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    Source: Oxford Policy Management
    Country: Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal


    This working paper provides an analytical contribution to our overall study of region-wide shock responsive social protection initiatives in the Sahel. The Sahel study as a whole is focusing on the role of sub-regional networks and platforms such as the Food Crisis Prevention Network (Réseau de Prévention des Crises Alimentaires) as well as emerging evidence from regional initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Resilience and the Adaptive Social Protection Programme led by the World Bank, among others.It seeks to answer the question of how to envisage integrated social protection systems that are capable of responding to recurrent shocks in the region, particularly the food and nutritional crises that have become quasi structural features of the environment, and for which the response up until now has been largely based on annual humanitarian assistance through targeted household transfers (food, cash, coupons or other inputs).

    This paper on community-level practices and perceptions of social protection in the Sahel is organised as follows:

    Chapter 2 draws on literature beyond the Sahel to set out the importance of informal social protection systems and mechanisms, examining their functions and exploring their strengths and limitations. It puts forward a ‘social capital’ framework as a means of opening up new ways to conceptualise such mechanisms, and to assess and support their capacity to respond to both idiosyncratic and covariate shocks.

    Chapter 3 identifies a diversity of local informal social protection systems and mechanisms that have been documented in the Sahel, highlighting their specific strengths as well as assessing the particular challenges that these mechanisms face in response to idiosyncratic and covariate shocks. The chapter suggests how ongoing efforts to strengthen ‘shock-responsive’ social protection could usefully focus on developing complementarity between formal and informal systems.

    Chapter 4 focuses attention on pastoralists as a relatively neglected and marginalised group in the Sahel. Pastoralists’ livelihood and risk-management strategies represent one the most adaptive responses to the shocks and stresses of an arid environment, but they find themselves increasingly vulnerable in the face of changing circumstances. This chapter argues that shock responsive social protection programmes must be tailored to the particular contours of pastoral livelihoods and well-being.

    Chapter 5 presents and discusses some of the key findings emerging from recent studies of community responses to seasonal cash transfer programmes in selected Sahelian countries.

    These findings highlight in graphic detail some of the social complexities arising from this new form of assistance. The chapter focuses in particular on ambiguities arising from selective household targeting within a culture of broader community solidarity.

    Chapter 6 summarises the key findings of the analysis, and suggests that further reflection on ‘shock-responsive’ social protection in the Sahel needs to be built into ongoing efforts to develop overall systems that can span the continuum from protection, prevention, promotion and transformation, converging thus within an increasingly important agenda around resilience.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Nigeria

    Some children are malnourished and many families have nowhere safe to sleep amid lack of basic supplies and services in areas recaptured from insurgents.

    By: Hélène Caux | 7 October 2016

    MONGUNO, Nigeria – Tens of thousands of Nigerians liberated from Boko Haram face a desperate lack of food that has left some children severely malnourished and families struggling to make ends meet, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency warned today.

    Children are being sent on to the streets to beg for food and money, or on risky trips to surrounding fields to find firewood to sell. Many people still have nowhere safe to sleep, and some are camping in dilapidated schools.

    Mothers whose husbands were kidnapped or who have disappeared have been left to care for as many as 10 children alone in places where they struggle to work or earn money, and many live with fear that insurgents could attack them again. 

    Nigerian military operations earlier in 2016 in the country’s north-east pushed Boko Haram out of a sweep of some major towns, such as Monguno, 140 kilometres north of the Borno State capital, Maiduguri, and freeing tens of thousands of people from the insurgents’ rule.

    “Boko Haram attacked my village six weeks ago.”

    But conditions remain very difficult, UNHCR reported following a recent emergency assessment mission it led with a partner NGO.

    “Boko Haram attacked my village six weeks ago, they stole all of our belongings and our food,” said one mother, Falmata* who is now living among the displaced in Monguno.

    Her husband disappeared and she fled with their baby on her back and their five-year-old daughter by her side to a makeshift camp in Monguno called Kuya. Mamagona, her 16-month-old baby, is so malnourished she needed medical treatment at a nearby clinic.

    “Most people from my village fled and are in this camp with me,” said Falmata, 32. “Mamagona’s health started to deteriorate when we were in the camp. There is not enough food here and I don’t have enough millet to give to her, but I don’t want to go back to my village, it is too dangerous with Boko Haram in the area.”

    Another mother, Jabba, 28, also said she could not find enough food for her family. “I am sending my children, including my youngest boy who is eight years old, to be in the streets” to beg for money to buy food, she said.  

    UNHCR teams noticed a lot of breastfeeding women in Kuya camp, including teenagers, as well many young girls with children. The launch of livelihood projects is urgently needed to help women become self-sufficient and lessen the risk of people turning to survival sex.

    More than 60,000 displaced people are living in nine temporary encampments in Monguno, and more people arrive every week as military operations continue to dislodge Boko Haram further north.

    The Nigerian authorities and some aid agencies have arranged limited food distributions, but it was now key that these were increased and made more regular.

    UNHCR is working with the regional government to find a new site where displaced people can properly be cared for, and meanwhile plans to provide basic household items like kitchen utensils, mattresses, mosquito nets, jerry cans, female hygiene materials, soap, and detergent.

