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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: African Union, European Union
    Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan

    On 25 October 2016, the African Union Peace and Security Council (AU PSC) and the European Union Political and Security Committee (EU PSC) held their 9th Annual Joint Consultative Meeting in Brussels, Belgium, as part of their regular dialogue within the framework of the Africa - EU partnership. The meeting was co-chaired by Ambassador Catherine Muigai Mwangi (Kenya), Chairperson of the AU PSC for the month of October 2016, and Ambassador Walter Stevens, Permanent Chair of the EU PSC. The Joint Meeting brought together the Ambassadors of EU PSC and AU PSC Member States, Commissioner for Peace and Security, Ambassador Smail Chergui, the Deputy Secretary General of the EU External Action Service, Ambassador Jean-Christophe Belliard, the Deputy Director General of the EU Commission (DEVCO) as well as Senior Officials from the AU Commission, the EU External Action Service, the EU Commission and the EU Council Secretariat.

    The Joint Consultative Meeting was preceded by an informal Joint Retreat of the AU PSC and the EU PSC, held on 24 October 2016, which provided a platform for an informal exchange on countering terrorism, radicalisation and violent extremism, as well as on migration.

    Both meetings took place in a constructive atmosphere, facilitating substantial exchange and the convergence of approaches on different topics. The discussion during the Joint Consultative Meeting focused on conflict and crisis situations in Africa namely, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Somalia, Sahel/Mali, South Sudan, Burundi and Guinea Bissau, as well as the enhancement of AU and EU cooperation on peace and security issues and the support to AU activities in these areas.

    On the Democratic Republic of Congo, where both the AU and the EU are members of the support Group to the facilitation of Dialogue, the AU PSC and the EU PSC agreed on the need to avoid recurrence of violence. They acknowledged progress made with the Agreement signed on 18 October 2016 resulting from the Dialogue facilitated by Mr. Edem KODJO, the AU Facilitator for the National Dialogue in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This Agreement should pave the way to a more inclusive process with the Congolese political stakeholders who did not participate in the Dialogue, in order to broaden support for a peaceful roadmap towards elections in the country. The AU PSC and EU PSC stressed that the elections should be inclusive and transparent and that respect for the Constitution must be ensured, taking into account the provisions of the Agreement. They further called on the leadership and the opposition to seek necessary compromise for the peace, stability and democratic consolidation in the DRC as well as drew attention to the persistent insecurity in the east of the country.

    On the Central African Republic the AU PSC and the EU PSC, while acknowledging the impressive progress made by the Government in post-conflict stabilisation during the last three years underlined that the situation remains fragile. They agreed on the need for substantial reforms in CAR, in particular in the fields of Security Sector Reforms (SSR), Disarmament, Demobilization, the creation of integrated national army, DDRR, reconciliation, as well as on the continued need for assistance from its neighbours and international partners. To this end, the upcoming Brussels Conference on CAR on 17 November 2016, co-chaired by HRVP Mogherini and CAR President Touadera, will b-e a key event in CAR's attempt to secure stronger international support. The AU PSC and EU PSC welcomed the outcome of the 9th International Contact Group on CAR (ICG-CAR) held on 25 August 2016, which transformed the ICG-CAR into an International Support Group for the CAR and underlined the need for close coordination of efforts on the ground between the AU, EU and the UN.

    On Somalia, the AU PSC and the EU PSC agreed that a continued strong engagement to support the political process leading to democratisation and federalisation, and the fight against Al Shabaab, will remain the priorities for the AU and the EU. They also agreed on the need for the Somali leadership to adhere to the agreed electoral timelines and, equally important, to observe standards for a credible and legitimate process, including respecting the quota reserved for women. The electoral process should be a milestone towards a more democratic and federal state. The AU PSC and the EU PSC also stressed the need to progress on the security sector and to build sustainable national security architecture with balanced federal and regional forces that would allow AMISOM transition as agreed. They emphasized the need for timely support these efforts and in particular also the financial support to AMISOM. They also underlined the importance of visible peace dividends for the population of the liberated areas.

    On the Sahel/Mali, the AU PSC and the EU PSC expressed their deep concern with the increase in terrorist activities, in particular the spreading of terrorist attacks and violent extremism to the centre and south of Mali, as well as in the Sahel region as a whole, with a potential spill-over effect on the whole sub-region. They reaffirmed their commitment to supporting the implementation of the peace agreement and called on all the stakeholders, particularly the Mali Government and armed groups to ensure its effective implementation. Moreover, they agreed on the need to strengthen cooperation with the G5. The AU PSC and EU PSC underscored the importance of the Nouakchott Process, as a key platform for information sharing and coordination in the fight against terrorism in the Sahel. The AU PSC and the EU PSC commended the progress made by the Multinational Joint Taskforce (MNJTF) in combating the Boko Haram terrorist group and expressed their willingness to continue working closely together in further supporting the MNJTF in its efforts in combating terrorism in the Sahel. They also stressed the need to address the root causes of terrorism as well the tremendous humanitarian needs in the region. They took note of the proposal by the Sahel countries to mobilise a regional force to combat terrorism.

    On South Sudan, the AU PSC and the EU PSC expressed alarm at the deep crisis that the country continues to face on many fronts namely, security, humanitarian, political, economic and developmental. They reaffirmed their continued engagement in order to avoid an outbreak of renewed violence, especially at the end of the rainy season. To this end, the Transitional Government of National Unity should facilitate the immediate deployment of the Regional Protection Force, lift restrictions on operations of United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) and all sides should ensure unhindered humanitarian access and respect international humanitarian law. The AU PSC and the EU PSC called for a more inclusive political process in the country. They were pleased that the AU Commission has started work on the Hybrid Court, transitional justice and reconciliation and healing, and stressed the importance of establishing other institutions for the promotion of healing, reconciliation and nation building as provided for in Chapter V of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan, while reiterating the urgency of establishing this institution without delay. They welcomed the work of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission.

    On Burundi, while noting the AU PSC assessment during its visit to the country in June 2016, that the security situation has improved in the country, the AU PSC and the EU PSC expressed their continued preoccupation with the security situation in the country and encouraged efforts to continue improving it. They agreed to remain seized with the matter. They also agreed that the East African Community (EAC) facilitation needs to succeed on the understanding that only an inclusive dialogue can bring a viable solution. The AU PSC and EU PSC commended the mediation efforts deployed by President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, the EAC Mediator and former President Benjamin Mkapa of Tanzania, EAC Facilitator in the Inter-Burundian Dialogue. They expressed hope that the report of former President Mkapa, to the recent EAC Summit, and the response of Heads of State, can accelerate the process. They called on Government and opposition to engage genuinely in the Dialogue. Moreover, they agreed on the need for the full deployment of AU observers in the field, both civilian and military.

    On Guinea-Bissau, the AU PSC and the EU PSC welcomed the recent agreement on a consensual solution to the political impasse the country, and underscored the key role played by Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on this achievement. They stressed the need for all political actors in Guinea Bissau to engage in good faith to implement and take forward the agreement, including the installation of an inclusive government, in order to ensure stability, functioning institutions and economic recovery.

    And finally, on enhancing EU-AU cooperation on peace and security issues, the AU PSC and EU PSC renewed their commitments to enhance cooperation between both continents, with a view to consolidating peace where it has been restored. They underscored their determination to further deepen the existing partnership that aims at promoting peace and security and at preventing crises and conflicts, as well as providing support to peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction efforts on both continents.

    The joint consultative meeting concluded with a debrief by the AU PSC on the AU Peace Fund and the outcome of the Extraordinary Session of the Assembly of the African Union on Maritime Security and Safety and Development held in Lomé, Togo on 15 October 2016. They also received an update from the EU PSC on the Portuguese Presidency of the G7++ Friends of Gulf of Guinea Group with respect to maritime security issues.

    The AU PSC and EU PSC agreed to meet again in 2017 in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia and to undertake a new joint field trip in the region.


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    Source: European Commission
    Country: Senegal

    European Commission - Press release

    Brussels, 25 October 2016

    Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, and the President of Senegal, Macky Sall, have today signed two projects worth € 60 million.

    They will be financed under the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa, and their aim is to develop economies and businesses in departure zones of migrants and improve living conditions in rural areas. They also signed two projects in support of food security and agricultural development and of the rule of law, financed by the 11th European Development Fund, for a total value of € 30 million.

    The signature of these agreements took place on the occasion of Commissioner Mimica's visit to Senegal where he attended a conference on "Migrations, governance and development in West Africa" hosted by President Macky Sall. Commissioner Mimica delivered the opening speech at the conference which is taking place days before the first anniversary of the Valletta Summit on migration between EU and African leaders.

    These financing agreementsconfirm the EU's commitment to strengthening cooperation on migration with West African countries by addressing root causes of migration. This is in line with the new partnership framework approach of the European Union, that aims at deepening cooperation with countries of origin and transit. Senegal is one of the five priority countries with which the EU is implementing this approach. It further reinforces the already good relations between Senegal and the European Union.

    The visit is also an occasion to present the Commission's proposal for a new External Investment Plan which aims to provide an integrated framework to boost investments in Africa. Senegal is an excellent example where such an instrument could be used to support private sector and enhance the investment climate.

    On the occasion of the signature of the four projects, Commissioner Mimica said: "The EU will continue to support the Government of Senegal in its endeavour to improve access to basic social services, to make its economy more competitive and to strengthen food security and agricultural development. I am convinced that improved living conditions in rural areas and new job opportunities will go a long way to address root causes of irregular migration and make a real difference in the prospects of Senegalese people".

    The two new projects under the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa will focus on "Developing economies and local businesses in the departure zones" (€ 40 million) and "Improving people's living conditions in the rural areas – Natanguées farms" (€ 20 million).

    As part of the ongoing development cooperation between the EU and Senegal, Commissioner Mimica also signed agreements to support the rule of law (€ 10 million) and food security and agricultural development in the southeast region (€ 20 million). The project "Support to the rule of law" aims to improve access to a fair and efficient justice system, promote the rights of detainees and reinforce the fight against corruption and money laundering. The project "Food security and agricultural development in the southeast region" will support agricultural production, rural infrastructures and equipment, access to markets, improve economic opportunities and access to a balanced nutrition for vulnerable population. Both financing agreements were set up in the framework of the 2016 Annual Action Programme (AAP) of the 11th European Development Fund.

    During his mission, Commissioner Mimica visited the centre "Empire des enfants" co-financed by the European Union. This centre contributes to the promotion of children's rights by fighting against trafficking and reintegrating street children into their families. Commissioner had the opportunity to meet with educators and speak to the children themselves.

