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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Canary Islands (Spain), Italy, Mali, World

    Au sommaire

    Inondations : plus de18 000 sinistrés p.1 Taux moyen de malnutrition à 30 % depuis 2010 p.2 Rentrée des classes et risque de suspension des repas scolaires p.3 Sensibilisation aux risques de mines p.3 Migrations irrégulières au Mali p.4 Niveau de financement du plan de réponse humanitaire p.6

    FAITS SAILLANTS

    • Assistance aux sinistrés des inondations et risques liés à la cure du fleuve

    • Risque de suspension des repas scolaires pour faute de financement

    • Les risques aux mines et restes explosifs de guerre, restent élevés dans les zones de combats

    • Trois millions de personnes à risque d’insécurité alimentaire l’année prochaine

    • Le Mali, lieu de transit pour de nombreux candidats à l’émigration vers l’Europe

    • De nombreux défis persistent sur le plan humanitaire en 2017

    Assistance des victimes et prévisions des inondations au Mali

    Les risques d’inondation restent élevés pour les populations installées le long du fleuve Niger jusqu’en décembre en raison de la montée du niveau du fleuve. En effet, l’Outil de prédiction des inondations dans le Delta intérieur du Niger (OPIDIN) indique que le fleuve Niger connaîtra cette année sa plus haute crue depuis les cinquante dernières années. Ces prévisions indiquent que le niveau d’eau de Mopti devrait encore augmenter d’environ 25 cm en octobre et le niveau d’eau atteindra son pic entre la fin octobre et le début novembre à Mopti, à la fin novembre à Akka (Mopti) et à la mi-décembre à Diré (Tombouctou). Le bétail, qui normalement peut traverser le fleuve à Diafarabé en novembre à la recherche de pâturage, ne pourra le faire cette année puisque les plaines inondables seront encore couvertes par l’eau le mois prochain.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

    (Maiduguri, Borno State: 25 October 2016) Nigeria is facing the worst humanitarian crisis on the African continent. Currently up to 400,000 children face starvation and citizens suffer with little or no access to clean water, health, protection, education and food security.

    As I complete my first few weeks as the Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator and Humanitarian Coordinator a.i., I want to assure the Government of Nigeria of the international humanitarian community’s commitment to working closely with the federal and state mechanisms to accelerate our collective response. I welcome the recent announcement of the Inter-Ministerial Task Force and High Level Humanitarian Coordination Group, as well as the Borno State Humanitarian Response Committee and look forward to seeing a tangible impact in the coming weeks and months.

    I appreciate all the humanitarian assistance provided by the government and the humanitarian community at large who face insecurity and access constraints to reach the millions in desperate need. Humanitarian organizations should continue to maintain neutrality, impartiality and independence and we will continue to work where security permits. Needs are currently higher than the response capacity and we must ensure that we have both access and resources to scale up our humanitarian support in the months to come.

    We are grateful for the generosity of the UN Central Emergency Response Fund and the continued contributions of the wider donor community. However, the Nigerian Humanitarian Response Plan for 2016, which requires US$484 for life-saving interventions, is less than 37 per cent funded. Without the means to respond, innocent boys, girls, women and men will die. The highest priority requirement for this response remains food security which is just 25 per cent funded.

    I welcome the increase in air capacity with a second UN Humanitarian Air Service helicopter, transporting humanitarian workers and life-saving assistance to areas still inaccessible by road. The attack on the humanitarian convoy on 28 July and more recent the suicide bombing in Maiduguri on 12 October serves as a stark reminder that we must not let down our guard in such a high risk environment. The security of humanitarian actors remains a top priority for the humanitarian community.

    I look forward to leading the international humanitarian community in forging stronger relationships with our host government, as well as international and national non-government organizations, to support their valuable work and assist them with the necessary structures and mechanisms they require to safely carry out their work. Indeed recent, albeit limited improvements accessing displaced populations has created the opportunity for the establishment of field-based humanitarian hubs in selected Local Government Areas and I see this development as a springboard to continued improvements in access to affected populations.

    For further information please contact Órla Fagan, Public Information Officer, Abuja, Nigeria
    Email: fagano@un.org Tel. +2349038710095
    @OCHANigeria reliefweb.int


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Mauritania, Nigeria

    RÉPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE

    RETOUR DU CALME A KAGA BANDORO ET TROUBLES A BANGUI

    Le calme revient progressivement dans la zone nord de Kaga Bandoro suite à une récente flambée de violence. Les acteurs humanitaires s’emploient à fournir des abris, de la nourriture, des services de santé et une éducation en urgence. Le PAM a déjà distribué des vivres à 23 973 personnes. La majorité des déplacés qui avaient fui leurs foyers, suite aux violentes attaques, sont toujours en forêt. Le 17 octobre, le Président Faustin-Archange Touadéra et le Représentant Spécial de l'ONU - Parfait OnangaAnyanga - ont visité Kaga Bandoro pour contribuer à l'atténuation des tensions et manifester leur solidarité avec la population affectée. Par ailleurs, la violence a éclaté dans la capitale Bangui, le 24 octobre, entrainant le décès de quatre personnes et blessant 14 autres. La mission de maintien de la paix de l'ONU, la MINUSCA, a condamné l'incident et a indiqué soutenir les autorités dans les enquêtes.

    TCHAD

    CAS D’HEPATITE E DETECTES A SALAMAT

    Depuis septembre, environ 140 cas d'hépatite E ont été relevés dans la région sud de Salamat. Cette infection virale du foie est commune dans les zones où l'approvisionnement en eau et assainissement est limité. Selon MSF Hollande, le nombre de cas a quadruplé en moins de trois semaines, avec quatre décès enregistrés (deux femmes enceintes et deux enfants). L’organisation humanitaire fournit des traitements, sensibilise le public à l'hygiène et distribue des biens de première nécessité. Selon son estimation, jusqu'à 8 000 personnes pourraient être affectées par l'épidémie, dont le pic serait atteint d’ici à janvier 2017. A cet effet, une mission conjointe ministère de la santé, OMS et MSF a été organisée le 20 octobre afin d’évaluer la situation et de prendre des mesures supplémentaires.