    “Few of these people are likely to return to their homes and villages soon.”

    Women whose husbands had been killed or kidnapped by Boko Haram remain traumatised, and they and their children need counselling and help to restart their lives, including to find ways to earn a living.

    Few of these people are likely to return to their homes and villages soon because of continuing insecurity, disrupted economic activity, and the presence of land mines in their villages and fields. Security continues to restrict aid agencies’ movements in parts of Borno, but UNHCR hopes to continue its vulnerability screening visits to sites in Banki, Dikwa and Gamboru-N’Gala in the next few weeks.

    These visits allow us to assess needs and address gaps to better assist the internally displaced populations, especially in terms of security, shelter, psycho-social support, and livelihood activities, as well as to avoid duplicating tasks with other agencies. 

    More than two million people have been forcibly displaced in Nigeria, including 1.87 million who fled Boko Haram violence since 2014. Some 195,350 people have sought shelter in neighbouring Cameroon, Chad and Niger.

    * full names withheld for protection reasons

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger

    This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson William Spindler – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at today's press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.

    By: William Spindler | 7 October 2016

    At approximately 3:00 pm, the military position in the refugee hosting area of Tazalit in the region of Tahoua, bordering Mali was attacked by armed assailants, whose identities are not yet known. The attack resulted in the deaths of 22 Nigerien military officers and the injury of five others. It is reported that the remaining three military officers who were at the post at the time, managed to escape unharmed. The ‘refugee hosting area’ currently hosts almost 4,000 refugees, however none were harmed during the attack.

    The armed assailants are reported to have arrived at the site in two pick up trucks. Witnesses say that following the attack, the assailants stayed in the area for up to 2 hours, and looted the health centre, stealing vital medical stocks. They also burned a UNHCR ambulance. No UNHCR staff or partners were present when the attack took place. The attackers then stole a military vehicle and fled, before support arrived.

    This is not the first attack against security forces guarding Malian refugee camps in Niger. On the 10th of September, armed assailants attacked a security post at the camp of Tabareybarey in the region of Tillabery, which also borders Mali and is home to almost 10,000 refugees. A young Malian refugee woman of 18 years was killed, as well as a 5 year old refugee boy. Five others were shot and wounded.

    UNHCR strongly condemns these acts of violence against people who were working to protect and secure the safety of vulnerable Malian refugees, who have been forced to flee their country since violence and civil war broke out in 2012. UNHCR is also troubled by the increasing number of violent incidents in the western regions of Niger bordering Mali, including ambushes, armed robbery and mine incidents.

    Immediately following the attacks, UNHCR sent a team from Niamey to the site to identify needs and provide a response. Senior staff will travel to the area on Saturday to meet the community and the authorities and express support and solidarity.

    Despite the fact that the Algiers Peace Accord was signed in June 2015 between several of the conflicting parties in Mali, inter-communal and inter-ethnic violence continues in the northern part of the country, forcing more refugees to flee to neighboring Niger. The UN MINUSMA forces in Kidal in Northern Mali also suffered attacks and casualties during the week.

    Niger currently hosts over 60,000 Malian refugees, and welcomed over 5,000 new arrivals in 2016 alone. Niger also hosts over 80,000 Nigerian refugees in the east of the country. UNHCR appreciates the solidarity shown by the Niger government welcoming vulnerable refugees fleeing both Mali and northern Nigeria. UNHCR’s MoU with the Niger government regarding the provision of security in the refugee camps and hosting areas was amended in August to include the camps in the Diffa region, hosting refugees fleeing Boko Haram.

    For more information on this topic, please contact:

    In Niamey: Louise Donovan,, +227 88 87 70 65

    In Dakar (currently on mission in Nigeria): Hélène Caux,, +234 809 016 1446 and + 221 77 333 1291​

    In Geneva: Nora Sturm,, +41 79 200 76 18

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger

    Ceci est un résumé des déclarations du porte-parole du HCR William Spindler – à qui toute citation peut être attribuée – lors de la conférence de presse du 7 octobre 2016 au Palais des Nations à Genève.

    Par: William Spindler, 7 octobre 2016

    Vers 15h00 hier, le poste militaire accueillant des réfugiés originaires de Tazalit dans la région de Tahoua, à la frontière avec le Mali, a été attaqué par des assaillants armés et, pour le moment, non identifiés. L’attaque a entraîné la mort de 22 militaires nigériens et cinq autres ont été blessés. Selon les informations, trois militaires restants, qui se trouvaient également au poste, sont sains et saufs. Cette « zone d’hébergement des réfugiés » accueille actuellement près de 4000 réfugiés et aucun d’eux n’a été blessé lors de l’attaque.

    Les assaillants armés seraient arrivés sur les lieux à bord de deux camionnettes. Selon les témoins, suite à l’attaque, les assaillants sont encore restés deux heures dans la région. Ils ont pillé le centre de santé et ils ont volé des stocks de médicaments vitaux. Ils ont également brûlé une ambulance du HCR. Aucun membre du personnel du HCR ou de ses partenaires n’étaient présent lors de l’attaque. Les assaillants ont ensuite volé un véhicule militaire et ils ont fui avant l’arrivée des renforts.

