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- 01/10/17--10:06: _Nigeria: MUAC Scree...
- 01/10/17--11:45: _Mali: Can a Nation ...
- 01/11/17--03:46: _South Sudan: Countr...
- 01/11/17--03:50: _Nigeria: WFP Nigeri...
- 01/11/17--04:14: _Mali: Mali : plus d...
- 01/11/17--04:37: _Burkina Faso: Burki...
- 01/11/17--04:44: _Mali: Mali: More th...
- 01/11/17--08:26: _Mali: EUCAP Sahel M...
- 01/11/17--08:44: _Chad: Humanitarian ...
- 01/11/17--08:52: _Nigeria: Nigeria Cr...
- 01/11/17--08:56: _South Sudan: IOM So...
- 01/11/17--08:59: _Chad: Tchad : Etude...
- 01/11/17--09:49: _Cameroon: Boko Hara...
- 01/11/17--10:11: _Mali: EUCAP Sahel M...
- 01/11/17--10:14: _Mali: Au Mali, des ...
- 01/11/17--10:47: _Nigeria: Nigeria la...
- 01/11/17--12:08: _Nigeria: Nigeria: N...
- 01/11/17--12:23: _Nigeria: Quick Asse...
- 01/11/17--12:37: _Nigeria: A Report o...
- 01/11/17--13:00: _Nigeria: A Report o...
- 01/10/17--10:06: Nigeria: MUAC Screening Report: Borno State, October 2016
A total of 651,616 children were screened, however, the LGA level analysis included 644,088 children and ward level analysis included 613,000 children due to missing LGA and ward names and exclusion of poor quality data form one ward. The data excluded from the analysis represents 1.2% of screened children and has no significant impact on the overall estimate.
Prevalence of proxy GAM and SAM reported at 12.1 and 3.5% respectively. Proxy GAM in the 11 LGAs and 110 wards assessed ranged from 4.5 - 20.0% and 0.7 - 37.0% respectively. Prevalence of proxy SAM in the 11 LGAs ranged from 1.3 - 8.5% and in 110 wards assessed ranged from 0.3 - 12.1%.
Prevalence of proxy GAM was greater than 15% in 6 LGAs and 34 Wards. The prevalence of proxy SAM is greater than 3 percent in 5 LGAs and 45 wards.
Mali has one of the highest rates of acute malnutrition in West Africa.
With 40 million hectares of arable land, the largest irrigation capacity in the Sahelian region (560,000 hectares), and 300 days of sunshine a year, Mali should leverage the agricultural sector to roll back malnutrition and poverty.
New agricultural development policies would prepare the country for the foreseeable impacts of climate change on livestock and crop productivity.
Reform the land tenure system to secure agribusiness investments by producers and investors;
Put in place agricultural policies that encourage smallholder farmers to be more competitive, and encourage the private sector to invest more, particularly in processing;
Set up subsidy mechanisms for relevant inputs to start adapting to climate change today;
Improve the road network to transport food products from crop and livestock production areas to processing units and markets, and avoid losses;
Develop a widespread training plan to encourage crop and livestock producers to adopt and share suitable techniques and technologies.
On 15 December 2013, a violent conflict erupted over access to power and resources, plunging the country into a deep political, socio-economic, and humanitarian crisis. It resulted in devastating losses of human lives and livelihoods, and ravaged the delivery of basic services and the social fabric in a country with an already fragile social cohesion.
A peace agreement mediated by the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) was signed in August 2015. It provided a framework for the parties to end hostilities and, during a 30-month transitional phase, begin key governance reforms designed to put South Sudan back on a path to sustainable peace and recovery. The Transitional Government of National Unity was tasked with initiating and overseeing a permanent constitution-making process leading to national elections; ensuring justice and accountability for crimes committed during the conflict; implementing institutional reforms related to economic and financial management and devolution of executive powers; facilitating reconstruction; and creating an enabling environment for the provision of humanitarian assistance (agreement on the resolution of conflict in South Sudan, 2015).