    MAURITANIE

    ESSAIMS DE CRIQUETS PELERINS DANS UNE VASTE ZONE AU NORD

    Des essaims de criquets pèlerins ont été signalés sur de grandes étendues, entre les régions du Trarza et de l'Adrar dans le nord. Des opérations de lutte terrestres sont en cours et ont à ce jour couvert près de 6 500 hectares. Des groupes de criquets adultes ont également été signalés dans l'ouest du pays. Les tendances saisonnières prévoient une pluviométrie légèrement supérieure aux moyennes en novembre et décembre, ce qui devrait constituer des conditions favorables à la reproduction des criquets et à leur survie.

    NIGERIA

    DES ATTAQUES PERSITANTES ENTRAVENT L’ACCES HUMANITAIRE

    Dans la nuit du 18 octobre, des hommes armés appartenant à Boko Haram ont pris d'assaut la communauté Goptari, dans la localité de Chibok, tirant sporadiquement et pillant vivres et bétail. Plus tôt dans la journée, un poste militaire dans la ville de Gashigar, près de la frontière avec le Niger, a été attaqué et 13 soldats ont été blessés. Des combats intenses entre les militaires et les éléments de Boko Haram continuent d'entraver l'accès humanitaire aux régions du nord de l'Etat de Borno.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Nigeria

    Highlights

    • Key priorities highlighted by the Inter-Ministerial Task Force (IMTF) for emergency response in the north east are food, nutrition, primary health care, WASH, education, recovery and resettlement with livelihood support.

    • In total 105,285 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have been admitted to therapeutic feeding programmes in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states, reaching 26 per cent of the target for 2016 (398,188).

    • An additional 58,046 families received Long Lasting Insecticide-Treated Nets (LLITNs) in Yobe and in newly liberated areas, and more than 2.85 million people have been reached with primary healthcare services.

    • Nearly 44 per cent (537,033) of targeted people have access to water, 83 per cent (858,604) have access to sanitation facilities and 51 per cent (564,862) have been reached with hygiene promotion and WASH kits.

    • So far, 2,985 children formerly associated with armed conflict are being supported to reintegrate into their communities and 5,283 unaccompanied and separated children have received support.

    • With UNICEF’s support, 87,555 children have access to learning spaces while 153,302 children have been reached with learning materials, especially focusing on girls to encourage enrollment.

    Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs

    Key priorities highlighted by the Inter-Ministerial Task Force (IMTF) for the conflict affected areas in the north east are food, nutrition, primary health care, WASH, education, recovery and resettlement with livelihood support. Despite governmental and humanitarian efforts, access challenges continue to hamper the scale up of humanitarian response due to insecurity and poor road conditions. In Borno, the worst affected area nine LGAs have no access due to high insecurity while remaining have limited access. Some key markets in Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa States are still disrupted with limited activity posing additional challenges. Economic recession due to decline in oil revenues and reduction in foreign reserves have resulted in persistent depreciation of Nigerian currency further worsening access to food and negatively impacting the nutritional status of vulnerable population in the north east.

    The third round of polio immunization as part of the outbreak response (OBR) started on 15 October in 18 high risk states including Borno, Adamawa and Yobe. A global shortage of Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (bOPV) resulted in limited stocks for the OBR. This challenge was overcome due to swift action to relocate stocks from states having excess supplies to those facing a shortage. Teams have intensified vaccination monitoring and supervision to avoid double vaccination given the limited supplies.

    On 16 October, 21 girls kidnapped by Boko Haram more than two years ago in Chibok, northeast Nigeria, were unified with their families. The abducted Chibok girls are among thousands of women and girls that UNICEF estimates have been held and subjected to violence by the group. UNICEF has supported hundreds of women and girls who have already been released or escaped from Boko Haram.

    On 12 October, a suicide bomber detonated explosives which killed 10 people and injured one health worker near the entrance of the Muna Garage IDP camp. The blast temporarily affected UNICEF’s ability to conduct activities, which have since then resumed.


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    Source: European Commission
    Country: Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan

    Brussels, 25 October 2016

    Four new actions worth €66.5 million will be funded under the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa to address the destructive impacts of the El Niño phenomenon in the Horn of Africa region, such as floods and droughts.

    El Niño is the phenomenon of rising temperatures of surface sea water, which causes different extreme events such as floods and droughts. This package of development assistance focuses on the four countries that are most severely hit by El Niño and that are experiencing the highest levels of food insecurity: Ethiopia (€22.5 million), Somalia (€8 million), South Sudan (€28 million) and Sudan (€8 million). It focusses on short and long-term solutions for vulnerable groups and combines measures for relief, rehabilitation and development.

    Neven Mimica, Commissioner responsible for International Cooperation and Development, said: "When people are at risk of starvation, we have to mobilize our means – and have to do it fast. With these four actions we are providing an immediate response in the Horn of Africa. This clearly demonstrates the value of the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa as a highly swift and responsive tool in critical situations."

    Droughts and other climate change-related occurrences are a major driver of displacement in the region. They have the potential of increasing food insecurity and as a consequence fuelling tensions and local conflicts over scarce resources and livelihood opportunities. To maximise the impact of EU action and to support a broader development response in the region, this package will be channelled through the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa. The Trust Fund, which aims at tackling instability and addressing the root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement, is already delivering actions worth €370 million in the Horn of Africa region.

