelque 460.000 personnes - des réfugiés nigérians, des personnes déplacées internes et des membres de la communauté hôte dans ces trois pays.
Plus de la moitié de cette somme (soit 154,29 millions de dollars) est nécessaire pour le Niger, l'aide aux personnes déracinées au Cameroun nécessite 67,25 millions de dollars et 19,61 millions de dollars sont requis pour les opérations au Tchad.
L'appel de fonds pour 2017 augmente de 43 millions de dollars par rapport à celui de 2016, qui est financé seulement à hauteur de 43 pour cent.
« C'est l'une des crises majeures de déplacements de populations en Afrique et le monde doit agir », a déclaré Filippo Grandi. « Les souffrances et le désespoir dans la région du lac Tchad atteignent un point que je n'avais jamais encore vu. Les réfugiés, les rapatriés et les communautés hôtes ayant survécu à la violence et aux traumatismes après les attaques commises par les insurgés de Boko Haram ont besoin d'une aide d'urgence ».
Malgré une amélioration de la situation, les civils demeurent confrontés à des conditions difficiles et à l'insécurité dans les trois pays hôtes. Les principaux défis quotidiens incluent une protection insuffisante, la malnutrition ainsi que le manque d'abris durables, de nourriture, de soins de santé, d'éducation et de moyens d'existence. Les dommages à l'environnement sont également préoccupants ainsi que les besoins en eau potable et en installations d'assainissement et d'hygiène.
Selon le HCR, la situation étant imprévisible et sans perspectives immédiates de résolution ou de retour significatif, il est essentiel que la communauté internationale renforce son soutien financier et investisse immédiatement dans des programmes de développement à la fois pour les réfugiés et les communautés hôtes.
Au cours de ses visites sur le terrain, le Haut-Commissaire a assisté à des activités novatrices axées sur le développement qui profitent aux personnes déplacées et aux communautés d'accueil, y compris des projets de distribution de gaz à Diffa au Niger et des bateaux pour les communautés de pêcheurs de Baga Sola au Tchad.
Dans le cadre d'un appel séparé, les organisations d'aide humanitaire demandent également aux pays donateurs la somme de plus d'un milliard de dollars afin de venir en aide à quelque 1,8 million de personnes déplacées au Nigéria, ce qui représente une augmentation considérable par rapport au montant recherché en 2016.
Half a million conflict-affected children to benefit
ABUJA, 16 December 2016 – The Government of Norway has donated $11.5 million, (approximately 3.6 billion Naira) to improve basic education and support girls and women who have been victims of sexual violence by Boko Haram in the conflict-affected northeast Nigerian states of Borno, Yobe, Adamawa and Gombe.
The funding is part of the Safe Schools Initiative in northern Nigeria. In 2013, Norway was a pioneer member of the Safe Schools Initiative committee established in response to Boko Haram attacks on schools in the northeast and the urgent need to provide a safe learning environment for children.
With UNICEF support, about one hundred thousand children are currently accessing education through Temporary Learning Spaces and schools in northeast Nigeria. This fund will further boost access to education for an additional half a million boys and girls in internally displaced persons’ camps, host communities and areas of Borno state that have recently become accessible areas to humanitarian assistance.
“We believe in the importance of doing what we can to break the cycle of violence in northeast Nigeria”, said the Norwegian Ambassador to Nigeria, Jens-Petter Kjemprud. “This funding will provide more children complete basic education in a good learning environment and will provide much-needed counselling for girls who have suffered unimaginable trauma at the hands of Boko Haram”, he added.
Norwegian Foreign Minister Mr. Børge Brende also attended the signing ceremony to formalise the grant. The generous funding from Norway will provide children, especially girls affected by the conflict, with uniforms to wear to school and will enable them to learn in secure, safe and protected environments.
Teachers will be trained to improve their skills so they can deliver quality teaching and improve learning results for children; school systems will be improved through training and mentoring of head-teachers on management knowledge and skills. School Based Management Committee (SBMCs) members will be trained in school planning, including disaster risk reduction to make schools a safer place for children.