The crisis exerted a severe toll on an already impoverished nation, increasing the vulnerability and insecurity of people and communities, and manifesting in several critical ways. The first was large-scale loss of life and livelihoods, and displacement. More than 1.66 million people are internally displaced, including over 185,000 who sought refuge in Protection of Civilians sites inside United Nations bases; and 645,000 people fled to neighbouring countries (South Sudan crisis response plan, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – OCHA, 2016). The second was the pervasive physical insecurity in conflict-affected states and the impact of internally displaced persons in neighbouring states and the capital. Uncontrolled proliferation of arms during the recent conflict led to the rearmament of many communities, undermining traditional systems of governance that had maintained a level of peace and security. The conflict also affected the traditional gender roles, with women assuming the role of head-of-household in a society where women have less opportunity to generate income. Women were often forced to flee their villages and care for their children as the males in their families were killed or recruited. The conflict triggered psychological trauma, and continued violence affected large parts of the population, particularly women and children. Women and girls who experienced sexual and gender-based violence were further disadvantaged if they tried to seek justice, due to the prevalent application of customary law, the gender inequality in traditional settings, and the underrepresentation of women as community leaders and adjudicators.
The crisis resulted in socio-economic losses estimated at some 15 per cent of potential gross domestic product in 2014. Oil production, traditionally accounting for 60 per cent of gross domestic product and 98 per cent of government revenues, fell by about 42 per cent due to the conflict2 . The halving of oil prices aggravated the reduction in oil revenue, exacerbating the economic hardship and requiring fiscal adjustments (South Sudan economic overview, World Bank, 2015). At the same time, security sector expenditures rose to 44 per cent of the national budget in 2014-2015 . A floating currency regime was adopted in December 2015, devaluing the South Sudanese pound to one-sixth of its previous fixed rate. Poverty increased from 44.7 per cent in 2011 over 57.2 per cent in 2015, with a corresponding increase in degrees of poverty. The conflict also exacerbated widespread corruption, further weakening economic performance .
Service delivery in critical sectors has been compromised. Most health-care infrastructures are dilapidated, and many have been destroyed or damaged in the conflict. Essential medical and surgical equipment is outdated or lacking, while management and human resource capacity is still developing6 . In conflict-affected areas and locations with high concentrations of displaced people, basic services – including for HIV and AIDS and tuberculosis – are provided almost exclusively by humanitarian and development organizations. Centralized supply of electricity and clean water is practically non-existent, and most roads are impassable during the rainy season. Insufficient access to justice and weakened law and order institutions have fomented a culture of violence and lawlessness. National and local capacities to plan, finance, develop and deliver basic services, and invest in development infrastructure, are severely constrained. All this intensifies the socioeconomic deprivation of the predominantly youthful population, bearing the risk of increased social disaffection and conflict.
Finally, the conflict and displacement have eliminated the coping capacity of many communities and their ability to deliver basic services, disrupting food and livelihoods activities and markets. The United Nations estimated that 3.5 million people were food insecure in September 2015 (OCHA, November 2015). Approximately 90 per cent of South Sudanese households depend on crop farming on hand-cultivated plots, or animal husbandry, fishing, and forestry for their livelihoods. The heavy dependence on rain-fed agriculture increases the vulnerability of livelihoods and food security to the effects of climate change.
In response to the signed peace agreement, the United Nations organizations temporarily replaced the United Nations Development Assistance Framework, 2012-2016, with the Interim Cooperation Framework, 2016-2018, until a new United Nations Development Assistance Framework can be developed based on a new national development framework. UNDP adapted to the new operating context by realigning its programme to the interim framework and the strategic windows of opportunity offered by the peace agreement, in consultation with the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Since the onset of the crisis, UNDP had assisted vulnerable groups in Protection of Civilians and internally displaced persons camps and supported coping mechanisms laying the foundation for medium- to longer-term sustainable, resilience-oriented programmes.