    Background

    The overall allocation for Senegal under the 11th European Development Fund amounts to € 347 million for the period 2014-2020.

    The development cooperation priorities which have been agreed between Senegal and the EU for the period 2014-17 are 1) Strengthening democratic governance (€ 20 million), 2) Sustainable agricultural development and food security (€ 105 million), and 3) Water and Sanitation (€ 65 million). The total support to Senegal from the EU and its Member States amounts to EUR 1.5 billion for the period.

    For the period 2018-2020, the EU and those Member States that work with Senegal will jointly programme their development cooperation with Senegal and the European Investment Bank. The EU has allocated € 147 million to Senegal for this period.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria

    Highlights

    • The national SMART nutritional survey conducted in August-September 2016 reveals global acute malnutrition (GAM) rates of 11.9% and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rate of 2.6%, which are above the alert and emergency thresholds, respectively.

    • Since January, 127,596 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have been admitted for therapeutic care, reaching 66% of the fixed annual target (193,943).

    • Following the polio outbreak in Northern Nigeria, the 2nd round of the emergency polio vaccination campaign reached 3,552,413 children under five in September, of whom 76,602 children were nomads.

    • By the end of September, UNICEF’s HAC was 43% funded, with $27.3 million received in new funding. Sectors with the largest funding gaps continue to be Health & HIV (81% gap), Child Protection (82% gap) and WASH (55% gap).

    Situation in Numbers

    2,200,000 Children affected (UNICEF HAC 2016)

    193,943 Children under 5 with Severe Acute Malnutrition in 2016 (Nutrition Cluster 2016)

    130,187 People displaced (IDPs, returnees, TCN, refugees) in the Lake Region (IOM DTM, 28 September and UNHCR refugees’ statistics, 30 September 2016)

    US$ 64.6 million UNICEF Humanitarian funding needs in 2016 (revised)
    Available in 2016* US$ 30.2 million

    Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs

    Impact of violence in the Lake region

    The security situation remains volatile in the Lake region impacting humanitarian access and protection of vulnerable populations. According to UNDSS, on 20 September 20 2016, people suspected of belonging to Boko Haram stole more than 400 cattle around the town of Kiskawa. On 25 September 2016, a Boko Haram militant group attacked a Chadian military post, in Touraye village, killing 10 people including 4 soldiers.

    The number of people internally displaced in the Lake Region has reached 130,187 persons, among whom 124,765 are internally displaced persons (IDPs) and returnees (IOM DTM, 28 September). Rapid and sectoral assessments continue to be conducted in the recently identified and accessible sites including Koullom, Chebrey and Kilerom. Priority needs are access to potable water, food and Non Food Items (NFI).

    The humanitarian response in sites in the sub-prefecture of Kaiga Kindjiria in the Fouli department in the Lake Region is still limited due to security constraints. Despite preliminary assessments previously carried out in this area, it was difficult for humanitarian actors to return to conduct aid operations. OCHA estimated that approximately 14,000 displaced people are without any substantial humanitarian assistance. Some actors had started activities there and then suspended interventions, such as mobile clinics, which have yet to be resumed.

    Refugees, returnees and stateless persons from CAR in the South
    An estimated 85,515 returnees from CAR (IOM, October 3, 2016) and 69,436 CAR refugees (UNHCR Statistics September 30, 2016) still live in returnee sites and refugees camps in southern Chad. The situation of CAR returnees remains difficult due to the lack of resources and the gradual withdrawal of partners. The recent CERF allocation of US $ 10 million could help meet the urgent needs of these people.

    Food insecurity and malnutrition
    Across Chad, food security continues to deteriorate. Displaced families are mostly dependent on food aid in the Lake Region where many families among the host community are already extremely vulnerable to food insecurity. There are over 133,000 people with severe food insecurity in the Lake region (OCHA). The combined, average food consumption score for displaced and host populations is 24.5. In some sites, displaced populations are particularly vulnerable, such as in Yarom site, where the food security score has decreased to 20.5, placing them in the lowest category of food consumption. In host populations, the average food consumption score is 31.5, but varies between different areas, such as Daboua area where the score is 27, which is still at or below the limit, showing host population’s vulnerability.

    Malnutrition rates continue to be above the emergency thresholds in several districts across Chad. Active screening of acute malnutrition using mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) was conducted among 11,000 children by UNICEF partners, CELIAF and Al Nadja, in 22 IDP sites in the Liwa area in the Lake Region. The results showed a global acute malnutrition (GAM) rate of 15.1% (1,661 children) and a severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rate of 1.3% (142 children).

    The national SMART nutritional survey conducted in August-September 2016 reveals GAM rates of 11.9% (alert threshold: ≥10%; emergency threshold: ≥15%) and SAM rate of 2.6% (emergency threshold: ≥2%). These rates are similar to those resulting from the 2015 SMART survey (11.7% of GAM, and 2.8% of SAM). In 2016, six regions have a GAM rate above the emergency threshold. These regions are: West Ennedi (23.3%), Borkou (19.3%), Ouaddai (16.9%), Batha (16.6%), Barh El Gazel (16.1%), and Salamat (15.6%).

    The rate of SAM is above the emergency threshold in 10 regions of the country. The affected regions are: Ennedi West (5%), Batha (4.3%), Guera (3.7%), Ouaddai (3.6%), Borkou (2.9%), Chari Baguirmi (2.6%), Barh El Gazel (2.3%),
    Kanem (2.7%), East Mayo-Kebbi (2.4%), and Lake (2.1%). Eastern and Western Mayo Kebbi regions, in southern Chad, show a deteriorating nutritional situation in 2016.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    SUIVI DE LA REPONSE HUMANITAIRE 2016

    En Janvier 2016, la communauté humanitaire a estimé que 2.7 millions de personnes auraient besoin d'une assistance humanitaire. Parmis ces 2.7 million de personnes, 1.1 million ont été ciblées dans le cadre du Plan de Réponse Humanitaire dans les régions de l'Adamaoua, de l'Est, de l'Extrême Nord et du Nord. Malgré le sous financement de la réponse, l'ensemble des acteurs humanitaires est venu en aide à plus de 554'000 personnes, soit 50% du total des personnes ciblées. Ce document reflète, à la date du 19 octobre 2016, les résultats obtenus par secteur dans le cadre du Plan de Réponse Humanitaire 2016.


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    Source: US Department of State, US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Country: Nigeria

    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    When it was launched in 2005, the goal of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) was to reduce malaria-related mortality by 50% across 15 high-burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa through a rapid scale-up of four proven and highly effective malaria prevention and treatment measures: insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs); indoor residual spraying (IRS); accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs); and intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp). With the passage of the Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde Global Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act in 2008, PMI developed a U.S. Government Malaria Strategy for 2009–2014. This strategy included a longterm vision for malaria control in which sustained high coverage with malaria prevention and treatment interventions would progressively lead to malaria-free zones in Africa, with the ultimate goal of worldwide malaria eradication by 2040-2050. Consistent with this strategy and the increase in annual appropriations supporting PMI, four new sub-Saharan African countries and one regional program in the Greater Mekong Sub-region of Southeast Asia were added in 2011. The contributions of PMI, together with those of other partners, have led to dramatic improvements in the coverage of malaria control interventions in PMI-supported countries, and all 15 original countries have documented substantial declines in all-cause mortality rates among children less than five years of age.

    In 2015, PMI launched the next six-year strategy, setting forth a bold and ambitious goal and objectives. The PMI Strategy for 2015-2020 takes into account the progress over the past decade and the new challenges that have arisen. Malaria prevention and control remains a major U.S. foreign assistance objective and PMI’s Strategy fully aligns with the U.S. Government’s vision of ending preventable child and maternal deaths and ending extreme poverty. It is also in line with the goals articulated in the RBM Partnership’s second generation global malaria action plan, Action and Investment to defeat Malaria (AIM) 2016-2030: for a Malaria-Free World and World Health Organization (WHO)’s updated Global Technical Strategy for Malaria: 2016-2030. Under the PMI Strategy 2015-2020, the U.S. Government’s goal is to work with PMI-supported countries and partners to further reduce malaria deaths and substantially decrease malaria morbidity, towards the long-term goal of elimination.

    Nigeria was selected as a PMI focus country in FY 2011.

    PMI began with support to three states (Cross River, Zamfara, and Nasarawa). In 2012, PMI expanded to 6 more states (Sokoto, Bauchi, Benue, Ebonyi, Oyo, and Kogi), and in 2013, added 2 more states of Akwa Ibom and Kebbi for a total of 11 states. A strategy review meeting held in April 2016 revisited the states for PMI support. States were selected based on malaria disease burden, ITN use and coverage, presence of other donors, strength of state leadership, and security. Based on these criteria, 10 states were retained and Kogi, with a malaria prevalence of 5%, was replaced with Plateau State with a malaria prevalence of 36%. Support to Kogi State will be phased out in the calendar year 2016. The projected population of the 11 states to receive PMI support in 2018 is 56.3 million. PMI provides support to all 230 local government areas (LGAs). The Global Fund is also supporting 8 of the 11 PMI-supported states. Currently, PMI and the Global Fund assist states by supporting 60-80% of their public health facilities.
    This FY 2017 Malaria Operational Plan presents a detailed implementation plan for Nigeria, based on the strategies of PMI and the National Malaria Elimination Program (NMEP). It was developed in consultation with the NMEP and with the participation of national and international partners involved in malaria prevention and control in the country. The activities that PMI is proposing to support fit in well with the National Malaria Control strategy and plan and build on investments made by PMI and other partners to improve and expand malaria-related services, including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) malaria grants. This document briefly reviews the current status of malaria control policies and interventions in Nigeria, describes progress to date, identifies challenges and unmet needs to achieving the targets of the NMEP and PMI, and provides a description of activities that are planned with FY 2017 funding.

    The proposed FY 2017 PMI budget for Nigeria is $75 million. PMI will support the following intervention areas with these funds:

    Entomological monitoring and insecticide resistance management:

    The Nigerian National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP) 2014-2020 calls for entomological surveillance to provide data that will inform vector control activities as well as targeted interventions. PMI has supported entomological monitoring since 2011 as part of a two-year IRS demonstration program in Nasarawa State. In 2013 PMI expanded entomological monitoring activities from Nasarawa to six states across all of the Nigeria’s five ecological zones. The ecological zones are mangrove swamps, rain forest, Guinea-savannah, Sudan-savannah, and Sahel-savannah.. The entomological monitoring provides monthly/bimonthly data on vector density and insecticide susceptibility.

