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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN Office on Drugs and Crime
    Country: Nigeria

    20 December 2016 - Nigeria is taking an important step in its fight against terrorism by working to further strengthen its strategy to prosecute, reintegrate, and rehabilitate former members of Boko Haram in compliance with international laws and standards. In this context, technical and high level consultations were held in Abuja from 13 to 15 December, on 'Considering Approaches to Prosecuting, Reintegrating and Rehabilitating Former Members of Boko Haram'.

    In response to a request by the Nigerian Office of the National Security Advisor, these consultations were organized by UNODC and the Security Council's Counter Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) and supported by the European Union.

    The consultations brought together experts from other countries which have faced similar challenges, including Algeria, Kenya, Sri Lanka, and South Africa, and aimed to share lessons learned and good practices in this field. Joining them were also experts from relevant international organizations, who discussed good practices and applicable human rights and humanitarian laws, norms and standards at the international level. Nigerian officials for their part highlighted the progress achieved and challenges remaining in implementing a criminal justice-based approach to the prosecution, reintegration, and rehabilitation of former members of Boko Haram.

    The consultations benefited from the participation of 31 Nigerian entities, including officials of the six most affected Nigerian states, and 14 international organizations and other national governments. As a result of the consultations, Nigeria identified the need to further clarify its goals for a successful criminal justice framework as part of an overall reintegration and rehabilitation approach, including developing an effective prosecution strategy and robust criteria for pursuing alternative rehabilitation and reintegration approaches. Nigeria also began to consider what further support and assistance may be required to allow Nigeria to continue strengthening its strategy to prosecute, reintegrate, and rehabilitate former members of Boko Haram.

    UNODC and CTED organized this activity as part of the ongoing EU-Nigeria-UNODC-CTED partnership project supported by the European Union. The project seeks to support Nigeria to bring terrorists to justice and to prevent terrorist acts, through human rights-compliant criminal justice measures against terrorism. It focuses on strengthening the capacity of Nigerian criminal justice officials to effectively investigate, prosecute, and adjudicate terrorism cases, in accordance with the rule of law and human rights. This includes providing in-depth training courses for select groups of criminal justice officials and ongoing advisory services for the trained officials, with the aim of supporting the transition from confession-based to evidence-based prosecution of terrorism cases.

    Launched in May 2016, the project has already delivered 19 capacity building activities. This includes in-depth training courses for 20 legal advisors from the Nigerian investigative agencies, 30 Nigerian Police Force counter-terrorism investigators, and two select groups of 20 criminal justice officials on international cooperation and counter-financing of terrorism. The project is also delivering an intensive train-the-trainers course for 30 criminal justice officials on human rights and criminal justice responses to terrorism, using tailored training modules developed in 2015 in partnership with the Nigerian Institute for Advanced Legal Studies


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Chad

    La ville de Maro ne disposait pas d’aire d’abattage conforme aux normes d’hygiene et sante, a bénéficié d’un don de la part du bureau du HCR pour comble ce vide. En effet, jusqu’à la date du 15 décembre 2016, les animaux étaient abattus et la viande manipulée a même le sol dans les conditions déplorables sous l’œil impuissant des agents du secteur de l’élevage.

    Il s’agit d’un complexe composé d’une aire d’abattage, d’un forage et d’un bloc de deux latrines.
    La cérémonie de remise officielle de cette infrastructure aux autorités communales de la ville de Maro s’est déroulée le vendredi 16 décembre 2016 en présence du Sous-Préfet rural de Maro représentant le Préfet de la Grande Sido, des associations des bouchers de Bélom, de Maro et du site de Maingama ainsi que des représentants des agences et ONG.

    Avant de remettre officiellement les clés au Chef de canton, Maire de la ville, le Chef de bureau du HCR Jean-Claude Kourouma a rappelé que l’amélioration des conditions de vie des populations réfugiées et leurs hôtes restent l’une des priorités de son organisation. Pour lui, cette aire d’abattage réalisée dans le cadre de la des projets de cohabitation pacifique réduira les risques de maladies liées à la consommation des viandes souillées et facilitera ainsi le travail des bouchers. Pour finir, il a ajouté que le HCR continuera à appuyer de tel projet pour le bien-être de tous. En remettant les clés officiellement au Maire de la ville, il l’a exhorté à une meilleure gestion de cet ouvrage pour en assurer la pérennité.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Nigeria

    Nigeria - IOM has identified 1,770,444 people as displaced across Nigeria through its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM). This is a decrease from the 1,822,541 recorded in late October, reflecting the continuing trend of internally displaced persons (IDPs) returning home, particularly in Borno State.

    Just over one million people in North-East Nigeria have returned home since August 2015. But many remain displaced, living in camps and host communities across the region. Borno State, hardest hit by the conflict triggered by the Boko Haram insurgency, still hosts the most IDPs, along with Adamawa and Yobe. More than half of the IDPs are children.

    “I lost 18 cows and two cars to Boko Haram. They stole or burned all our belongings,” explained Gogoji Lawan, 24. “That’s when we left.”

    She first left her home in North-East Nigeria two and a half years ago. Together with her three young children, along with two orphans they found during the journey, she moved to a displacement camp in eastern Borno State six months ago. IOM Nigeria has provided them with shelter and has equipped her to start a sewing business.

    John Kulkwa, who lives in the same camp as Gogoji, is also unable to return home because of ongoing insecurity. “IOM coming around gives me hope. I used to be a photographer and loved meeting people through my job. But now, I have no camera or money,” John said. After nearly three years in an area under Boko Haram control, John and his six kids fled their village on the night of 11 March 2016.

