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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Government of Ireland
    Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Ireland, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

    At the beginning of 2017, approximately 65 million people worldwide are displaced from their homes and 130 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance as a result of ongoing violence, conflict and natural disaster.

    Ireland is responding to these people’s urgent needs through our humanitarian assistance programme, managed by Irish Aid.

    Our overall goal is to save and protect lives, reduce suffering and maintain human dignity, before, during and in the aftermath of humanitarian crises.

    In 2016, Ireland’s total humanitarian funding amounted to more than €150 million.

    This assistance was delivered on the ground by our partners – United Nations agencies, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and Non-Governmental Organisations.

    A significant amount of Ireland’s 2016 humanitarian assistance was directed to crises in the Middle East, including €25 million in response to the Syria crisis, bringing our total funding to Syria and the region to more than €67 million since 2012. Ireland also responded to the dire humanitarian situation of people in Iraq, providing over €3 million in 2016, and in Yemen, providing over €4 million in 2016, as a result of ongoing conflict.

    Ireland continues to provide significant humanitarian assistance (more than €22 million in 2016) in the Horn of Africa, to countries including South Sudan, Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia. In particular, Ireland provided more than €11 million to assist the people of South Sudan, where people’s lives continue to be critically affected by ongoing violence and severe food shortages. Similarly, in north east Nigeria, more than €3 million was contributed to meet people’s urgent humanitarian needs as a result of ongoing insurgency.

    In the Caribbean, responding to Hurricane Matthew in October 2016, Ireland provided just over €2 million in humanitarian assistance to partners in Haiti.

    A central feature of Ireland’s overseas humanitarian assistance programme is the Rapid Response Initiative, which includes the Rapid Response Corps. In 2016, Irish Aid deployed 37 Rapid Responders to 20 countries and deployed 10 airlifts carrying 357 tonnes of emergency relief stocks to meet urgent humanitarian needs across the globe. Items distributed by Ireland include tents, water containers, hygiene kits and basic tools such as shovels and pickaxes. These items often prove critical to families attempting to set up temporary homes for themselves in the immediate aftermath of a crisis.

    Reflecting on Ireland’s growing humanitarian efforts in 2016, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Charlie Flanagan, T.D. acknowledged the continued generosity of the Irish people:

    ‘Unfortunately in 2016 many millions of people around the world were forced to leave their homes through conflict or natural disasters. Irish humanitarian funding is provided to those worst affected; where the needs are greatest. This is the fundamental principle which underlines our decisions. Often our funding goes to crises which do not make the news headlines, the ‘forgotten crises’, which other donors neglect. Ireland has responded to global need this year with over €150 million in humanitarian funding to organisations like the UN and the Red Cross; and to Irish NGOs like Trócaire and Concern. These organisations help us bring food, water, shelter and protection to the men, women and children who face disaster without it. This contribution to humanitarian crises around the world is made possible by the continued generosity of the Irish people.’


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    Source: UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
    Country: Mali

    The men in the room stared at Arnaud Royer in expectation. The Deputy of the UN Peacekeeping Mission’s Human Rights and Protection Division (HRPD) in Mali had just been asked what good are human rights for them.

    The men were members of an armed separatist group in the town of Ber, a small place bordering the desert in northern Mali. They formed one of the many extremist groups that have clashed with government forces in the north of the country.

    The men sat in the concrete room, bare, save a desk, some old wooden benches and a battered metal table. They wore combat fatigues and turbans to keep out the ubiquitous dust. Many were armed with rifles. Royer was armed only with his phone.

    This he held aloft. Earlier that day he had made a phone call to the Human Rights Division Office in Bamako. With that phone call he found out not only where some of the fighters’ relatives were being held by Government forces, but also that the conditions of their detention were deemed to be adequate following a Human Rights Officer detention-monitoring visit.

    “For three years, we have been establishing a mechanism to track arrests up to the trial stage,” Royer said later. “We make sure the detainee’s rights are protected. It is important that armed groups are informed of this and that Human Rights Officers are in contact with armed groups.”

    Since 2012, Mali has been embroiled in conflicts in the North, involving anti-government military coalitions and extremist forces. This fighting has led to numerous attacks on civilian, military and government personnel and has caused significant instability, including the displacement of thousands from their homes.

    Since 2013, the UN Peacekeeping Mission’s Human Rights and Protection Division in Mali has worked to establish a dialogue with armed groups involved in the conflict. This has been a critical strategy conducted by the office to open up the peace process, said Guillaume Ngefa, the Division’s Director.

    “What is important for us is that whoever is arrested, their rights are protected,” he said. “So the fact that Human Rights Officers have been doing this job has given us legitimacy, it has given us a bridge to engage in confidence with different armed groups.”