    In FY 2016, PMI continued and intensified longitudinal entomological surveillance in six PMIsupported states: Sokoto, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Ebonyi, Akwa Ibom, and Oyo; indoor resting densities, pyrethrum spray catches, and light/human-baited traps were conducted in all the six sites to determine mosquito biting time and speciation.

    With FY 2017 funding, PMI will continue to monitor key entomological indicators in these sites that will guide further PMI interventions in the country. Entomological data will also provide information on the effect of the interventions on vector infection rates. PMI will continue support for training and equipment procurement in order to build capacity for entomological expertise at the national, state, and local levels.

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs):

    The NMSP 2014-2020 objective is to achieve universal coverage with ITNs for the 97% of the population at-risk of malaria. Universal coverage is defined as one ITN for every two persons.
    PMI’s goal is to support the NMEP in achieving and maintaining its targets for ITN coverage and use, especially in PMI-supported states.

    PMI supports mass free ITN campaigns every three years, and strengthening continuous distribution channels that include antenatal care (ANC) and immunization clinics, schools, and community-based distributions where feasible and cost-effective. Since 2010, PMI has procured a total of 32 million ITNs for mass campaigns and continuous distribution, and distributed approximately 56 million ITNs, including over 24 million ITNs procured by other partners. From December 2013 to May 2015, the NMEP and its partners distributed 58 million ITNs through mass campaigns in 17 states, including over 15 million ITNs in the eight PMI-supported states of Sokoto, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Kebbi, Cross River, Ebonyi, Zamfara, and Benue. The states that benefited from mass free ITN campaigns last had a campaign three or more years ago.
    Data from two Nigeria Malaria Indicator Surveys (NMIS) show ownership of at least one ITN in a household increased substantially from 8% in 2010 to 69% in 2015. The average number of ITNs per household doubled from 0.8 to 1.6 (2015 NMIS). Eight of the eleven PMI-supported states had higher ownership of at least one ITN per household than the national average. The percentage of the total population that slept under an ITN increased from 23% in 2010 to 37% in 2015.

    With FY 2017 funds, PMI will procure approximately 8,255,722 ITNs. A total of 7,079,567 ITNs will be used to support ITN mass campaigns in Bauchi and Akwa Ibom states, and over a million ITNs will be used for continuous distribution in the 11 PMI-supported states, and to internally displaced persons. FY 2017 funds will also be used to distribute the ITNs from state warehouses to the various service delivery points, and support durability monitoring for ITNs.

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS):

    PMI supported a two-year IRS demonstration program in Nasarawa State from 2011 to 2013.
    While the NMSP 2014-2020 calls for scaling-up of IRS to cover at least 40% of areas with high malaria transmission, IRS is currently only carried out in a limited number of LGAs in some states with local funds. With FY 2017 funding, PMI will continue to build NMEP’s capacity to perform environmental monitoring in areas sprayed by the states and to provide technical assistance and training on entomological and insecticide resistance monitoring.

    Malaria in pregnancy (MIP):

    The NMSP 2014-2020 reflects the WHO policy of providing intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women (IPTp) at every antenatal care visit after the first trimester, with four weeks between doses, providing an ITN during the first ANC visit, and prompt appropriate management of malaria illness during pregnancy. Nigeria recently experienced an increase in IPTp uptake from 13% in 2010 to 37% in 2015 (NMIS), however, effective scale-up of IPTp continues to be a challenge in Nigeria. The factors that contribute to the low uptake of IPTp in public health facilities include missed opportunities at ANCs, restriction of non-pharmacy health workers to dispense sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drugs, and poor quality of ANC service delivery.

    To address these challenges, over the past four years, PMI has procured SP for IPTp as a part of focused antenatal care support in the 11 PMI-supported states. PMI also supported scale up of the implementation of the new WHO IPTp policy, establishment of MIP working groups at national- and state-levels, development and distribution of job aids on IPTp, and initiated the processes for addressing missed opportunities for IPTp delivery.

    With FY 2017 funding, PMI will continue to support capacity building for health workers according to the MIP guidelines, advocate for states to address missed opportunities for IPTp directly observed therapy, mobilization of state domestic resources to procure SP, monitor state planned SP procurement actions, improve IPTp coverage through interpersonal communication innovations for health workers, and create demand for IPTp in the community. PMI will also support implementation of IPTp as part of health facility outreach services for focused antenatal care for three states of Kebbi, Sokoto, and Zamfara in northern Nigeria where ANC attendance is less than 25%.

    Case management:

    The Nigerian National Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria aligns with the WHO recommendations on universal diagnostic testing and treatment with an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Since PMI began in Nigeria, case management support has been directed at the following key areas: 1) procurement and distribution of diagnostic and treatment commodities; 2) training and supervision of laboratory and clinical care personnel in accurate malaria diagnostics and appropriate treatment; 3) implementation of quality assurance (QA) systems for malaria diagnostics.

    With FY 2016 funding, PMI supported the scale up of quality assured case management for malaria across the supported states working with NMEP and other donors. High priority was given to increasing diagnostic testing rates and adherence to test results as artemisinin-based combination therapy is available at most service delivery points. PMI supported case management implementation through procurement and distribution of over 6.7 million rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and 18 million ACTs to public health facilities and enhanced capacity of service providers in malaria parasitological diagnosis. Improving QA was a focus for PMI while strengthening quality of microscopy at secondary and tertiary facilities. PMI also supported the improvement in management of severe malaria through procurement of injectable artesunate, capacity building of senior health providers, and clinical mentoring in line with revised WHO treatment guidelines.

    In FY 2017, PMI will build on the progress to date and will continue to support the NMEP’s malaria case management policy through provision of malaria commodities, case management training/refresher training, supportive supervision, and diagnostic quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). PMI will procure and distribute approximately 16.5 million RDTs and 3 million ACTs to help meet the projected need in PMI supported states. PMI will plan to gradually expand the private sector activities that began as a pilot in Ebonyi with proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). Also, PMI plans to add support to seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) efforts targeted at children under the age of five years in PMIsupported states in the Sahel region.

    Health systems strengthening and capacity building:

    PMI supports a broad array of health system strengthening activities that cut across case management; procurement and supply management; surveillance, monitoring and evaluation (SM&E); and integrated vector management.

    With FY 2017 funds, PMI will work with other development partners to strengthen capacities at national and state level in effective program management. PMI funds will also be used to strengthen the capacity of facility and operational level staff in malaria case management; prevention of MIP; entomological monitoring; and SM&E. In addition, PMI will continue to provide support for the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (NFELTP) that builds capacity of health workers in epidemiology and disease outbreak investigations.

    Social and behavior change communication (SBCC):

    Nigeria’s Advocacy, Communication, and Social Mobilization (ACSM) guidelines for malaria recommend various channels of communication based on the target audiences. Malaria educational messages generally reach households using radio, community drama, printed materials, community and religious leaders, and through community support groups and household visits of volunteers. Nationwide surveys have shown that there is widespread knowledge of malaria interventions however there are misconceptions about the cause and ways to manage malaria. Since 2011, PMI has provided support for SBCC across all key malaria interventions.

    With FY 2017 funds, PMI will support an overarching national ‘malaria-free’ communications campaign to increase general awareness and use of malaria control interventions at national, state and local levels. State and local government-level activities will focus on transmitting malaria communication messages in local languages through radio, and use of community volunteers for information dissemination. Emphasis will also be placed on implementing SBCC interventions to target health care workers in order to increase compliance to malaria prevention and treatment guidelines, and improve interpersonal communication of health workers.

    Surveillance, monitoring and evaluation:

    Surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation (SM&E) is an integral part of the NMSP 2014-2020, with one of the primary objectives focusing on routine collection and reporting of malaria data, and use of such data for program improvement. Evidence-based decision making requires a strong and functional SM&E system that provides good quality data. PMI supports strengthening the routine health information system at various levels. Periodic population-based surveys such as the Malaria Indicator Survey (2015 NMIS) and facility-based surveys can be used to measure the status of key malaria indicators.

    In the past year, PMI has continued the support for the health management information system (HMIS) strengthening at national and state levels that has led to significant improvement in completeness and timeliness of routine data reported in the PMI-supported states. With funding from PMI and partners, the National Bureau of Statistics implemented the 2015 NMIS from October 2015 through November 2015. The preliminary results were made available in March 2016, and the final analyses are expected in September 2016. The country as a whole did see a marked decrease in malaria prevalence measured by microscopy in children age 6-59 months (42% in 2010; 27% in 2015; relative difference of 36%). The end-use verification surveys are done every six months to assess stock availability of malaria commodities, testing for malaria before treatment, prescription of ACTs, storage conditions for commodities, and training of health workers.

    With FY 2017 funds, PMI/Nigeria’s SM&E activities will continue to rely on a combination of routine malaria data collected through the HMIS and the logistics management information system (LMIS), household surveys, health facility surveys and assessments, and information from partners. PMI will continue to strengthen the routine malaria information system at the health facility, LGA, state, and national levels through the harmonized HMIS (using the District Health Information System version 2 [DHIS2] application). PMI will help fund the next Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) scheduled for 2018, 10 years after the 2008 NDHS. There will be an increased focus on data analysis through triangulation, mapping, and targeting interventions based on the results of data analysis.

    Operational research (OR):

    The 2012 Malaria Program Review (MPR) identified a lack of OR available to inform both scientific and communications-related strategy development. The NMSP 2014-2020 proposed earmarking funding from the NMEP monitoring and evaluation (M&E) budget to OR. In 2014, the NMEP and development partners held a scientific meeting to identify priority areas in the core interventions. PMI will work with NMEP and other development partners to analyze 2015 NMIS data, and revisit the NMEP OR prioritized list to identify areas for support.


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    Source: US Department of State, US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Country: Mali

    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    When it was launched in 2005, the goal of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) was to reduce malaria-related mortality by 50% across 15 high-burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa through a rapid scale-up of four proven and highly effective malaria prevention and treatment measures: insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs); indoor residual spraying (IRS); accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs); and intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp). With the passage of the Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde Global Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act in 2008, PMI developed a U.S. Government Malaria Strategy for 2009–2014. This strategy included a long-term vision for malaria control in which sustained high coverage with malaria prevention and treatment interventions would progressively lead to malaria-free zones in Africa, with the ultimate goal of worldwide malaria eradication by 2040-2050. Consistent with this strategy and the increase in annual appropriations supporting PMI, four new sub-Saharan African countries and one regional program in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia were added in 2011. The contributions of PMI, together with those of other partners, have led to dramatic improvements in the coverage of malaria control interventions in PMI-supported countries, and all 15 original countries have documented substantial declines in all-cause mortality rates among children less than five years of age.