    “The need for food is increasing among the IDPs we surveyed. It is the biggest unmet need of 66 percent of the IDPs; up from 60 percent in the previous report. This means that further humanitarian interventions are still needed in the North-East. Non-food items, like blankets, continue to be second thing most in demand,” said IOM DTM project officer Henry Kwenin.

    Conducted between 14 November and 13 December 2016, this round of the DTM in Nigeria covers 164 sites (camps and camp-like settings) around Adamawa, Borno, Taraba, and Yobe States. There are no formal and informal camps in Bauchi and Gombe States. The previous DTM covered 161 sites. For more data on displacement in the region, please read the full report at: Nigeria DTM Round XIII (19/12/16)

    The DTM project is funded by the US State Department’s Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Office (ECHO), and Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA).

    For further information, please contact IOM Nigeria. Henry Kwenin, Tel. +234 (0) 903 885 2524, Email: hkwenin@iom.int or Julia Burpee, Tel. +234 (0) 907 373 1170, Email: jburpee@iom.int.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Chad, Sudan

    Après 12 mois de formation, l’année scolaire 2015-2016 a été clôturée le vendredi 16 décembre 2016 au centre de formation professionnelle (VTC) de Djabal. L’évènement a été marqué par la remise des attestations de fin de formation et des kits de premier établissement aux 150 lauréats de la promotion 2016. La cérémonie de remise des diplômes a été présidée par le Gouverneur de la région de Sila et le Chef de la Sous-Délégation de l’UNHCR par intérim en présence des étudiants, des parents, des représentants des différents services étatiques ainsi que des acteurs humanitaires.

    Le Chef de la Sous-Délégation du HCR, représenté par Sarah Trabsi (Chargée de programme), prenant la parole, a exprimé sa satisfaction sur le fait que les différentes formations reçues par les apprenants leur permettront de s’insérer dans le marché de l’emploi et dans le tissu socio-économique du pays. Elle a aussi souligné que le diplôme est certes important, mais il ne s’agit que d’un outil, le plus important étant ce que l’on peut en faire. « Le savoir qu’ils ont acquis doit se reposer sur des valeurs, qui assureront leurs succès. Dans la vie, une certaine qualité comportementale est indispensable. » Elle a aussi apprécié le fait que ces formations ont permis également un brassage entre réfugiés et autochtones, « ce qui répond à notre objectif d’intégration socio-économique ».


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Background

    Around 17 million people live in the affected areas across the four Lake Chad countries. The number of displaced people has tripled over the last two years. Most of the displaced families are sheltered by communities that count among the world’s poorest and most vulnerable. Food insecurity and malnutrition have reached critical levels.

    Recent developments

    Over the recent weeks, a wave of suicide bombings and attacks targeting sites hosting the displaced, military positions and public facilities has hit Nigeria’s north-eastern Borno state. Across the border in Niger’s south-eastern Diffa region as well as the Far North region of Cameroon, suspected Boko Haram elements have also launched attacks and looted villages. Meanwhile, in north-eastern Nigeria, humanitarian response is expected to improve with the establishment of a humanitarian base camp and hub project aimed at allowing aid workers to quickly reach the millions of conflict-affected people with life-saving assistance. Between April and August, famine likely occurred in some areas hosting displaced people in Borno’s Bama and Banki towns and other nearby inaccessible areas, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification network. There is high likelihood that famine is ongoing and will continue in the inaccessible areas of Borno, assuming conditions will remain similar or worse to those observed in Bama and Banki towns earlier this year.
    Humanitarian partners have appealed for US$1.5 billion to assist 8.2 million people across the Lake Chad Basin in 2017.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    Sécurité

    La situation sécuritaire dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord demeure volatile et imprévisible. La période sous revue a été marquée par des incursions de Boko Haram à Gréa, près de Kolofata, tuant ainsi deux commerçants de bétail. Une vaste opération militaire contre Boko Haram se poursuit à la frontière, en territoire nigérian et autour de la forêt de Sambissa. Les forces de défense et de sécurité camerounaises quant à elles se mobilisent davantage pour assurer la sécurisation de toute la région pendant les fêtes de fin d’année.

    Développements majeurs

    M. Filippo Grandi, Haut Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les Réfugiés a effectué un séjour au Cameroun les 15 et 16 Décembre dans le cadre de sa visite des pays affectés par la crise du Bassin du Lac Tchad. Accompagné des autorités gouvernementales et administratives, ainsi que de la communauté humanitaire, il s’est rendu au camp de Minawao où il a visité quelques infrastructures (centre de santé; mirador de sécurité, …) ; inauguré le nouveau bâtiment de l’école publique groupe 1 du camp ; échangé avec des familles de réfugiés victimes de Boko Haram ; échangé avec le comité central des réfugiés et les leaders communautaires. Le Haut Commissaire a fortement apprécié les efforts déployés par le HCR et ses différents partenaires pour la protection et l’assistance des réfugiés. Il a également souligné que des efforts sont engagés par le HCR et les différents partenaires humanitaires afin de relever la qualité et les conditions de vie de la population réfugiée d’une part, et de faciliter un retour volontaire dans leur pays d’origine dans la dignité et le respect des droits humains d’autre part.

