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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Situation in numbers

    • 1.4 Million Children Currently Displaced Across the Lake Chad Basin
    • 2.6 Million People Currently Displaced Across the Lake Chad Basin
    • 1.8 Million People Currently Internally Displaced in Northeast Nigeria
    • 2.2 Million People Living in Inaccessible Areas in Northeast Nigeria
    • 398,188 Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States

    UNICEF Response highlights

    • 89,178 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have been reached through UNICEF’s Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) program and to date, over 87% of the children who have received treatment have recovered.
    • Nearly 2.7 million people have been reached with emergency integrated primary health care services.
    • Over 5.8 million children were vaccinated against polio in the first round in Borno, Yobe, Adam The second round commenced in 10 LGAs in Borno State, including MMC, Jere and Mafa in southern Borno. Vaccination activities were carried out alongside nutrition screening in these 3 LGAs.
    • Nearly 135,000 children have received psychosocial support, and 2,472 women and children associated with Boko Haram and victims of sexual and gender based violence have received care and support.
    • Nearly 84,000 children have received access to education in a protective and safe learning environment, including 20 temporary learning spaces in newly accessible areas in Gwoza and Bama LGAs.

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Situation for children in numbers

    • 1.4 Million Children Currently Displaced Across the Lake Chad Basin
    • 2.6 Out Of Million People Currently Displaced Across the Lake Chad Basin
    • 8 Out Of 10 Displaced Children and Their Families Are Living in Host Communities
    • 87,900 Children Who Are Refugees from Nigeria in Neighbouring Countries – Cameroon, Chad, Niger
    • 478,000 Children Under 5 With Severe Acute Malnutrition in The Lake Chad Basin

    UNICEF Response highlights

    • Over 11 million children were vaccinated against polio in Round 1 of the campaign in all 4 countries; over 800,000 children have been vaccinated for measles across the Lake Chad Basin.
    • Close to 6,000 children who have been separated from their families or are unaccompanied as a result of the conflict have been supported with case management and alternative care when needed.
    • On 11 September, an airlift of US$1.3 million of life-saving supplies was sent for internally displaced persons in northeast Nigeria. The flight included health kits to meet the needs of nearly 1 million people and water and sanitation kits to meet the needs of 80,000 people.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    259,145 CAR refugees registered by UNHCR in rural areas in the East, Adamaoua and North regions, of which 158,418 arrived since December 2013

    73,392 Nigerian refugees in the Far North region (of which 58,521 have been registered at Minawao camp)

    192,912 Internally Displaced Persons in the Far North region (sources: DTM by IOM as of August 2016 and UNHCR protection monitoring Flash Updates)


    • The security situation in the Far North region remains of concern. Despite the security measures taken by the Cameroonian authorities to prevent Boko Haram’s attacks, the Islamist sect continues to perpetrate raids in the border areas of Cameroon. The Logone et Chari and Mayo Sava Divisions were particularly targeted resulting in killings, lootings and cattle robbery. On the other side of the border, the Nigerian army continues to strike bases occupied by Boko Haram. Thus on September 13, a total of 194 Nigerian refugees (139 children, 36 women and 19 men), coming from Djakoua, a Nigerian village belonging to the town of Bama, arrived in the town of Kerawa in Mayo Sava Department. Held captive by elements of Boko Haram since 2014, these newcomers have escaped after their place of captivity had been bombed by the Nigerian army. As other new arrivals, these refugees lack personal identity documents, are in urgent need of shelter, access to drinking water and basic health care as well as food and non-food items (mat, kitchen utensils, jerry cans, blankets etc.).

    • Due the considerable number of refugees that Cameroon is hosting, President Paul Biya was invited to the Leader’s Summit on refugees and migrants organized by US-President Obama at the margins of the 71st UN General Assembly. In his intervention, the Head of State of Cameroon reiterated the commitment of his country to continue its policy of hospitality and solidarity towards refugees. He also appealed to the international community to step-up support to countries dealing with large and protracted refugee situations, including Cameroon. The President furthermore emphasized the strong engagement of UNHCR and its partners in reinforcing basic services in refugee hosting areas and underlined the importance of the recently signed convention between the Ministry of Public Health and UNHCR, which guarantees refugees UNHCR Factsheet | Cameroon | September 2016 access to public health services, and applauded the efforts underway to deliver refugee identity cards after biometric verification.

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    Source: Global Polio Eradication Initiative
    Country: Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan

    Polio this week as of  4 October 2016

    • The new Global Polio Eradication Initiative web site has been launched! The site features a new design, allowing visitors to see the latest information on the programme, interactive data visualizations and media content including photo essays and videos. All resources from the previous website is available on the new site as well.

    • Explore the new design and organization of the GPEI web site: Polio Today contains the latest case counts, a history of polio, facts on the virus and prevention, and information on preparing for a polio-free world through transition planning and the endgame strategy. Who We Are contains our mission statement, strategy, information about the key partners of the program, and official reports released by the programme’s governing bodies. Where We Work provides detailed information on the endemic, outbreak, at-risk, and polio-free countries; funding-related updates will be included in the Financing section; News will house all media content, including the monthly newsletter (Polio News). More

    • The annual Global Citizen Festival saw pledges of support from Prime Ministers Justin Trudeau of Canada, Xavier Bettel of Luxembourg and Joseph Muscat of Malta to ensure a polio-free world to future generations.

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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Nigeria

    6 October 2016, Borno, Nigeria– In response to the critical health needs of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Borno state, the World Health Organization (WHO) through the State Ministry of Health has delivered emergency medical supplies to Mafa and Dikwa IDP camps, two of the 15 areas liberated this year that host more than 75,000 internally displaced persons (IDP).

    The medical supplies are in form of Interagency Emergency Health Kit with enough drugs and medical supplies to treat 15,000 people for three months. Malaria and Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) kits were also provided. The supplies will be distributed to the existing health facilities in each camp and to mobile teams.

    Receiving the items on behalf of Borno state government, the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Health Dr Abubakar Hassan expressed his appreciation to the WHO for providing the much needed medical supplies to Mafa and Dikwa camps following an assessment last week that showed widespread shortage of drugs. “Many of the IDP health facilities in the state are in need of such assistance and WHO’s supplies have therefore come in at the right time” said Dr Hassan

    The selection of the two camps follows the UN joint assessment mission to Mafa and Dikwa which showed high Malaria and Acute Respiratory Tract Infections rates in the IDP camps, accounting for 33% and 16% respectively. Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer and other chronic illnesses were unable to access the needed life-saving essential medicines. There is also a general limited access to health facilities due to their reduced functionality as a result of insecurity coupled with destruction of others.

    Commenting on the donation of the medical supplies to Borno state government, Acting WHO country Representative, Dr Rex Mpazanje said “WHO is committed to supporting the government of Borno state and other parts of the North East to continue to have access to health services including those in the hardest to access areas through the provision of emergency lifesaving medicines which currently are urgently needed”, said Dr Mpazanje.

    In light of the humanitarian situation in Borno and other states in the North East part of Nigeria, WHO is appealing for US$ 13.5 million to support health interventions until the end of 2016 out of which US $ 2 million has been received so far leaving a funding gap of 82%.