    This trust has led to groups, like the one in Ber, requesting that Human Rights Officers come to their held territories to explain human rights obligations, and to challenge them.

    Lieutenant-Colonel Al-Husseini Weld Al Moctar heads the group in Ber. He said his group works with the mission’s Human Rights and Protection Division because they help everyone.

    “People have to join and work with them for the sake of harmony among people and so they can love each other,” he said. “Even though the organization is not an Islamic organization, it works the same way Muslims do. We found that it has sympathetic individuals toward our people and toward the weak.”

    But engagement does not mean excusing or overlooking the very real human rights violations committed by armed groups, Ngefa said. Human Rights Officers collect and document evidence of violations – such as enforced disappearances or summary executions- and, in many instances, confront the group directly responsible.

    For example, Ngefa recalled an incident in 2014, where an armed group was involved in cases of summary execution. He went to the area to lead the investigation, and told the group leaders that there was evidence that what happened could amount to war crimes. The group denied the killings, but the office still made reports.

    “The fact is that we have established an environment of trust, because they see us as protecting their rights,” the HRPD Director said. “They know that we may not be neutral, but we are impartial in the sense that we talk to all sides and we disseminate the same message. Human rights must be upheld.”


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad

    Highlights

    • Due to a lack of food for several days, most of the people having allegedly surrendered and held at Baga-Sola high school had fled the site in search of food. Most have returned, bringing the total to 327 people currently being held.

    • These 327 people have been relocated to a new site, still in Baga-Sola, following advocacy to free the high school and preserve its civilian character.

    • 457 out of 458 children transferred to their cantons of origin on 24 November were located by the joint follow-up missions by the authorities, UNICEF and NGO partners.

    327
    People presently at the site*
    Including:
    3 children waiting to be transferred to the CTO
    Sources: authorities (as of 6 January 2017)

    10
    Children suspected of association with an armed group at the CTO in Bol, waiting to be reunified
    Sources: authorities, UNICEF

    729
    Women and children transferred to their villages of origin (including 15 since 23 December)
    Sources: authorities, UNICEF

    70
    Children reunified with their families (including 7 since 23 December)
    Source: UNICEF

    Situation Overview

    Advocacy by the humanitarian community continues for competent authorities to clarify the status of the persons still being held and to provide for their vital needs, in accordance with human rights and the Geneva Conventions. Indeed, faced with unmet needs in food and blankets, people having allegedly surrendered have reportedly left the site in several waves since 22 December.

    Of the 237 people who reportedly left the site, 233 have allegedly returned after a few days.
    Following advocacy by the humanitarian community, Baga-Sola high school was freed and 327 people having allegedly surrendered are now held in a site close to the Tigo antenna, still kept under the Multinational Joint Taskforce’s surveillance.

    The situation remains dynamic as people continue to surrender. The last wave dates back to 28 December: seven people including three women and two children have reportedly presented themselves to military authorities in Ngouboua.

    Local authorities are carrying out preventive actions to sensitize populations on peaceful cohabitation in order to promote access to hygiene and sanitation, medical and nutritional care for people who have been transferred to their villages of origin.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad

    Faits saillants

    • Faute de vivres pendant plusieurs jours, la majorité des personnes en situation de reddition retenues au lycée de Baga-Sola s’était enfuie du site en quête de nourriture. La plupart est retournée, portant le total à 327 personnes actuellement retenues.

    • Ces 327 personnes ont été relocalisées dans un nouveau site, toujours à Baga-Sola, après le plaidoyer pour libérer le lycée et préserver son caractère civil.

    • 457 sur 458 enfants transférés dans leurs cantons d’origine le 24 novembre ont été localisés par les missions de suivi conjointes des autorités, d’UNICEF et d’ONG partenaires.

    327
    Personnes sur le site*
    Dont :
    3 enfants en attente de transfert au CTO
    Sources : autorités (au 6/01/2017)

    10
    Enfants suspectés d’association à un groupe armé dans le CTO de Bol en attente de réunification
    Sources : autorités, UNICEF

    729
    Femmes et enfants transférés dans leurs villages d’origine (dont 15 depuis le 23 décembre)
    Sources : autorités

    70
    Enfants réunifiés avec leurs familles (dont 7 depuis le 23 décembre)
    Source: UNICEF

    Aperçu de la situation

    Le plaidoyer de la communauté humanitaire continue afin que les autorités compétentes clarifient le statut des personnes toujours retenues et assurent leur prise en charge, dans le respect des droits humains et des Conventions de Genève. En effet, face au manque de prise en charge de leurs besoins en vivres et en couvertures, les personnes en situation de reddition seraient sorties du site en plusieurs vagues depuis le 22 décembre. Sur les 237 personnes qui auraient quitté le site, 233 l’auraient regagné après quelques jours.