The funding will also support approximately 1,600 of the thousands of girls and women that UNICEF estimates have been raped, abducted and forcibly married as a result of the conflict. Not only have these victims of violence suffered the trauma of their experiences when they were held by Boko Haram, but when they have managed to escape or have been liberated, they often face rejection by their communities and families. Instead of being welcomed back, they frequently face stigma, discrimination, and in some cases violence, especially when they return pregnant or with children born out of that sexual violence. In addition to traditional stigma associated with sexual violence, many communities are afraid that girls and women who have been held by Boko Haram may have been indoctrinated by their captors. Part of the Norwegian funds will be used in Borno State to help these women and girls to reintegrate with their families and communities and rebuild their lives. The funding will also help to empower these women and girls to engage in the community peacebuilding process.
“Tackling the crisis in northeast Nigeria requires a broad coalition of support from all”, said Mohamed Fall, UNICEF Nigeria Representative, “The Government of Norway was with us at the beginning of this crisis, providing support, and they are still here. This latest funding will go a long way to get thousands of children back in school and will help to reintegrate girls and women who were victims of Boko Haram back into their communities”.
UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.
For more information about UNICEF and its work for children visit www.unicef.org.
For more information, please contact:
Doune Porter, UNICEF Nigeria, Tel: +234 803 525 0273, email@example.com
II. Major developments in the Central African subregion A. Political, peace and security developments and trends
À l’invitation de S.E.M Abdoulaye DIOP, Ministre des Affaires étrangères, de la Coopération internationale et de l’Intégration africaine, S.E. M. Bert KOENDERS, Ministre des Affaires Étrangères du Royaume des Pays-Bas, a visité le Mali au nom de S.E Mme Federica MOGHERINI, Haute Représentante de l’Union européenne pour les affaires étrangères et la politique de sécurité et Vice-présidente de la Commission européenne, dans le cadre du dialogue de Haut Niveau sur les questions migratoires.
Cette visite s’inscrit dans le cadre du dialogue de Haut Niveau sur les questions migratoires initié entre le Mali et l’Union Européenne depuis le Sommet de La Valette (11 et 12 Novembre 2015) sur la migration. Cette visite intervient deux mois après celle du Commissaire européen pour la coopération internationale et le développement, S.E. M. Neven MIMICA au Mali.
Le Ministre Koenders a été reçu par S.E.M. DIOP, Ministre des Affaires étrangères, de la Coopération internationale et de l’Intégration africaine de la République du Mali, M. Mamadou KONATE, Ministre de la Justice, des Droits de l’Homme et Garde des Sceaux, ainsi que des représentants des Ministres des Maliens de l’Extérieur, de la Sécurité et de la Protection Civile.
Les deux Parties ont rappelé la qualité des relations et les liens étroits de partenariat entre le Mali et l’Union européenne et les Etats Membres, qui se manifestent par ailleurs par une coopération englobant une multitude de domaines, y compris ceux du développement, des Droits de l’Homme, de la Sécurité, de la lutte contre le terrorisme, de la culture et des sciences.
Concernant plus spécifiquement les questions migratoires, guidés par l’esprit et les principes de coopération qui ont prévalu au Sommet de La Valette sur la migration, les deux Parties ont eu des échanges sur l’ensemble des aspects de la migration et leur coopération dans ce domaine. En se référant au Communiqué commun Mali – Union Européenne du premier dialogue de Haut Niveau de 14 Avril 2016, les discussions ont rappelé leur détermination de renforcer leur coopération dans l’ensemble des domaines retenus lors du Sommet de La Valette, notamment :
– La lutte contre les causes profondes de la migration irrégulière et du phénomène des personnes déplacées ;
– La coopération concernant la mobilité légale ;
– La Protection des migrants et refugiés; – La prévention et la lutte contre la migration irrégulière, y compris le trafic des êtres humains ;
– Le retour, la réadmission et réintégration des migrants en situation irrégulière, let out en respect des engagements internationaux.