    In 2015, PMI launched the next six-year strategy, setting forth a bold and ambitious goal and objectives. The PMI Strategy for 2015-2020 takes into account the progress over the past decade and the new challenges that have arisen. Malaria prevention and control remains a major U.S. foreign assistance objective and PMI’s Strategy fully aligns with the U.S. Government’s vision of ending preventable child and maternal deaths and ending extreme poverty. It is also in line with the goals articulated in the RBM Partnership’s second generation global malaria action plan, Action and Investment to defeat Malaria (AIM) 2016-2030: for a Malaria-Free World and WHO’s updated Global Technical Strategy: 2016-2030. Under the PMI Strategy 2015-2020, the U.S. Government’s goal is to work with PMI-supported countries and partners to further reduce malaria deaths and substantially decrease malaria morbidity, towards the long-term goal of elimination.

    Mali was selected as a PMI focus country in FY 2007.

    This FY 2017 Malaria Operational Plan presents a detailed implementation plan for Mali, based on the strategies of PMI and the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP). It was developed in consultation with the NMCP and with the participation of national and international partners involved in malaria prevention and control in the country. The activities that PMI is proposing to support fit in well with the National Malaria Control strategy and plan and build on investments made by PMI and other partners to improve and expand malaria-related services, including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) malaria grants. This document briefly reviews the current status of malaria control policies and interventions in Mali, describes progress to date, identifies challenges and unmet needs to achieving the targets of the NMCP and PMI, and provides a description of activities that are planned with FY 2017 funding.

    The proposed FY 2017 PMI budget for Mali is $25 million. PMI will support the following intervention areas with these funds:

    Entomologic monitoring and insecticide resistance management:

    The main objective of the NMCP is to conduct quality entomological monitoring to manage the development of resistance and inform program planning. PMI supports strengthening the MoH’s capacity to plan and supervise entomological monitoring activities within the context of its integrated vector management strategy, including insecticide monitoring, insecticide resistance testing, and overall implementation of the entomological monitoring plan.

    The results of Mali’s entomological monitoring activities have led to rapid changes in the class of insecticide used for IRS activities. From 2008-2013, pyrethroids and later carbamates were used for spraying. As the entomological monitoring data showed failure of carbamates, they were replaced in 2014 with organophosphates. Mali will continue to conduct entomological surveillance in IRS sites and in all the national surveillance sites with FY 2017 funds.

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs):

    The Malaria Strategic Plan promotes universal ITN coverage for all age groups (defined as one ITN for every two people). The MoH supports the provision of free ITNs distributed to target populations through two main delivery channels: mass distribution to households as part of universal coverage campaigns and routine distribution through antenatal care (ANC) and Expanded Program for Immunization clinics targeting pregnant women and infants. The NMCP has recently made significant progress toward achieving its initial goal of 80% use of ITNs among children under five and pregnant women. According to the 2015 MIS conducted during the peak transmission season, 93% of households owned an ITN and 71% of children under five years of age and 78% of pregnant women slept under an ITN the previous night. In 2015, PMI and the Global Fund supported mass distribution campaigns in the district of Bamako for the first round of the universal coverage campaign and the regions of Sikasso and Ségou for their second round to replace nets distributed in 2011and 2012, respectively. PMI also continued to support the routine distribution in collaboration with the Global Fund.

    With FY 2017 funding, PMI will procure 1.3 million nets that will be used for routine distribution to children and pregnant women in 2018. It is anticipated that the Global Fund will procure the needed nets for the mass campaigns to replace nets distributed in 2013 and 2014. PMI will continue to support SBCC to maintain or increase the level of net use and educate people on net maintenance.

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS):

    PMI supports the NMCP’s strategy to reduce malaria transmission through targeted IRS in select highrisk areas. Starting in 2008, PMI supported three IRS campaigns in the districts of Bla and Koulikoro, adding a third district (Baraoueli) in 2011. Support in 2015 included initial and refresher training of supervisors and spray operators as well as community health volunteers (relais); purchase of all commodities and personal protective equipment; and communication, supervision, monitoring, and environmental compliance activities. In FY 2015, PMI reduced the IRS sites to two districts because of the added cost of moving to a new class of insecticides (organophosphates). The 2015 IRS campaign covered approximately 133,527 houses, and protected approximately 494,205 residents. The district where IRS was withdrawn benefited from the full package of malaria control interventions, including seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). In 2016, Mali benefited from the UNITAID-funded Next Generation Indoor Residual Spraying (NGenIRS) project, which includes a short term co-payment on long-lasting IRS insecticides. This allowed Mali to expand geographic coverage of IRS back to three districts, targeting 242,684 structures and 778,884 people in total. The 2017 IRS plan recommends continuation of IRS coverage at the 2016 level.

    Malaria in pregnancy (MIP):

    Mali’s MIP strategy is based on WHO’s three-armed strategy, which includes distribution of ITNs to all pregnant women via ANC, the promotion and delivery of at least three doses of sulfadoxinepyrimethamine (SP) for the intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and strengthening malaria case management for pregnant women. Thanks to relatively high rates of ANC utilization (74%, DHS 2012), the proportion of pregnant women receiving two or more doses of SP during routine antenatal care visits continues to increase (38% according to the MIS 2015 survey; an increase from 20% in DHS 2012). However, only 18% of women who receive at least two doses of SP also receive three or more doses (MIS 2015). PMI continues to support the national strategy to achieve universal coverage of at least three doses of SP for IPTp. To this end, FY 2017 funds will support the procurement of an adequate supply of SP and ITNs to cover all eligible pregnant women; training for clinical staff on the importance of and delivery of IPTp, and; SBCC to raise awareness and build demand for IPTp-SP among pregnant women.

    Case management: Poor geographic and economic access to care is a major challenge for malaria diagnosis and treatment in Mali. In 2010, due to advocacy efforts of PMI and other partners, the MoH adopted significant policy changes including a community case management policy and updated severe malaria treatment and pre-referral guidelines. As a result, routine health information systems data reports 99% of all suspected malaria cases were tested by microscopy or RDT in 2015, a significant improvement from 18% in 2010. PMI continued its support of the integrated community case management strategy in 2016 in four out of eleven regions. This support included training and deploying community health workers (Agents de Santé Communautaire), procuring RDTs and ACTs for community-based diagnosis and treatment, and ensuring sufficient supplies of RDTs and ACTs for children under five years of age in health facilities. PMI has also procured drugs for the management of severe malaria as well as supported in-service training and supportive supervision of health workers and community health workers. In the 2013-2017 Malaria Strategic Plan, Mali introduced SMC in selected districts targeting all children under five with four monthly rounds of a preventive treatment with SP and amodiaquine. In 2014, 21 of Mali’s 64 districts were covered with SMC, including one in which PMI conducted an OR study to collect data on the feasibility and effectiveness of SMC under routine programmatic conditions. Due to a 3-year grant from UNITAID, SMC have been implemented in 42 districts during the 2015 and with new funding from World Bank, Global fund and PMI during the 2016 transmission seasons, SMC will be scaled-up national wide , PMI will support the implementation in 10 districts in the focus regions of Kayes, Koulikoro, Sikasso, and Bamako.

    With FY 2017 funding, PMI will continue to support and strengthen efforts to ensure prompt and effective case management of malaria at health facilities and support the scale-up of the integrated community case management policy nationwide. At the health facility level, PMI will concentrate on strengthening capacity in laboratory diagnostics (including quality assurance and quality control), and supply chain management. PMI will procure 3.5 million RDTs and 2.3 million ACTs to contribute to filling gaps in annual malaria commodity needs for health facilities, integrated community case management, and SMC sites. PMI will strengthen quality assurance/quality control systems at national and district levels for accurate malaria diagnosis, and will support the NMCP to monitor and reinforce the correct use of ACTs at health facilities and in communities.

    Health systems strengthening and capacity building:

    Since its first year, PMI has contributed substantially to building capacity of the NMCP and other Government of Mali (GoM) entities. This support has allowed the government’s partners to improve training, supervision, and quality assurance and quality control for diagnostics; to oversee implementation of SBCC activities related to malaria; and to improve partner coordination. With the coup in 2012, PMI suspended direct funding for NMCP capacity-building efforts and focused on strengthening the health system at the community level. In 2013, the restrictions were lifted but direct funding to the NMCP is capped. With FY 2017 funding, PMI will support day-to-day operations of the NMCP through its implementing partners. These activities will include support for training, supervision, and infrastructure needed for optimal functioning. Collaboration will continue with other partners to support NMCP structure and staff, specifically to increase capacity at all levels for program management, including training, supervision, and facilitating forecasting and quantification for malaria commodities and training in logistic management information systems.

    Social and behavior change communication (SBCC):

    SBCC interventions in Mali are currently guided by the PMI-supported 2014-2018 SBCC strategy. This strategy encourages partners to focus malaria prevention, treatment and control messages to key populations, including pregnant women and children under five; other family members (e.g., fathers) and caretakers of children; community health workers, and relais (community health volunteers). The national strategy supports multiple delivery channels for messages, including mass media and interpersonal communications, however, the majority of SBCC activities supported by PMI focus on interpersonal approaches. In FY 2016, PMI continued to contribute malaria funding to a Missionmanaged bilateral agreement that promotes SBCC across the entire health portfolio. PMI will support this integrated approach again in FY 2017. SBCC activities will continue to focus on the promotion of prompt diagnosis and treatment; the correct and consistent use of long-lasting ITNs, especially by vulnerable groups, and; mobilization of pregnant women and a cross-section of healthcare providers (e.g., clinicians, community health workers, traditional healers, midwives) to promote IPTp. Lastly, PMI will continue to support coordination and harmonization among implementing partners, the Malian Ministry of Health, and other donors (e.g., Global Fund, World Bank) to ensure that SBCC messages and interventions are based on the national strategy and on current evidence and best practices.

    Surveillance, monitoring and evaluation (SM&E):

    The NMCP, with support from PMI and other partners, has developed a comprehensive national malaria monitoring and evaluation plan for 2013-2017, including capacity building, improvement of data collection, and provision of equipment to collect and analyze data. The quality of routine data collection, analysis and reporting through the health information system is variable and feedback is not delivered in a timely manner for program management.