    Le 16 Décembre à Yaoundé, le Haut Commissaire a co-présidé, avec le Ministre de l’Administration Territoriale et de la Décentralisation (MINATD) du Cameroun, la cérémonie de lancement du Plan d’intervention régionale 2017 pour les réfugiés nigérians. Ce Plan d’intervention couvre les trois pays recevant les réfugiés nigérians (Niger, Tchad et Cameroun), et regroupe 36 partenaires (agences onusiennes et ONG nationales et internationales) pour un appel de fonds inter-agences s’élevant à USD 241 millions et ciblant une population totale de plus de 450,000 personnes (réfugiés, populations hôtes et personnes déplacées). Les secteurs visés par ce plan d’intervention sont la protection, l’éducation, la sécurité alimentaire, la santé et la nutrition, les moyens de subsistance et l’environnement, les abris et produits non alimentaires, l’eau, l’hygiène et l’assainissement.

    Le Haut Commissaire a par ailleurs relevé que la situation des réfugiés centrafricains est tout aussi préoccupante, raison pour laquelle les besoins financiers pour les réfugiés centrafricains sont plus importants que ceux des réfugiés nigérians dans les prévisions propres au HCR.
    Le Haut Commissaire a été reçu en audience par le Secrétaire Général de la Présidence de la République, par le MINATD et par le Ministre des Relations Extérieurs qui l’a accueilli à son hôtel dès son arrivée à Yaoundé. Il a également tenu une réunion conjointe avec l’Equipe de Coordination des Nations Unies (UNCT) et l’Equipe Humanitaire Pays (HCT), avant de rencontrer le personnel du HCR


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon


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    Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Epidemic outbreaks, population displacements and floods are just some of the situations to which EMUSA (MSF’s rapid emergency response team in Niger and Mali) has responded during the 15 months Adolphe Masudi has worked as EMUSA coordinator. Here, Adolphe tells us about his experience.

    What was the first emergency you had to face with EMUSA?

    I arrived in Niger in June 2015 and the first emergency response that I coordinated was a distribution of relief items for Nigerian refugees in the Diffa region, in the southeast of the country, who were fleeing the violence associated with Boko Haram. In fact, during the last six months of 2015, the team was mainly focused on supporting MSF’s activities in this region; there were many attacks along the border between Niger and Nigeria during those months, causing thousands of people to become displaced.

    What emergencies did the team deal with during 2016?

    First, in January 2016 we responded to a meningitis outbreak in Tahoua; we supported the Ministry of Health in treating more than 130 cases and vaccinating around 70,000 people in two areas of the region. We then moved to Diffa to carry out a preventive vaccination campaign against cholera, also in coordination with the Ministry of Health. This campaign was necessary given the high risk of contracting the disease (especially near Lake Chad), the insecurity that could result in a lack of access at any moment, and the high number of displaced people. Over 84,000 people were vaccinated against cholera in the displaced persons camp in Yebi, in the towns of Bosso and Toumour (Bosso district) and in the Bilabrim area (in Nguigmi).

    Furthermore, during the cholera campaign we received another alert: there was a measles outbreak in the Yebi camp. Jointly with the Ministry of Health, we started vaccinating the people there but, unfortunately, they were forced to flee in early June due to a Boko Haram attack. They then settled in two camps near the main road that crosses the region in Kintchandi and Wari Gazan. As a result, we redirected our response towards these new sites, and were finally able to vaccinate 24,000 children between the ages of 6 months and 15 years. EMUSA focused on meeting the most immediate needs of these displaced people – for example, by distributing water and setting up mobile clinics.

    And finally, we assisted victims of the severe floods that affected around 10,000 people in Abalack, Tahoua. We distributed more than 500 relief kits and set up mobile clinics in the five most affected neighbourhoods, in the schools where people had settled. We also provided psychological assistance and held sessions to raise awareness about hygiene measures and epidemiological surveillance.

    How does EMUSA work?

    The team has various professionals – nurses, experts in logistics, health promotion, etc – based in Niger and Mali. In total, there are 19 of us in the team.

    Our job is to monitor the humanitarian and epidemiological situation in the two countries, to be able to detect alerts. When we receive an alert, we need to investigate – call our contacts, get information and visit the area – and, depending on the results, we assess if it’s appropriate or not to intervene. During my time as head of EMUSA, we didn’t respond to any emergencies in Mali, but we monitored the situation there and mobilised members of the team based in Mali to respond to the emergencies in Niger.

    Also, my assistant and I spent two months working in Jakusko, in Yobe state in northern Nigeria, where there was a malnutrition and malaria emergency. Most of the children with severe acute malnutrition received outpatient treatment, but those with severe medical complications were admitted to Jakusko hospital’s intensive nutritional centre. We also vaccinated more than 140,000 children between the ages of 6 months and 15 years against measles.

    What has been the hardest part of this mission?

    The hardest thing is the mobility. One week you're in one place, and the week after you’re somewhere else. When you still haven’t finished one intervention, you’ve already received another alert. Sometimes, for example, we had to split the team in two and follow several emergencies at the same time, making it difficult to monitor and support all the team members.

    Nonetheless, the experience has been a positive one. Emergency response is the essence of MSF, and we need to continue carrying out these interventions. Teams like EMUSA allow us to be more efficient in responding to emergencies in a country or geographical area, and this is our primary responsibility as MSF.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    MESSAGES CLÉS

    • La consommation alimentaire des ménages s’est améliorée nettement grâce aux bonnes récoltes pouvant couvrir les besoins des ménages jusqu’à fin janvier/début février 2017.
      La vente des récoltes excédentaires, les activités normales de moyens d’existence, et l‘accès favorable aux marchés qui sont bien approvisionnés contribueront à un bon accès alimentaire jusqu’au moins en mai 2017. Par conséquent, la plupart des zones seront en insécurité alimentaire aiguë Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) jusqu’à mai 2017.