    Technical contact: Dr Mary Stephen: +234 816 289 9789; Email: Media contacts: Ms. Kulchumi Hammanyero; Tel: +234 803 632 7360; Email:
    Ms. Pauline Ajello; Tel: +234 803 402 2388; Email:

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    Source: UN Population Fund
    Country: Cameroon

    MAROUA/YAOUNDE, Cameroon – “I was forced into marriage by my father at the age of 14,” Faouzia Yaya, now 17, told UNFPA. “My father insisted, even knowing I did not want it. I even ran away to my uncle’s place, but he still found me.”

    During her brief marriage, Faouzia endured constant violence. “My husband used to beat me daily,” she said.

    Child marriage is widespread in Cameroon, with over 20 per cent of girls aged 15 to 19 already married, according to a 2014 survey. But the country has just adopted a new law – passed in July – to protect girls like Faouzia.

    If her father tried to marry her off today, he would be charged for two offences – forced marriage and child marriage.

    A cascade of human rights violations

    Child marriage unleashes a cascade of human rights violations. Child brides are more likely to be forced to leave school, depriving them of their right to an education. They are more likely to become pregnant as adolescents, which puts them at increased risk of maternal health complications. And they are also more vulnerable to abuse.

    It is the most disadvantaged girls, those living in poverty, in rural areas and with few prospects for empowerment, who are most likely to become child brides. More than half of Cameroonian girls who have no education are already married, for instance, compared to 9 per cent of girls with a secondary education.

    The new law will “protect women from repugnant cultural norms and practices that have hitherto exposed them to every kind of ill treatment,” said Marie Therese Abena Ondoa, Minister of Women’s Empowerment and the Family.

    Securing girls’ independence In

    “After two months of marriage, the group which fights violence against women caught sight of my case and registered me,” said Faouzia. They helped her leave her husband.

    ALVF, a UNFPA partner, teaches girls like Faouzia income-generating skills, which helps them secure their independence.

    It also teaches girls about their sexual and reproductive health. The majority of girls receiving assistance are pregnant or already mothers, and unaware of how to avoid unwanted pregnancy or protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections.

    Today, Faouzia is learning tailoring. “Now, I can sew dresses and earn my own money,” she said.

    “If I meet a man I love, I will get married to him. I think that a girl has to learn a skill or go to school before going for marriage.”

    – Olive Bonga

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Chad, Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Sudan

    FAO and the French Facility for Global Environment aim to protect wetland resources by making water birds hunting more sustainable

    6 October 2016, Rome- FAO and the French Facility for Global Environment (FFEM) will work together in a new partnership to improve the state of natural resources in the wetlands of Africa's Sahel region, in particular the sustainable management of migratory water birds which are crucial for food security for the local populations.

    The agreement signed today between FAO and FFEM, which co-funds one third of the 5 million euros project, is specifically targeting the four main wetland areas in the Sahel region which are distributed between Chad, Egypt, Mali, Senegal and Sudan.

    The "Strengthening expertise in Sub -Saharan Africa on birds and their rational use for communities and their environment" (RESSOURCE) project will focus on wetlands situated in the Senegal River Valley, Inner Niger Delta, Lake Chad and the lower and middle reaches of the Nile. These are ecosystem sites of critical importance where the food security and livelihoods of nearly a billion people depend on agriculture, livestock and natural resource use, including fishing and bird hunting.

    Many water bird species, including Garganey and Ruff spend the winter in the Sahel wetlands before returning to breed in Europe. Since 1960, the number of water birds in the area has declined by about 40 percent - a dramatic fall that possibly relates to three main factors: the shrinking of flood plain size due to drainage, reduced rainfall and other climate change related events; changing plant biodiversity, including the introduction of invasive species; and, unsustainable hunting.

    The project will be conducted in cooperation with the Governments of the countries concerned and other key technical partners such as France's National Agency for Wildlife and Hunting Management (ONCFS), the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and the Secretariat of the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds.

    FAO, FFEM and the other project partners will promote sustainable management of migratory water birds through bird census and surveying and monitoring techniques, and capacity building activities. The results will support the creation or adaptation of a legal and regulatory framework, and foster policies aimed at sustainable hunting and enhanced bird conservation. These policies will be integrated with broader wetlands site management.

    "This project is about improving management of wetlands, water birds and their habitats. It will eventually benefit local populations and for the first time we will work at the regional level mobilising multi-stakeholders partnerships" said Francois Xavier Duporge, General Secretary of FFEM.

    Promoting food security and economic development

    The work to improve water bird management including the protection of natural habitats, aims to benefit both the ecosystems and local communities that rely on them for food and other resources, including income.

    In Chad and Senegal, for example local business people organise hunting on the wetlands sites - activities which, if managed sustainably, can continue to bring benefits to the local economy.

    "Our goal is to adapt water bird hunting by promoting sustainable hunting management and bird conservation policies which will benefit those local communities who rely on birds for their livelihoods. In many Sahelian wetlands, hunting is crucial to local food security and the economy," said Eva Muller, Director of FAO's Forestry Policy and Resources Division.

    FAO will be responsible for implementation and coordination of the project in close collaboration with all its technical partners as well as FFEM.

    About FFEM

    FFEM is a government initiative and works in promoting global environment protection in developing countries since 1994 by co-financing projects related to biodiversity, climate change, land degradation, desertification and persistent organic pollutants.

    FFEM and FAO have partnered since 2011. Together, they will seek to further increase joint opportunities in various fields related to forestry, biodiversity and climate change including in the context of the COP 22 climate conference.

    FAO and the French Facility for Global Environment aim to protect wetland resources by making water birds hunting more sustainable


    Anais Hotin
    FAO Media Relations (Rome)
    (+39) 06 570 54974

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Cameroon


    As part of its fourth round of the Displacement Tracking matrix (DTM), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) conducted a Return Intention Survey targeting IDPs in the Far North Region of Cameroon. The survey was conducted from 20 July to 1 August 2016 in the six Departments of the Far North Region: Diamare , Mayo-Danay, Mayo-Kani, Mayo-Tsanaga, Mayo-Sava, and Logone-et-Chari. A total of 1,970 IDP households were interviewed in 514 localities.


    • 181,215 Internally Displaced Persons (33,621 households), 14,871 Unregistered Refugees (2,61 households), and 32,023 Returnees (6,188 households).

    • 87% of the displaced population was displaced by the insurgency and 13% by flooding and other natur disasters.

    • An estimated 33% of the current population was displaced in 2016 (January to July 2016). The remaini percentage is broken down as follows: 38% in 2015, 21% in 2014 and 8% before 2014.

    • An estimated 59% of the displaced household population lives in host communities while 20% lives rented housing, 12% in spontaneous settlements, 9% in collective centers, and 1% in open-air spaces.

    • 51% of returns in the Far North region occurred in 2016, while 17% took place in 2015, 26% in 2014, an 6% before 2014.


    • 34% of displaced persons indicated their intention to return to their place of origin while 4% indicat that they would leave their area of displacement for another location.

    • 62%% of displaced persons indicated their intention to remain at their displacement site.

    • Most of the IDP households do not undertake periodic visit to their area of origin (80%) while 20% do. those who visit their area of origin, 9% do so assess a potential return.