Lors de leur rencontre en avril 2016, les autorités maliennes et européennes ont souligné la convergence entre le Plan d’Action de la Valette et la Politique Nationale de Migration du Mali (PONAM) et ont convenu qu’ils constituent une base solide pour déterminer des mesures concrètes de coopération en la matière. Ainsi, les échanges ont permis d’approfondir l’analyse des défis et potentialités de la migration, en tenant compte des intérêts et priorités partagés.
Les deux Parties se sont félicitées de l’intensification de la coopération en matière de migration depuis le dialogue de Haut Niveau de 14 Avril 2016, tout en constatant des initiatives concrètes, une mobilisation de ressources importante et des premiers résultats encourageants. A travers le « Fonds fiduciaire d’urgence en faveur de la stabilité et de la lutte contre les causes profondes de la migration irrégulière », neuf projets ont été approuvé pour un montant total de 145.1 millions d’euros, dont trois initiatives régionaux (pour 53.6 millions d’euros) et six projets qui ciblent le Mali (91.5 millions d’euros). Il s’agit notamment des initiatives de création d’emploi, d’appui aux investissements en faveur de la diaspora malienne, de sécurité et développement au Nord du Mali et du renforcement de la résilience et l’accès aux services de base.
Comme résultat concret du Dialogue de Haut Niveau sur la Migration de 11 décembre 2016, les deux parties ont marqué leur accord sur les domaines d’une coopération renforcée, en prévoyant des actions prioritaires dans des domaines d’intérêts partagés, à intégrer dans une Feuille de Route conjointe.
Les domaines prioritaires sur lesquels les deux parties envisagent de renforcer leur collaboration sont la création d’emploi pour les jeunes dans les régions de départ et d’origine des migrants ; le renforcement des systèmes cohérents et robustes de registres de l’état civil, ainsi que la délivrance des cartes d’identité et passeports sécurisés et l’utilisation des passeports biométriques; la gestion des frontières et un meilleur contrôle du territoire ; la protection des migrants en transit au Mali et la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains et les “passeurs” ; l’accompagnement des retours d’Europe des personnes en situation irrégulières, sur base des procédures standard, conclus entre les deux parties tout en respectant leurs obligations mutuelles. Les deux Parties ont également mis un accent particulier sur le respect des droits de l’homme des personnes concernées.
Les deux Parties ont convenu de mettre en place une structure appropriée de concertation locale, sous l’égide du gouvernement du Mali et avec la pleine participation de la partie européenne, pour permettre de coordonner les différentes actions et programmes dans le cadre de la coopération sur les questions migratoires et pour en assurer la cohérence avec les orientations stratégiques nationales.
Les deux Parties se sont mis d’accord de mener le prochain dialogue de Haut Niveau, permettant d’évaluer le progrès enregistré, avant le mois de Septembre 2017.
Bamako, 11 Décembre 2016
Anastasia Marshak, Helen Young, and Anne Radday
The Dar Sila region of eastern Chad experiences highly variable rainfall, seasonal food insecurity, and high prevalence of acute malnutrition. In 2012, Concern Worldwide put in place an integrated program that combines nutrition, health, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and food, income, and markets (FIM) in the Dar Sila Region of Chad called Community Resilience to Acute Malnutrition (CRAM). This program was designed to reduce child acute malnutrition in the face of seasonal shocks.
The CRAM design was based on Concern’s positive programming experiences in Kenya and Niger. Concern collaborated with the Feinstein International Center, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University to carry out a randomized control trial impact evaluation to better understand the level of program impact and the mechanisms behind it.
Three surveys took place in November and December of 2012, 2014, and 2015 in 69 settlements encompassing the Concern program area. This report describes the impact of the CRAM program and explores what household and community characteristics are correlated with acute malnutrition in Dar Sila, Chad.
At the endline, children in the CRAM settlements performed significantly better than the non-intervention group on a host of key nutrition and health indicators. They had:
• Lower prevalence of acute malnutrition;
• Higher weight-for-height z-scores;
• Lower prevalence of chronic malnutrition;
• Higher height-for-age z-scores;
• Lower prevalence of illness.