    Suite au plaidoyer de la communauté humanitaire, le lycée de Baga-Sola a été libéré et 327 personnes en situation de reddition sont désormais rassemblées dans un site à proximité de l’antenne Tigo, toujours sous la surveillance de la Force Multinationale Mixte.

    La situation reste dynamique car les redditions continuent. La dernière vague date du 28 décembre : sept personnes dont trois femmes et deux enfants se seraient présentées aux autorités militaires à Ngouboua.

    Les autorités locales mènent des actions préventives de sensibilisation des populations sur la cohabitation pacifique afin de favoriser l’accès à l’hygiène et assainissement, aux soins médicaux, à la prise en charge nutritionnelle pour les personnes qui ont été transférées dans leurs villages d’origine


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Gambia, Niger, Nigeria

    CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

    PERSISTING INSECURITY IN KAGA BANDORO
    The security situation remains alarming in Kaga Bandoro, in the Central Nana-Gribizi province, with reports of burglaries, hindrance to freedom of movement for people and goods both in the city and surrounding roads.
    Humanitarian partners are still assessing the situation to determine potential redeployment and full resumption of their activities in the region. On the Lazare relocation site, 4 of the 12 community shelters were vandalized.
    Efforts to rebuild the return areas are ongoing. Since September 2016, an upsurge of violence has affected the population of Kaga Bandoro.

    AVIATION SITE HEALTH CENTRE REOPENS IN BAMBARI
    The Bambari health centre aviation site, in the Ouaka province, hosting about 5,223 IDPs, reopened as of 2 January. The centre had closed as a consequence of the upsurge of violence in Bria, in the Haute-Kotto province, last November and humanitarian partners had temporarily suspended their activities. WHO has provided support with donations of medical kits and medicine, covering the needs of 1,000 people over a 3 month period. A trauma treatment unit has been established as well as a health center aimed at treating minor injuries and stabilizing serious cases.

    THE GAMBIA

    POST ELECTION CRISIS CONTINUES
    The post-election crisis in the Gambia further deepened in anticipation of the hearing on 10 January in front of the Supreme Court.
    President Jammeh rejects his defeat against opposition candidate Adama Barrow in 1 December poll. Nigerian President Buhari hosted on 9 January an emergency meeting with the Heads of state of Liberia, Ghana and Senegal. The Chairman of the ECOWAS and Liberian President Johnson Sirleaf said the organization will use a peaceful and diplomatic solution for the transfer of power in The Gambia.

    NIGER

    RECORD FODDER DEFICIT
    According to the results of the agro-pastoral production, Niger has recorded a fodder deficit of 12 million tons, representing 48 per cent of the country’s global need for 2017.
    Even in 2012, considered a year of crisis, the fodder deficit was estimated at 8 million tons. The government of Niger is developing an emergency plan to address the issue.

    NIGERIA

    MORE THAN 20 KILLED IN ATTACKS
    Between 5 and 8 January, Boko Haram attacks killed 20 people across the Local Government Area (LGA) of Gubio, Damboa,
    Mobbar and the capital, Maiduguri, hosting nearly one million IDPs. On 7 January, Boko Haram fighters launched a major attack on a military brigade in Buni Yadi, Gujba LGA, engaging soldiers in a shootout. With the return of more than 30,000 IDPs to the LGA since June 2016, the attack raises security concerns as humanitarian partners continue to scale up support to the populations.

    GOVERNMENT UNVEILS CONSTRUCTION PLANS IN THE NORTHEAST
    On 7 January, a three-phase reconstruction and rehabilitation plan for the region was unveiled by the Presidential Committee on Northeast Initiatives (PCNI), with an immediate focus on comprehensive relief efforts, social stabilization and early recovery to address the needs of seven million people in the next 12 months. The second phase will prioritize voluntary relocation, rehabilitation and resettlement of 2.4 million displaced people over the next 24 months.
    The third phase will focus on economic revitalization and development of the region within 5 years.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Gambia, Niger, Nigeria

    REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE

    INSÉCURITÉ PERSISTANTE À KAGA BANDORO
    La situation sécuritaire reste inquiétante à Kaga Bandoro, dans la préfecture centrale de Nana-Gribizi, avec des rapports de cambriolages, d'entraves à la liberté de circulation des personnes et des biens, tant dans la ville que sur les routes environnantes.
    Les partenaires humanitaires évaluent toujours la situation pour déterminer le redéploiement éventuel et la reprise complète de leurs activités dans la région. Sur le site de réinstallation de Lazare, 4 des 12 refuges communautaires ont été vandalisés. Les efforts pour reconstruire les zones de retour sont en cours. Depuis septembre 2016, une recrudescence de la violence a touché la population de Kaga Bandoro.