    In FY 2015-16, PMI expanded its work to support the national health information system to strengthen the SLIS (Système Local d’Information Sanitaire) through training and supervision, with a focus on the community health center level (Centres de Santé Communautaire). Activities focused on broadening the reach of the system to new health districts, including SMC and IRS districts, and will expanding the use of SMS technology to transfer data. PMI also supported local and regional health system staff to report and utilize surveillance data for epidemic detection and responding to epidemics in Mopti and the Northern Regions. In late 2015, PMI supported an MIS to collect data on coverage and impact of malaria-interventions (data provided in the Strategy Section below). By 2017, the nascent DHIS2 system will be rolling out nationwide, and PMI will support the merging of the malaria information system into the DHIS2, including assuring the appropriate malaria indicators are included and that the NMCP has timely access to the data for program management.

    Operational research (OR):

    Since 2008, OR has been conducted in Mali to answer specific questions regarding the implementation and effectiveness of critical malaria interventions. PMI has funded various studies such as: an evaluation of the expanded program on immunization to monitor bednet usage and treatment of childhood illnesses; the entomological impact of combining larviciding with IRS; and a cost analysis of removing user fees for children under five. With FY 2014 and FY 2015 funds, PMI supported two OR activities: (1) a study to evaluate the impact of ITNs treated with two insecticides to inform PMI about the potential ability of this new ITN variety to affect malaria transmission in areas with high pyrethroid resistance; and (2) an evaluation of the SMC intervention to determine its relative usefulness as part of the malaria control strategy in Mali. Using FY 2016 funding, PMI will evaluate an enhanced intervention package to improve uptake of IPTp. The plans with FY 2017 funding will again focus on SMC and the potential added benefits of extending SMC services to children up to the age of ten.


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    Source: UNOSAT
    Country: Nigeria

    This map illustrates satellite-detected areas of displaced persons shelters in the Sangaya settlement, Borno state, Nigeria, and in the surrounding town of Dikwa. UNITAR-UNOSAT analysis of satellite imagery acquired 29 September 2016 revealed a total of 433 shelters and 54 infrastructure and support buildings within the Sangaya compound and a total of 2,259 shelters scattered in the surrounding town. A density analysis has been performed to highlight the most dense shelters areas (Sangaya settlement included), ranging from 400 to 10,500 shelters per square kilometer. This is a preliminary analysis and has not yet been validated in the field. Please send ground feedback to UNITAR - UNOSAT.


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    Source: US Department of State, US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Country: Senegal

    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    When it was launched in 2005, the goal of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) was to reduce malariarelated mortality by 50% across 15 high-burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa through a rapid scale-up of four proven and highly effective malaria prevention and treatment measures: insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs); indoor residual spraying (IRS); accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs); and intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp). With the passage of the Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde Global Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act in 2008, PMI developed a U.S. Government Malaria Strategy for 2009–2014. This strategy included a long-term vision for malaria control in which sustained high coverage with malaria prevention and treatment interventions would progressively lead to malaria-free zones in Africa, with the ultimate goal of worldwide malaria eradication by 2040-2050. Consistent with this strategy and the increase in annual appropriations supporting PMI, four new sub-Saharan African countries and one regional program in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia were added in 2011. The contributions of PMI, together with those of other partners, have led to dramatic improvements in the coverage of malaria control interventions in PMI-supported countries, and all 15 original countries have documented substantial declines in all-cause mortality rates among children less than five years of age.

    In 2015, PMI launched the next six-year strategy, setting forth a bold and ambitious goal and objectives. The PMI Strategy for 2015-2020 takes into account the progress over the past decade and the new challenges that have arisen. Malaria prevention and control remains a major U.S. foreign assistance objective and PMI’s Strategy fully aligns with the U.S. Government’s vision of ending preventable child and maternal deaths and ending extreme poverty. It is also in line with the goals articulated in the RBM Partnership’s second generation global malaria action plan, Action and Investment to defeat Malaria (AIM) 2016-2030: for a Malaria-Free World and WHO’s updated Global Technical Strategy: 2016-2030. Under the PMI Strategy 2015-2020, the U.S. Government’s goal is to work with PMI-supported countries and partners to further reduce malaria deaths and substantially decrease malaria morbidity, towards the long-term goal of elimination.

    Senegal was selected as a PMI focus country in FY 2007. This FY 2017 Malaria Operational Plan presents a detailed implementation plan for Senegal, based on the strategies of PMI and the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP). It was developed in consultation with the NMCP and with the participation of national and international partners involved in malaria prevention and control in the country. The activities that PMI is proposing to support fit in well with the National Malaria Control strategy and plan and build on investments made by PMI and other partners to improve and expand malaria-related services, including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) malaria grants. This document briefly reviews the current status of malaria control policies and interventions in Senegal, describes progress to date, identifies challenges and unmet needs to achieving the targets of the NMCP and PMI, and provides a description of activities that are planned with FY 2017 funding.

    The proposed FY 2017 PMI budget for Senegal is $24 million. PMI will support the following intervention areas with these funds:

    Entomologic monitoring and insecticide resistance management: Monitoring entomological parameters (species composition, feeding preferences, densities, etc.) as well as insecticide resistance are important priorities in the NMCP’s Strategic Plan for 2016-2020. To support the rollout of vector control interventions, PMI has funded entomological monitoring and resistance testing, which has been carried out in partnership with in-country institutions such as the Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), the Service de Lutte Antiparasitaire, and the Institut Pasteur Sénégal. Molecular analyses have confirmed that four members of the An. gambie complex are present in Senegal (An. arabienesis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae s.s. and An. melas). While anophelines in Senegal feed on a variety of vertebrates, humans are the primary source of blood meals. Resistance testing at 20 sites has revealed widespread resistance to pyrethroids and DDT, while resistance to bendiocarb remains limited to Dakar Region.

    During FY 2016, in addition to supporting ongoing entomological monitoring and resistance testing, PMI supported the NMCP and UCAD to organize a workshop which resulted in a draft national strategy for insecticide resistance management and the creation of a more user-friendly database to centralize and store all entomological data. In addition, PMI supported an evaluation of Senegal’s national entomological capacity with several recommendations that are currently being implemented. PMI FY 2017 funding will be used to continue to conduct entomological monitoring, including insecticide resistance testing.

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs): During FY 2016, PMI continued to support the NMCP’s multiple continuous distribution channels, which distribute free and subsidized long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLINs) nationwide. These include free LLINs to pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics and to primary school children, subsidized nets to other health facility clients through community-based organizations, and through social marketing. In March-June of 2016, the NMCP carried out a nationwide universal coverage campaign, with the support of numerous partners including the Global Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, and PMI. More than 8 million nets were distributed, of which 1.9 million were procured with PMI funding. To promote demand for and correct use of LLINs, PMI continued to invest in social and behavior change communication (SBCC) activities using primarily community-based networks. With FY 2017 funding, PMI plans to continue its support for the operational costs associated with the routine distribution system. This will ensure that high coverage is maintained after the 2016 mass campaign and will provide the population with several options to replace nets as they age and become worn out. PMI plans to provide approximately 1.2 million of the needed LLINs in 2017 and 2 million in 2018, which will be distributed primarily through routine channels; any surplus that carries over into 2019 will be used for the campaign that year.

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS): PMI has supported the NMCP’s spray program since 2007 and the population protected with this intervention has ranged from around 650,000 in 2007 to more than 1 million in 2012, with high coverage rates being achieved in most years. Due to pyrethroid resistance among anopheline mosquito populations, the IRS program gradually transitioned to spraying using nonpyrethroids only and currently only long-lasting organophosphates (pirimiphos-methyl) are used. The NMCP’s strategy for IRS has evolved to a more targeted approach and, starting in 2015, spraying has been prioritized to hotspots, defined as areas with malaria incidence above 15-30 per 1,000. During FY 2016, PMI-supported spraying occurred in the same four districts that were sprayed the previous year; this resulted in 124,757 structures sprayed (97% of those targeted) and 496,728 people protected. PMI plans to support spray operations during calendar year 2017 using FY 2016 funding; this will be the third year of IRS using the hotspot approach. At the time of MOP writing, the NMCP’s position on IRS was to discontinue IRS given a lack of impact on malaria incidence after one year of implementation of the hotspot approach. With the recent change in NMCP leadership, the role of IRS within Senegal’s overall vector control strategy is being reassessed. In August 2016, a consensus meeting was convened by the NMCP in order to discuss the future of IRS with all key institutions involved in vector control.

    The PMI/Senegal team is actively engaged in these discussions and PMI’s FY 2017 support for IRS may be revised once the findings of these technical working groups are completed and a final evidence-based decision is reached on IRS policy for Senegal.

    Malaria in pregnancy (MIP): The NMCP adopted intermittent preventive therapy for pregnant women in 2003 and SP is given free of charge in all ANC sites nationwide. National policy has been revised to include World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on frequency (at least three doses starting in the second trimester and with at least one month between doses). The NMCP recommends using quinine to treat pregnant women with confirmed malaria in the first trimester and ACTs in the second and third trimesters. During FY 2016, the Government of Senegal continued to procure SP for IPTp while PMI focused its support on training and supervision of health workers in malaria in pregnancy activities. With PMI’s assistance, registers have been updated to reflect all three doses of IPTp and these are now being used in health facilities nationwide. While only 12% of pregnant women received two doses of SP in 2005, this percentage increased to 49% in the last cDHS (2015). While IPTp3 coverage remains low (11% in the cDHS 2015), the NMCP credits the introduction of this indicator as one of the driving factors behind the recent uptick in national coverage with IPTp2. PMI’s FY 2017 funding will continue to support activities aimed at reinforcing the provision of effective MIP services in health facilities and outreach activities to encourage IPTp uptake. Support will continue for monitoring and supportive supervision of MIP service delivery, improvement of data collection including IPTp data, and training of new staff on IPTp, including topics such as the importance of LLIN use in pregnancy, diagnosis and management of MIP, and counseling and interpersonal communication skills.