    The four resilience-oriented projects will contribute to:

    • Peace-building and economic development;

    • Empowering vulnerable groups to meet food and nutrition needs by created linkages with markets;

    • Developing more efficient water management systems and resilient agricultural practices;

    • Creating income generating opportunities to help poor households become self-sufficient and therefore enhance community livelihoods;

    • Strengthening capacity of local institutions for service delivery, thereby supporting vulnerable communities;

    • Support social networks in resolving community conflicts in a peaceful manner.

    Background:

    These actions are part of the EU global response to the El Niño phenomenon, worth almost €550 million (of which €258.5 are allocated to countries in East Africa).

    They will also build upon, and complement, two previous packages of actions worth a total of €370 million for the Horn of Africa region, with €253 million and €117 million adopted in December 2015 and April 2016 respectively, as an ongoing response to the commitments made by the EU and African partners at the Valletta summit on migration in November 2015.

    Further information:

    On the Trust Fund for Africa: https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/regions/africa/eu-emergency-trust-fund-africa_en

    Website of Commissioner Neven Mimica: http://ec.europa.eu/commission/2014-2019/mimica_en

    IP/16/3536

    Press contacts:

    Carlos MARTIN RUIZ DE GORDEJUELA (+32 2 296 53 22)
    Christina WUNDER (+32 2 299 22 56)

    General public inquiries: Europe Direct by phone 00 800 67 89 10 11 or by email


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Mauritania, Nigeria

    CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

    CALM RETURNING TO KAGA BANDORO , UNREST HITS BANGUI

    Calm is gradually returning to the northern Kaga Bandoro area following a recent upsurge of violence. Humanitarian actors are working to provide shelter, food, health services as well as emergency education. WFP has already distributed food to 23,973 people. The majority of those who fled their homes in the wake of the violent attacks are still in the bush. On 17 October, President Faustin-Archange Touadéra and the UN Special Representative Parfait OnangaAnyanga visited Kaga Bandoro to help ease tensions and show solidarity with the affected population. Separately, violence erupted in the capital Bangui on 24 October, resulting in the deaths of four people and 14 others wounded. The UN peacekeeping mission MINUSCA condemned the incident and said it was supporting the authorities n investigations.

    CHAD

    CASES OF HEPATITIS E EMERGE IN SALAMAT

    Around 140 cases of Hepatitis E, a viral infection of the liver common in areas with limited water supply and sanitation, have been diagnosed in the southern Salamat region since September. The number of cases has risen four-fold in less than three weeks, with four deaths (two pregnant women and two children) registered, according to MSF-Holland. The aid group is providing treatment, public awareness on hygiene and distributing basic relief items. According to its epidemiologic modelling, up to 8,000 people could be affected by the epidemic, whose peak would be reached by January 2017. A joint mission was organized on 20 October by the Ministry of Health, WHO and MSF to assess the situation and take further measures as needed.

    MAURITANIA

    DESERT LOCUSTS SWARM VAST AREAS IN NORTH

    Swarms of desert locusts have been reported over large areas between Trarza and Adrar regions in the north. Ground control operations are ongoing and have so far covered nearly 6,500 hectares. Groups of mature adults have also been reported in the west of the country. Seasonal rainfall predictions suggest slightly above average rainfall in November and December that should allow the continuation of favourable conditions for locust breeding and survival.

    NIGERIA

    PERSISTENT ATTACKS IMPEDE HUMANITARIAN ACCESS

    Boko Haram gunmen stormed Goptari community in Chibok locality on the night of 18 October, shooting sporadically and looting food and livestock. Earlier on the same day, a military post in Gashigar town near the border with Niger was attacked and 13 soldiers wounded. Intense fighting between the military and Boko Haram elements continues to impede humanitarian access to the northern parts of Borno state.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • Global Handwashing Day was celebrated on 15 October. UNICEF is supporting the celebration across the country during the month. In Northern Bahr el Ghazal (NBeG), 500 members of 10 school hygiene clubs underwent refresher training in hygiene promotion.

    • A number of suspected cholera cases and deaths have been reported in Leer and Mayendit, where insecurity has hampered investigation and response. Combined with the fact that 46 per cent of outpatient therapeutic programmes (OTP) for malnutrition are suspended in the areas, children are at critical risk.

    • An immunization campaign was carried out in Abyei from 10 – 15 October, reaching 21,500 children from six to 59 months (108 per cent of the target). UNICEF supported the treatment of a total of 23,217 malaria cases in NBeG in the past two weeks, including 12,021 children under five.

    SITUATION IN NUMBERS

    1.69 million People internally displaced since 15 December 2013 (OCHA Humanitarian Snapshot, 28 July 2016)

    Over 1 million South Sudanese refugees in neighbouring countries since December 2013 (UNHCR South Sudan Situation Information Sharing Portal, 11 October 2016)

    Situation Overview and Humanitarian Needs

    The security situation continues to be of concern with skirmishes reported in Unity, Upper Nile and Greater Equatoria, which have displaced hundreds of people into various areas including swamps and the bush. Insecurity is seriously affecting the ability to deliver humanitarian assistance. In Juba, Mingkaman and Nimule, where affected populations have been reached, the cholera outbreak is controlled with only sporadic cases being reported. Meanwhile, in areas with significant access challenges, active conflict or flooding (Leer, Mayendit, Ayod, Fangak and Pigi), there are reports of new cases and deaths for which investigation and response activities are ongoing but severely constrained. NBeG continues to face a food security and nutrition crisis, with the global acute malnutrition (GAM) rates currently more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) emergency threshold (>15 per cent). Other areas, including parts of Unity, are also showing high malnutrition rates.