    Ce n’est pas la première attaque contre les forces de sécurité en charge de la sécurité des camps de réfugiés maliens au Niger. Le 10 septembre dernier, des assaillants armés ont attaqué un poste de sécurité au camp de Tabareybarey dans la région de Tillabery, qui partage également des frontières avec le Mali et abrite près de 10 000 réfugiés. Une jeune femme réfugiée malienne de 18 ans a été tuée, ainsi qu’un petit garçon réfugié âgé de 5 ans. Cinq autres personnes ont été tuées ou blessées. Le HCR condamne fermement ces actes de violence contre les personnes qui travaillent pour protéger et assurer la sécurité des réfugiés maliens vulnérables ayant été contraints de fuir leur pays depuis l’éruption de violence et la guerre civile en 2012. Le HCR est également préoccupé par le nombre croissant d’incidents violents dans les régions frontalières de l’ouest du Niger bordant le Mali, y compris des embuscades, des vols à main armée et des incidents dus aux mines antipersonnel. Immédiatement après les attaques, le HCR a envoyé une équipe depuis Niamey sur le site pour identifier les besoins et fournir une aide. Des responsables du HCR se rendront également dans la région samedi pour y rencontrer la communauté et les autorités ainsi qu’exprimer leur soutien et leur solidarité.

    Malgré l’Accord de paix d’Alger signé en juin 2015 entre plusieurs parties au conflit au Mali, la violence intercommunautaire et interethnique se poursuit dans la partie nord du pays, forçant encore davantage de réfugiés à fuir vers le Niger voisin. Les forces MINUSMA de l’ONU à Kidal dans le nord du Mali ont également subi des attaques et des pertes cette semaine.

    Le Niger héberge actuellement plus de 60 000 réfugiés maliens, et ce pays a accueilli plus de 5000 nouveaux arrivants depuis le début de l’année 2016. Le Niger accueille également plus de 80 000 réfugiés nigérians dans l’est du pays. Le HCR se félicite de la solidarité manifestée par le gouvernement du Niger pour accueillir les réfugiés vulnérables ayant fui le Mali et le nord du Nigéria. Le protocole d’accord du HCR avec le gouvernement du Niger concernant les services de sécurité dans les camps et les zones d’accueil de réfugiés a été modifié en août dernier pour y inclure les camps dans la région de Diffa, où sont accueillis des réfugiés ayant fui Boko Haram.

    Pour de plus amples informations à ce sujet, veuillez svp contacter:

    A Niamey: Louise Donovan,, +227 88 87 70 65
    Au Nigéria: Hélène Caux,, +234 809 016 1446
    A Genève: Nora Sturm,, +41 79 200 76 18

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    Source: International Rescue Committee
    Country: Nigeria

    1. Introduction

    Since 2009, and with more recent escalation since 2012, the Boko Haram insurgency has crippled northeastern Nigeria. More than 20,000 civilians have lost their lives and thousands of women and girls have been abducted and forced into sexual slavery. Borno State has been particularly affected, with widespread displacement and all 27 local government areas (LGAs) in Boko Haram control at one point. Of the 7 million people in need across northeastern Nigeria, 3 million remained trapped in inaccessible areas. However, in recent months, advances by the Nigerian Army and the Multinational Joint Task Force have led to improved access to some LGAs in Borno, revealing significant humanitarian needs.

    Most internally displaced persons (IDPs) have fled to nearby towns/centers that are protected by the Nigerian military, either staying in camps or taking refuge in abandoned schools, housing estates, hospitals, and other government institutions. Although ongoing violence and limited accessibility make data difficult to come by, there are an estimated 100,000 people in need in the Monguno Local Government Area (LGA)2, 63,000 of whom are IDPs residing in camps. As the Nigerian military pushes further north, additional IDPs arrive each day.

    Agencies including Refugee International, Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, UNICEF and others have noted the specific targeting of women and girls, the violence they experience under Boko Haram, and the dire need for specialized services for them. Yet, as International Alert reports in “Bad Blood,” there has been minimal effort to identify and address women and girls’ needs, much less target them as priority beneficiaries for any programming.” The IRC carried out a rapid assessment in three camps within Monguno’s Central Ward: Government Girls Secondary School, Central Primary School, and Government Secretariat School, all of which are in Monguno town.

    The IRC also visited the MSF clinic, and Monguno Central Hospital. The IRC did not find any gender-based violence (GBV) response and prevention actors or activities in the areas assessed; all of the areas lacked basic reproductive health (RH) and maternal health facilities, equipment, and staff.

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    Source: Rotary
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Nigeria’s health minister, Isaac Adewole, said on Friday that his government is determined to rid the country of polio again. New cases recently landed Nigeria back on the list of countries where the disease is endemic.

    Adewole met with Rotary leaders at Rotary International World Headquarters in Evanston, Illinois, USA, to discuss Nigeria’s recent efforts to stem the outbreak.