    Case management: The NMCP adopted ACTs as first-line treatment in 2006 and introduced RDTs in 2007. In addition, pre-referral treatment with rectal artesunate for severe malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are WHO recommendations already adopted by Senegal’s NMCP. At the community level, PMI supports both health huts and home-based management of malaria (PECADOM), as a means to reach as many people as possible with proper malaria case management. With FY 2017 resources, PMI plans to support training and supervision for microscopic diagnosis of malaria, quality control for microscopy and RDTs, and procurement of microscopy consumables and RDTs. The number of RDTs required is expected to remain high as the revised malaria testing algorithm (universal testing of fever cases in all age groups throughout the year) is put into practice during 2017 and more active case detection activities are carried out in the context of pre-elimination. PMI also plans to procure ACTs, injectable artesunate, and antimalarials needed for SMC in the high-transmission regions of Senegal. In addition, PMI plans to support malaria training and supervision both in the formal health sector and at the community level. Finally, PMI plans to support the implementation of single low-dose primaquine for transmission reduction in elimination districts as well as monitor the efficacy of all three first-line antimalarials (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisininpiperaquine).

    Health systems strengthening and capacity building: During the past year, PMI’s health systems strengthening activities included continued support to the Central Medical Stores, support for institutional capacity building at the NMCP, and support for ongoing results-based financing activities.
    Integrated logistics supervision visits were conducted at all regional medical stores and health districts, and PMI also supported the NMCP to supervise case management at hospitals, health centers, and health posts. With FY 2017 funding, PMI plans to support activities to develop capacity at sub-national and central levels to continue working towards the attainment of the NMCP’s pre-elimination objective. This will include support for quarterly meetings to foster better coordination between the NMCP and partners as well as state-of-the-art capacity building opportunities for NMCP staff. PMI will complement other Mission health programs to promote local governance by strengthening the capacity of local elected officials to address malaria as a priority in local development plans and increase participation of communities in decision-making and financing. Also, PMI will encourage the NMCP to empower their staff at the decentralized level to plan, manage, and coordinate activities and allocate resources as appropriate to achieve expected results. In selected districts, PMI FY 2017 funding will be used to support performance-based financing efforts to improve malaria indicators. As in the previous five years, PMI resources will support a malariology course to provide in-country training to health staff at various levels. Given the large Peace Corps program in Senegal and the opportunities to leverage their community presence to further the NMCP’s objectives, PMI funds will continue to support malariaspecific Peace Corps projects.

    Social and behavior change communication (SBCC): The NMCP is taking a more strategic and evidence-based approach to developing and implementing communications campaigns, as detailed in the NMCP’s 2016-2020 Strategic Plan and the new malaria communication strategy. PMI has supported various community mobilization and SBCC activities in Senegal. These include both ongoing malaria communications (mass and interpersonal) and activities promoting specific events, such as IRS or LLIN distribution campaigns. Typical communications activities in Senegal have included community meetings on a specific topic, home visits, theater, community radio, and social mobilization.

    With FY 2017 funds, PMI will continue to support a range of communications activities to influence the social and behavior changes needed to improve the adoption of key malaria prevention and care seeking behaviors (e.g., net ownership, proper net use, net care and maintenance, IPTp, when and where to seek care). PMI will also continue to support communication activities to ensure the continued high acceptance rate of the SMC campaign in four regions. PMI resources will also continue to support operational expenses associated with the social marketing of LLINs in the private sector.

    Surveillance, monitoring and evaluation (SM&E): In March 2016, with PMI’s support, the third phase of the continuous DHS (cDHS) was completed and the final report disseminated. The survey results show continued improvements in intervention coverage as compared with the 2014 cDHS. For example, IPTp2 improved from 40% to 49% and ITN use among children increased from 43% to 55% as well as among pregnant women (from 38% to 52%). Senegal is known for its robust routine malaria information system, providing prompt and complete data to guide and measure scale-up of malaria control activities. The NMCP is working closely with the Division of Social and Health Information Systems (DSISS) to integrate data from the NMCP routine malaria information system into the national HMIS that now uses the District Health Information System (DHIS2) platform. During FY 2016, PMI continued to support 20 epidemic surveillance sites. With the expansion of reactive case detection activities, PMI supported the malaria epidemic surveillance system to expand data collection to all health posts in the districts of Saint-Louis Region. PMI funding also supported a malaria-specific M&E course which was held in May 2016 with participation from the central, regional, and district levels.

    Using FY 2017 funds, PMI plans to continue to support data collection through the cDHS to monitor intervention coverage; strengthen the malaria surveillance system; provide training for health staff to conduct case investigations in districts with low malaria incidence; and conduct process monitoring and an end-of-season coverage survey for the SMC campaign.

    Operational research (OR): The goal of operational research in Senegal, which is grouped with M&E in the NMCP’s Strategic Plan for 2016-2020, is to provide data for decision making and in particular to evaluate issues related to achieving pre-elimination, both in the low transmission North and the high transmission South. In support of the NMCP’s objectives, PMI has funded seven operational research studies to date on a variety of topics, namely: a study on the burden of malaria among nomadic pastoralists; an evaluation of the malaria diagnostic algorithm; a qualitative study to asses the acceptability of SMC; a study to determine which factors could explain continued high transmission in Vélingara, where all interventions had been scaled up; a study of Senegal’s home-based malaria care program known as PECADOM Plus; and a Phase III evaluation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. No operational research is planned with FY 2017 PMI funding.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan

    Harvests are in progress throughout the region and an above-average production is expected

    KEY MESSAGES

    • From early July until early October, the West Africa region has mostly received average to above-average rains that are well-distributed (Figures 1 and 2); the resulting adequate moisture conditions have met the various crops’ water requirements throughout the growing period.

    • An overall good rainfall season with no significant pest infestations has allowed crops to develop very well; harvests have started since early October and are expected to be average to above-average.

    • The Intertropical Front’s (ITF) southward retreat continues, which is causing the beginning of the dry season in the Sudanian and Sahelian zones. The end of the rainy season will be slightly late in the Sahelian zone compared to normal and is expected to take place on time at the end of October for the rest of the region.

    • The medium-term forecasts for the next two weeks (Oct 25-31 and Nov 1-7) illustrates the ITF’s southward retreat as rainfall is only expected in the southern part of the Sudanian zone.

    UPDATE ON SEASONAL PROGRESS

    • The 2016 growing season was generally characterized by an early onset of rains that allowed for early sowing/planting. However, the first part of the season had poor rainfall distribution resulting in dryness in some areas, which particularly affected the western part of the Sahel (Mali, southern Mauritania and Senegal). From late July to October, the region has generally received average to above average rainfall, which has offset most of the deficits observed at the beginning of the season (Figures 1 and 2).

    • The above-average rainfall also caused some flooding in many places across the region in August. However, flood damage has been limited mostly to housing as it has been mainly caused by the lack of, or poor maintenance of, drainage systems.

    • The Intertropical Front (ITF) continues its steady southward retreat. This retreat has been slower in the western portion of West Africa with an average ITF position around 15ᵒN over Mali and Mauritania but around 12ᵒN over northeastern Nigeria and Chad (Figure 3).

    • The seasonal “minor wet season” in the bi-modal zone that is normally two month long, started in late August, which is a little earlier than normal. Since mid-September, this season has been characterized by average to above average rainfall. Given its short length (it normally ends in late October-early November) and favorable rainfall levels, a good second harvest is expecte.


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    Source: EastAfrican
    Country: Burundi, Kenya, South Sudan, Uganda

    By ALLAN OLINGO

    IN SUMMARY

    • More than eight million people are facing starvation in Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan and Burundi due to a poor harvest that has stretched the region’s food reserves.

    • In Kenya, more than one million people, mostly in the northeastern and coastal areas, are facing starvation; in Uganda, the below-average crop production due to drought has left close to half a million people in Karamoja, Teso, Acholi and West Nile regions exposed to hunger.

    • In Burundi, insecurity and the economic downturn have led to a disruption of markets, farming activities and livelihoods, leaving more than 2.3 million people severely food insecure. The region’s food baskets — Tanzania and Zambia — are holding on to their surplus, leaving little for maize imports from outside of the region.

    SEE INFOGRAPHIC

    More than eight million people are facing starvation in Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan and Burundi due to a poor harvest that has stretched the region’s food reserves.

    Experts have now called for a review of the 50 per cent common external tariff (CET) on potential imports outside the region and in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa).

    In Kenya, more than one million people, mostly in the northeastern and coastal areas, are facing starvation; in Uganda, the below-average crop production due to drought has left close to half a million people in Karamoja, Teso, Acholi and West Nile regions exposed to hunger.

    In Burundi, insecurity and the economic downturn have led to a disruption of markets, farming activities and livelihoods, leaving more than 2.3 million people severely food insecure. The region’s food baskets — Tanzania and Zambia — are holding on to their surplus, leaving little for maize imports from outside of the region.

    Kenya’s National Drought Management Authority said that if the November short rains are below average, the drought stress will deepen and affect millions more.

    “As the forecast suggests, the rains will be below average. We are already at the food stress levels and if this happens then we will have to declare an emergency as millions more will face food shortages going into the new year,” the agency said, adding that it spent $1 million in the past month on emergency food supplies in the coastal and drought-prone northeastern regions.

    Kenya’s Treasury Cabinet Secretary Henry Rotich revealed that $2.5 million has been released from the exchequer to the State Department of Special Programmes for emergency relief food. The department has already bought, on credit, more than four million bags of maize worth $680 million from the National Cereals and Produce Board (NCPB) for relief efforts.

    “We shall ensure that the necessary help reaches the most needy people. We are mapping out other areas that are approaching food stress levels,” Mr Rotich said. He did not say when NCPB will receive payment for the maize.

    Maize imports

    The EastAfrican has learnt that Kenya is also planning to reach out to Tanzania for emergency maize imports in November, to bridge the shortage. About 150,000 tonnes of maize will be bought.

    “There have been discussions with neighbouring countries to allow them to sell us maize to forestall the current shortage and mitigate the emergency. We are finalising the memorandum of understanding on the modalities,” a source who is privy to the discussions told The EastAfrican.

    Through bilateral agreements, Tanzania is also expected to export grain to other African countries, including Zimbabwe, Burundi, Rwanda and DRC, which are facing grain deficits as weather patterns continue to affect their agricultural production.

    Currently, Kenya’s strategic grain reserve at the NCPB has enough maize to last until the end of the month. The stock stands at 117,000 tonnes, just a half of the 315,000-tonne buffer the country requires to cushion itself from food shortages. However, farmers are reluctant to release their produce, demanding a price of $29 per 90kg bag from the board, which has said it will pay $22.9 per 90kg bag.

    Kenya’s Agriculture Cabinet Secretary Willy Bett said the ministry will offer a new price of $28 per bag, in a bid to restock the reserves.

    “The government will offer a rebate of up to $5 per bag in order to cushion the farmer against losses associated with the erratic rains experienced this year,” said Mr Bett.