    • Les moyens d’existence et la consommation alimentaire des ménages pauvres et très pauvres pourraient se dégrader à partir de février dans les régions du Kanem, Barh El Ghazel,
      Wadi Fira (départements de Kobé et de Megri) et du Guera (département d’Abtouyour) qui seront en Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) jusqu’au moins en mai en raison de la baisse des principales sources de revenu : la main d’œuvre, les transferts des migrants, les ventes de bétail, etc.

    • Malgré l’assistance, la détérioration des termes de l’échange impactés par la crise économique qui s’ajoute aux effets négatifs des conflits Boko Haram maintiennent les populations dans la région du Lac en Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC). La région basculerait en phase Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) dès février en raison de la pression exercée par les déplacés sur les stocks céréaliers des ménages et la baisse continue de revenus de la main d’œuvre et les ventes de bétail


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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda

    I. Introduction

    1. Le présent rapport fait suite à demande figurant dans la déclaration du Président du Conseil de sécurité en date du 11 juin 2015 ( S/PRST/2015/12), par laquelle le Conseil m’a prié de le tenir informé des activités du Bureau régional des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique centrale (BRENUAC). On y trouvera le compte rendu des principaux faits survenus sur le plan politique et sur celui de la sécurité dans la sous-région de l’Afrique centrale depuis mon précédent rapport, daté du 25 mai 2016 (S/2016/482), ainsi que des progrès accomplis par le Bureau régional dans l’exécution de son mandat et de l’action menée pour appliquer la Stratégie régionale visant à contrer l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur (LRA) et à remédier aux effets de ses activités (voir S/2012/481).

    II. Principaux faits nouveaux survenus dans la sous-région de l’Afrique centrale

    A. Tendances et faits nouveaux en matière de politique, de paix et de sécurité

    2. La situation politique de la sous-région est restée dominée par les préparatifs, la tenue et les suites des consultations électorales, dont un certain nombre ont été caractérisées par de graves tensions et violences aussi bien avant qu ’après le déroulement du processus électoral.

    3. La lutte contre Boko Haram, menée notamment dans le cadre de la Force multinationale mixte (FMM), s’est poursuivie pendant la période considérée.
    Malgré les progrès notables accomplis par la Force, la crise provoquée par Boko Haram a continué de sévir dans le bassin du lac Tchad. Parallèlement, l ’action engagée à l’échelle internationale, régionale et nationale contre la LRA s ’est poursuivie dans le contexte du retrait prévu des forces ougandaises de la Force régionale d’intervention (FRI) de l’Union africaine et de ses incidences probables sur la stratégie de lutte contre la LRA.

    4. La situation économique difficile dans laquelle se trouve la sous -région, marquée par la chute des cours mondiaux du pétrole, les difficultés de diversification de l’économie et les problèmes d’intégration économique, a continué d’attiser les tensions politiques et sociales.

    5. Le Sommet des chefs d’État de la Communauté économique et monétaire de l’Afrique centrale s’est tenu à Malabo le 30 juillet, sous la présidence de la Guinée équatoriale. Les participants au Sommet ont examiné le texte d ’un accord de partenariat économique avec l’Union européenne ainsi que la situation économique et les conditions de sécurité dans la sous -région. Les Chefs d’État ont décidé de mettre à la disposition de la République centrafricaine 4 milliards de francs CFA (environ 6,8 millions de dollars) aux fins de la planification du désarmement, de la démobilisation et de la réintégration. La mise en place d ’un comité de pilotage et d’une présidence consacrés aux réformes économiques et financières au sein de la CEMAC a été proposée afin d’aider la Communauté économique et monétaire de l’Afrique centrale à faire face aux difficultés économiques actuelles.

    6. À ce jour, quatre pays de la sous -région ont élaboré des plans d’action nationaux pour la mise en oeuvre de la résolution 1325 (2000) du Conseil de sécurité sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité, à savoir le Burundi, la République centrafricaine, la République démocratique du Congo et le Rwanda. Les femmes demeurent sous-représentées dans le secteur de la sécurité en Afrique centrale, quatre pays seulement comptant plus de 20 % de femmes dans leurs forces de police, tandis que la proportion de femmes dans l ’armée oscille entre 2 % et 3 % dans la plupart des pays d’Afrique centrale.

    7. Le 15 novembre, les présidents de la Guinée équatoriale et du Gabon ont signé, en ma présence, un compromis par lequel ils ont décidé de confier à la Cour internationale de justice le règlement pacifique du différend frontalier qui oppose de longue date les deux pays. La cérémonie de signature s ’est tenue à Marrakech (Maroc).

    8. Au cours de la période considérée, mon Représentant spécial pour l ’Afrique centrale et Chef du Bureau régional des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique centrale, Abdoulaye Bathily du Sénégal, évoquant des raisons personnelles, a présenté sa démission à compter du 31 octobre, et j ’ai nommé François Louncény Fall de la Guinée Représentant spécial par intérim à compter du 1er novembre.