    • Three main reasons preventing displaced people from returning to their place of origin are:  Fear / trauma (43%)  Absence of armed forces in the area of origin (22%)  Feeling secure in the village of displacement (12%)

    • Three top factors required to enable a return:  Presence of security forces in the area of origin (36%)  Provision of humanitarian assistance in the area of origin (24%)  Repair or rehabilitation of destroyed houses (19%).

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Chad, Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Sudan

    La FAO et le Fonds français pour l’environnement mondial (FFEM) travaillent à protéger les zones humides en rendant la chasse plus durable

    6 octobre 2016, Rome-La FAO et le Fonds français pour l'environnement mondial (FFEM) travailleront conjointement dans le cadre d'un nouveau partenariat afin d'améliorer l'état des ressources naturelles dans les zones humides du Sahel, en Afrique, en mettant l'accent sur la gestion durable des oiseaux d'eau migrateurs, essentiels à la sécurité alimentaire des populations locales.

    L'accord signé aujourd'hui entre la FAO et le FFEM, qui cofinance un tiers du projet estimé à 5 millions d'euros, cible de manière spécifique les quatre plus grandes zones humides de la région sahélienne, réparties entre l'Egypte, le Mali, le Sénégal, le Soudan et le Tchad.

    Le projet « Renforcement d'Expertise au Sud du Sahara sur les Oiseaux et leur Utilisation Rationnelle en faveur des Communautés et de leur Environnement » (RESSOURCE) se concentrera sur les zones humides situées le long de la vallée du fleuve Sénégal, du Delta intérieur du Niger, du Lac Tchad et dans les parties basses et moyennes du Nil. Il s'agit d'écosystèmes vitaux où la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens d'existence de près d'un milliard de personnes reposent sur l'agriculture, le bétail et l'exploitation des ressources naturelles, avec notamment la pêche et la chasse aux oiseaux.

    De nombreuses espèces d'oiseaux d'eau migrateurs, y compris les Sarcelles d'été et les Combattants variés passent l'hiver dans les zones humides du Sahel avant de partir se reproduire en Europe. Depuis 1960, le nombre d'oiseaux d'eau dans la zone a baissé d'environ 40 pour cent, une chute vertigineuse qui pourrait s'expliquer par trois principaux facteurs : la diminution des zones inondables dû au drainage, des précipitations réduites et autres évènements météorologiques provoqués par le changement climatique, une biodiversité végétale en transformation, l'apparition d'espèces envahissantes et une pratique de la chasse non durable.

    Le projet sera mené en coopération avec les gouvernements des pays concernés et d'autres partenaires techniques tels que l'Office national de la chasse et de la faune sauvage (ONCFS), le Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD) et le Secrétariat de l'Accord sur la conservation des oiseaux d'eau migrateurs d'Afrique-Eurasie.

    La FAO, le FFEM et les autres partenaires du projet travailleront à promouvoir une gestion durable des oiseaux d'eau migrateurs avec notamment des techniques innovantes de recensement et de surveillance des oiseaux et des activités visant au renforcement des capacités.

    Les résultats contribueront à créer, voire à ajuster un cadre juridique et règlementaire et encouragera l'élaboration de politiques destinées à promouvoir une chasse durable et à améliorer la protection des oiseaux. Ces politiques seront intégrées à la stratégie de gestion de zones humides de plus grande envergure.

    « L'enjeu de ce projet est de mieux comprendre pour mieux gérer, a déclaré Francois Xavier Duporge, Secrétaire général du FFEM. « Mieux gérer ces oiseaux migrateurs et ces zones humides qui sont leurs habitats. Cela bénéficiera finalement aux populations locales, en travaillant pour la première fois à une échelle régionale et en mobilisant des partenariats multi-acteurs » a-t-il ajouté.

    Promouvoir la sécurité alimentaire et le développement économique

    Le travail visant à améliorer la gestion des oiseaux d'eau et à protéger leurs habitats naturels devrait profiter aux écosystèmes et aux communautés locales qui comptent, entre autres, sur cela pour se nourrir et s'assurer un revenu.

    Au Tchad et au Sénégal par exemple, les entrepreneurs organisent des parties de chasse sur les zones humides, qui si gérées de manière durable, peuvent continuer à stimuler l'économie locale.

    « Notre objectif est d'adapter la chasse aux oiseaux en encourageant des politiques en faveur d'une gestion durable de la chasse et de la protection des oiseaux. Ces politiques bénéficieront aux communautés locales qui comptent sur ces oiseaux pour leurs moyens d'existence. Dans de nombreuses zones humides, chasser est essentiel pour la sécurité alimentaire et l'économie locale » a déclaré Eva Muller, Directrice de la Division de la FAO chargée des politiques et des ressources forestières.

    La FAO sera chargée de la mise en œuvre et de la coordination du projet en étroite collaboration avec l'ensemble de ses partenaires techniques ainsi que le FFEM.

    A propos du FFEM

    Le FFEM est une initiative gouvernementale travaillant à promouvoir des initiatives liées à la protection de l'environnement dans les pays en développement. Depuis 1994, le Fonds cofinance des projets liés à la biodiversité, au changement climatique, à la dégradation des terres, à la désertification et aux polluants organiques persistants.

    Le FFEM et la FAO font équipe depuis 2011. Les deux organisations travaillent à trouver de nouvelles occasions de collaborer et ce, dans plusieurs domaines liés à la foresterie, la biodiversité et au changement climatique dans le cadre la conférence COP 22 sur le climat.


    Anais Hotin
    Relations Presse (Rome)
    (+39) 06 570 54974

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    Source: African Union
    Country: Mali

    Addis Abéba, le 20 septembre 2016: Le Groupe de travail interdépartemental de la Commission de l'Union africaine s’est réuni au siège de l'UA à Addis Abéba, le 16 septembre 2016, pour discuter des progrès accomplis en ce qui concerne la mise en œuvre du Cadre d’action de l'UA pour la reconstruction et le développement post-conflit (RDPC), qui a été adopté à Banjul, en Gambie, en 2006. Des fonctionnaires des Départements de la Commission de l’UA et des Communautés économiques régionales (CER)/Mécanismes régionaux (MR) ont participé à la réunion.

    Le Groupe de travail interdépartemental a noté des progrès encourageants, y compris les résultats de l'évaluation des besoins en RDPC, entreprise en République centrafricaine (RCA), du 7 au 17 Août 2016. La mission d'évaluation a permis de réfléchir sur la nature et la portée de l’appui nécessaire pour maintenir la paix en RCA.

    Le Groupe de travail interdépartemental a également défini les principales activités qu'il prévoit entreprendre entre septembre et décembre 2016. Il s’agit d’une Conférence de solidarité africaine qui se tiendra en octobre 2016, pour mobiliser des ressources et un appui en nature pour les besoins de la RCA, de la présentation du troisième rapport préliminaire définissant les mesures prises par la Commission de l’UA, y compris à travers le Groupe de travail, afin de mettre en œuvre le Cadre d’action de l’UA pour la RDPC, ainsi que des défis rencontrés, depuis le dernier rapport sur la RDPC soumis au CPS en avril 2016, et des missions d'évaluation à entreprendre dans plusieurs pays prioritaires. Un atelier réunissant des représentants de la Commission, des CER/MR, des organisations de la société civile, du secteur privé, des médias et des universitaires se tiendra également au siège de la Commission de l’UA, en octobre 2016, pour commémorer le 10ème anniversaire du Cadre d’action pour la RDPC. L'atelier se penchera sur les enseignements tirés et les opportunités dans la mise en œuvre du Cadre d’action de l’UA pour la RDPC et délibérera de l'Architecture africaine de consolidation de la paix en constante évolution.