    All three of the country’s cases were detected in the northern state of Borno, which was under the control of Boko Haram militants until recently. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the virus has been circulating in the region for five years.

    “The new cases devastated us. Even one case is unacceptable. It’s very unfortunate we are in this position, but we are recalibrating our efforts to end this disease,” Adewole said. “We consider this situation a national emergency.”

    Shortly after the outbreak, the minister sent an emergency response team to Borno for an immediate and robust vaccination campaign targeting about 1 million children. More than 850,000 were immunized in the first five days of the campaign, according to Adewole. To reinforce the effort, the country is using both oral and inactivated polio vaccines.

    Moreover, Nigeria established a task force to tackle other issues in Borno, including lack of clean water, sanitation, health, nutrition, and psychosocial disorder stemming from Boko Haram’s occupation. “Rebuilding Borno is a national priority,” he added.

    Nigeria, with the help of Rotary and its polio partners, has already begun additional large-scale immunizations aimed at reaching 60 million children by December. Rotary released $8.5 million to support the response in high-risk areas and parts of the Lake Chad Basin.

    Nearby countries including Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, and Niger are also coordinating vaccinations to protect their polio-free status.

    Together, the five countries are conducting what Adewole called a “ringed fence” immunization. Inoculations take place along the countries’ borders.

    “We can’t do this alone. Working with the other countries is crucial to the overall polio eradication in Africa,” he added.

    In 2015, after Nigeria passed more than a year without any cases detected, WHO announced that it was polio-free and removed it from the list of countries where polio is endemic. Adewole admitted that the country stopped focusing on polio after the achievement. “We started the celebration too early. But these cases have awakened us, and we are now redoubling our efforts so this doesn’t happen again,” he said.

    Adewole added that it will take sustained effort to be removed from the list again, including domestic and international financing, the commitment of thousands of health workers, and strategies that reach missed children. The government has allocated $300 million for the emergency response.

    “Polio eradication is about national pride and honor,” he says. “We will not let our citizens or the world down.”

    By Ryan Hyland Rotary News 7-Oct-2016

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    Source: African Union
    Country: Mali, Niger

    Addis Abéba, le 7 octobre 2016: La Présidente de la Commission de l'Union africaine (UA), Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, condamne fermement l’attaque perpétrée contre un camp de réfugiés abritant des réfugiés maliens à Tazalit, dans la région de Tahoua au Niger, après qu’environ 40 criminels lourdement armés se soient introduits dans le poste de sécurité et tué 22 agents de sécurité, laissant 3 autres blessés.

    La Présidente de la Commission exprime la solidarité de l'UA avec le Gouvernement et le peuple de la République du Niger, présente ses condoléances aux familles endeuillées et souhaite un prompt rétablissement aux blessés. Elle réaffirme le rejet total de l'UA de tous les actes de terrorisme et l'extrémisme violent dans le continent.

    La Présidente de la Commission réitère l'engagement de l'UA de continuer à travailler avec le Gouvernement du Niger, les Etats membres, notamment ceux du bassin du lac Tchad, et la communauté internationale dans son ensemble dans la lutte contre le terrorisme et l'extrémisme violent qui ont coûté la vie à de nombreuses personnes, déplacé des millions d’autres et ont eu des conséquences dévastatrices sur les moyens de subsistance des populations.

    Elle réitère l'appel lancé par le Conseil de paix et de sécurité de l'UA, lors de sa 571ème réunion tenue au niveau des chefs d'Etat et de gouvernement le 29 janvier 2016, aux États membres de l'UA et aux partenaires internationaux pour poursuivre leurs efforts collectifs en vue de combattre efficacement le terrorisme et l'extrémisme violent en Afrique, tout en s’attaquant aux causes qui favorisent la propagation de ce phénomène.

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    Source: African Union
    Country: Mali, Niger

    Addis Ababa, October 7, 2016: The Chairperson of the African Union (AU) Commission,

    Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, strongly condemns the attack on a refugee camp shielding Malian refugees in Tazalit, Tahoua region of Niger, after about 40 heavily armed criminals drove into the security post and killed 22 security agents, leaving 3 others injured.

    The Chairperson of the Commission expresses the AU’s solidarity with the Government and People of the Republic of Niger, offers her condolences to the bereaved families and wishes speedy recovery to the injured. She reaffirms the AU’s strong rejection of all acts of terrorism and violent extremism in the continent.

    The Chairperson of the Commission reiterates the AU’s commitment to continuously work with the government of Niger, all Member States, notably those of the Lake Chad Basin, and the international community at large in the fight against terrorism and violent extremism which have claimed enormous lives, displaced millions and wrecked devastating consequences on livelihoods.

    She reiterates the appeal made by the AU Peace and Security Council, at its 571st meeting held at the level of Heads of State and Government on 29 January 2016, for AU Member States and international partners to sustain their collective efforts towards effective combatting of terrorism and violent extremism in Africa, while addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of this phenomena.

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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Mali, Niger

    7 octobre 2016 – Le Secrétaire général de l'ONU, Ban Ki-moon, a condamné l'attaque survenu jeudi contre un poste de sécurité de la zone d'accueil de réfugiés à Tazalit, dans la région de Tahoua, au Niger, dans laquelle 22 membres des forces de sécurité nigériennes ont été tués et plusieurs autres blessés.