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    Source: US Department of State - Humanitarian Information Unit
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Eritrea, Haiti, Madagascar, Mozambique, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo, United Republic of Tanzania, World

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) launched in 2000 sought to halve by 2015 the proportion of the world’s population without sustainable access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities. By 2015, about 2.6 billion additional people had gained access to improved water sources since 1990, the baseline year for the MDGs, thus meeting the MDG target. However, 663 million people still do not have access to improved water sources. While 2.1 billion people had gained access to improved sanitation facilities since 1990, 2.4 billion still do not have access, below the MDG target.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: The Conversation
    Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, World

    The ConversationCristiano D'Orsi, University of Johannesburg

    This year, 471,000 refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR) voted in presidential elections. They voted even though most of them live in exile in Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo and Chad, having fled an ongoing civil war which began in 2012.

    Their participation reflects a collective determination to rebuild their country. Sadly, after a year filled with hopes of change, conflict has escalated in their country again.

    This was an experience repeated throughout the continent this year. There was great hope that the number of Africa’s asylum-seekers and refugees would be reduced and great ambitions to find a durable and proper solution for those displaced due to persecution. But for many all that was left by year-end was bitter disappointment.

    Huge numbers

    Five African countries made the list of the top 10 major refugee-hosting countries in the world this year. Ethiopia was the highest, followed by Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Chad. By the end of 2015 African countries (excluding northern Africa) hosted 4,413 500 refugees.

    The biggest drivers of these high numbers were conflict, political persecution and general instability.

    The numbers are so high that Filippo Grandi, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, has called for more help for countries hosting large numbers of refugees. All are overburdened by a lack of space and financial support.

    There were several African countries that faced particularly challenging refugee issues in 2016.

    South Sudan:

    There was growing violence and insecurity throughout South Sudan in 2016.

    Fighting between armed groups and government soldiers continued, mainly near Yambio, about 300km west of Juba. With this came increases in crime, attacks on government property, looting of civilian homes and sexual assaults reportedly by armed youth.

    This drove South Sudanese mainly to Sudan and Uganda.

    But people are fleeing from Sudan too. Nearly 250,000 Sudanese refugees have fled to South Sudan since the start of war in the Nuba mountains in 2011.

    The country that has felt the brunt of this is Uganda. It already has severely strained resources. Its refugee programme is massively funded by the UNHCR with annual spending of about US$ 200 million dollars. With more than 300,000 South Sudanese refugees seeking asylum in Uganda this year, the UNHCR announced it was cutting food rations for those who had arrived before July 2015. This is an attempt to reallocate funds to new arrivals.

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC):

    Conflict in the DRC is concentrated in the east of the country. Waves of violence by Mai Mai militias and rebel groups since November 2015 have forced thousands of Congolese to flee.

    Mozambique:

    The situation in Mozambique suddenly worsened at the beginning of the year. This followed clashes between the government and the opposition forces of RENAMO.

    People fled to Malawi. From mid-December 2015 to February 2016 more than 6,000 Mozambicans arrived in Malawi. Today Malawi gives shelter to more than 25,000 asylum-seekers and refugees. Most are settled in Dzaleka camp, 35 kms from Lilongwe. Resources to assist new refugees are very limited.

    Nigeria:

    The presence of Nigeria’s militant Islamist group Boko Haram in the North East of the country has created huge instability: bombings, assassinations and abductions. The situation did not improve enough this year to allow people to return safely.

    More than two million people have been displaced since 2014. 169,000 have sought shelter with communities in neighbouring Cameroon, Chad and Niger.

    Some refugees have sought to return home. But they’ve faced a lack of shelter, economic challenges and food shortages.

    Burundi:

    Since President Pierre Nkurunziza announced he would run for a third term in April 2015 the situation in Burundi has deteriorated. It sparked violence in the country and led to more than 300,000 Burundians seeking asylum in the DRC, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

    This has been heavily taxing on the host countries. The UNHCR requested $175 million for the Burundi humanitarian response in 2016. To date they have received only $4.7 million, or about 3% of what they asked for.

    Eritrea:

    After Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis, Eritreans were the fourth most common group of refugees trying to cross the Mediterranean to Europe in 2015.

    In a bid to stem the risky crossings Grandi met Eritreans at Hitsats camp, one of four hosting Eritreans in the country’s northern highlands. Their presence has caused huge strain given that Ethiopia hosts the largest refugee population in Africa.

    Kenya:

    In 2016 Kenya decided to close Dadaab camp – home to more than 320,000 Somali refugees – for economic, environmental and security reasons.

    International organisations have been involved in trying to facilitate the return of Somalis to their home country. The task is immense. There are increasing claims that the repatriation taking place is not “voluntary”. There are also concerns over the refugees’ safety due to ongoing insecurity in Somalia. Other obstacles to reintegration include limited personal connections to the country and a lack of access to land.

    Positive steps

    While the challenges are great, 2016 did also have moments of spontaneous and genuine efforts to support the continent’s refugees – on both a large and a small scale.

    Congolese communities along the Ubangi River offered shelter and support to refugees from the CAR.

    There were also some large-scale initiatives and successes. For example, 41,000 former refugees returned to Mali after a peace agreement was signed in 2015 between the government and armed rebel groups.

    The UNHCR should also be commended for its role throughout 2016. The organisation was relentless in looking for funds to end the suffering of Nigerian, CAR and South Sudanese refugees.

    The organisation also worked tirelessly to bring its resources to areas in Africa where situations were becoming more desperate. For instance, it created a Protection Desk in South Sudan. These are invaluable assets which identify the most vulnerable individuals and devise a response specific to their needs.

    And in September the UN General Assembly adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants. This is a huge step that expresses the political will of world leaders to protect the rights of refugees and migrants, and to share responsibility.