A key ‘lesson learned’ is that meaningful conflict resolution requires time to establish and must be built on assurances of mutual security and restored trust. UNDP supports these processes by facilitating national dialogue and reconciliation processes, increasing community security, and improving access to justice. Sufficient time must be provided for these programmatic responses to take hold so as to avoid exacerbating tensions and reigniting the conflict.
A common theme across many evaluations of UNDP recovery programmes was the degree to which development partners underestimated the state-building challenge in South Sudan, and overestimated the capacity of the Government and how soon it would be able to take on responsibility for service delivery . Another recurrent evaluation finding related to a failure to fully consider the trade-offs between rapid delivery to demonstrate ‘peace dividends’ and efforts to strengthen national ownership and capacity . Building on experience and lessons learned from those programmes, UNDP sought to put state-building and peacebuilding squarely at the forefront of transitional initiatives. Its starting point was that the Government should be seen to understand and be responding to community needs concerning insecurity. Based on the results of community consultations, UNDP provided local governments with resources to implement projects that addressed community-identified security priorities. An independent evaluation found advantages in this innovative approach.
UNDP learned key lessons related to delivering programming in a conflict environment, which can limit the geographic access of programming and interrupt operations. In terms of programmatic approach, UNDP employs state-based interventions and, through partnerships with civil society, engages conflict-affected populations. Programming includes components to develop the capacities of local partners to serve as mediators and service providers, contributing to the sustainability of these skills within conflict-affected communities. Through these local partners, UNDP has continued working in the majority of states to increase community resilience and mitigate the impact of displacement.
On the operational side, it became evident that a robust field presence was critical to achieving impact. It was therefore essential for UNDP to partner with UNMISS and other United Nations partners to have a secure, affordable presence at the state level. To that end, UNDP negotiated memoranda of understanding with UNMISS based on cost-recovery to maintain a presence in key states, with a provision to return to conflict-affected states as soon as the security situation allows.
On partnerships, key lessons learned included the importance of understanding the political context and funding priorities in donor countries, and remaining flexible to respond strategically as the political situation develops.
Low resilience to external shocks, internal political struggles over power and resources, weak governance structures and corruption were the main structural causes of the crisis. The conflict and its devastating effects on the economy and the population are direct manifestations of those causes. That analysis, supported by the lessons learned, opens two viable pathways that UNDP could pursue to effect positive change in its areas of comparative advantage, while avoiding overlaps within the UNCT, responding to the evolving political context. First, the uncertainty and volatility of the current situation suggests that UNDP should prioritize building local-level resilience to protect and improve the development status of the population, complementing the ongoing humanitarian response. This includes restoration of community livelihoods for socioeconomic recovery, disaster risk reduction, and raising social cohesion in areas where stabilization is possible, as well as mitigating and reducing displacement emanating from insecurity and lack of services or economic opportunities. Second, UNDP in its convening role will foster enabling conditions for peace, security and stability to achieve longer-term progress by helping the State rebuild greater legitimacy, inclusion, transparency and accountability in partnership with UNMISS and other United Nations partners. This will be achieved through support to constitution-making and the electoral processes, drafting of relevant legislation, and capacity-building of rule-of-law institutions and infrastructure for peace.
UNDP will emphasize targeting youth and women in internally displaced persons’ areas and host communities, and in conflict-affected areas,12 providing a durable solution through the creation of conducive environments for internally displaced persons to return to their places of origin. In conflict-prone areas, UNDP programming will focus on peacebuilding, community security, and social cohesion. At the national level, in partnership with UNMISS, UNDP will work on governance and rule of law in support of the implementation of the peace agreement.
- 01/11/17--03:50: Nigeria: WFP Nigeria Situation Report #05, December 2016
1.8 m people displaced, of which 1.3 million in Borno and 0.13 million in Yobe States
4.4 m people food insecure in Borno and Yobe States
In December 2016, WFP has assisted through cash -based transfers, in-kind food assistance and specialized nutritious food distributions more than a million Nigerians in conflict -affected zones in the Northeast of country.
In 2017 WFP aims to scale-up further to assist as many as 2 million people by the end 2017, expanding to new areas.