    LE CENTRE DE SANTÉ DU SITE DE L’AVIATON ROUVRE À BAMBARI
    Le centre de santé du site de déplacés de l‘aviation, accueillant environ 5 223 personnes déplacées à Bambari, dans la préfecture de la Ouaka, a rouvert ses portes le 2 janvier. Le centre avait fermé suite à la résurgence de la violence dans la ville de Bria, préfecture de la Haute-Kotto, en novembre dernier. Les partenaires humanitaires avaient alors temporairement suspendu leurs activités. L'OMS a apporté son soutien à travers des dons de kits médicaux et de médicaments, couvrant les besoins de 1 000 personnes sur une période de 3 mois.

    THE GAMBIA

    LA CRISE POST ÉLECTORALE CONTINUE
    La crise post-électorale en Gambie se poursuit en prévision de l'audience du 10 janvier devant la Cour suprême. Le Président Jammeh rejette sa défaite contre le candidat de l'opposition Adama Barrow au scrutin du 1er décembre. Le Président nigérian Buhari a accueilli le 9 janvier une réunion d'urgence avec les chefs d'État du Liberia, du Ghana et du Sénégal. La Présidente libérienne et Présidente en exercice de la CEDEAO Ellen Sirleaf a déclaré que l'organisation utiliserait une solution pacifique et diplomatique pour le transfert du pouvoir en Gambie.

    NIGER

    RECORD DE DÉFICIT FOURRAGER
    Selon les résultats de la production agropastorale, le Niger a enregistré un déficit fourrager de 12 millions de tonnes, représentant 48% des besoins globaux du pays pour 2017. Même en 2012, considérée comme une année de crise, le déficit fourrager était estimé à 8 millions de tonnes.
    Le gouvernement du Niger élabore actuellement un plan d'urgence pour y remédier.

    NIGERIA

    PLUS DE 20 PERSONNES TUÉES DANS DES ATTAQUES
    Entre le 5 et le 8 janvier, les attaques de Boko Haram ont tué 20 personnes à travers les zones de gouvernement local (LGA) de Gubio, Damboa, Mobbar et Maiduguri, la capitale de l’État de Borno, accueillant près d'un million de personnes déplacées. Le 7 janvier, les combattants de Boko Haram ont lancé une attaque majeure contre une brigade militaire à Buni Yadi, LGA de Gujba, engageant des soldats dans une fusillade.
    Avec le retour de plus de 30 000 personnes déplacées à la LGA depuis juin 2016, l'attaque suscite des inquiétudes en matière de sécurité, les partenaires humanitaires continuent de renforcer leur soutien aux populations.

    LE GOUVERNEMENT DÉVOILE DES PLANS DE CONSTRUCTION DANS LE NORD-EST
    Un plan triennal de reconstruction et de réhabilitation de la région a été présenté le 7 janvier par le Comité présidentiel sur les initiatives du nord-est (PCNI), avec une attention immédiate aux efforts de secours globaux, à la stabilisation sociale et au relèvement précoce pour répondre aux besoins de sept millions de personnes au cours des 12 prochains mois. La deuxième phase accordera la priorité à la relocalisation volontaire, à la réhabilitation et à la réinstallation de 2,4 millions de personnes déplacées au cours des 24 prochains mois.
    La troisième phase portera sur la revitalisation économique et le développement de la région d'ici cinq ans.


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    Source: Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: South Sudan

    The IOM Village Assessment Survey (VAS) is an IOM product that has been used across South Sudan for humanitarian and development purposes since 2007. It is a comprehensive data source for South Sudan that provides detailed information on access to basic services, infrastructure and other key indicators essential for ensuring that reintegration programs are developed and implemented on a foundation of accurate information.

    The 2012/2013 VAS represents IOM’s largest effort to date, encompassing 30 of South Sudan’s 78 counties, where an estimated 72% of the returnee population (based on estimates of 2012) resettled. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing payams outside the capitals, where comparatively fewer comprehensive assessments had been carried out. The VAS survey gathers baseline data across key sectors – namely access to healthcare, education, protection mechanisms, livelihoods, and water & sanitation.

    Where applicable, the VAS is aggregated at the state level to explain geographical variations in key indicators, although it is not strictly representative at the state level. Further, three categories of the priority counties were created for the data analysis phase: counties of high return, counties of medium return, and counties of low return, with ten counties in each classification.