    Le Groupe de travail interministériel a été installé le 18 mai 2016, par les Départements Paix et Sécurité et des Affaires politiques, afin de faciliter une approche efficace, opportune et coordonnée dans toute la Commission sur la mise en œuvre du Cadre d’action de l’UA pour la RDPC à travers la mobilisation des synergies dans les Départements clés. Les Bureaux de liaison des CER/MR auprès de l'UA sont membres du Groupe de travail. Avec cet effort combiné, la Commission de l’UA intensifie son rôle de chef de file des efforts de RDPC sur le continent.

    Posted by Marsden Momanyi

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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Mali

    Le Ministère de la Solidarité, de l’Action humanitaire et de la Reconstruction du Nord, à travers l’observatoire du développement humain durable et de la lutte contre la pauvreté (ODHD) a procédé ce vendredi 23 Septembre ,à l’Hôtel Radisson de Bamako, au lancement du Rapport national sur le développement humain, édition 2016.

    La cérémonie a été co-présidée par le Représentant du Ministre de l’Action Humanitaire et de la Reconstruction du Nord, Chef de cabinet dudit ministère, Mme Timbo Oumou Ba et la Coordonnatrice Résidente du Système des Nations Unies au Mali, Représentante résidente du PNUD, Mme Mbaranga Gasarabwé.

    Etaient également présents au lancement du rapport, M. Traoré Modibo ,Directeur de la coopération multilatérale, représentant le Ministère des Affaires étrangères et de la Coopération Internationale, Le Directeur Pays du PNUD par intérim, M. Maleye Diop accompagné du chef de l’unité des politiques et stratégies, M. Becaye Diarra ainsi que plusieurs représentants de structures de l’Etat, ambassades présentes au Mali et agences du Système des Nations Unies.

    Le Rapport national sur le développement humain se veut un outil fondamental de dialogue, de politiques et de mobilisation de ressources.

    L’édition 2016 dont le thème est : Migration, Développement Humain et Lutte contre la Pauvreté au Mali offre une analyse détaillée sur les liens entre les migrations et le développement humain.

    Il donne l’état du développement humain dans le pays et renseigne également sur la problématique de la migration au Mali.

    Selon ce rapport, 4 millions de maliens vivent à l’extérieur du pays ( Merabet, 2007 ; Ouallet 2008). 3 principales causes apparaissent comme les facteurs essentiels qui expliquent la migration, ces facteurs sont d’ordre économique (sécheresse et dégradations des espaces agricoles), du dérèglement climatique et d’ordre socio-culturel.

    « Le durcissement des législations en matière de migration dans ces pays pousse les migrants à emprunter des chemins périlleux, transformant pour eux, la Mer Méditerranée en un vaste cimetière avec le naufrage de leurs embarcations de fortunes lors de la traversée des océans a constaté Mme Timbo Oumou Ba, chef de cabinet du Ministre. Face à tous ces défis niveaux, le Gouvernement de la République du Mali a adopté le 3 Septembre 2014, une politique Nationale de Migration (PONAM), qui connait un début de mise en œuvre. » a- t-elle poursuivi.

    Selon la Coordonnatrice résidente du Système des Nations Unies au Mali, Représentante Résidente du PNUD, Mme Gasarabwé, le choix de ce thème est aussi une réponse à un thème d’actualité : « ..Choix ne pouvait être plus pertinent que celui que vous avez fait du thème du RNDH 2015, à savoir « Migration, Développement Humain et Lutte contre la Pauvreté ». Au moment où nous nous réunissons ce matin, il se déroule à New York, la 71ème session de l’AG des Nations Unies. Au centre des débats de cette AG, se place ce sujet crucial des Migrations.

    Le phénomène des migrations est devenu le principal défi pour les Nations. Au Mali, les Nations Unies comptent inscrire l’appui aux migrants dans le contexte de la mise en œuvre des ODD et de l’Agenda Africa 2063 et poursuivre les actions de développement qui contribuent à créer des conditions favorables au niveau national pour créer les opportunités pour les jeunes et les encourager à rester dans leur terroir et dans de meilleures conditions de vie.

    Nous resterons plus que jamais engagées à continuer l’accompagnement au Gouvernement Malien dans la promotion d’un Développement Humain durable, dans ce contexte de mise en œuvre de l’Accord de Paix et de l’Agenda 2030. » a assuré Mme Gasarabwé, s’exprimant au nom de l’ensemble des agences du Système des Nations Unies au Mali.

    Le Représentant du Ministre Mme Timbo Oumou Ba a salué l’ensemble des partenaires pour la production de ce rapport, plus particulièrement le PNUD pour la « coopération exemplaire et dynamique qu’il entretient avec le Mali »

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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Mali

    Le Mali dispose désormais d’une stratégie de prise en charge juridique et judiciaire des violences basées sur le Genre. Ce document destiné aux acteurs judiciaires leur sera accessible grâce l’appui du Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement (PNUD) à travers le programme Promotion des Droits de l’Homme au Mali (PDH), la coopération Espagnole à travers l’ONU Femmes.
    Il est le fruit d’un atelier qui s’est ouvert ce mardi 30 août à Bamako en présence de la Représentante du Ministre de la Justice et des droits de l’Homme, Garde des Sceaux Djeneba Diakité, du Directeur Pays adjoint du PNUD, Maleye Diop , du Représentant de l’ONU Femmes, Mme Awa Djiré et de plusieurs acteurs œuvrant dans la lutte contre les violences basées sur le genre.

    La Représentante d’Onufemmes a rappelé que de janvier 2012 à décembre 2013 plus de 6227 femmes et filles ont été victimes diverses liées aux conflits sur lesquelles 622 cas de violences sexuelles et que 72% des victimes ne veulent pas aller en justice.

    Le Directeur pays adjoint du PNUD, Maleye Diop a lui, souligné l’importance d’une législation forte face au cas spécifique de violences basées sur le genre, il a également rappelé l’engagement du PNUD à accompagner les efforts pour la promotion des droits de l’homme et plus spécifiquement la prise en charge juridique des violences basées sur le genre : « La législation constitue la base sur laquelle le système de justice pénale fonctionne. C’est donc l’outil qui permet aux femmes de réclamer une protection en vertu de la loi.

    Cependant, cette législation est également la base sur laquelle les femmes sont relativement discriminées devant le système juridique en raison de la nature « neutre » de la loi par rapport au genre, les femmes peuvent être aussi discriminées. Dans la mesure où la lutte contre les Violences Basées sur le Genre vise à promouvoir les droits de l’Homme, une révision de la répartition des pouvoirs et une profonde transformation sociale, le PNUD Mali conformément à son mandat, compte y jouer sa partition.