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    Source: Government of Italy
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Italy, Niger, Nigeria

    Italy has allocated 6.3 million euros for emergency actions in the four countries of the Lake Chad Basin, namely Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad and Niger, which are facing the consequences of Boko Haram's radical and extremist violence. The actions will be carried out by Italian civil society organisations and other non-profit stakeholders working in the four Countries.

    Actions will especially focus on the most vulnerable segments of the community, large families, displaced people, refugees, women and children prey to malnutrition, with the aim of providing them immediate support and curb the migration flows headed towards Europe. The entire Lake Chad region has in fact become a place of extensive violence leading to the forced displacement of the population, which is very difficult to help because of their lack of access to humanitarian aid.


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    Source: World Meteorological Organization
    Country: Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Mali, Papua New Guinea, Somalia, World, Zimbabwe

    Globally averaged CO2 levels reach 400 parts per million in 2015

    High greenhouse gas levels mark start of new era of climate reality

    Globally averaged concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached the symbolic and significant milestone of 400 parts per million for the first time in 2015 and surged again to new records in 2016 on the back of the very powerful El Niño event, according to the World Meteorological Organization's annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.

    CO2 levels had previously reached the 400 ppm barrier for certain months of the year and in certain locations but never before on a global average basis for the entire year. The longest-established greenhouse gas monitoring station at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, predicts that CO2 concentrations will stay above 400 ppm for the whole of 2016 and not dip below that level for many generations.

    The growth spurt in CO2 was fuelled by the El Niño event, which started in 2015 and had a strong impact well into 2016. This triggered droughts in tropical regions and reduced the capacity of “sinks” like forests, vegetation and the oceans to absorb CO2. These sinks currently absorb about half of CO2 emissions but there is a risk that they may become saturated, which would increase the fraction of emitted carbon dioxide which stays in the atmosphere, according to the Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.

    Between 1990 and 2015 there was a 37% increase in radiative forcing – the warming effect on our climate – because of long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (N2O) from industrial, agricultural and domestic activities.

    “The year 2015 ushered in a new era of optimism and climate action with the Paris climate change agreement. But it will also make history as marking a new era of climate change reality with record high greenhouse gas concentrations,” said WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas. “The El Niño event has disappeared. Climate change has not.”

    “The recent agreement in Kigali to amend the so-called Montreal Protocol and phase out hydrofluorocarbons, which act as strong greenhouse gases, is good news. WMO salutes the commitment of the international community to meaningful climate action,” said Mr Taalas.

    “But the real elephant in the room is carbon dioxide, which remains in the atmosphere for thousands of years and in the oceans for even longer. Without tackling CO2 emissions, we can not tackle climate change and keep temperature increases to below 2°C above the pre-industrial era. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the Paris Agreement does indeed enter into force well ahead of schedule on 4 November and that we fast-track its implementation.” he said.

    WMO and partners are working towards an Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System to provide information that can help nations to track the progress toward implementation of their national emission pledges, improve national emission reporting and inform additional mitigation actions. This system builds on the long-term experience of WMO in greenhouse gas observations and atmospheric modelling.

    WMO is also striving to improve weather and climate services for the renewable energy sector and to support the Green Economy and sustainable development. To optimize the use of solar, wind and hydropower production, new types of weather services are needed.

    Highlights of Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

    The WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin reports on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Emissions represent what goes into the atmosphere. Concentrations represent what remains in the atmosphere after the complex system of interactions between the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere and the oceans. About a quarter of the total emissions is taken up by the oceans and another quarter by the biosphere, reducing in this way the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.

    The Greenhouse Gas Bulletin provides a scientific base for decision-making. WMO released it ahead of the U.N. climate change negotiations in Marrakech, Morocco, to be held from 7 – 18 November 2016.

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounted for about 65% of radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases. The pre-industrial level of about 278 ppm represented a balance between the atmosphere, the oceans and the biosphere. Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels has altered the natural balance and in 2015, globally averaged levels were 144% of pre-industrial levels. In 2015, global annual average concentration of CO2 concentrations reached 400.0 ppm. The increase of CO2 from 2014 to 2015 was larger than the previous year and the average over the previous 10 years.

    In addition to reducing the capacity of vegetation to absorb CO2 the powerful El Niño also led to an increase in CO2 emissions from forest fires. According to the Global Fire Emission Database, CO2 emissions in Equatorial Asia – where there were serious forest fires in Indonesia in August-September 2015 - were more than twice as high as the 1997-2015 average.

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas and contributes to about 17% of radiative forcing. Approximately 40% of methane is emitted into the atmosphere by natural sources (e.g., wetlands and termites), and about 60% comes from human activities like cattle breeding, rice agriculture, fossil fuel exploitation, landfills and biomass burning. Atmospheric methane reached a new high of about 1845 parts per billion (ppb) in 2015 and is now 256% of the pre-industrial level.

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is emitted into the atmosphere from both natural (about 60%) and anthropogenic sources (approximately 40%), including oceans, soil, biomass burning, fertilizer use, and various industrial processes. Its atmospheric concentration in 2015 was about 328 parts per billion. This is 121% of pre-industrial levels. It also plays an important role in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer which protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. It accounts for about 6% of radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases.

    Other long-lived greenhouse gases

    Sulphur hexafluoride is a potent long-lived greenhouse gas. It is produced by the chemical industry, mainly as an electrical insulator in power distribution equipment. Atmospheric levels are about twice the level observed in the mid-1990s. Ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), together with minor halogenated gases, contribute about 12% to radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases. While CFCs and most halons are decreasing, some hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are also potent greenhouse gases, are increasing at relatively rapid rates, although they are still low in abundance.