    As a result of these efforts, a comprehensive report that provides a general overview of the VAS findings has been produced along with 30 county profiles and atlases that offer more detailed information at the county, payam and boma levels. Together, these documents provide updated baseline information to a wide spectrum of humanitarian and development partners.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Total population in need: 8 million

    Total children in need (<18): 4.3 million

    Total people to be reached in 2017: 3.3 million

    Total children to be reached in 2017: 2.4 million

    Renewed conflict since July 2016 has deepened the humanitarian crisis in South Sudan, with women and children facing immediate risks of violence, displacement, hunger and lifethreatening diseases. These risks are exacerbated by the rapidly deteriorating economic situation, with inflation above 800 per cent. Since December 2013, nearly 3 million people have been displaced, including 1.1 million people seeking refuge in neighbouring countries. Children comprise almost 70 per cent of refugees. The country is facing a critical food security crisis, with an estimated 31 per cent of the population experiencing severe food insecurity as of December 2016, and children among the most vulnerable. The situation is expected to deteriorate further, with 276,343 children likely to be affected by severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in 2017. Renewed outbreaks of cholera and measles continue, while malaria remains the primary cause of morbidity among children under 5. As insecurity rises, boys remain at risk of recruitment into armed groups and girls continue to face sexual violence, forced marriage and exploitation.6 Countrywide, 51 per cent of children are out of school, and only 40 per cent of those accessing education are girls.

    Humanitarian strategy

    UNICEF will develop local capacities and ensure accountability to affected populations by building on existing community networks and other community-based resources to assess, plan and implement the response. UNICEF co-leads the nutrition, education and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) clusters as well as the child protection subcluster, and is at the forefront of the humanitarian response in South Sudan. Where possible, resilience-based programming will bridge the humanitarian development divide. Through the Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM), UNICEF will deploy integrated missions to hard-to-reach areas, providing life-saving support to otherwise inaccessible populations. The joint UNICEF-WFP Nutrition Scale-Up Plan will continue into its third year. The back-to learning effort will build on the success of previous years and bring conflict-affected children, particularly girls, back to school. In 2017, UNICEF will focus on increasing the quality of education services and end-user monitoring. WASH interventions will provide access to safe water and improved latrine facilities. In health, UNICEF will focus on improving the quality of care in health care facilities and strengthening immunization activities. UNICEF will continue to monitor and report on grave violations against children, advocate for respect for child rights and support family tracing and reunification efforts for unaccompanied and separated children. Social mobilization will be used to generate social and behavioural change.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    Total people in need: 2.9 million

    Total children (<18) in need: 1.5 million

    Total people to be reached in 2017: 800,000

    Total children to be reached in 2017: 415,000

    The continuous influx of conflict-affected refugees from the Central African Republic and Nigeria is putting significant strain on Cameroon. The country is now hosting more than 274,000 refugees from the Central African Republic and 74,000 refugees from Nigeria. The Far North Region, the most vulnerable region in Cameroon with the lowest development indicators, has been the most affected by the Boko Haram crisis, with 198,889 internally displaced persons – mostly women and children – having fled their homes to escape the onslaught. These populations – refugees, internally displaced persons and host communities – are residing in isolated areas of Cameroon, where access to education, health care, water and sanitation is lacking. In total, 2.9 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance and 2.6 million people are food insecure to the point of crisis or emergency levels. The situation is worse for children, with 272,565 children under 5 facing acute malnutrition. Girls are being forced into early marriage and are often the victims of sexual abuse, while boys are detained on suspicion of being affiliated with Boko Haram. The year 2017 and beyond does not bode well for these populations.

    Humanitarian strategy

    Three years into the protracted crisis, UNICEF will use a two-phased approach. This will involve improving the resilience of Cameroonian communities and addressing both the humanitarian and development needs of affected populations. To reach the populations most in need, UNICEF will work with all strata of society and in partnership with communities and local government and reinforce the capacities of national and sub-national partners, from both government and civil society. Through an integrated approach, communities – particularly internally displaced persons and unregistered refugees – will receive a package that addresses their basic needs in nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and health. UNICEF will treat 58,000 children for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and counsel 10,000 caregivers on infant and young child feeding. More than 100,000 people will gain access to appropriate sanitation and more than 310,000 will access primary health care services. In view of addressing educational needs for all displaced children, UNICEF will reach more than 140,000 children with access to quality education and help more than 100,000 children cope with trauma and displacement through psychosocial support. This multi-year appeal will enable UNICEF to seek funding over a longer period and address needs in a more meaningful way.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan

    Total affected population: 4.7 million

    Total affected children: 2.7 million

    Total people to be reached in 2017: 850,000

    Total children to be reached in 2017: 530,000

    In 2017, 4.7 million Chadians will be in need of humanitarian assistance in response to the multiple and overlapping crises affecting the country. Food insecurity will continue to affect 4.3 million people, with 11.9 per cent of children under 5 suffering from global acute malnutrition (an estimated 558,450 in 2017) and 2.6 per cent of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (an estimated 228,240 children). Conflicts are uprooting many, with 579,000 people expected to be displaced by the conflicts in the Central African Republic, the Lake Chad basin and the Sudan in 2017, including 389,000 refugees, 105,000 internally displaced persons and 87,000 Chadian returnees. Both the displaced and their host communities require humanitarian assistance, including health, nutrition, education, water, sanitation and protection services. Epidemics, particularly measles and cholera, remain a concern for 2017 given the fragility and limited coverage of the health system. While a growing number of humanitarian actors are present in insecure areas, Chad’s emergency needs remain underfunded, with the Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) funded at only 39 per cent in 2016. In addition, the country’s difficult financial situation has impaired the Government’s capacity to provide basic services and participate in early recovery.

    Humanitarian strategy

    In line with Chad’s 2017-2019 HRP strategic objectives, UNICEF will continue to provide life-saving assistance to children. Nutrition interventions will be expanded to treat 200,000 children under 5 with SAM. Community-based infant and young child feeding will be implemented in the Lac region, while populations affected by emergencies will gain improved access to water, sanitation and emergency health services. The scale up of the emergency response in the Lake region will reinforce a multi-sectoral package for children, including through the promotion of early recovery, as well as the strengthening of government and civil society for community-based support for children’s rights. UNICEF will also provide learning materials and access to education; psychosocial support for refugees, internally displaced persons and returnee children; identification and care for unaccompanied and separated children; family reunification services; and mine-risk education. UNICEF will continue to lead the nutrition, education and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) clusters, as well as the child protection sub-cluster, at national and sub-national levels. UNICEF’s efforts to bridge humanitarian and development programming will remain paramount while supporting the Government’s emergency preparedness capacity and building community and institutional resilience through innovative approaches.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Chad, Mali, Niger

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: MALI

    Research in two villages around Dioîla, a city in the agricultural belt about 165 kilometers from Bamako, found that the success of WFP programs is conditioned by gender dynamics at the village and household level. As is typical in Malian households, the household head (dutigi) controls labor input for the household’s collective fields, and has the deciding voice in the use or sale of the unit’s collective production. Migration in the region has become an increasingly important livelihood strategy, particularly for young men drawn to work in the gold mines nearby.

    The region selected for this research has relatively productive soils and is accessible by many state and non-governmental organizations, allowing for a diversity of livelihood strategies.

    Agriculture, and particularly the production of staple grains, dominates household livelihood strategies for the region. Men and women, in largely separate economies, seek to diversify their livelihood strategies to mitigate risk, participate in the cash economy, and assure household food security throughout the year. For men, this is done primarily through migration and animal husbandry, either in fattening for resale or in husbandry. Shea butter production is a significant supplemental activity for women in both villages.

    Male out-migration creates demographic imbalances in key age-groups, which results in increasing demand for women’s agricultural labor. Younger males that would normally be subordinate to a household head and collectively work its fields find greater autonomy in migration. Social position is probably a greater determinant of a woman’s power within the household than is her economic contribution. The labor input demanded of a woman by her dutigi is strongly related to the presence of other active women in the household and their distribution. The economic pressures women face also depend significantly on their age and social position. In both villages, some women own animals, but are limited in the ability to sell them independently. Because a woman should not sell an animal without her husband’s express permission, potential buyers will refuse to purchase, or will give her a much less favorable price than her husband could get. This is a key factor limiting women’s participation in the market.

    As is typical of Bamana villages, land is not bought or sold, but remains in families. For the most part, even the poorest families who are obliged to work for others have their own fields to cultivate for subsistence. Sharecropping is rare, since households prefer to work fewer fields and produce less than before the gold rush, rather than maintain productivity using hired labor.