    « Le Secrétaire général encourage les autorités du Niger à poursuivre et traduire en justice les auteurs de ce crime », a déclaré vendredi son porte-parole. « Il appelle également le Gouvernement du Niger à renforcer davantage la sécurité autour des camps de réfugiés et d'autres cibles vulnérables », a-t-il ajouté.

    Le Haut-Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés (HCR) s'est dit choqué et profondément attristé par cette attaque dont les assaillants ne sont toujours pas identifiés. La «zone d'hébergement accueille actuellement près de 4.000 réfugiés, mais aucun n'a été blessé lors de l'attaque », a précisé le porte-parole du HCR, William Spindler.

    Selon l'agence onusienne, les assaillants armés seraient arrivés sur les lieux à bord de deux camionnettes. Les témoins disent que, suite à l'attaque, les assaillants sont restés environ deux heures dans la zone pendant lesquels ils ont pillé le centre de santé, volé des stocks de médicaments vitaux et incendié une ambulance du HCR. Aucun membre du personnel du HCR ou de ses partenaires n'était présent lorsque l'attaque a eu lieu. Les assaillants ont ensuite volé un véhicule militaire et ont pris la fuite avant que des renforts n'arrivent sur place.

    «Le HCR condamne fermement ces actes de violence contre les personnes qui travaillaient pour protéger et assurer la sécurité des réfugiés maliens vulnérables, ayant été contraints de fuir leur pays depuis l'éruption de violences et de la guerre civile en 2012.», a déclaré M. Spindler, ajoutant que le HCR est également préoccupé par le nombre croissant d'incidents violents dans les régions de l'ouest du Niger frontalières du Mali, y compris des embuscades, vols à main armée et des incidents liés à des mines.

    Immédiatement après les attentats, le HCR a envoyé une équipe de Niamey sur le site pour identifier les besoins et fournir une aide. « Des responsables du CHR se rendront dans la région ce samedi pour rencontrer la communauté et les autorités et exprimer leur soutien et solidarité », a ajouté le porte-parole.

    Le Niger héberge actuellement plus de 60.000 réfugiés maliens et a accueilli plus de 5000 nouveaux arrivants depuis le début de l'année 2016. Plus de 80.000 réfugiés nigérians sont également hébergés dans l'est du pays.

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    Source: World Food Programme, Logistics Cluster
    Country: South Sudan

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    Source: International Organization for Migration, CCCM Cluster
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    Bamako, Mali | AFP | Sunday 10/9/2016 - 21:40 GMT

    by Serge DANIEL

    A leader of a former rebel group in northern Mali was killed by a mine explosion in Kidal in the country's north, military and ex-rebel sources said Sunday.

    Cheikh Ag Aoussa's car "was hit by a mine and he died on the spot" after he left the office of the UN's MINUSMA mission on Saturday, according to an African military source who is part of the deployment.

    "He was attending a meeting, then as he went to go home he was accidentally killed," the source added.

    The former rebel Coordination of Azawad Movements (CMA), which controls Kidal, confirmed his death and called for an "independent inquiry into this odious and clearly premeditated attack".

    "Among the theories, there is that of an attack and a car bombing," CMA member Mohamed Ag Oussene told AFP.

    "It was a targeted assassination," the CMA said.

    An official in Kidal also said Aoussa was killed by a mine.

    MINUSMA spokeswoman Radhia Achouri said the incident happened after a routine security meeting between the mission, the CMA and the French Barkhane force held every 15 days.

    She said the blast occurred about 300 metres (nearly 1,000 feet) from the camp.

    • Appeal for restraint -

    MINUSMA called for restraint and to "avoid speculation and unfounded allegations". It also urged "quick action to ensure that those behind the attacks are identified and brought to justice."

    A Tuareg from the Ifoghas tribe, Aoussa was the number two in the High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA), one of a myriad of armed groups in northern Mali.

    The HCUA was formed mainly by dissident elements of al-Qaeda-linked Ansar Dine, one of the jihadist groups that occupied parts of northern Mali in 2012, throwing the country into chaos.

    Aoussa had joined Ansar Dine as the rebellion broke out and served as right-hand man to its leader Iyad Ag Ghaly.

    He broke away in 2013 -- just after the French-led intervention to halt the jihadists' onslaught -- to join a different group that would later become the HCUA.

    Mali last year concluded a peace deal between the government, its armed proxies, and Tuareg-led rebels who have launched several uprisings since the 1960s. The deal's implementation has been patchy.

    Kidal has been rocked by deadly fighting for control between armed groups which were party to the peace deal.

    The fresh unrest has sparked international concern, with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon saying in a report published this week that the pro-government groups and former rebels involved in the clashes should potentially face sanctions.

    The report warned of serious failings in the UN's mission in Mali as it loses vital equipment and faces a rising threat from militants.

    German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who is on a visit to Mali, on Sunday called for northerners to be integrated into the army "so that Malian soldiers consider themselves as a single army for a single country."