    Finally, I would like to advance a modest suggestion to anyone working with the “continuous refugee crisis’ in Africa. In the words of Emmanuel Kant:

    Hospitality means the right of a stranger not to be treated as an enemy when he arrives in the land of another because [all men have] common possession of the surface of the earth.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Chad, Nigeria

    By: Yoko Fujimura

    Since early 2015, Boko Haram-related violence and military action have resulted in significant displacement in the Lack Chad Basin as Chadian citizens and Nigerian refugees seek safety. Chadian migrants, who fled crisis in the Central African Republic, Libya and Darfur, are also still in need of assistance and protection. Chad continues to host large numbers of refugees from several nearby countries. Chad has had its own history of turbulence since gaining independence in 1960 but its current challenges are inextricably tied to the situation in neighbouring countries.

    In the Lac Region, the combination of poverty, climate change and violent extremism is stretching local capacities - resulting in spiraling needs across the Basin. Boko Haram attacks targeting civilians in villages and in cities have intensified and are causing widespread trauma, limiting access to essential services, destroying infrastructure and restricting trade and livelihoods.

    IOM is currently applying a new Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations (PRDS) Framework in Chad, including in the Lac Region.

    With the PRDS Framework, IOM embraces more inclusive approaches that recognize the needs and rights of all those affected by crises, including displaced persons (refugees and internally displaced persons), as well as other migrants and mobile populations and affected communities. In the Lac Region, both internally displaced Chadians and Nigerian refugees are fleeing to safety in Chad. Chadian communities are hosting many of the displaced, sharing their meagre resources with those fleeing violence. There are also many Chadian migrants who lived and worked in Nigeria, who have fled violence and returned to Chad, often empty handed.

    “I left Chad in 1989, looking for work in the Central African Republic. I worked in agriculture, cultivating cassava, and later started panning for gold. With the outbreak of violence, I fled back to Chad where I worked with others to cultivate rice. IOM supported us with the appropriate tools and some training. We learned that scorching the earth took away the nutrients, so we learned new methods of rice cultivation, which has greatly increased our rice yields." explains father of six, Mahamat Idriss Abakar.

    There is growing evidence of mobility in displacement areas, including temporary movements to sites where assistance is available as local capacities are quickly over-whelmed. The closure of the border between Chad and Nigeria has restricted cross-border trade, impacting local markets and the livelihoods of local traders who rely on being mobile. The PRDS Framework recognizes that displaced and other affected populations are often mobile and utilize a range of mobility strategies to improve their circumstances. IOM seeks to better understand these mobility strategies, and explore the opportunities that mobility may offer to progressively resolve displacement.

    Identifying economic opportunity is critical to avoiding aid dependency and providing alternatives for youths affected by displacement situation who may be at risk of recruitment by armed groups or of themselves engaging in illicit activities. Comprehensive market analysis is mapped against the capacity and intentions of displaced persons to identify realistic and sustainable economic opportunities. Revitalizing markets and trade would perhaps be the single biggest game changer for the communities across the region. The PRDS Framework focuses on resilience outcomes for displaced people, aiming to reduce aid dependency and support those impacted by crisis and displacement to better cope with shocks and stresses and achieve self-reliance.

    The PRDS Framework promotes partnership with a wide range of traditional and non-traditional actors, striving to optimize humanitarian, development, peace and security interventions, for greater and more sustainable solutions to displacement. All activities are closely coordinated with the Government of Chad and the United Nations Country Team. IOM also works with communities to identify a diverse array of income-generation activities, collaborating with the private sector to integrate innovative technologies to increase yields while respecting the environment.

    As in many crises, psychosocial suffering is a characteristic of those fleeing Boko Haram, with many experiencing or witnessing trauma. Critical support is provided through tailored counselling, referral, recreational activities and awareness campaigns reinforced with efforts to strengthen existing health, social and community services to ensure continued support in the longer term, to help individuals, families and communities deal with the emotional consequences and begin recovery. The PRDS Framework emphasizes the importance of multi-level interventions like these to respond to displacement, with complementary, mutually reinforcing actions at individual, household, community and systems levels.

    The PRDS Framework ensures people remain at the heart of efforts to resolve displacement, integrating age, gender and diversity considerations and balancing changing needs, intentions and opportunities in often fluid environments. IOM promotes the active participation of those affected by crisis, supporting realistic analysis of available options and designing livelihoods plans which reflect specific needs and preferences. Community-based projects are developed together with communities, reflecting local needs and priorities and seeking broad benefits as a contribution towards social cohesion and equity.

    Since 2010, IOM has supported the Government of Chad to respond to massive and sudden influxes of Chadian returnees, refugees, and other migrants from neighbouring countries affected by crisis. IOM provides assistance to the Chadian host communities also in partnership with the government. In this fragile region, IOM’s new PRDS Framework helps to guide IOM Chad to focus programming on incrementally building towards resilience.

    In 2016, IOM released a new framework – the Progressive Resolution of Displacement Situations (PRDS) Framework – which aims to guide IOM and inform its partners to frame and navigate the complexity of forced migration dynamics and support efforts to progressively resolve displacement situations. The PRDS Framework promotes the inclusion of displaced populations, other migrants and affected communities in a resilience-based approach. IOM further recognizes and embraces mobility strategies that support progression towards resolving displacement while ensuring safety nets are in place to avoid potentially harmful mobility strategies.