Even when controlling for child-, household-, and settlement-level characteristics, both being in the intervention group and moving from not receiving CRAM to receiving CRAM was significantly correlated to better household child nutritional status (i.e., minimum household weight-for-height z-score; see methodology section for more detail).
These findings indicate significant program impact, particularly in relation to the main outcome indicator—acute malnutrition. The design of the evaluation allows us to say with little ambiguity that CRAM is achieving its main stated goal of preventing an increase in the prevalence of acute malnutrition in the intervention group in comparison to the nonintervention group. The analysis also helps us to partially unpack why CRAM is working and how it could potentially be improved. The analysis in the report and conclusions drawn from the data are primarily based on quantitative research and statistical analysis from the baseline, midline, and endline data collection. Additional insights are provided by the qualitative data collection carried out in February and November of 2013, November of 2015, and May of 2016.
One cautionary note is that, for the duration of the program, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition remained at around 15 percent or above, while stunting prevalence (weight-forheight) was between 30 and 45 percent. At this point, there is no statistical evidence that CRAM reduced the rate of malnutrition in the intervention settlements; rather, unlike in the non-intervention settlements, malnutrition rates did not increase over time. These continuing high rates of acute malnutrition, and the increases seen in the non-intervention settlements, are causes for concern and indicative of the extreme vulnerability of these communities as they emerge from more than a decade of protracted crises. There is, however, greater resilience in CRAM settlements as a result of the program.
In addition to determining the impact of CRAM, the data offer clues into the mechanisms related to impact and how the impact could potentially be increased. The WASH promotion activities also showed a significant positive impact of CRAM and were correlated to child nutrition outcomes, specifically in relation to the following variables:
• Greater utilization of boreholes;
• Greater reports of regularly washing the transport and storage container with soap;
• Greater knowledge around the two main times for hand washing.
Regression analysis allows us to further explore the relationship between WASH and indicators of child nutrition and health. Utilizing a borehole, without good training around the water chain (the handling of the water from its collection at the source up until it is used), does not in itself significantly decrease rates of malnutrition (as is evident in the nonintervention settlements that had similar utilization of boreholes but that did not receive training on maintaining a good water chain).
Through routine water testing, Concern Worldwide found that while contamination levels (coliforms) of borehole water at the point of collection were low to nonexistent, they increased at certain points along the water chain (from borehole to transport container to storage container). This finding suggests that the positive impact of CRAM on malnutrition may be via its WASH activities that are focused on reducing the risk of contamination of potable water further along the water chain. These activities promote good hygiene in relation to water containers.
Linked to the above, a possible source of water contamination is the concentration of cattle in a village. The regression analysis shows that as the concentration of cattle in a village increases, so do rates of acute malnutrition. A similar finding, establishing a relationship between cattle density and a child’s weight-for-height z-score and how that relationship is mediated by better hygiene practices along the water chain, was also identified in the midline data (Marshak et al., in press).
Counterintuitively, households living in a damre (former pastoralist or nomadic communities with greater livestock ownership) have significantly lower levels of acute malnutrition compared to non-damre or village settlements (primarily sedentary farming communities with fewer livestock). Possible explanations are the differences in livestock water management practices between the villages and the damrat. However, other differences between the two types of settlements, including seasonal mobility of livestock, could be driving the relationship
The 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan for Sudan brings together 80 humanitarian partners to help 4.6 million people in need of emergency relief aid. Together these partners, of which 35 are national and 45 are international, requested US$952 million to provide multi-sectoral assistance across the country in 2016. Among the 5.8 million people identified to be in the greatest need of humanitarian assistance are 2.2 million who are internally displaced, 4.6 million who are food insecure and 1.5 million children under age five who are acutely malnourished.
There are four strategic objectives in the 2016 HRP that guide the activities of sector projects:
The strategic objectives aim to ensure coherence with needs assessment findings; emphasise cross-cutting issues, in particular humanitarian protection and resilience; enhance links between operational and strategic objectives; and facilitate multi-sector responses. Across the 10 sectors, 86 activity indicators were laid out in the HRP, providing the framework for response and monitoring efforts throughout the year.