    The ongoing international military intervention that began in January 2013 has driven Islamist fighters away from the major urban centres they had briefly controlled, but large tracts of Mali are still not controlled by domestic or foreign troops.


    © 1994-2016 Agence France-Presse

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan

    When fighting erupted in July in Juba, looters ransancked and stole all the food in the main WFP warehouse in the South Sudanese capital. This disrupted food assistance to hundreds of thousands of people in the country, and particularly the more than 30,000 people sheltering in UN Peacekeeping bases in the city. Most of the people who rely on this assistance were very concerned about their survival, and appealed to aid agencies and their donors to continue support. It was a great relief to most women in the camps when WFP re-started full assistance in September.

    Juba – On a cloudy September morning in Juba, Martha Nyanhor waits patiently for her turn to receive food items at a distribution point for people sheltering at a UN Protection of Civilians (PoC) site in Juba. She looks thoughtful, her gaze is distant as if unaware of the noise and commotion around her as people move bags of cereal, sacks of yellow split peas, and tins of vegetable oil.

    “I am thinking about how long this will last,” says the mother of six children. “How long we will live this life where we continue to receive food and pinch it so that we all eat to our fill.”

    Nyanhor and her children have been living in the PoC since December 2013, when she packed a few belongings and fled to safety as civil conflict unfolded in Juba and spread across South Sudan. They are among more than 37,000 people living in the camp, including thousands who recently sought protection there when fighting erupted again in Juba in July 2016.

    “We were worried about where food would come from when we heard that the food in the stores had been stolen,” says Nyanhor.

    Fighting and the looting of WFP’s main warehouse in Juba in July have presented enormous obstacles that temporarily disrupted the regular food distribution schedule at the two PoC sites in Juba. Following a population count and registration exercise conducted by humanitarian partners, WFP has been able to restart distributions with food that was brought to Juba in the weeks following the looting.

    Seeking safety

    The residents of the PoC depend on such assistance to meet their basic food needs. Many say they feel unsafe if they step out of the camps and welcomed the continued provision of food assistance by WFP and its partners through funding by several donors, including the Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department of the European Commission (ECHO), to WFP’s Emergency Operation in South Sudan.

    “I am stuck in this camp. If I have to go out to buy food for my family I may be harassed and assaulted by soldiers out there. Some women have even been raped,” says Nyanhor.

    “I am pleading with the UN and WFP and the people who give you the money to continue helping us while we stay here because we don’t have any other way of obtaining food,” she adds.

    As dark clouds continued to gather over the Juba skyline, a relative urges Nyanhor to hurry up. She steps forward, shows her card, and collects a white sack of sorghum, a blue and white stripped plastic bag containing yellow split peas, and a container of cooking oil.

    'I hope by God's grace this will end.'

    A few drops of rain hit the earth as Nyanhor readies herself to take the food home with the help of two of her children and a relative. She is still not smiling but her face looks relaxed now.

    “I don’t want to stay in this camp. It is the problems of our country that make me stay here, and I hope by God’s grace this will end.”

    With the support of donors such as ECHO, WFP has continued providing regular food rations to 1.6 million people affected by the conflict in South Sudan including those sheltering in the PoCs since 2013. A recent ECHO contribution of € 20 Million (US$ 22 million) was used to buy food for people living in the PoCs and affected by fighting in the Greater Upper Nile region.

    Author: George Fominyen
    George is the Juba-based WFP Communication Officer.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Mauritania


    • WFP has a 6 months net funding requirement totaling USD 16.8 million for both the PRRO and CP. Through internal mechanisms, WFP was able to mobilize resources to cover part of the needs till December 2016.

    • From 20 to 24 September, WFP conducted a market assessment evaluation in five markets of the region of Bassikonou (Bassikonou, Fassala, Mberra camp, Mberra village and Nema) to measure the impact of the introduction of cash transfers to refugees on local markets. Results will be available by mid-October and WFP will subsequently review the means of food assistance to better serve Malian refugees.

    WFP Assistance

    Developed in consultation with the Government, United Nations agencies and NGOs, the Protracted Relief and Recovery Operations (PRRO) provides assistance to the most vulnerable and food-insecure people in Mauritania and protects their livelihoods. Due to funding shortfalls, the project was scaled down to cover the six most vulnerable regions instead of the eight originally planned. WFP plans to provide food and nutrition assistance to 430,000 people in rural areas with the highest food insecurity and malnutrition rates through:

    (i) assistance in cash and in kind; (ii) nutritional assistance to malnourished and highly vulnerable children and pregnant and nursing women; (iii) food assistance for asset creation activities to help vulnerable communities and households build their resilience to withstand future shocks.

    As of January 2016, the programme includes assistance to Malian refugees in the Mberra camp, where WFP provides food and nutritional assistance to 42,000 refugees through unconditional food and cash distributions, nutrition and school feeding activities.
    Host communities are also assisted.

    In collaboration with the Ministry of Education, WFP planned to provide school meals to 160,000 children enrolled in public primary schools in eight rural regions.
    Due to lack of funding, school meals could not be ensured since December 2015.