    Je réaffirme l’engagement de mon Organisation, à accompagner le gouvernement, les Institutions et les Organisations de la Société Civile, dans leurs efforts d’amélioration de l’accessibilité à la justice, de défense et promotion des droits de l’homme en général et de lutte contre les VBG particulier. »

    La recrudescence des violences basées sur le genre pendant et après la crise de 2012 a engendré une forte demande des survivantes de ces violences et a révélé les difficultés du système de justice pénale à y répondre. Au cours de l’occupation des régions du Nord du Mali en 2012 par des groupes armés, les populations de ces zones ont subi des violations massives de leurs droits et libertés. Ces violations ont été particulièrement nombreuses et graves pour les femmes.

    Prenant enfin la parole, la Représentante du Ministre de la Justice et des droits de l’Hommes, Mme Djeneba Diakité garde des sceaux a salué les activités mises en œuvre à ce jour : « Vous me permettrez de rendre un hommage mérité au PNUD et à ONUFEMMES, qui, à travers un Accord inter-Agences, ont conçu un projet de renforcement des capacités des magistrats et auxiliaires de justice dans le domaine des violences basées sur le genre (VBG).

    Dans le cadre de l’exécution de ce projet, le Programme Conjoint des Nations Unies d’appui à la Promotion des Droits de l’Homme au Mali (PDH), qui relève de mon département, et ONUFEMMES ont réalisé depuis février 2016 plusieurs activités : -

    • l’organisation de plusieurs ateliers de formation sur les VBG des magistrats et auxiliaires de justice dans le District de Bamako et dans les régions de Ségou, Kayes, Koulikoro, Sikasso et Mopti

    • la réalisation d’une étude relative à l’évaluation des capacités du système judiciaire en matière de répression des VBG dans le District de Bamako et dans les régions de Mopti, Tombouctou et Gao, la réalisation d’un recueil des textes nationaux et internationaux relatifs aux VBG…

    Toutes ces activités ont contribué au renforcement des capacités de plusieurs magistrats et auxiliaires de justice de notre pays en matière de répression des violences basées sur le genre, en général et des violences faites aux femmes et aux petites filles en particulier. »

    La tenue de l’atelier a également permis l’identification des défis liés aux violences basées sur le genre et les solutions à court, moyen et long terme, l’élaboration d’un Plan d’action pour l’année 2017, la formation d’une trentaine de recommandations.

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    Source: Government of Norway
    Country: Afghanistan, Mali, Norway, Pakistan, World

    Press release | Published: 2016-10-06

    'The refugee crisis and large-scale humanitarian crises arising from conflicts, wars and terrorism have meant that we have had to increase our focus on fragile states and regions. Conflicts, wars and terrorism have catastrophic consequences for those who are directly affected. They also create challenges for us and threaten our security,' said Minister of Foreign Affairs Børge Brende.

    In the budget proposal for 2017, aid for post-crisis stabilisation and reconstruction has been expanded to include crisis prevention. The Government proposes an increase in support for efforts in these areas of NOK 53 million in 2017.

    'The Government is intensifying its efforts to promote stability and development in fragile states and regions and is drawing up a comprehensive strategy for its work in this area. Particular attention will be given to a belt of countries stretching from Mali in the west via the Horn of Africa and the Middle East to Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east,' Mr Brende said. 'The strategy will set out both bilateral initiatives and multilateral efforts.'

    'Lasting and sustainable peace can only be achieved through political solutions. Our aim is to increase states' ability to address their challenges and to prevent state collapse. Long-term efforts in a wide range of areas are needed if we are to succeed in what are often complex and challenging situations,' Mr Brende said.

    'Most of the areas the Government has identified as development policy priorities are highly relevant in fragile states and regions. This applies, in particular, to humanitarian aid, education, health, and peace and reconciliation work,' Mr Brende said. 'Our efforts to promote business development and job creation will also be important in the context of our engagement in fragile states. Humanitarian aid is essential in the short term, but it must be linked to long-term efforts to reduce fragility and build resilience.'

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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, United States of America


    • USG and other donors commit more than $163 million in new funding to the LCB region in late September

    • MSF reports acute humanitarian needs in at least seven LGAs, including MMC

    • GoN forms inter-ministerial task force to improve national-level coordination of humanitarian assistance


    • The USAID-funded Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) reported that global acute malnutrition (GAM) levels in some areas of Nigeria’s Borno and Yobe states ranged from 20 to nearly 60 percent between June and August. FEWS NET noted that critically high levels of acute malnutrition are associated with a significantly increased risk of child mortality. In addition, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) reported that in Borno’s Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC) local government area (LGA), the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) among children younger than five years of age significantly exceeded emergency thresholds in at least three locations.

    • Humanitarian needs in Borno—including in the capital city of Maiduguri, and many newly accessible areas—remained acute as of late September, according to MSF. Populations in newly accessible areas, including Bama, Gwoza, and Ngala LGAs, lack sufficient access to food, health care, nutrition support, and safe drinking water, despite the restoration of limited humanitarian access between June and September.

    • At the UN General Assembly on September 23, U.S. Ambassador to the UN Samantha Power announced more than $41 million in additional humanitarian assistance to support many of the estimated 9.2 million people in need of assistance due to conflict and food insecurity in Nigeria and the rest of the Lake Chad Basin. The newly announced funding will support UN agencies and non-governmental organization (NGO) partners to provide conflict-affected populations with life-saving emergency assistance, including food, health, nutrition, and protection assistance, as well as shelter and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) support. Since FY 2015, the USG has provided approximately $366 million in humanitarian assistance to people affected by Boko Haram-related insecurity.

    • The International Organization for Migration (IOM)-managed Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) reports published in late August identified nearly 2.1 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria and more than 181,200 IDPs in Cameroon’s Far North Region. In both countries, the Boko Haram insurgency accounted for nearly 90 percent of displacement.

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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Mali

    Security Council
    7784th Meeting (PM)
    6 October 2016

    Almost 18 months since the signing of the Mali peace agreement, the United Nations peacekeeping chief this afternoon called the Security Council’s attention to the absence of concrete progress in implementing the accord and the degrading security environment in the country.

    “This situation poses a real risk to the sustainability and relevance of the overall framework for peace and stability in Mali that the Malian parties have agreed on and Mali’s international partners are committed to support,” Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, said the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), told the 15-member body.

    Expressing regret for the sombre tone of his briefing, Mr. Ladsous said MINUSMA would not be able to fully implement its mandate as long as the signatories to the peace agreement did not implement the accord.  The Mission’s capacity to protect civilians and counter asymmetric attacks in active defence of its mandate was further hampered by the absence of the capabilities recommended by the Secretary-General.  Instead of receiving reinforcements, MINUSMA would be confronted with the loss of key enablers.  No Member State had so far committed to contribute any of the outstanding capabilities authorised by Council resolution 2295 (2016) and previous resolutions.

    He said that, after four months respite, MINUSMA had once again been a target of coordinated attacks on 3 October.  Persistent delays in implementing the peace agreement and violations of the ceasefire were incompatible with a stable situation.  Prime Minister Keïta had announced an agreement of the parties on the terms of appointing interim administrations in northern Mali and the timeline for setting them up.