    With this Framework, IOM strives to:

    • Identify and strengthen coping capacities weakened as a result of displacement situations

    • Foster self-reliance by responding to the longer term consequences of displacement situations

    • Create conducive environments by addressing the root causes of crisis and displacement

    For more information, please visit: https://www.iom.int/progressive-resolution-displacement-situations or IOM’s Transition and Recovery Unit, email: TRDCoreGroup@iom.int. For more information on the project in Chad, please contact Yoko Fujimura, email: yfujimura@iom.int.

    Yoko Fujimura is Head of Programmes at IOM Chad.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria

    Key Messages

    Dans les zones isolées et inaccessibles du nord-est du Nigeria, il est possible que certaines populations sont en Catastrophe (Phase 5 de l’IPC). Les réponses humanitaires en cours permettent de prévenir une situation alimentaire sévère dans les camps de déplacés mais demeurent insuffisantes pour satisfaire les immenses besoins d’urgence dans l’Etat de Borno. Le risque de Famine (Phase 5 de l’IPC) restera élevé dans les zones inaccessibles dans l’Etat de Borno, au cours de la prochaine année.

    Dans le nord-est du Nigeria, l’insécurité alimentaire de niveau Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) continue à l’ouest de Yobe, au sud de Borno et dans le nord de l’Adamawa du fait de l’impact du conflit de Boko-Haram, tandis que celle d’Urgence (Phase 4 de l’IPC) prévaut à l’est de Yobe et dans le centre et le nord de Borno. Nombreux ménages dont les moyens d’existences sont détruits font face à des larges déficits de consommation et des taux de malnutrition élevés.

    Ailleurs, la majorité de la région restera en situation Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) jusqu’en mai 2017 grâce au bon niveau des récoltes qui améliorent les disponibilités auprès des ménages, au fonctionnement normal des marchés et à la mise en œuvre des stratégies habituelles de moyens d’existence.

    Les productions céréalières 2016/17 ont été estimées à la réunion du PREGEC de novembre 2016 à 66 millions de tonnes, soit une hausse de 15,5 pour cent comparée à la moyenne quinquennale. Des baisses de 5 à 10 pour cent sont tout de même observées au Liberia et en Mauritanie. Les productions de tubercules sont en hausse de 15 pour cent et celles du niébé et de l’arachide en hausse respective de 14 et 19 pour cent comparée à la moyenne quinquennale.

    Les marchés demeurent bien approvisionnés par les nouvelles récoltes et les stocks résiduels, avec des prix stables voir en baisse, facilitant ainsi l’accès. Cependant, au nord du Mali et dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, l’insécurité civile continue de perturber le fonctionnement des marchés. Aussi, la dépréciation de la Naira du Nigeria et du Cedis du Ghana continue de limiter les opportunités de vente de bétail et de produites de rentes des pays sahéliens vers ces derniers.

    La situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) se maintiendra jusqu’en janvier 2017 pour les ménages pauvres affectées par le conflit de Boko Haram dans la région du Lac au Tchad et de Diffa au Niger. Ces zones pourraient évoluer en Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) dès février à cause des perturbations de leurs moyens d’existence et des pressions sur leurs ressources limitées, rendant les ménages déplacés et ceux pauvres incapables de couvrir leurs besoins alimentaires. Par conséquent, l’assistance humanitaire est nécessaire de toute urgence.

    En Centrafrique, malgré l’amélioration des disponibilités alimentaires à la faveur des récoltes en octobre et novembre, les tensions intercommunautaires continuent de perturber l’accès aux besoins alimentaires et aux principaux moyens d’existence pour les ménages déplacés. La plupart des ménages dans les zones affectées par le conflit du nord-ouest, sud-est et centre-nord (Ouham, Ouham Pende, Nana Gribizi, Vakaga) font face à des déficits de consommation qui pourraient persister jusqu’au moins en fin mai 2017.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Nigeria

    Famine may be ongoing in inaccessible areas of the northeast

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Borno State remains the center of on-going conflict involving Boko Haram groups. There are 1.4 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in the state and several areas remain inaccessible due to military operations. Many LGAs are in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity and the risk of Famine (IPC Phase 5) in inaccessible areas will remain high over the coming year. Several IDP concentrations are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3!) where assistance is likely to continue preventing Famine, but sustained humanitarian access is critical.

    • Conflict and displacement are also continuing to impact food security outcomes in Adamawa and Yobe States. Madagali in Adamawa and Gujba and Gulani in Yobe are LGAs close to the Sambisa forest where households have been unable to engage in crop production and where there is limited access for humanitarian actors. In these LGAs, households continue to face Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity, while other less affected LGAs in Northern Adamawa and rural Yobe will remain in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) through May 2017.

    • At the national level, average rainfall levels and an increase in the area planted during the 2016 cultivation season led to average to above-average main harvests across most of the country. Harvests between October and January are allowing household and market stocks to recover and prices decline. Despite seasonal price reductions, staple food prices remain significantly above last year and five-year average levels due to inflation and devaluation of the Naira.


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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Nigeria

    Key findings

    Food security, food production, nutrition, and livelihoods have been enormously compromised by the conflict. Displaced populations and host communities in the northeast face particularly severe food insecurity resulting from poor production and loss of livelihoods. A marked increase in the food insecure population has been noted in addition to a loss of livelihoods.

    Malnutrition rates remain high and children under five are most vulnerable. 244,000 children suffer from severe acute malnutrition; 49,000 are at risk of death. The number of children suffering from SAM could rise to 400,000 in the coming year. 66% of IDPs report food as their most unmet need. 14,368 IDPs have left Gwoza for Maiduguri in search of food.