    NCPB managing director Newton Terer said the board hopes hope farmers will start selling their maize to it before the stocks are depleted.

    “In August, we had 1.6 million bags of maize, but the NCPB has since released more than 300,000 bags to millers,” Mr Terer, said.

    Last month, Kenya’s Agriculture Ministry announced that poor rainfall would lead to a reduction of 4.6 million bags in this year’s maize harvest.

    Similar fate in Uganda

    Uganda is facing a similar fate with its crop yield expected to fall by 30 per cent this year. A recent research by Tegemeo Institute found that there was a poor maize crop in eastern Uganda, and the output of minor “masika” crops in north-eastern Tanzania was affected by erratic March-May rains.

    “Kenya will suffer a shortage of nine million bags by next May, as the La Niña (drought) phenomenon that is expected this month will impact negatively on the short-rain crop. Short-rain harvest, estimated at 4.5 million bags, could be less, which will spell doom on crop performance in central, eastern and coastal Kenya,” the report states.

    Francis Karin, a senior research assistant at Tegemeo, said that there was a need for Uganda to prepare early for a possible maize shortage, taking into account the lag-time in procurement.

    “An early consideration of potential sources of such imports is critical given the drought in the region. The establishment and institutionalisation of a more efficient monitoring and forecasting system is also important,” Mr Karin said.

    Since August, Uganda has sold more than 14,502 tonnes of maize worth $6.65 million to Kenya and Rwanda, data from the East Africa Grain Handlers’ Regional Agricultural Trade Intelligence Network (Ratin) shows. However, the country has now tightened its exports as it struggles to support its local demand following poor harvests in September, and an increasing demand from the South Sudan and the DRC markets. SEE INFOGRAPHIC

    Mr Karin said that it was important for farmers to know the free on board (FOB) price from the source in order to arrive at the best price for consumers.

    “Once you know the free on board price, then factor in freight, insurance, port and other handling charges, then add 50 per cent on the CIF (cost, insurance and freight) price and add transport, say to Nairobi where demand is highest. This will give you the actual price of maize that consumers will pay. Should the CIF price for example be $15, a 50 per cent CET will push up the price up by $7.5,” Mr Karim said.

    However, there may be a need to re-evaluate the tariff if, by imposing it, the maize meal prices become untenable for the poor, he added.

    “A study/research needs to be undertaken to establish the effect of CET on maize consumer price. We don’t have such information currently but it can be done. What effect will this re-evaluation have? This is already answered — a re-evaluation will point out whether the tariff is affecting consumer price negatively or if it has no impact, in which case it does not have to be adjusted. World prices could be very low such that a CET of 50 per cent may not mean much to the consumer, but means a lot to the taxman. It is a source of revenue for the government,” Mr Karim said.

    According to the October 2016 Integrated Food Security Phase Classification report, 83 per cent of the Ugandan population is food secure. The rest is food stressed due to effects of country-wide prolonged dry spell that caused average crop loss of 40 percent across the country, increase in crop and livestock diseases and insecurity.

    It is expected that despite Uganda’s mid-year harvest that has sustained the region, the maize yields will this year drop by 12.2 per cent to 32.2 million bags, down from the 36.8 million bags harvested last year.

    Uganda’s State Minister for Relief and Disaster Preparedness Musa Ecweru said that despite the food shortages being limited to parts of the country, the country food stocks will only last till the end of the year.

    “The harvest in August was poor so we really have to be on the lookout of importations and commercial selling of the food as we do not have a surplus,” Mr Ecweru said.


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    Source: International Peace Institute
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    by Alex Fielding

    Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari has faced an imposing array of security, political, economic, and crime-related challenges since his historic election win in March 2015, with the country officially entering into recession in August this year. However, one notable positive development has been a revamped counterinsurgency campaign against Boko Haram extremists in northeastern Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin area stretching into Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. Attacks by the group are forecast to claim about 3,500 lives in 2016, a third the number of fatalities in 2015 and the conflict’s lowest total since 2012. Buhari’s transformation of the military response to Boko Haram provides some useful counterinsurgency lessons to other conflict areas with respect to regional cooperation, security sector reforms, and enlisting the support and assistance of local vigilante groups.

    First, following years of failed attempts at regional operation planning and intelligence sharing, Buhari has worked far more effectively with his Chadian, Nigerien, and Cameroonian neighbors. The regional Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) framework has allowed joint operations between these countries, while Chadian and Nigerien troops have been permitted to intervene on Nigerian territory in the Lake Chad area. This resulted in the gradual recapture of nearly all of Boko Haram-controlled territory, which, at its peak in late 2014, covered an area the size of Belgium.

    While independently corroborated information is scarce in the northeast, with official military statements being the main source of information, the tide is undoubtedly turning under Buhari’s direction. Much remains to be done on the regional front, but since the beginning of 2016 plausible reports have emerged of joint Cameroonian-Nigerian operations in Borno state, Chadian troops coming to the aid of Nigerien neighbors in the Lake Chad Basin, as well as direct cooperation between the counterinsurgency forces of Niger and Nigeria.

    Second, Buhari has replaced the upper echelon of the military hierarchy, moved its anti-Boko Haram command headquarters from the capital Abuja to Maiduguri in Borno, and investigated more than 300 companies and officers for corruption in the security budget, even detaining some individuals. Buhari’s reformist agenda has also prompted the United States to expand its military aid, which was restricted due to human rights concerns under Buhari’s predecessor, Goodluck Jonathan. Military aid from the US, France, the United Kingdom, and other allies has also taken the form of training, equipment and intelligence sharing for Niger, Chad, and Cameroon, including US surveillance drones operating out of northern Cameroon. This has boosted morale and improved the capabilities of Nigerian and regional MNJTF troops.

    Last, but certainly not least, more effective cooperation with local vigilante groups known as the Civilian Joint Task Forces (CJTF) has increased the army’s intelligence gathering capabilities, operational reach, and overall momentum. Under Jonathan’s presidency, the army was accused of indiscriminate crackdowns, arrests, and extrajudicial killings of perceived Boko Haram sympathizers across the northeast, turning away many potential counterinsurgency allies. A northern Muslim himself, Buhari’s improved collaboration with locals in Boko Haram’s operational theater has also been assisted by a backlash against the brutality of attacks on Muslim civilians in mosques and marketplaces carried out by erstwhile Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau, who considered anyone who did not subscribe to his ruthless insurgency to be a legitimate target.

    This cooperation with local fighters has also been employed by Cameroon, where a network of vigilantes are sharing intelligence and tracking suspected suicide bombers with state-provided motorbikes and bicycles in the porous border area between its Far North Region and neighboring Borno. There are inherent risks in empowering local vigilantes in terms of accountability, possible infiltration by Boko Haram supporters, and upsetting local power dynamics. Cameroon has also been accused of arbitrarily arresting and dismissing perceived Boko Haram collaborators from the vigilante camp, which could lead to increased distrust and backlash from locals. However, the reality is that conventional soldiers lack the local knowledge and ability to effectively patrol vast expanses of rugged terrain, as witnessed in the Congo’s dismal efforts to neutralize armed groups in their eastern Kivu provinces. Vigilante groups thus remain a useful and at times underutilized resource in counterinsurgency campaigns.

    Looking ahead, the numerous Boko Haram factions do not appear to have the unity, capacity, or interest at this time to regain control over large swaths of territory as a kind of Nigerian caliphate, with their activities too vulnerable to the robust counterinsurgency campaign. Moreover, the Islamic State-backed faction loyal to Abu Musab al-Barnawi—known as Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP)—with its stronghold in the Lake Chad region, appears more intent on highly publicized ambushes of military targets rather than Shekau’s trademark indiscriminate suicide bombings at marketplaces and mosques, which lost favor with ISIS. This was evidenced by ISWAP’s claim of having killed 40 MNJTF troops in Malam Fatori on September 21 and at least 20 more in Ghashgar on October 16. While internal divides have weakened Boko Haram, its numerous factions remain a potent, albeit diminished, security threat. There are no signs of negotiations to end the insurgency on the horizon, which is unsurprising given the common goal across the militant factions to overthrow the Nigerian government.

    Turning the tide definitively on Boko Haram will require a more permanent state security presence in recently liberated areas, with the cooperation of local leaders, broader economic recovery programs, humanitarian assistance spearheaded by the international community, and increased involvement of moderate northern Muslim leaders in countering violent extremism in their midst. The task will not be easy, with 20% of Nigerian Muslims holding a favorable view of ISIS, and Buhari having to direct his attention and political capital to a host of other threats. Nevertheless, the Nigerian president has proven a number of critics wrong in putting Boko Haram firmly on the back foot, with a critical opportunity for Western donors to build on the momentum in providing military, humanitarian, and economic assistance to the long-neglected northeast.

    Alex Fielding is an Intelligence Manager in the Africa Division of Max Security Solutions. @alexpfielding.

    Originally Published in the Global Observatory


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    Source: Jesuit Refugee Service
    Country: Chad, Sudan

    Iriba, 11 October 2016 - In Chad, socio-cultural traditions and gender roles limit educational opportunities for refugee girls. Child marriage and forced marriage are widely practiced, causing many girls in secondary school to drop out early. Girls are also charged with domestic duties such as retrieving water, providing for the family, and taking care of children. These responsibilities along with societal and familial pressures lead to high dropout rates that are not seen amongst boys.

    Many refugees in Chad fled conflict and genocide in Darfur over a decade ago. With renewed violence bringing more Darfurian refugees to Chad in 2013-4, there is little hope that they will ever be able to return. This protracted conflict has left many children that only know life in the camp. It is vital to provide education in order to prevent the creation of a lost generation.

    The Jesuit Refugee Service has served refugees in eastern Chad since 2006, and offers different levels of education in eight refugee camps. While approximately half of the students in JRS schools in Chad are female, decreases in school attendance and high dropout rates among girls in secondary school is all too common throughout the region. In three secondary schools where the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) operates, only 72 out of an initial 248 girls finished the school year. More than 70% of girls dropped out early.

    "When they get married, these young girls usually have to leave their family, their friends, and their community and move to their husband's house. Their studies are interrupted, removing another source of social support and education." says Radia, a student in her second year of high school in Iriba, a refugee site in Chad. She has seen first-hand the negative consequences from child marriages and forced marriages.

    With child marriage there is a high risk of health complications during and after pregnancy both for the girls and their babies. These girls often lack the physical maturity and proper knowledge for motherhood. After marriage, girls are also subject to isolation and often experience abuse and mental health issues.