    But, three months after adoption of Security Council resolution 2295 (2016), which urged the parties to expedite the peace agreement’s implementation, confrontations had resumed between armed groups, in the Kidal region, he said. Security arrangements such as joint patrols had not been put in place nor had there been progress in cantonment, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration.  He welcomed, however, the Prime Minister’s announcement that there would be a conference of national understanding before the end of the year, calling the move an important step towards national reconciliation.

    He said that, in the three months since adoption of resolution 2295 (2016), MINUSMA had been proactively adjusting to its new mandate.  Though the additional capabilities remained to be generated, the force had utilized its existing assets to project a more robust and proactive posture to protect civilians, who continued to suffer from the consequences of the armed groups’ and Government’s military operations.  Ceasefire violations had further hampered access of humanitarian actors and serious human rights violations were being investigated.

    Atul Khare, Under-Secretary-General for Field Support, said that for MINUSMA to implement its mandate, the Mission must be given the necessary capacities required to operate safely and effectively in the current environment.  Since its inception, he said, MINUSMA had experienced significant contingent-owned equipment capability gaps.  Modern peacekeeping operations like MINUSMA demanded a range of new or stronger capabilities.  He called on Member States to consider becoming contingent-owned contributing countries and noted that Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal and Sweden had jointly agreed to provide a C-130 aviation unit.

    Mr. Khare said the country’s size, its remote and landlocked areas, and poor and insecure road networks continued to pose significant challenges to MINUSMA.  The Mission was now focused on ensuring secure and uninterrupted supply routes, upgrading and strengthening the defence and infrastructure of all existing camps, and improving its capabilities.  MINUSMA also was reinforcing its facilities against blasts and installing protected command positions and bunkers.  In high-risk areas, it had improved living conditions for civilian and uniformed personnel.

    He said it was essential that the highest standards be upheld in order to serve and protect the local population.  He had continued to prioritize efforts to address sexual exploitation and abuse and all issues related to the conduct of United Nations personnel.  In conclusion, he said that neither the challenges nor the risks should be underestimated.  “A failure to enhance the Mission’s capability will have a significant impact on our capacity to deliver on the mandate,” he said.

    After the briefings, the representative of Mali said the Secretary-General’s report had recognized progress made in his country.  He was, however, concerned by inter- and intracommunity tensions in the north, but noted that the Government was not linked to those rivalries.  The persistent asymmetric attacks by terrorists were the main obstacles to implementation of the peace agreement.  Although concerned at the human rights situation, he said accusations of excessive use of force the military were exaggerated.  The situation was marked by the absence of State authority in parts of the country.

    He said the Government had adopted an emergency reconstruction plan and a strategy for development of the northern region, and it would hold a national conference for reconciliation before the end of the year.  Peace and reconciliation required that parties would have to break with all terrorist and organized crime movements.  It also required cantonment and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration.  He called for targeted sanctions against all those impeding implementation of the peace agreement.

    The representative of Uruguay expressed his concern at the situation in Mali, noting the terrorist acts, ceasefire violations and absence of State authority in large parts of the country.  He said difficulties faced by Mali must be addressed in a long–term plan, paying attention to the root causes of the problem.  He also underlined the importance of regional initiatives to fight terrorism.

    The meeting began at 3:37 p.m. and ended at 4:18 p.m.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda


    • The number of people who have been forced to flee from South Sudan to countries in the region has now reached more than 1 million. South Sudan joins Syria, Afghanistan and Somalia as countries that have produced more than 1 million refugees.

    • In Uganda, the influx of South Sudanese refugees continues, with some 47,998 individuals arriving in the first half of September. The rate of new arrivals to Uganda is increasing compared to July and August.

    • In Ethiopia, some 11,420 South Sudanese refugees have arrived in Gambella since 3 September 2016, more than the previous total arrivals in 2016.

    • In the Democratic Republic of Congo, UNHCR has received reports of over 10,000 new South Sudanese arrivals in Aru Territory in Ituri Province



    PROTECTION: UNHCR has only one registration team for the two Provinces, hampering registration of new arrivals.

    SHELTER: An assessment mission to Aru Territory (Ituri) and Faradje Territory (Haut-Uele) at the end of August found that only 20 % of refugees have adequate shelter. The construction of emergency shelters in Gangala and Masombo (Haut-Uele) could not begin as planned in early September, due to the deteriorating security situation.

    HEALTH: Lack of essential drugs, including anti-malarial and antibiotics.


    PROTECTION: Additional support staff to conduct registration of new arrivals is required. Pagak Transit Centre (TC) needs to be urgently decongested. Public lighting is required to ensure the safety of new arrivals.

    SHELTER: There is a major gap in the availability of shelters to accommodate the current and potential new arrivals and the operation is reprioritising the programme to address the critical needs and life-saving activities while requesting additional funds.

    WASH: An additional 118 latrines are needed in Pagak TC.


    HEALTH: There are no public health services currently operating in Lasu settlement, Central Equatoria, after armed groups looted the primary health care centre, stealing drugs, medical supplies and furniture, and attacking refugees.


    PROTECTION: More resources are needed to assist with registration of new arrivals in light of the increased influx. Kuluba Collection point is in urgent need of expansion. Acceleration establishing community leadership structures to strengthen community protection mechanisms. Safety and security of shelters needs to be reinforced to ensure better protection of the population, particularly women and children.

    EDUCATION: More primary schools and Early Child Development Centres are needed In Bidibidi.

    HEALTH: Addition health staff, structures and supplies in Bidibidi to increase the scope and quality of services.

    FOOD: There is a need to establish food distribution centres and a food basket/post distribution monitoring system in Bidibidi, as well as increased capacity to develop a comprehensive nutrition programme.

    WASH: There is a need to increase the supply of clean water to Bidibidi settlement, as it currently averages just 5.6 litres per person per day. There is poor sanitation coverage in the new Ofua village in Rhino Camp, Arua.

    NFIs: The large number of new arrivals is depleting stocks of core relief items in Bidibidi.

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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Mali

    6 octobre 2016 – Lors d'une réunion du Conseil de sécurité sur la situation au Mali, le Secrétaire général adjoint des Nations Unies pour les opérations de maintien de la paix, Hervé Ladsous, a déploré jeudi l'absence persistante de progrès concrets dans la mise en œuvre de l'accord de paix et la dégradation de l'environnement sécuritaire qu'il juge « incompatibles avec une stabilisation durable, fût-elle partielle, de la situation ».

    « Après quatre mois d'accalmie, la Mission multidimensionnelle intégrée des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation au Mali (MINUSMA) a encore une fois été la cible d'une série d'attaques coordonnées le 3 octobre dernier », a déclaré M. Ladsous aux membres du Conseil rappelant que ces dernières, qui ont causé la mort de deux Casques bleus à Aguelhok, dans la région de Kidal, font suite à celles survenues depuis la fin du mois de mai à Sévaré et à Boni, dans la région de Mopti ainsi qu'à Nampala, dans la région de Ségou et qui ont fait 18 morts.