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    Source: Government of the Netherlands
    Country: Mali, Netherlands

    On Monday foreign minister Bert Koenders met with his Malian counterpart, Abdoulaye Diop. The two ministers discussed the peace process in Mali and MINUSMA, the UN mission to which the Netherlands will continue contributing next year. The Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation, Lilianne Ploumen, was also present at the meeting.

    Mr Diop expressed his appreciation for the Netherlands’ major contribution to the success of the mission and stressed that MINUSMA’s presence is crucial to the stability of Mali. The Malian minister also said that he valued the Netherlands’ active efforts to encourage other Western countries to take part in the mission.

    The Netherlands has set aside €2 million to ensure that Mali and other West African countries are better equipped to tackle people smuggling and associated human rights abuses. The money will go to the funds of two UN bodies – UNODC and OHCHR – which deal with this issue.

    Mali plays a central role in the unstable Sahel region. The country is grappling with a number of transnational problems, such as smuggling and terrorism. It is also a transit country for Europe-bound migrants.

    Both Mr Koenders and Mr Diop believe that the countries of the region should do their part to combat people smuggling. ‘By investing in investigative and judicial capacity, the countries can address the problem more effectively,’ said Mr Koenders. ‘There is also room for improvement with regard to regional cooperation and information-sharing.’

    Mr Diop invited Mr Koenders to visit Mali in the near future to make further arrangements on curbing irregular migration, in connection with ongoing negotiations between the EU and Mali on a migration agreement. Mr Koenders was in Mali earlier this year to take part in talks on that subject on behalf of the EU.

    Since the start of the mission in Mali, there has been some progress. Democratic elections have been held and a peace agreement has been signed, which is being observed by both the Malian government and armed groups. Tens of thousands of displaced persons and refugees have returned to the north of the country, and there are signs of economic development. ‘Mali still has a way to go, but with MINUSMA’s support, the Malian government and the armed groups have taken some big steps forward,’ said Mr Koenders.

    Along with its military contribution to the UN mission the Netherlands is also pushing ahead with various development efforts. In that connection the ministers spoke about programmes involving security, the legal order, the water supply and job creation for young people. Improving the prospects of the country’s rapidly growing and young population is vital to Mali’s future stability.


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    Source: World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, Ecuador, Fiji, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Only 2 out of 5 people in need will receive food security support with current funding levels.
    In 2016, 92 million people were targeted through country and regional coordinated humanitarian appeals, of which 67 million are in need of food security interventions. They have been affected by conflicts, economic crises, and natural hazards and unable to meet minimum food intake requirements. For them food assistance and productive livelihoods-based interventions are an absolute necessity. As of 01 October 2016, US$ 2.9 billion were allocated by donors to address food security needs. This is 39 percent of the funding requirement this year alone.

    Good coordination contributes to an effective response
    Due to the scarcity of humanitarian funding, is critical that humanitarian operations are effective and efficient, making coordination even more important. Country-level Food Security Clusters/Sectors provide a space for partners to come together under an organized and focused approach, making the most of resources put towards food security operations. Co-led by WFP and FAO, Food Security Clusters develop humanitarian strategies and response plans that complement national authorities' efforts to address food insecurity on all levels.

    41 countries with Food Security coordination solutions
    This year the global Food Security Cluster is providing support through staff deployment, capacity building, technical backstopping, development of humanitarian policies, and robust information management to 27 countries with a food security cluster or cluster-like sector and the Pacific Islands Region (14 countries).

    Priorities for the remaining months of 2016
    Level 3 humanitarian crises: Iraq, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen equal to 21.2 million food insecure people.

    El Nino affected people
    Over 60 million people are still impacted by 18 months of unfavorable climatic conditions caused by El Nino that vanished several crop seasons and decimated livestock in Eastern Africa, SADC Region and Corredor Seco.
    Countries meeting less than 10 percent of food security humanitarian needs
    Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Guatemala, Libya, Niger and Senegal.
    Countries meeting less than 30 percent of food security humanitarian needs
    Burkina Faso, Chad, Djibouti, Honduras, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Somalia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe.


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    Source: Women Under Siege
    Country: Nigeria

    By Shaista Aziz/Guest Blogger

    Maiduguri, Nigeria—Yagna Ibrahim is a woman who has a presence that is difficult to ignore. She strides into the room with grace and confidence, pulls out a chair, and sits down next to her friend and fellow women’s rights activist, Rabia Musa.

    Read the full article.


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    Source: World Health Organization, Health Cluster
    Country: Mali

    APERÇU SANITAIRE

    La situation au Mali reste très préoccupante au regard des nombreux besoins sanitaires non- couverts pour les populations les plus vulnérables en matière d’accès aux services de santé de base de qualité. La crise qui perdure, continue d’amenuiser l’accès aux soins aussi bien en zone de conflits que dans le reste du Pays. Les évaluations récentes1 ont montré un déficit de ressources humaines en santé qualifiées avec un ratio global de 5 personnels de santé pour 10000 habitants contre 23 personnels pour 10000 habitants souhaité. A cela s’ajoute une inégale répartition des ressources humaines présentes. En effet, 60% du personnel exerce dans le district de Bamako qui compte 12% de la population totale. L’enquête HeRAMS réalisée en avril 2016 a montré que 69% des structures à Kidal, 4% à Gao et 7% à Tombouctou, sont toujours fermées malgré les efforts déployés par l’Etat et les partenaires humanitaires. A propos de la disponibilité des prestations, en dehors des consultations curatives, les services paracliniques de laboratoire, de radiographie et de transfusion sanguine sont très peu fournis surtout dans les régions du Nord avec moins de 25% ,les services de Radio de base(0% à Tombouctou, Gao et Kidal), de Banque de sang(0% à Kidal, 12,5% à Gao, 40,9% à Mopti et 50% à Tombouctou) et Laboratoire(0% à Kidal, 9,7% à Tombouctou, 10,5% à Gao) . De plus les soins obstétricaux et néonataux d’urgence sont très peu disponibles allant de 0% à 20% dans la plupart de Structures à Kidal, 8% à Gao pour les SONUB et 36,8% pour la prise en charge complète des avortements.