    Most households have an abundance of land and do not maximize their cultivated area. Land is formally meted out by the dugutigi, and each larger household head then apportions out the available land between collective and individual fields. The distinction between these two types of field grants women a certain degree of economic autonomy. Although women are assured parcels for their own cultivation, it is at the discretion of the dutigi to decide which ones they will be allotted in each cycle, which adds a level of uncertainty to their long-term planning.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Mali

    Total affected population: 3.7 million

    Total affected children: 2,072,000

    Total people to be reached in 2017: 422,000

    Total children to be reached in 2017: 302,000

    Mali is still affected by the armed conflict that erupted in 2012 in the north of the country. Despite the signature of the peace agreement in June 2015, renewed violence is undermining the provision of humanitarian aid. Humanitarian access remains a major concern in the regions of Tombouctou, Gao, Menaka, Taoudeni and Kidal and some parts of Mopti. More than 36,000 internally displaced persons remain inside Mali and another 135,985 Malian refugees are in neighbouring countries. The provision of basic social services remains limited in the north. The food and nutrition crisis continues to affect children, with approximately 142,000 children aged 6 to 59 months expected to suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in 2017.

    Humanitarian strategy

    UNICEF and partners will continue to respond to humanitarian needs and facilitate access to quality basic social services for crisis-affected populations and other vulnerable groups. In line with the 2017–2019 Sahel Regional Interagency Strategy, UNICEF will focus on emergency response and the search for durable solutions. UNICEF’s multi-year humanitarian strategy will cover the response to the consequences of the armed conflict. UNICEF will also support integrated vaccination campaigns in the three northern regions and health facilities will receive essential drugs and medical equipment to support health care for children under 5 and pregnant women. UNICEF will continue to support the expansion of SAM treatment, implement integrated interventions in health, education and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and reinforce the coordination capacities of national counterparts. In 2017, UNICEF will focus on the rehabilitation of infrastructure to ensure access to safe water for 240,000 people. UNICEF will improve access to quality learning for 140,000 children in crisis-affected communities. In child protection, UNICEF supports interventions for mental health and psychosocial support, children associated with armed forces and armed groups and survivors of gender-based violence, and reinforces the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism. UNICEF also supports disaster preparedness for flooding and epidemic outbreaks. UNICEF will reinforce access to basic social services in all prioritized areas where access can be established and will continue to respond to malnutrition and epidemics.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Total affected population: 1.9 million

    Total affected children: 1.1 million

    Total people to be reached in 2017: 880,000

    Total children to be reached in 2017: 729,700

    The Niger continues to face multiple humanitarian crises, with needs projected to grow in the coming years. It is estimated that in 2017, more than 1.9 million people will be affected by at least one crisis, including food insecurity and malnutrition, population movement, epidemics and natural disasters. The Diffa region, currently hosting 221,790 displaced people from the Niger and Nigeria due to Boko Haram-related insecurity, will continue to be affected, with an estimated 340,000 people expected to require humanitarian assistance in 2017. It is envisaged that needs in the region will remain acute across all sectors, exacerbated by weak infrastructure and sub-optimal links with transitional and development interventions. At the national level, despite an average harvest season, an estimated 1.3 million people will require food assistance and 1.5 million will require nutritional assistance, including 247,500 children affected by severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Epidemic outbreaks, particularly measles, meningitis and cholera, and natural disasters are expected to impact 872,000 people, including 479,600 children under five.

    Humanitarian strategy

    In 2017, UNICEF's humanitarian strategy will focus on the SAM response, including infant and young child feeding, targeting 247,500 children country-wide, as well as a multi-sectoral response to the 345,000 affected people in Diffa. Opportunities for developing more effective links between humanitarian response and regular programmes will be prioritized, particularly with safe water access, where water trucking will be combined with longer-term solutions such as deep boreholes connected with multi-village distribution systems and solar systems for pump functioning. Preparedness efforts will be maintained for epidemic outbreaks and floods, and contingency stocks will be maintained for the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) cluster in Diffa. UNICEF will continue to support the coordination of the WASH, education, nutrition and child protection sectors. The Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM), which incorporates non-food items (NFI) and WASH interventions, will be strengthened. Regular risk analysis will allow UNICEF to update contingency plans and improve preparedness. Prevention efforts will continue in all sectors, and tighter collaboration among child protection, education and Communication for Development will be established in Diffa. In health, mobile and fixed strategies will target 105,000 children in Diffa. At the national level, UNICEF will support the vaccination of 500,000 children aged 0 to 11 months.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Nigeria

    Total affected population: 8.5 million

    Total affected children: 4.4 million

    Total people to be reached in 2017: 4 million

    Total children to be reached in 2017: 2.1 million

    Due to the ongoing conflict in the north-east, the humanitarian crisis in Nigeria has significantly increased in scale. In the three most directly affected states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, 8.5 million people require humanitarian assistance, including 1.68 million internally displaced persons, more than half of whom are children. In line with the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan, UNICEF's focus remains on these three states, where 93 per cent of the internally displaced reside. The nutrition situation is of great concern, with some areas experiencing rates of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (10–20 per cent) that far exceed emergency thresholds. Social services are severely disrupted, with 40 per cent of health facilities and 1,200 schools damaged or destroyed due to the conflict. Similarly, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has become a growing concern, with an estimated 3.9 million people needing assistance. Three million children have lost access to learning, more than 2.7 million conflict-affected children need psychosocial support, 20,000 children are unaccompanied and separated and 8,000 children are associated with armed forces and groups. Failure to reintegrate and separation from families is increasing children’s risk of abuse and exploitation.