    « Ces attaques contre l'autorité de l'État ont en effet lieu sur un fond de dégradation générale de l'état de droit et de la cohésion sociale », a dit le Secrétaire général adjoint précisant que dans la seule région de Mopti, les violences intercommunautaires ont fait 24 morts et 53 blessés entre fin juin et début septembre. « Dans ce contexte, il est important que le gouvernement du Mali, avec tous les ministères pertinents et le soutien de l'ONU, poursuive ses efforts visant à l'élaboration d'une stratégie nationale de lutte contre le terrorisme, multiforme et cohérente, qui inclut des mesures visant à prévenir l'extrémisme violent », a-t-il ajouté.

    Lors de la dernière réunion du Conseil sur le Mali au mois de juin, le Premier Ministre malien, Modibo Keïta, avait annoncé l'accord des parties sur les modalités de désignation des administrations intérimaires et le calendrier de leur établissement dans les cinq régions du nord-Mali au cours de l'été 2016. Le Conseil avait ensuite adopté la résolution 2295 (2016) exhortant les parties à accélérer la mise en œuvre de l'accord de paix en s'entendant notamment sur une priorisation de ses dispositions.

    « Trois mois plus tard, je me vois malheureusement obligé de rapporter au Conseil que les premières violations du cessez le feu depuis les accords d'Anéfis d'octobre 2015 dans la région de Kidal ont hypothéqué le processus de paix, repoussant encore une fois la nomination des administrations intérimaires, prévue par l'accord », a dit M. Ladsous regrettant également l'absence d'avancées quant aux processus de cantonnement, désarmement, démobilisation et réintégration (DDR). « Toutes les parties n'ont pas encore nommé leurs représentants dans les Commissions nationales d'intégration et de DDR alors que les huit sites de cantonnement construits par la MINUSMA seront pleinement opérationnels à la fin de ce mois », a-t-il ajouté.

    Le chef des opérations de maintien de la paix a indiqué que la MINUSMA s'est adaptée de manière proactive à son nouveau mandat à travers le déploiement de patrouilles et de points de contrôle en coordination avec les forces armées maliennes et en utilisant dans toute la mesure du possible ses moyens existants pour projeter une « posture plus robuste et proactive pour la protection des civils ».

    M. Ladsous a toutefois souligné que malgré tous les efforts de la Mission, les civils continuent de souffrir des conséquences des opérations militaires menées par les groupes armés et le gouvernement. « Les violations du cessez-le-feu ont encore entravé l'accès des travailleurs humanitaires qui visent à répondre aux besoins les plus urgents de la population en attendant la reprise des services publics de base », a-t-il déploré.

    « La MINUSMA ne sera pas en mesure de réaliser pleinement son mandat tant que les signataires de l'accord de paix ne s'engagent pas résolument dans sa mise en œuvre », a prévenu le Secrétaire général adjoint qui a également alerté le Conseil du désengagement matériel des Etats membres de la Mission qui était pourtant en attente de renforts pour mener à bien son mandat.

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    Source: The Sudd Institute
    Country: South Sudan

    Author: Dr. Jok Madut Jok

    Chairman Corker, Ranking members, and members of the Committee, thank you very much for inviting me here today. I also want to thank this Committee for its steadfast support and focus on keeping discussions going within the American government about the crises facing South Sudan. The views I express here are my own and not those of the Sudd Institute, where I am the Executive Director.

    In addressing the crises of conflict, failure of political settlements, the violence that is unnecessarily taking the lives of South Sudanese and the humanitarian problems that confront a vast number of South Sudanese, I would like to slightly shift the focus away from the elite-centered neo-liberal peace-making project and onto what life is like for the ordinary people of South Sudan and how I see them being best assisted to tackle the violence that is imposed on them.

    Much of the crises confronting South Sudan today insecurity, poverty, economic decline, violent political conflicts, disunity along ethnic or regional fault lines, are really born of two sources. First, the burdens left behind by the long wars of liberation, which made South Sudan the most war-devastated corner of the world since the World Wars. Second, South Sudan started on the wrong foot at the time of independence. There were no programs put in place to manage the expectations of South Sudanese who had suffered so terribly and for so long. The country was born into too much wealth, resources that fell into the hands of the liberators who had not seen such wealth before and who clearly opted to pay themselves and went on a shopping spree, showing very little willingness or ability to develop programs to lift the country out of its war time miseries.

    These individuals had undoubtedly done so much to make the birth of their country possible, but nearly all of them quickly became disconnected from the realities of everyday citizens. They did not think the oil money would ever run out. These include many people who held high positions in security agencies, the military and cabinet portfolios, and who are no longer part of the government today or are in opposition but were a part of that corrupt system that put the country on the wrong path from the beginning. They kept making promises to their people that roads, basic services, security, economic development and political stability would all accrue, but no clear programs to give people reason to hope and to be patient. Instead, South Sudan was plagued by corruption that quickly ushered the country into a deeply divided society between the small class of new rich and the vast majority of citizens who had nothing. A very strong corruption-insecurity nexus developed straight away and South Sudanese were hammering each other along ethnic lines immediately following the end of north-south war. From Jonglei to Lakes, Warrap to Eastern Equatoria, more South Sudanese were killed by their own than had been the case at the hands of the north in a similar period. These were the realities that catapulted the country onto the path of war that exploded in December 2013, a war whose triggers had been in the making since 2005.

    While the conflict that has engulfed the country today is essentially a struggle for power between the politico-military elites at the center, these leaders are only able to draw everyone into their senseless war because the country’s citizens have long been so deprived of basic necessities and so pitted against one another along ethnic lines that so many ordinary people came to think that their survival rests with giving support, military and otherwise, to their ethnic leaders. This means that even as the world struggles to reconcile the leaders and help them sign peace agreements and create power-sharing arrangements and make plans to develop professional security agencies, the truth remains that these leaders in essence hijack and appropriate ordinary peoples’ real grievances and turn them into stepping stones into public office. The result is that their peace agreements never really address the question of why people join these wars in the first place, why these agreements collapse as soon as they are signed. The answer is that the real grievances at the level of everyday people get swept under the carpet during the political settlements, only for these grievances to keep brewing, waiting for a few disgruntled politicians or military leaders who feel excluded from the settlements to return to their already unhappy constituencies with appeals to fight whoever they believe has kept them out of power.

    This situation is the main reason there may be a peace agreement in place and the political leaders might agree to work together, divide power and resources, especially in Juba and in state capitals, but never manage to stop violence in the rest of the country. As we speak, the political arrangements that the SPLM-led government in Juba and the various opposition parties that have joined it to form the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU), are sitting on a powder keg of turmoil that is bound to explode throughout the country. For example, Riek Machar is in Khartoum and no one knows what he and his fighting forces are up to. Most likely, they are planning to resume the war, as signaled just two days ago by an attack on a town called Nhialdiu, not so far from Bentiu, the state capital of Unity, which saw some of the worse episodes of violence in 2014. If Riek is determined to get his position as First Vice President back, this would plunge the country, especially the whole of Upper Nile, back in the kinds of vicious violence we witnessed in 2013-2015. In Equatoria, people traveling on the road linking Juba to the Uganda border, the country’s lifeline, have been attacked numerous times, with people being killed ant their property destroyed. Other roads in the region, especially the ones linking Juba to Yei, Morobo, Kaya and on to Koboko in Uganda, another vital route for the citizens and traders of this region and the country at large, have also come under attack numerous times, particularly in the past 2 months. The government has not been able to assure people that it has the capacity to protect life and property. The government has not even admitted that it is fighting widespread rebellion throughout the country.