    Keeping girls in school will not only keep them healthy, safe, and allow them the opportunity for a better life, but it will also have a many benefits for the community and societal development. Educating girls results in economic growth, reduction of HIV/AIDS, and overall healthier families. The JRS staff fully incorporates this understanding into its educational structure and curriculum and takes extra steps to monitor girls' well-being to ensure they stay in school. JRS teaches specific programs such as Menstrual Hygiene Management that provides girls with health education and hygiene kits to give them the proper knowledge to stay healthy.

    The JRS believes that refugee girls in Chad need support to continue and complete their studies. With many young mothers as students, JRS offers childcare to allow them to attend class. It is important to the organization that everyone, including staff, teachers, and family, should be involved in fostering a safe and supportive environment for girls to grow and learn. Literacy classes encourage girls to attend secondary school and take leadership roles in their communities.

    Radia calls on the world to take action: "I ask my parents, all members of the community, and the world to join to fight against child marriage and forced marriage, in order to give all girls the opportunity to grow normally and advocate for their own choices."

    Radia, High school student
    Joseph Thera, JRS Chad Secondary School Project Coordinator Sarah Morsheimer, JRS International Communications Assistant


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    Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
    Country: Chad

    An outbreak of Hepatitis E has been reported in the region of Salamat, South-East Chad. The outbreak has already resulted in the death of five people. MSF has so far identified a total of 179 cases. A joint mission of the Chadian Ministry of Health and the WHO is currently underway. Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus, which is transmitted mainly through contaminated drinking water.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: South Sudan, Sudan

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • 7,100 IDPs in South Kordofan’s Abu Kershola locality need humanitarian assistance.

    • Over 21,000 people vaccinated against measles in Abyei, following an outbreak declared by the Ministry of Health in September.

    • According to an inter-agency mission, 3,650 IDPs have returned to Himeida village from IDP camps in West Darfur and refugee camps in Chad, since April 2016

    • 60 per cent of the South Sudanese refugees who have arrived in Sudan in 2016 have taken refuge in East Darfur

    7,100 IDPs in Abu Kershola locality, South Kordofan, reportedly need humanitarian assistance

    An inter-agency mission carried out a needs assessment of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Abu Kershola locality (South Kordofan) who fled their homes in 2014 and have been displaced several times since then. The mission took place following reports by the Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) that 7,100 IDPs are in need of humanitarian assistance in this locality.

    The mission – that took place from 16 to 21 October – visited 12 villages and Abu Kershola town and identified 4,400 IDPs in need of humanitarian assistance. The mission participants were unable to reach the remaining IDPs due to limited time and because the IDPs are dispersed in small gatherings throughout the locality, but they are presumed to be in need of humanitarian assistance due to the number of times they have been displaced in recent years.

    The mission visited Hijeer, Umbaraka, Hilat Abbas and Elbobaya villages and a group of families in Abu Kershola town. Representatives of HAC, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), IOM, the UN Children’s Agency (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) participated in the mission. The international NGOs (INGOs) Mercy Corps Scotland (MCS) and Save the Children – Switzerland (SCS) were also represented. The main needs of the IDPs are food and emergency household supplies, as well as access to health, water, sanitation and education services.

    The 2016 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) states that an estimated 184,000 displaced people in South Kordofan State are in need of humanitarian assistance.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    This bulletin examines trends in staple food and fuel prices, the cost of the basic food basket and consumer price indices for 70 countries in the third quarter of 2016 (July to September). The maps on pages 6–7 disaggregate the impact analysis to sub-national level.

    Global Highlights

    • During Q3-2016, FAO’s global cereal price index fell a further 9 percent year-on-year. Ample global stocks and record production levels continue to suppress international prices. By contrast, the FAO global food price index continued to rise in Q3-2016 (5% y/y) due to significant price increases, largely for sugar as well as for dairy and oil products.
    The real price of wheat dropped again, falling 19 percent below last year’s level. This is because world supply estimates remain at record levels thanks to excellent yields and production forecasts as well as record ending stocks.
    The real price of maize dropped 10 percent in Q3-2016 compared to the last quarter and the same period in 2015 and is now at levels last seen in 2006. Globally, the 2016/17 maize crop is forecast to be the highest on record with exporter stocks at a near 30-year high.
    • During Q3-2016, the real price of rice increased by 5 percent compared to Q2-2016. After peaking this July, prices have been on a downward trend thanks to a global recovery in production, particularly in India.
    The real price of crude oil has remained stable during Q3-2016 and is 9 percent below the level of last year.
    The cost of the basic food basket increased severely (>10%) in Q3-2016 in eight countries: Bangladesh, Burundi, Iran, Madagascar, Mozambique, Niger, north Nigeria and South Sudan. High increases (5–10%) were seen in Democratic Republic of Congo, Kyrgyz Republic, Peru and Uganda. In the other monitored countries, the change was moderate or low (<5%).
    • Price spikes, as monitored by ALPS, were detected in 23 countries, particularly in Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Zambia (see the map below). These spikes indicate crisis levels for the two most important staples in each country.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali

    Highlights

    • Funding gaps are currently jeopardizing the implementation of all activities. Considering current level of funding, three regions out of seven will be prioritized for PRRO and two provinces out of four will be targeted for CP.

    • Government carried out an evaluation of the pilot-project for the introduction of locallyproduced yoghurt in the school canteens in Sahel. A workshop for the validation of evaluation findings was held in Dori (Sahel region) on 27 September.

    WFP Assistance

    The Country programme focuses on improving primary education, promoting gender equity and helping the most vulnerable groups. Promotion of agricultural value chains supports home-grown school feeding and local purchases.

    Support to primary education

    WFP provided daily school meals to 132,000 children in 1,000 primary schools in the Sahel region and takehome rations to 11,125 girls in the last two years. It has contributed to great improvement in enrolment, attendance and retention in the region, particularly for girls. The programme will resume in October 2016 but on a reduced scale due to funding constraints. Only two districts out of four will be covered in the Sahel region (Soum and Seno). The school feeding programme will be stopped in Oudalan and Yagha and caseloads will be thus reduced to 70,000 children for school feeding and 4,000 girls for take-home rations. A pilot-project to introduce dairy products in school meals succeeded in reaching about 3,500 children last school year. This project promotes home-grown school feeding, incomegenerating activities for women and development of local dairies. It will be extended, in line with the findings and recommendations of the pilot-project evaluation carried out by the Ministry of National Education and Literacy. The objective is to reach 5,000 schoolchildren.

    Nutritional support to vulnerable groups

    WFP planned to provide food and nutritional support to 12,000 people living with HIV and AIDS and orphans, as well as Super Cereal Plus rations to 10,000 children in the Sahel region to prevent stunting. Activity has been suspended since July due to lack of funding.

    Promotion of agricultural value chains

    WFP promotes the development of agricultural value chains by prioritizing local purchases of food from Purchase for Progress (P4P) wherever possible. P4P works with 30,000 smallholder farmers and processors in building their production capacities, reducing postharvest losses and improving the quality of their products to sell to institutional stakeholders like WFP.

    The Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation aims to assist 1.1 million people at risk of food insecurity and malnutrition from July 2015 to June 2017. The project is aligned with the harmonized framework and annual support plan for vulnerable populations.

    Food assistance to Malian refugees

    In collaboration with the Government and other partners, WFP provides assistance to Malian refugees remaining in Burkina Faso.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger

    106.7 M required for 2016
    32.9 M contributions received, representing 31% of requirements
    73.7 M funding gap for the Mali Situation


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    107.2 M required for 2016 28.9 M contributions received, representing 27% of requirements 78.3 M funding gap for the Nigeria Situation


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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Burkina Faso

    Résumé

    Les conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs constituent une grande préoccupation pour le gouvernement burkinabè car ils perturbent l’harmonie sociale, la cohabitation pacifique et l’activité agropastorale dans le monde rural. Cette préoccupation est prise en compte dans les missions du gouvernement dans le but de contribuer à la construction d’une société de paix et de tolérance.

    Ce manuel a été conçu pour offrir une alternative très innovante sur la question des conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs. C’est une vision pragmatique que son prescripteur affiche en se penchant sur le développement des capacités des acteurs locaux à faire face aux situations conflictuelles. L’objectif étant dans l’immédiat de ne pas subir les conflits avec leurs corollaires de violation massive des droits dont des pertes en vies humaines, des pertes matérielles et de régression économique des zones agropastorales, mais d’en avoir une maîtrise.

    PREFACE

    Les conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs constituent une grande préoccupation pour le gouvernement burkinabè car ils perturbent l’harmonie sociale, la cohabitation pacifique et l’activité agropastorale dans le monde rural. Cette préoccupation est prise en compte dans les missions du gouvernement dans le but de contribuer à la construction d’une société de paix et de tolérance.

    Ce manuel a été conçu pour offrir une alternative très innovante sur la question des conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs. C’est une vision pragmatique que son prescripteur affiche en se penchant sur le développement des capacités des acteurs locaux à faire face aux situations conflictuelles. L’objectif étant dans l’immédiat de ne pas subir les conflits avec leurs corollaires de violation massive des droits dont des pertes en vies humaines, des pertes matérielles et de régression économique des zones agropastorales, mais d’en avoir une maîtrise.

    Aussi, la connaissance des conflits dès le stade du risque, de leur manifestation, des attitudes indiquées et des modes de règlements possibles est déterminante pour l’adoption de nouveaux comportements qui promeuvent une communauté débarrassée des violences généralisées.

    Ce manuel se présente comme un guide précieux pour les acteurs du monde agropastoral. Il devra être mis à leur disposition simultanément avec le démarrage des actions de formations sur le terrain et éviter ainsi qu’aucune exploitation de ses enseignements ne se fasse en dehors des principes admis.

    Pour ce faire, la formation des animateurs à son utilisation sera un préalable judicieux. A ce titre, les voies classiques de dissémination des initiatives de développement communautaire devraient être utilisées pour faciliter l’adhésion des hommes et des femmes du terroir qui peuvent concourir à son succès.

    Il apparaît que les tâches à mener sont encore nombreuses et variées si l’on veut bâtir un monde rural sans violence qui consacre une place capitale à la culture de la tolérance et de la paix, au respect des droits humains. Un jalon important a pu être réalisé dans cette voie par l’élaboration du présent manuel de prévention et de gestion des conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs. Sa bonne exploitation est une œuvre imminente que nous souhaitons à la fois collective et fructueuse.


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