    En matière de consultations curatives, 42% de la cible a été atteint en juin 2016. On note que 35% des accouchements ont été assistés par du personnel qualifié dans les régions du Nord. L’analyse des données disponibles de VBG de 2013 à Juillet 2016 des régions affectées par les conflits armés montre que 6126 cas de violences basées sur le genre ont été déclarés2 dont 1590 (26%) sont des cas d’agressions sexuelles (y compris les mutilations génitales féminines) alors que la disponibilité de services dans le nord est de 0% à Kidal, 11,4% à Gao, 36,1% à Tombouctou et seulement 51,4% à Mopti.

    Bien que la prévlence du VIH sur la population générale de 15 à 49 ans soit de 1,1%3 , plus élevée à Bamako(1,7% pour la femme et 1,6% pour l’homme) et plus faible à l’intérieur à l’exemple de Mopti, 0,8% pour la femme et 0,4% pour l’homme, le la faible connaissance , attitude et pratique sur le VIH étant faible.

    Moins de une femme sur deux(48%) et deux tiers des hommes de moins de 15 à 49 ans savent que l’utilisation du condom et la limitation des rapports sexuels à un seul partenaire sexuel qui n’est pas infecté permettent de réduire les risques de contracter le VIH.

    Le contexte sécurité du Nord étant favorable à la propagation du VIH, il est utile d’anticiper pour ralentir la propagation du VIH dans ce contexte de crise. La faiblesse du système de surveillance épidémiologique associée à l’arrêt de plusieurs programmes de santé favorise la recrudescence de certaines pathologies comme le paludisme et l’éclosion de plusieurs épidémies (méningite à Ouéléssebougou avec 32 cas, rougeole à Gao 71 cas). Par ailleurs le suivi des maladies non transmissibles (diabète, HTA, maladies cardio-vasculaires et drépanocytose, la santé mentale) s’avère difficile à cause des ruptures intempestives en médicaments, la faible couverture en service disponible, les soins de santé mentale varie entre 6,8% à 20% à Tombouctou, Gao et Kidal et 51,4% à Mopti.


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    Source: Danish Refugee Council, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, World

    Regional mixed migration summary for August 2016 covering mixed migration events, incidents, trends and data for the West Africa region (in particular Niger, Mali, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal and Liberia).

    In this report the term migrant/refugee is used to cover all those involved in mixed migration flows (including asylum seekers, trafficked persons, economic migrants, refugees). If the caseload mentioned refers only to refugees or asylum seekers or trafficked persons it will be clearly stated.

    Please let us know if you would like to sign up to the mailing list to receive future summaries, write to: mmo-wa@drc-wa.org


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    Source: Danish Refugee Council, Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, World


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen

    Although the El Niño weather event has passed its impact continues to be felt in the region: food insecurity doubled from 12 million in August 2015 to 23.4 million today. Humanitarian partners are targeting 1.25 million children under five for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) this year, of which nearly 83 per cent are from Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan and Somalia. Violence and rising food insecurity in South Sudan and Burundi have displaced nearly 290,000 people (205,541 refugees and 84,459 internally displaced) in the last 3 months alone. Simultaneous disease outbreaks continue to affect the region, with cholera and acute watery diarrhea as biggest concern. The operating environment in the region continues to deteriorate both through bureaucratic impediments and violence against aid workers.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    This report has been developed collectively with humanitarian partners in the region to inform preparedness and advocacy efforts to mitigate and manage humanitarian risk in the Horn of Africa and Great Lakes region. It presents a four-month trend analysis from June to September 2016 and a humanitarian outlook from October to December 2016. It is the fifth report in the series and updates the previous scenario report which was published in April 2016.

    I. HUMANITARIAN TRENDS: JULY – SEPTEMBER 2016

    While violent incidents decreased in the last quarter during the rainy season (in keeping with the seasonal nature of protracted crises in the region), conflict continued to pose a significant threat to the safety and security of civilians across the region. In Sudan reduced levels of ground fighting and aerial bombardment were reportedly conducted in the central area of Darfur and in the southern states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile – the ‘Two Areas’. In Somalia, while the number of fatalities from conflict reduced in Q3 as compared to Q2, Al Shabaab continued to perpetrate attacks in many parts of the country, as well as against the international presence, with a greater frequency of major attacks in Mogadishu as the country moves closer to elections. Violence in Burundi also dropped significantly in the second quarter of the year, but high tensions and a stalled peace process continued alongside a pattern of large-scale human rights violations. However, in South Sudan, clashes in various locations across the country, including heavy fighting in Wau in June, Juba in July, and hot spots across the Equatorias from July onwards, led to more than double the number of conflict fatalities compared to the previous quarter according to ACLED. This led to a deterioration in the humanitarian and human rights situation, with widespread sexual violence and attacks on aid workers. This has also resulted in an increase in the number of South Sudanese refugees fleeing to neighbouring countries, pushing the total number of South Sudanese refugees to over 1 million. Severe food and nutrition insecurity has now spread beyond the conflict affected areas, with Northern and Western Bar eh Ghazal and Warrap states being of particular concern. In Ethiopia, anti-government protests by the Oromo and Amhara ethnic groups continued with reports of casualties among protesters and security forces. OHCHR has called upon the Ethiopian government to permit the deployment of independent observers into the country to access the human rights situation. In Kenya, tensions around elections to be held in August 2017, which had led to violent protests in the recent past, subsided with the decision of the Joint Parliamentary Select Committee to reform the electoral Commission.