This review covers the January to September 2016 period and indicates the humanitarian activities of partners across the country. The overview provides a summary of response efforts and helps identify gaps. Of the total 271 projects in the HRP, only 66 have received funding, leaving 205 projects (76 per cent of all projects) unfunded and thus not implemented as of end September 2016.
As of 30 September, the 2016 HRP had received $390.5 million in funding, amounting to 41 per cent of the requested requirement. Last year, the Sudan HRP was the fifth best-funded appeal globally. Humanitarian needs continue to grow regionally and globally, which considerably impacts the limited availability of funding for Sudan.
4.6 million Targeted people
4.6 million Food insecure
1.5 million Acutely malnourished children below the age of 5
1.87 million internally displaced people (OCHA)
1,289,554 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR)
212,071 seeking shelter with the UN (UNMISS)
3.6 million people in need of food assistance from October—December (WFP estimate)
In response to the need for reliable information on internally displaced persons (IDPs) in conflict-affected parts of Nigeria, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) began implementing its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) programme in July 2014. The primary objective of the . The DTM supports the Government of Nigeria and other humanitarian response partners, and allows them undertake IDP assessments in a unified and systematized manner that provides reliable information on the current IDP' situation.
The DTM programme in Nigeria works in close collaboration with the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and State Emergency Management Agencies (SEMAs) to highlight the needs of IDPs and returnees in accessible areas. It also gathers information on the total number of IDPs in each location assessed.
Baseline information is gathered at Local Government Area- (LGA) and ward-level and detailed surveys are conducted in camps and camp‐like settings. The DTM teams include representatives from NEMA, SEMAs, the Nigerian Red Cross, and IOM. IOM’s pioneering programme is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Office (ECHO), and the Government of Germany. NEMA also provides financial support.
Le renforcement des moyens d’existence des retournés, réfugiés et communautés hôtes à travers des activités de résilience est prioritaire. Le niveau de vulnérabilité de la population engendré par la pauvreté et le manque d’interventions durables amenuise la capacité des communautés à faire face aux différents chocs.
Les problématiques d’accès aux ressources notamment à la terre et au pâturage accentuent les conflits cultivateurs-éleveurs ou éleveurs-éleveurs. L’arrivée de réfugiés et retournés de la RCA et la fermeture des frontières avec la RCA depuis 2014 ont freiné les mouvements de transhumance entre les deux pays et ont exacerbé ce manque de pâturage et de débouchés pour le cheptel. Les questions d'accès à la terre sont récurrentes dans les villages d'accueil et villages autour des sites et camps, et affectent les rapports communautaires.
Renforcer la cohabitation pacifique entre les communautés et faciliter l’accès à la terre pour les retournés et les réfugiés sont des actions essentielles pour assurer leur intégration socio-économique et renforcer la cohésion sociale.
Les conditions de vie dans les sites de retournés et la situation alimentaire pour les retournés et les réfugiés restent une préoccupation. Par manque de ressources financières, les distributions de coupons alimentaires aux retournés n’ont été possibles que quatre mois sur toute l’année 2016 et les rations alimentaires pour les réfugiés ont été réduites de moitié. De même, l’absence de financements et de solutions durables s’est accompagnée d’une détérioration des conditions de vie dans les sites de retournés de Kobiteye et Danamadja. Il est impératif de fournir une assistance d’urgence aux plus vulnérables et maintenir des standards minimums dans les sites en l’absence de solutions alternatives – tout en renforçant les moyens d’existence et l’autosuffisance des populations.
La mise en place des solutions durables est essentielle pour les retournés, en priorité l’accès à la documentation civile. La majorité des populations retournées dans les sites et dans les villages d'accueil déclare souhaiter s'y établir définitivement du fait des liens familiaux, des similitudes linguistiques, de raisons socio-culturelles, et aussi de l’absence de perspectives de retour en RCA. Cependant, une grande majorité de ces retournés ne dispose pas de pièces d’identité limitant ainsi leur libre circulation. Il est important de leur favoriser l’accès aux documents d’état civil et d’identité afin de faciliter leur liberté de mouvement, leur autosuffisance, l’accès aux services sociaux de base et la réintégration socio-économique.