WFP needs a total of US$ 208 million for its humanitarian response in Northeast Nigeria over the next six months (January-June 2017), of which US$ 181 million has yet to be found.
The crisis induced by the Boko haram insurgency remains the main driving factor of instability in north-east Nigeria and has the potential to cause further displacements and increase food insecurity.
A FEWS NET report issued on 13 December estimates that in 2016 famine likely occurred in Bama and Banki towns in Bama LGA (Borno State) and may be ongoing in inaccessible areas. However the report, approved by IPC’s Emergency Review Committee, notes that assistance since July has contributed to a reduction in levels of mortality and malnutrition, and has improved conditions in accessible areas of Borno State, including preventing famine in many IDP concentrations.
The IOM’s December Displacement Tracking Matrix reports around 1.77 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) are in north-east Nigeria, 80 percent of which are located across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States.
- 01/11/17--04:14: Mali: Mali : plus de 84 000 enfants protégés contre le paludisme
- 01/11/17--04:37: Burkina Faso: Burkina Faso: End of the emergency response to dengue
- 01/11/17--04:44: Mali: Mali: More than 84,000 children protected against malaria
- 01/11/17--08:44: Chad: Humanitarian Bulletin Chad, Issue 07 | November 2016
In 2017, more than 4.7 million people will need humanitarian assistance in Chad.
According to the SMART Nutrition Survey of November 2016, 10 regions have severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rates above the WHO emergency threshold (2%).
Chad loses about 9.5 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) each year, or more than 578 billion CFA francs because of undernutrition.
The Emergency Telecommunications Sector (ETS) is working closely with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on the deployment of six humanitarian hubs in North-East Nigeria.
The ETS delivered radio training to five UN Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) radio operators on 21 and 22 December. These radio operators are currently managing the UNDSS Communications Centre (COMCEN) in Maiduguri.
The ETS is getting ready to provide services at the International Humanitarian Partnership (IHP) camp in Maiduguri with capacity for 120 humanitarians. In addition, the ETS completed the installation of a COMCEN at this camp.
- 01/11/17--08:56: South Sudan: IOM South Sudan 2014-2015 Annual Report
- 01/11/17--09:49: Cameroon: Boko Haram still a threat to refugees in Cameroon
- 01/11/17--10:47: Nigeria: Nigeria launches plan to end hunger by 2030
- 01/11/17--12:23: Nigeria: Quick Assessment: Ngala IDP Camp - December 2016
Baga is a town in the northern Borno approximately 196km from Maiduguri and close to Lake Chad. It is located within the Kukawa Local Government Area. Town Coordinates: 13.094N 13.821E.
IDPs are living mostly in the host community in Baga town occupying homes of people who fled away during the peak of the insurgency. The IDPs who are residing in the host community are estimated to be 7200 and these comprise 1440 families.
There are 700 IDPs comprising 140 families who are currently living in Baga Central Primary school. This is a collective centre where IDPs are living in overcrowded conditions in school buildings.
The IDPs have maintained their traditional leadership structures (Bulamas) which continue to liase with the Nigerian army on matters of concern for both parties. The Nigerian army is the one administering and managing the affairs of the displaced population.
The assessment team visited the "Doron Baga" ward, where quite significant number of severely damaged buildings were found. Damages were widely distributed across the ward, with multiple clusters of near total building destruction. Virtually all building damages exhibit signatures fully consistent with fire, including the presence of burn scars, destroyed trees as well as intact load-bearing walls without a roof.
A large scale MUAC screening was organized to identify and treat children with severe acute malnutrition across 11 Local Government Areas (LGAs) and 110 wards in Borno State from September 17 to October 24, 2016. More than 0.6 million children were screened as part of the assessment. Children identified as malnourished were referred for treatment at outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) sites in the government supported primary health care centers providing community management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) services.