    **El Niño’s impact continued to be felt in the region despite the persistence of ENSO-neutral conditions since the end of the strong El Niño episode in May 2016.* The scale and size of the drought emergency in Ethiopia, where the El Niño has had the greatest impact, still dwarfs the scale of other crises in the region in terms of the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance, now numbering 9.7 million people - a moderate decrease from 10.2 million people in June. The unprecedented humanitarian response by the Government of Ethiopia, supported by the international community, offers some lessons to establish a blue print for future action.

    Economic shocks across the Horn of Africa and Great Lakes region continue to primarily affect the most vulnerable and compound humanitarian needs. Last year witnessed a fall in global commodity prices (such as crude oil) and weak global growth, the effects of which are still being felt into 2016. This economic downturn has been exacerbated by the socio-political instability plaguing countries in the East Africa region, as well as by the effects of production losses due to El Niño. The IMF revised the growth projections substantially down for sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting challenging macroeconomic conditions in its largest economies, which are adjusting to lower commodity revenues. In South Sudan, the deteriorating economic situation is compounding the impact of conflict on food insecurity. The year-on-year inflation rate in August 2016 was 730 per cent; the highest in the world.

    Due to the convergence of climatic, conflict, and economic shocks, the number of food insecure people in the region facing Crisis and Emergency (IPC 3 and 4) levels, has doubled in the last 12 months from 11.0 million in September 2015 to 23.4 million people today. The worst affected countries are Ethiopia (9.7 million people), South Sudan (4.79 million people), and Sudan (4.42 million people). UNICEF reports a heightened malnutrition situation in the region including an unprecedented nutrition crisis in South Sudan. Six out of the eight IGAD countries in the region (South Sudan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia (IDPs), and parts of Kenya) are on high alert for acute malnutrition. South Sudan, North West Kenya (Turkana, West and East Pokot, Tana River, Garissa, Mandera and Marsabit) and Somalia (in particular IDP sites) have continued to experience a serious nutritional deterioration, whilst in Ethiopia, high numbers of people continue to be admitted for acute malnutrition, although the nutrition situation has slightly improved due to the average to above Belg harvest.

    Violence and rising food insecurity in South Sudan and Burundi has resulted in increased population displacement. As of 30 September 2016, the largest refugee outflow for the region was of 1.03 million refugees from South Sudan. The majority of new displaced have fled South Sudan since fresh violence erupted in Juba on 8 July 2016, including over 150,000 people who have crossed into Uganda since early July and approximately 32,000 South Sudanese have arrived into the Gambella region of Ethiopia in recent weeks, seeking assistance and protection. Elsewhere refugees arriving into Sudan from the Greater Bahr El Ghazal region cited severe food and nutrition insecurities as driving factors. In Northern Bahr el Ghazal one in three children aged 6-59 months are believed to be acutely malnourished. The number of Burundian refugees continued to increase exponentially to 301,403 despite reported spontaneous returns of 36,798.3 Political instability and food insecurity are being cited by the refugees as being key reasons in their decision to flee to Tanzania.

    ***The combination of new emergencies and resurging conflicts has increased the cumulative total number of refugees and asylum seekers in the East, Horn and Great Lakes to 3.6 million refugees, which represents a 13 per cent increase since the beginning of this year. As a result of the recent influx of South Sudanese refugees, Uganda is now the country hosting most refugees in Africa. The region also hosts 955,000 Somaliand 404,105 DR Congo refugees, who live in protracted exile with limited prospect of durable solution without commensurate support from the international community to meet their needs.

    The Government of Kenya announced in May that as a result of security, environmental and economic burdens, it would close Dadaab camp, which houses over 284,000 Somalis, by 30 November 2016. This stance seemed to soften on 25 June with a statement by the Tripartite Commission, which informed of a reduction of 150,000 people in the camp by the end of 2016. Since the beginning of voluntary repatriation in 2014, almost 30,000 Somalis have returned – 24,000 of them in 2016. On 29 August however, Jubaland authorities in Somalia, announced the temporary suspension of voluntary returns due to the lack of absorption capacity for the returnees, notably in already densely populated areas, such as Kismayo.

    Simultaneous disease outbreaks have affected the region in parallel with the El Niño weather events. Of greatest concern are some 63,2205 suspected cases of cholera and Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD) across the region in 2016 alone, alongside other diseases, including yellow fever, measles, and chikungunya virus and kala-azar. Spikes in malaria cases have also been reported in Burundi, eastern DRC and in South Sudan, where is the top cause of morbidity in the IDPs and in the non-conflict affected states with 1.3 million cases reported this year. The impact of these outbreaks and the high risk of contagion in the region, particularly given the fluid population movements, requires appropriate interventions on key issues such as vaccination campaigns; scale-up of access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene services; community sensitization including setting a cross-border coordination mechanism; and improving systems of prevention, surveillance, control and treatment of disease. A joint IGAD/UN multi-agency proposal at an estimated cost of $20 million is being finalized to address the cholera and chikungunya virus outbreaks and their risk factors in the Mandera Triangle (Mandera Kenya, Belet Haawo Somalia and Dollo Ado Ethiopia) from September 2016 to September 2018 through immediate, medium and long-term multi-sectoral approaches.

    The operating environment in conflict settings continues to deteriorate, especially in South Sudan. Data made available during the reporting period indicated that, in 2015, South Sudan overtook Afghanistan as the country with the highest number of attacks against aid workers. And a new low of depravity was reached at the Terrain Hotel in Juba in July 2016. Violence against personnel and assets has had a tremendous adverse effect on humanitarian operations. In July alone as WFP and FAO warehouses were looted in Juba and several NGOs compounds were looted in Leer, causing millions of dollars worth of damage and loss. The operating environment in Somalia continues to be particularly difficult. In Ethiopia the drought response has experienced a significant slow-down as a consequence these protests. Food dispatches from Government warehouses, which have been operating at 25 per cent capacity for the past few weeks, to Amhara and Oromia were impacted. There has been a degree of normalization over the last few days.