Hunger is not inevitable As 2016 comes to an end, almost 130-million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Throughout the year, natural hazards, conflict and protracted crises have placed a particularly heavy burden on the poor, who are often extremely vulnerable to shocks. Across 22-affected areas, 70-million people are currently in Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) Phase 3 or above.
In June, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees announced that the number of people displaced by violence and hunger was the highest since records began. These figures continued to rise throughout the year. By the end of 2016, more than 1-million South Sudanese had fled to neighbouring countries – the largest refugee movement in Africa. Almost 5-million Syrians are refugees, the overwhelming majority of whom are being hosted in Lebanon, Turkey and Jordan. These massive population movements have a dramatic effect on agricultural production and food security, both in areas of origin and among host communities. Across the world, millions more have remained at home, struggling to cope with renewed conflict, food shortages and often far from any regular source of assistance. They increasingly rely on shrinking livelihood opportunities – the vast majority of which are agriculture-based.
Natural disasters from floods to storms, earthquakes to droughts devastated communities around the globe in 2016.
In February, Cyclone Winston, one of the worst storms recorded in the southern hemisphere, swept across Fiji, destroying 100-percent of crops. Hurricane Matthew raged across the Caribbean in October, destroying lives and livelihoods. In Haiti alone, 2.1-million people were affected, and 90-percent of expected harvests were lost. The impacts of El Niño were felt worldwide and reflected in soaring food insecurity levels – over 60-million were affected. The majority were in Southern Africa, including Madagascar, where the peak impacts of El Niño are yet to be felt.
None of this is inevitable. While we cannot prevent storms, hurricanes or drought, we can reduce their impact. Some conflict and migration drivers specifically relate to FAO’s mandate and competencies. Supporting agricultural development, investing in food security and viable, resilient livelihoods, particularly for young people, can help address the underlying causes of conflict and migration. Preventing disease outbreaks in animals has huge benefits for human populations – protecting global human health and saving the vital assets of communities with few alternatives.
In 2016, FAO reached millions of crisis-affected people, helping them to produce and purchase food, maintain their livelihoods, stay on or return to their land where it was safe to do so, and enabling them to provide for themselves even when they have been forced to flee.
Yet, the gap between the number who need assistance and those we are able to reach with funding received is widening.
The agriculture sector is consistently underfunded in humanitarian appeals – just 23-percent of the funds requested by the sector in 2016 were received. However, even small investments in agriculture can have massive and long-term impact. In response to El Niño-induced drought in Ethiopia, humanitarian partners distributed thousands of tonnes of seed in 2016, saving an estimated USD-1-billion in food assistance needs. The total cost of the seed intervention was just a fraction of this – USD-35-million.
FAO’s comparative advantage lies in the Organization’s technical expertise and role in supporting longer-term development. When a disaster hits, FAO remains, bringing its know-how to support vulnerable, crisis-affected communities to quickly resume food production and strengthen the resilience of their livelihoods.
Forecasts for 2017 are alarming. Millions of people – many of them children – face the very real threat of starvation in Madagascar, northeastern Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen.
Drought is once again threatening herders across the Horn of Africa, further undermining livelihoods that have yet to recover from the last drought. In Iraq and Syria, violence continues unabated, forcing people to abandon their homes and agriculture-based livelihoods. This not only destroys any development gains made, it pushes people into food insecurity in the short term, making it harder to return and resume their livelihoods when stability is restored.
Behind these forecasts are real people – men, women, boys and girls, their families and their communities. Critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals is the commitment to leave no one behind. At FAO, we take these commitments seriously. Building resilient agricultural livelihoods is at the heart of our work. Improving early warning and linking it to early action can prevent a shock like a natural hazard from becoming a crisis. By investing in agriculture when a crisis does hit, we can make an immediate and lasting difference in the lives of some of the world’s most vulnerable people and help them to protect against future disasters.
In 2017, FAO is seeking over USD‑1‑billion to reach more than 40‑million people.
Daniel Gustafson Deputy Director – General (Programmes)