    The United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) was established in 2012, at the request of the Humanitarian Country Team, to provide access for the humanitarian community in remote and vulnerable areas of Mauritania. UNHAS provides regular air services to aid workers, reaching six destinations in Mauritania. This service is indispensable for humanitarian personnel to access affected population in remote areas from the capital, Nouakchott.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad, Nigeria

    Ce rapport a été produit par OCHA en collaboration avec les partenaires humanitaires et concerne les vagues de déplacements internes depuis le 21 juillet 2015. Il est publié par OCHA Tchad et couvre la période du 24 août au 30 septembre 2016. Le prochain rapport sera publié vers le 26 octobre 2016.

    Faits saillants

    • La situation sécuritaire se détériore dans les zones frontalières de la région du Lac, en raison d’une multiplication des incidents sécuritaires depuis la fin du mois de juillet. Ceci affecte l’accès humanitaire et la protection des populations vulnérables, particulièrement dans les zones frontalières.

    • Suite à de nouveaux enregistrements, il y a désormais 89 010 personnes déplacées dans la région du Lac, auxquelles s’ajoutent 35 755 personnes déplacées estimées et près de 7 000 réfugiés.

    • Plusieurs nouveaux sites sont découverts par les partenaires, où les déplacés seraient présents depuis plusieurs mois.

    • Le taux de couverture en hygiène et assainissement est inférieur à 10% dans les sites de Baga-Sola,
      Ngouboua, Liwa et Bol.

    • En septembre, le monitoring de la protection a identifié 78 cas de violations des droits humains.

    89 010 déplacés enregistrés depuis mai 2015

    Dont :

    • 76 225 déplacés internes
    • 12 464 retournés Tchadiens
    • 321 ressortissants des pays tiers

    Source: Cluster Abris / AME / CCCM - OIM (Matrice de suivi des déplacements du 03/10/2016)

    35 755 déplacés* estimés pas encore enregistrés.

    Source: Cluster Abris / AME / CCCM - OIM (03/10/2016)

    *Le statut de ces déplacés n’est pas encore déterminé, ils peuvent donc être déplacés internes, retournés, ressortissants de pays tiers ou demandeurs d’asile.

    6 994 réfugiés dont 5 422 dans le camp de Dar-es-Salam depuis janvier 2015

    Source: HCR/CNARR (30/09/2016)

    Aperçu de la situation

    La situation sécuritaire s’est détériorée dans les zones frontalières de la région du Lac, à cause d’une multiplication des incidents depuis la fin du mois de juillet, notamment des attaques contre des villages et des vols de bétail. Sur la période de ce rapport, plusieurs incidents ont eu lieu à proximité de Kaiga, Tchoukoutalia et à Digou, et ont entrainé le décès d’une douzaine de personnes au sein des militaires et le vol de bétail. D’août à septembre, ce sont plus de 5 000 têtes de bétail qui auraient été enlevées et amenées vers le Nigeria. Par ailleurs, on observe une recrudescence des incidents liés aux engins explosifs dans la sous-préfecture de Kaiga Kinjiria, avec la découverte de mines, ainsi qu’une explosion sur l’une d’entre elles le 26 août qui a entraîné la mort de quatre militaires. Cette présence de mines représente un risque pour les populations affectées par la crise, soulignant l’importance des sensibilisations et des activités d’éducation au risque de mines.

    Par ailleurs, cette situation fragile a restreint l’accès humanitaire. Suite aux incidents, plusieurs organisations ont temporairement suspendu leurs opérations dans les zones frontalières, notamment sur les sites de Kaiga Kinjiria et Boma, ainsi qu’à Tchoukoutalia, privant d’assistance environ 14 000 personnes déplacées. Toutefois, certains partenaires, comme le Programme Alimentaire Mondial (PAM) et le Haut-Commissariat pour les Réfugiés (HCR), s’organisent pour acheminer l’assistance dans la sous-préfecture de Kaiga Kinjiria à travers les services étatiques (Direction Régionale des Affaires Sociales – DRAS -, Commission Nationale pour l’Accueil et la Réinsertion des Réfugiés et des Rapatriés – CNARR -) et les organisations locales (ACHUDE, Croix-Rouge Tchadienne). Selon les autorités régionales, les mesures nécessaires sont prises pour sécuriser la région et l’assistance humanitaire peut être réalisée dans les conditions sécuritaires sur l’axe Liwa-Daboua, ainsi qu’à Kaiga Kinjiria, Ngouboua et Tchoukoutalia.

    Cette situation sécuritaire pourrait avoir des conséquences négatives sur la protection des personnes vulnérables. Une recrudescence des incidents de protection, liés à la violation des droits humains, est observée au mois d’août. Par ailleurs, la situation sécuritaire fragile pourrait avoir un impact néfaste sur les liens sociaux et la cohabitation pacifique des communautés, entrainant une augmentation des tensions intercommunautaires, de la stigmatisation et de la psychose (assimilation de tous les incidents de criminalité et banditisme à des actes de violence de groupes armés). Cette situation peut égalemen

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Germany, Mali, Niger, World

    Niamey, Niger | AFP | Monday 10/10/2016 - 20:00 GMT

    German Chancellor Angela Merkel on Monday announced a 27-million-euro aid package for Niger, her second stop in a three-nation Africa tour aimed at fighting terrorism and stemming the migrant influx to Europe.