The Prevalence of proxy GAM (MUAC <125mm &/ or edema) by ward ranged from 0.7-37% suggesting averages at State or LGA level result may mask notable differences and pockets of areas with high prevalence of malnutrition. Similarly, the prevalence of proxy SAM (MUAC <115 &/or edema) by ward within LGAs is significantly different ranging from 0.3 %- 12.1%.
About half (47%) of screened children are from two LGAs (Jere and Maiduguri). The proxy prevalence of GAM in Jere and Maiduguri is reported at 12.3 % and 9.9% respectively. The relatively low prevalence in the two LGAs with highest population in the state could be due to the scale and intensity of nutrition, health, food security, water and sanitation and other programs in the areas as most of the humanitarian actors are operational in the two LGAs compared to the rest of the LGAs in the state. However, when the data is disaggregated by ward there are still pockets of areas with high prevalence of proxy GAM and SAM that needs to be prioritized for intervention.
BAMAKO, December 9, 2016 ─ Despite the dominant role that crop and livestock farming plays in Mali’s economy, the country has some of the highest rates of acute malnutrition and rural poverty in Africa. In 2015, the country ranked 179th of 188 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index. At the heart of this paradox is the fact that Mali’s agricultural sector is underperforming in terms of productivity.
Crop and livestock farming accounted for 37% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or 63% of total employment (86% of employment in small towns of fewer than 5,000 inhabitants) in 2015. Yet agricultural productivity remains very low due to the predominance of rainfed agriculture, land degradation, high post-harvest losses, the low rate of processing, and a lack of private investment.
World Bank experts looked into these challenges at a food and agriculture seminar held in Bamako this past November. The goal was to discuss the country’s agricultural future with authorities and rural players, and define the kinds of actions being undertaken by the World Bank and its partners.
“Mali allocates approximately 15 to 18% of its public expenditure to the food and agriculture sectors, accounting for some two-thirds of their total financing (public and private). However, when countries have successfully transformed their agricultural sector, public finance comes to just one-third of total financing,” explained Paul Noumba Um, World Bank Country Director for Mali, at the seminar.
For Ethel Sennhauser, Director of the Agriculture Global Practice at the World Bank, who conducted several field visits in Mali in addition to the seminar, “transforming crop and livestock farming in Mali is vital to meeting the dual demographic and climate challenge.”
Sennhauser reported that demand for quality foodstuffs is constantly on the rise due to the high rate of demographic growth (+3.2% per year) and urbanization (+4.7% per year), while the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (estimated at 12.4% in 2015) has already reached close to or above the “critical” point of 10% between 2011 and 2015. Mali, like other West African countries, is highly vulnerable to global warming and its output of maize, sorghum, finger millet, groundnut, and bananas is expected to fall sharply (below 10% by 2050).
The seminar consequently identified five areas for action to transform Malian agriculture, which currently relies mainly on cotton (Mali is the second largest producer of cotton in Africa). These policy actions are inspired from Brazil’s successful diversification of its agricultural economy into 18 other sectors, which helped put an end to its dependency on coffee. They also look to California’s experience in managing land, water, and abundant sunshine to develop large-scale production of quality foodstuffs.
These five policy actions are designed to boost productivity in these key sectors for the Malian population:
If Mali manages to meet these challenges, the country could become the breadbasket of West Africa. As summed up by Yaya Malle, President of the Fédération Nationale des Transformateurs des Produits Agroalimentaires du Mali (National Federation of Malian Food Processors) or FENATRA: “Developing food processing in Mali will help close the gap with emerging countries.”
I. Programme rationale
Dans le cadre de sa stratégie de lutte contre le paludisme au Mali, ALIMA et son partenaire malien l’Alliance Médicale Contre le Paludisme (AMCP) ont mis en place pendant la saison des pluies la Chimioprévention contre le Paludisme Saisonnier (CPS). Cette stratégie a été directement mise en œuvre par ALIMA-AMCP en collaboration avec les autorités sanitaires dans deux districts de la région de Koulikoro, où le paludisme est la principale cause de mortalité chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans.