    Overview

    A resurgence in Boko Haram violence and the military’s counterinsurgency since November continue to displace populations and hamper food security (UNICEF 07/12/2016).
    The opening up of previously inaccessible areas have revealed dire food security, nutrition and livelihood needs. Limited market functioning, high seed prices, or prioritising seed consumption over sowing means many households in affected areas are not planting as much as usual, or at all. This limits food production and access to agriculturerelated wage labour. The most heavily conflict-affected livelihood area is soy and maize farming.

    It has been projected that the situation will deteriorate further between June and August 2017 as IDPs continue to move in search of food or to restart farming and back to their LGAs due to increased security. IDPs returning to their LGA of origin are frequently referred to as returnees by humanitarian actors, even though the vast majority are not returning to their villages or towns of origin, but rather to the LGA headquarters, creating a situation of secondary displacement.

    While the Nigerian Army and allied forces have gained significant territory against Boko Haram, humanitarian access remains a considerable challenge. Thirteen of 27 LGAs in Borno, four of 17 in Yobe and one of 21 in Adamawa are still only partially accessible through military secured main routes and at the LGA headquarters. The level of the food and nutrition needs become more apparent as more areas become accessible. LGAs like Ngala, Dikwa, Munguno and Chibok saw an increase in the number of IDPs by between 24,333 and 7,694. Gubio, Mafa and Nganzai also had an increase in their IDP population. that saw an increase. The number of people facing acute food insecurity has risen to 5.1 million, a more than 50% since March 2016. A total of 3, 266,337 people are said to be between Phase 3-5 famine crisis levels in Borno, 1, 149, 074 in Yobe and 257, 427 in Adamawa (UN 24/11/2016).

    Latest IOM DTM reports show that food is still the most unmet need among 66% of IDPs, even within camps. In terms of frequency of distribution, while 25 camps still do not receive any food rations, it has been irregular in as many as 109. Current assistance programmes from the government and humanitarian actors mainly target camps which hold only 24.34% of the total IDP population of 1.3 million people. Acute food insecurity and malnutrition are expected to increase in the coming year (FAO 11/1/2016; OCHA 11/2016 IOM 19/12/2016).


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    DES PROGRÈS, BEAUCOUP RESTE À FAIRE

    Au moment où nous rentrons dans les derniers mois de la réponse 2016, le suivi de nos actions humanitaires dans ce rapport nous aide à mesurer les progrès réalisés, les défis auxquels nous sommes confrontés et les lacunes que nous devons combler. Malgré des besoins humanitaires grandissants, des financements en baisse et de grands défis de sécurité et de logistique, la communauté humanitaire a continué d’intensifier l’aide en faveur des personnes vulnérables afin de répondre aux besoins croissants, surtout dans l’Extrême-Nord.

    Entre janvier et octobre 2016, l’effort conjugué de tous les acteurs - Gouvernement, agences des Nations Unies, ONG nationales et internationales - a permis d’apporter une assistance à plus de 714 000 personnes sur les 1,1 million ciblées dans les quatre régions prioritaires que sont l’Adamaoua, l’Est, l’Extrême-Nord et le Nord. Les acteurs humanitaires ont pu assister plus de 400 000 personnes dans le cadre de la sécurité alimentaire sous forme de distributions alimentaires, prise en charge nutritionnelles, et transferts monétaires. Près de 130 000 enfants atteints de malnutrition sévère et modérée ont été pris en charge par les programmes nutritionnels mis en place par les partenaires humanitaires. Plus de 51 000 enfants et mères, tant déplacés que dans les communautés d’accueil, ont été assistés par le biais du Programme d’alimentation complémentaire, combiné avec un programme de traitement renforcée de la malnutrition. La réponse a également abordé les besoins de plus d’un demi-million de personnes touchées dans les secteurs de la santé, l’eau et l’assainissement, les abris et articles non alimentaires, l’éducation et la protection.

    Les défis pour couvrir les besoins essentiels des personnes touchées restent très importants. L’écart de la couverture des besoins pour 2016 est estimé à plus de 100 millions USD. Alors que le Cameroun a démontré une forte résilience et mis à contribution les capacités nationales et locales pour la réponse humanitaire dès fin 2013, les risques naturels, les violences dans l’Extrême-Nord, les déplacements internes et la présence continue des réfugiés mettent à rude épreuve le niveau de la réponse. Le Plan de Réponse Humanitaire 2017 va intégrer ces nouveaux besoins.

    Dans le contexte complexe du Cameroun où les besoins humanitaires s’ajoutent aux problèmes structurels existants, l’aide d’urgence reste essentielle. Cependant, il est déterminant pour la communauté humanitaire de renforcer, en 2017, le lien entre l’action humanitaire et le développement, conformément aux engagements du Sommet humanitaire mondial. La priorité sera de mettre en œuvre des solutions durables qui renforceront la résilience des populations touchées par les crises et amélioreront leurs moyens de subsistance.

    Derrière les faits et chiffres, ce rapport souligne également le noyau humain de notre travail, la différence que nous pouvons faire pour des milliers d’enfants, de femmes et d’hommes touchés par les crises. Bien que nous ayons accompli beaucoup, du travail reste à faire. Je salue les autorités camerounaises, acteurs sur le terrain, décideurs, donateurs pour leur engagement au service des populations vulnérables. Je puis vous assurer que la communauté humanitaire au Cameroun reste engagée à soutenir tous les efforts pour que l’assistance humanitaire se poursuive tant que les populations affectées en auront besoin.

    Najat Rochdi
    RC/HC Cameroun


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