    The German leader said the army of the arid west African country, one of the world's poorest, would receive 10 million euros ($11 million) worth of equipment next year.

    Germany will also build a military base to back up the UN mission in neighbouring Mali, the first country she had visited on the whirlwind African tour.

    Merkel also promised 17 million euros as development aid for Niger's arid and desperately impoverished Agadez region in the north in a bid to fight migration to Europe.

    "What compensation can we offer to the people of Agadez to help them survive?" she said.

    "While these people fight smugglers, illegal emigration, they need revenues. Earlier they lived off tourism and that is something they cannot do now," she said.

    Unrest in the region, including jihadist attacks and tourist kidnappings, have led to a sharp fall in the number of visitors.

    She said efforts to stall the influx of migrants into Europe would be futile without development.

    Niger is a key transit point for people from sub-Saharan Africa who try to cross the Mediterranean to enter Europe.

    Since 2014 more than 10,000 migrants have lost their lives in the Mediterranean, according to UN figures.

    Merkel has said that she wants the European Union and North African countries to do deals modelled on a controversial agreement with Turkey to curb migrant flows to Europe.

    Under the EU-Turkey deal, Ankara agreed to take back migrants who made it to Greece in return for being allowed to send Syrians from its massive camps to the bloc in a more orderly redistribution programme.

    The pact also pledges billions of euros in EU aid for Turkey and visa-free European travel for Turkish citizens.

    Merkel will visit Ethiopia on the last leg of her trip.


    © 1994-2016 Agence France-Presse

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    Source: AlertNet
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria

    The highly contagious disease, which is transmitted by mosquitoes or close contact with contaminated animals, has infected 90 people

    By Kieran Guilbert

    DAKAR, Oct 10 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - An outbreak of Rift Valley fever that has killed at least 28 people in western Niger in recent months could spread to neighbouring Mali and Algeria, health officials warned on Monday.

    The highly contagious disease, which is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes or close contact with contaminated animals, has infected 90 people in Niger's western region of Tahoua since early August, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

    Read full story here

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Germany, Mali, Niger, World

    Niamey, Niger | AFP | lundi 10/10/2016 - 19:36 GMT

    L'Allemagne va débloquer 27 millions d'euros pour aider le Niger sur le plan militaire et contribuer au développement du nord du pays, a annoncé lundi la chancelière Angela Merkel lors d'une visite dans ce pays parmi les plus pauvres du monde et en proie aux attaques de groupes armés.

    "Nous allons investir l'année prochaine 10 millions d'euros (en équipement militaire, NDLR). Nous participons aussi à la mission Eucap, qui vise à entraîner les forces de la police (entre autres dans la guerre contre les jihadistes, NDLR)", a déclaré la chancelière.

    Mme Merkel a promis 17 millions d'euros d'aide au développement pour la région d'Agadez (nord) espérant ainsi lutter contre l'émigration et les trafics.

    "Quelle compensation pouvons-nous offrir aux gens de la région d'Agadez pour les aider à vivre? Lorsque les gens combattent les passeurs, l'émigration illégale, ils ont besoin d'un revenu. Ils vivaient avant du tourisme, ce qu'ils ne peuvent plus faire à présent", a-t-elle dit.

    L'idée de la chancelière est notamment d'aider les pays sur la route des migrants à les retenir afin qu’ils ne partent pas vers la Méditerranée. Agadez est considéré comme un carrefour important pour l'émigration clandestine.

    La veille à Bamako, elle avait insisté sur la nécessité de combiner soutien militaire et aide au développement.

    Au début du mois, l'ambassadeur d'Allemagne avait annoncé que son pays allait construire une base militaire en "appui" à la Mission militaire onusienne (Minusma) qui combat les jihadistes au Mali voisin.

    Le président nigérien Mahamadou Issoufou a salué cette initiative de base "militaire logistique" à Niamey et la participation de l'Allemagne à la Minusma. Cette décision est "extrêmement importante" pour assurer "la sécurité régionale" et "en particulier la sécurité du Niger (...) Régler le problème de la sécurité au Mali, c'est également régler le problème de la sécurité au Niger", a-t-il jugé.

    Le gouvernement nigérien fait face à des critiques de la société civile sur la "forte présence militaire étrangère" et est accusé "d'aliéner" la souveraineté du pays.

    "Ne découragez pas les pays qui viennent nous aider pour faire face à la situation (attaques des groupes armés) (...). Au contraire il faut remercier les Allemands, les Français et tous les amis qui viennent nous soutenir", a plaidé le président.

    La France et les Etats-Unis disposent déjà de bases militaires au Niger.

    Le 6 octobre, 22 soldats nigériens ont été tués lors d'une attaque jihadiste, contre un site de réfugiés maliens à Tazalit à 300 km au nord-est de Niamey, selon l'armée nigérienne.


    © 1994-2016 Agence France-Presse

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