    Both the climate induced humanitarian needs and conflict induced displacement continue to be underfunded. As of 30 September, the humanitarian requirements to meet urgent humanitarian needs across the region currently stand at $6.7 billion, of which less than half (48 per cent) is funded. Despite the large numbers of refugees, the Refugee Response Plans (RRPs) are still the most poorly funded humanitarian appeals in the region. The RRPs for South Sudan, Burundi and Yemen together require nearly $1.2 billion, of which only 24 per cent has been funded. The South Sudan Refugee Plan has the lowest funding level at 20 per cent, while the Yemen RRP received 27 per cent by the end of September. The Burundi Regional Refugee Response Plan 2016 is 37 per cent funded. Migration response and climate adaptation funds need to be more effectively deployed to provide durable solutions.

    II. REGIONAL OUTLOOK: OCTOBER - DECEMBER 2016

    Conflict in protracted settings such as Somalia, parts of Sudan, as well as South Sudan, is expected to intensify during the dry season (November onwards). Tensions related to the state formation and electoral processes in Somalia could further exacerbate pre-existing inter-communal tensions, and lead to further violence. There are also reports that AMISOM intends to launch an offensive against Al Shabaab in Lower Juba before the implementation of the electoral process which could adversely affect the civilian population and further limit humanitarian activities. The situations in Burundi and South Sudan are likely to get worse. In Burundi, the Inter-Burundi Dialogue still excludes many elements of the opposition, lessening the chances of a political resolution in the near future, and despite UN Security Council approval for the deployment of additional police officers to Burundi, the government has not accepted their deployment. In South Sudan, Riek Machar remains outside the country and excluded from power and significant defections are being reported. If the South Sudanese transitional government is unable to support the process of reconciliation it is likely that further violence may break out, causing immense suffering to the civilian population. Continued violence will also greatly impact humanitarian programming and obstruct humanitarian access to people in need with disastrous consequences for the civilian population. The UN Security Council Despite UN Security Council approval for the deployment of additional police officers to Burundi and a 4,000 strong protection force in South Sudan the respective governments have resisted these initiatives so far. Elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) will be delayed till December 2018 according to the Corneille Nangaa, head of the country’s electoral body.

    Tensions around the elections in DRC have already resulted in violence, according to Human Rights Watch, 37 protesters, six police officers, and one Kabila supporter were killed. This has further destabilized the Great Lakes region and resulted in additional population displacement, including across borders. In Kenya, political re-alignments ahead of 2017 elections may create new sources of tension in the country. Tensions in Ethiopia are also of great concern. On 9 October the Government of Ethiopia declared a 6-months State of Emergency.

    On-going conflict and ethnically-motivated violence in the East African region continues to be characterized by the deliberate targeting and harm of civilians. Serious international humanitarian and human rights law violations are occurring on a continuous basis. With a lack of accountability mechanisms, there is a risk that alarming reports of sexual violence, such as rape, gang rape and sexual slavery in South Sudan, discovery of new mass graves in Burundi and further violence against protesters in Ethiopia will continue to emerge

    The latest climate model from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) forecasts reduced La Niña expectations, and suggest near-equal chances for neutral ENSO and weak La Niña conditions through end of 2016. IGAD ICPAC seasonal forecast has predicted normal to below normal rainfall for the period September to December 2016 in the areas historically affected by drought induced La Nina such as 2010/11 and 1988. This will mean additional drought for pastoral, agro-pastoral and seasonal cropping activities as well as flooding. The areas of concern for below average rainfall include pastoral areas of Ethiopia (South-Pastoral regions while the north-eastern pastoral areas are seasonably not expecting rainfall in the forecast period); Kenya (Eastern and Northern areas); Djibouti (northern and coastal areas); Somalia (mainly in Somaliland and Puntland); and Tanzania (northern pastoral and Mount Kilimanjaro areas). Above average rainfall is expected in the western sector which could lead to increase waterlogging, possible flooding and landslides in western parts of Uganda, Ethiopia and Kenya as well as in the vast majority of South Sudan and Sudan (particularly Southern and Eastern Sudan, including Kassala, Red Sea, Kordofans and Nile States). In addition crop and animal diseases and pests, damage to infrastructure, displacement, and post-harvest losses are expected.

    If La Niña were to materialize it is likely going to impact regions that have already been negatively affected by El Niño, most likely causing a further deterioration of food security into 2017. The number of people under crisis and emergency (IPC phases 3 & 4) or in need humanitarian assistance is likely to increase from the current 23.4 million people in the first half of 2017 as the rainfall season is consecutively negatively impacted particularly for the areas likely to receive normal to below normal rainfall and yet to recover from El Nino. In addition, food prices look set to continue their rise to record levels in countries that depict poor macroeconomic conditions and areas whose production will be affected by drier than normal conditions in September to December in East African countries, exacerbating food insecurity and malnutrition across the region.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara

    NOV 2016 FORECAST

    Locusts will decline in southeast Mauritania as a few remaining groups form and move to the northwest where they will supplement egg-laying that started during the last week of September. Second-generation hatching that commenced in early October will continue until about early November, giving rise to hopper groups and bands throughout November.

    Fledging is expected to commence during the first week of November and continue until about mid-December, giving rise to immature adult groups and swarms from about mid-November onwards. Seasonal rainfall predictions suggest slightly above average rainfall in November and December that should allow the continuation of favourable conditions for locust breeding and survival.


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