    I was recently in Wau State, Gogrial State, the home state of the country’s president, Salva Kiir Mayardit, and in Tonj State, and my assessment of the situation there is that the recurrent sectional warfare that has plagued the region over the years is continuing to affect people’s ability to produce crops and look after their livestock. Even in places that have not been impacted directly by the violent crisis between the government and opposition are being impacted by the broader national crisis. Areas that are not part of the “current war” are affected by other types of violence, like ethnic feuds and economic crimes. In Jonglei, ethnic rivalries and violent confrontations among the Murle, Dinka and Nuer ethnic groups, have continued to wreak such havoc in that region that large numbers of the Dinka sections have continued to flee the area. All these ethnic or sectional fights are not only making life unbearable in these areas but are also a sign that the country is becoming undone at the seams. Juba might be able to consolidate political power and get the best of the various power contenders, but the country is likely to remain ungovernable, if it does not disintegrate entirely.

    On the diplomatic front, no marked progress has been made since UNSC resolution 2304 to deploy an additional 4000 regional force to join the existing UNMISS to protect civilians better. The visit of the UNSC ambassadors, the threats to impose an arms embargo on the country, should the government prove uncooperative on the deployment of this force, and the likelihood that this force would make a difference in the protection of civilians, have been subject of much debate among South Sudanese and people in the region. There can never be a collective verdict, as the issue of an intervention force is very divisive, but both the opponents and proponents of such a force seem to agree that they are not holding their breaths on two accounts. First, the deployment of the force might not actually come to pass, given that there is still uncertainty about troop contribution, financing and agreement on the modalities of deployment. Second, the fact that the force would be strictly based in Juba does not provide much confidence, especially among civilians living in all the various embattled communities throughout the country, that they would feel any benefit from a force based so far away.

    What could the world community do to help the people of South Sudan? It is my considered position that the country has been on a life-support for over two decades, and this has produced two glaring realities that hardly anyone has thought of or explored with seriousness.

    First, the international community has always provided South Sudanese leaders with an alibi for their failure to take responsibility for the welfare of their people. In other words, international assistance, especially the humanitarian interventions, may be keeping some citizens alive, but will never amount to a solution to what is essentially a political and social crisis. So, to keep going with it is to merely keep the country on a life-support, without any conception as to how long and to what end this approach should be maintained; or to sever it at the risk of losing lives of so many people who have come to rely on food aid for quite sometime.

    Second, South Sudanese have never really been pushed tightly against the wall to the point where they have to think for themselves. It has always been a story of crisis, followed by a bail out from the world community, and another crisis, followed by another intervention. I suggest that there should be a discussion on ways to wean South Sudan from food aid, not as a punishment to the citizens who are still living in very disastrous circumstances, but as a challenge to South Sudanese leaders to come up with their own plan about how they see their country able to steer its way out of this crisis. It does not make sense that the country remains with the same programs that have kept the country from taking responsibility of its own future but with minimal support from the global community.

    I am not suggesting that aid is bad, but aid that shows very little impact for the massive investments made is a waste of resources and a straight jacket for the country. If aid must continue as a way to maintain a moral posture, if the West must continue to be seen to be taking responsibility and a mere symbolic gesture from the world community, then we should at least try to do it differently, not in the same way we have done it since 1989 when Operation Life-line Sudan was created. The approach since 2005 has been state-building, strengthening the institutions of the state, with the hope that the state would then turn around and take responsibility for the provision of goods and services. While it is important to build institutions, this is a process that takes a generation or more. Why should communities living far away from Juba or other cities be waiting for these goods and services until such time the state is ready to do it?

    A new approach would be to inject aid directly into small community-run projects, not channeling it through the bureaucracy of the government. If you take a look around the country, one observes that community-run projects or those championed by local NGOs, are the only products of foreign aid that you see all around the countryside. Peace should not be seen as an act of signing peace agreements between the elite but more a process of addressing the drivers of conflict at the level of society, including investing the youth in the country’s success and economy so that they have a future to look forward to, an investment they would fear to lose if they respond to anyone’s war drums.

    If the international community, particularly the American people and their government, continue to see it crucial for the US in stabilizing South Sudan, it would be best to engage with an eye to challenging the leaders of South Sudan produce their plan so that the role of outsiders to support a clear project that is well-developed, addressing the priorities of South Sudan from the perspective of the people of South Sudan. Such a plan should focus on security, addressing the massive humanitarian crisis (IDPs, refugees and famine), stabilizing the economy, including a robust anti-corruption mechanism, justice and reconciliation and respect for human rights and civic liberties. It is then and only then would this leadership have a moral ground for requesting help from the international community. Such help if, it is well-justified and credible, would only be a support to that which is a national plan. If the people and government of the United States are going to continue to stand by the people of South Sudan, as they have done for many decades, there has to be a seriousness on the side of US law makers and the executive branch of the government to put in place strong mechanisms to ensure accountability for US resources and to ensure that these resources actually make a measureable difference in the lives of the South Sudanese – in Juba and across the country. Quoting how much money the US has spent on South Sudan for the last ten years is not sufficient for continued support, we must ask what it was spent on and what are the results.

    Thank you once again, Mr. Chairman and the Members of the Committee.

    0 0

    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network, World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria


    How many people are food-insecure?

    More than the half of the assessed population in the Maiduguri outer wards (52 percent) is food insecure, of which 5 percent are severely food insecure. The remaining 43 percent are only marginally food secure, therefore their situation could deteriorate if exposed to further shocks or go without food assistance.

    Who are the food insecure people?

    Food insecurity affects the IDPs’ households more than the local ones: about 66 percent of the IDPs are food insecure in comparison to 41 percent of the host population.
    Moreover, households depending on remittances, solidarity, unskilled wage labour, hunting and also on agriculture are the most prone to food insecurity.

    Where do the food-insecure people live?

    Among the seven assessed wards, food insecurity is higher in the wards of Auno and Bale Galtimari (in both wards, 60 percent of the assessed households are food insecure) as well as in Ngubala Bamma (56 percent).

    Why are they food insecure?

    The Boko Haram induced conflict has exacerbated the already poor food security situation of both the host and the IDP communities. High food prices, market disruption, the lack of employment opportunities, coupled with a situation of chronic poverty have reduced households’ purchasing power and eroded livelihoods at the detriment of the access to food.

    How can we support the households?

    Food is the main concern of the assessed households. Since food prices are increasing, it is expected that households will increasingly face food security problems in the months following the survey as they approach the lean season (July-September), a period when food stocks and family savings both decrease.

    In line with the joint mission conducted in April 2016, the assessment recommends a multi-sector response coordinated with other relevant actors, both humanitarian and governmental, in order to respond to immediate food security and nutritional needs, and to support the households’ recovery for both IDPs and the host community. Free food distributions, Cash-Based Transfers (CBT) and blanket supplementary feeding for children aged 6 to 23 months are the most recommended modalities of assistance.

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