    Humanitarian strategy

    In 2017, UNICEF will deliver an integrated package of interventions, at scale, to affected populations, in coordination with other United Nations agencies, the Government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). As sector co-lead with the Government for the WASH, nutrition and education sectors and the child protection sub-sector, UNICEF will strengthen coordination, increase operational capacity at the field level, expand NGO partnerships, engage community-level social mobilizers and strengthen existing UNICEF programming systems to reach the most vulnerable. The nutrition response will include SAM treatment, promotion of infant and young child feeding and provision of micronutrient supplementation through community outreach. In health, UNICEF will support health facilities, immunization and maternal, newborn and child health week campaigns, while also improving primary health care service outreach. Access to safe water and sanitation will be improved and hygiene will be promoted, including in health facilities, schools and child-friendly spaces. UNICEF will provide psychosocial support for children (including in safe spaces and schools), care and support for unaccompanied and separated children and reintegration support for children associated with Boko Haram. Access to education will be increased. The strategy also includes cash and voucher interventions to promote access to services.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Highlights

    • 159,819 children under 5 with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have been admitted to therapeutic feeding programmes, with a recovery rate of 86 per cent.

    • In 2016, 4.2 million people were reached with primary health care services through UNICEF-supported Government-run health centres and clinics in both IDP camps and affected communities.

    • With UNICEF support, nearly 745,000 people have access to safe water. Over 1.1 million people have access to sanitation facilities as per agreed standards and more than one million people benefitted through hygiene promotion and distribution of hygiene kits/NFI.

    • In 2016, psychosocial support through Child Friendly Spaces (CFSs) and child clubs reached 185,839 children.

    • With UNICEF’s support, 106,882 children are accessing education through Temporary Learning Spaces and schools, and 187,142 children have benefitted from the provision of learning materials.

    Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs

    The IOM Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) round XIII recorded trends of new displacement and significant return, with an overall three per cent decrease in IDPs in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, and Yobe states. Returns are mainly attributable to relative improvements in security combined with food shortages in IDP camps. Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC), which still hosts the largest IDP population, saw almost 10% reduction in the number of IDPs who left to return to their LGA of origin, hereby registering an increase. The majority is not returning to their locality of origin but to the LGA headquarters instead, creating a situation of secondary displacement. In the frame of its scale-up intervention, UNICEF is continuing to respond to needs in the areas of return which require additional support and intensified humanitarian aid.

    With 5.1 million people in IPC Phases 3 to 5 in parts of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, the population facing severe food insecurity increased by 50 per cent since March 2016. Malnutrition rates remain high and children under five are most vulnerable. 400,000 children suffer from severe acute malnutrition and 75,000 are at risk of death. The number of children suffering from SAM is expected to rise to 450,000 in 2017 for those three states .

    Reports from the LGA Education Authorities indicate that in out-laying wards of Pulka (Gwoza LGA) and Banki (Bama LGA), over 3,000 children lack adequate classrooms, learning materials and teaching staff. As a result of limited access to these locations and due to insecurity, little support has been provided so far. UNICEF Education conducted the first visit to Banki during this reporting period and assessed the situation. It was revealed that in these newly liberated areas, schools starts as and still are mere learning centres that provide non-formal kind of education which is offered by the military educators. With regard to other locations within LGA main towns, there is ever-growing numbers of IDP returnees thereby necessitating expansion of education services.

    The upcoming Humanitarian Response Plan for 2017 will target 6.9 million people living in the three most affected states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe, who require immediate life-saving assistance. Of these, 1.7 million are IDPs living in camps, informal settlements and host communities with 75,000 children at risk of severe acute malnutrition. In line with the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan, UNICEF’s focus remains on these three states to provide critical life-saving humanitarian assistance to nearly four million people in Nutrition, Health, WASH, Child Protection and Education sectors.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    The purpose of this report is to outline the experience of piloting a set of developed survey questions meant to assess gender dynamics and women's empowerment in markets, in the Lake Chad basin Regional Market Assessment (WFP, ACF, et al. 2016). It should be used as a historical overview of lessons learned and good practices in developing tools to assess and monitor gender and empowerment in humanitarian crises.


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