Des médicaments antipaludéens ont ainsi été distribués à plus de 84 000 enfants de moins de cinq ans dans les deux districts sanitaires de Kangaba et Kolokani. Cette stratégie permet d’atteindre les enfants des zones les plus reculées et de les protéger pendant un mois. Quatre passages ont été organisés pour couvrir les quatre mois de la saison des pluies, d’Août à Novembre, lorsque le risque de transmission est le plus élevé, et éviter ainsi que les enfants contractent la maladie.
Cette année, une distribution de compléments alimentaires prêts à l’emploi a également été incluse à la CPS dans le district de Kolokani. L’objectif est de prévenir la malnutrition et d’étudier si un meilleur état nutritionnel améliore l’efficacité de la CPS sur l’incidence du paludisme chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans.
Des résultats prometteurs
Les résultats des précédentes CPS ont été très encourageants au Mali et ont réduit de manière importante le nombre d’enfants atteints du paludisme. Les enfants souffrant de malnutrition sont plus souvent touchés par le paludisme et la distribution de suppléments nutritionnels devrait apporter des résultats encore plus encourageants.
« Le CPS a déjà démontré une diminution de plus de 70% des cas de paludisme chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans pendant la période du pic », explique, Dr Soma Bahonan, coordinateur médical ALIMA-AMCP au Mali. _« Cette année, nous avons voulu aller plus loin en profitant des distributions dans les zones reculées pour protéger les enfants contre la malnutrition et voir si cela a aussi un effet positif sur l’incidence du paludisme »._
Une stratégie complémentaire
La CPS est une action préventive destinée à compléter d’autres stratégies, comme la distribution de moustiquaires, qui sont déjà utilisées dans les efforts de lutte contre le paludisme. Elle est particulièrement bénéfique dans des environnements comme celui de la région de Koulikoro, où l’accès aux soins est limité. Mais cela n’empêche pas tous les cas de paludisme. _« Il reste essentiel que la population ait accès aux moyens de diagnostic et de traitement précoce »_, ajoute le Dr. Bahonan.
Depuis le début de l’année, ALIMA-AMCP a traité plus de 43 000 enfants affectés par le paludisme dans la région de Koulikoro à travers les 111 centres de santé communautaires et six centres de santé de référence soutenus par l’organisation.
Au Mali, la CPS est intégrée au plan national contre le paludisme. Dans la région de Koulikoro elle est donc aussi mise en œuvre par le Ministère de la Santé dans les districts de Koulikoro, Dioila, Fana et Ouelessebougou où ALIMA-AMCP ne fournit qu’un soutien logistique. _« L’intégration de la CPS dans le plan national contre le paludisme est un progrès significatif qui doit être soutenu dans sa mise en œuvre »,_ conclu le Dr Bahonan.
La CPS dans la région de Koulikoro est une activité financée par l’office humanitaire de la Commission européenne (ECHO).
Depuis 2011, ALIMA travaille avec l’Alliance Médicale Contre le Paludisme (AMCP), une ONG malienne dédiée à rendre les soins de santé plus accessibles et à réduire la mortalité liée au paludisme. Dans la région de Koulikoro, ALIMA-AMCP s’efforce de réduire les décès dus aux principales causes de mortalité infantile, y compris le paludisme, les infections respiratoires aiguës, la diarrhée et la malnutrition. À côté des campagnes de Chimioprévention du Paludisme Saisonnier (CPS) organisées depuis 2013 pour aider à prévenir le paludisme, les équipes appuient également 111 centres de santé communautaires et six centres de santé de référence.
Au sud du Mali, à Dioila, ALIMA a également ouvert une école URENI (Unité de Réhabilitation Nutritionnelle Intensive) afin de former le personnel de santé malien. Ils apprennent à dépister et à prendre en charge la malnutrition aiguë sévère avec complications. Ce projet a permis de former 276 infirmiers et médecins.
Au nord, dans les districts sanitaires de Diré et Goundam, à proximité de Tombouctou, ALIMA et AMCP appuient 33 centres de santé communautaires et 2 centres de santé de référence, y compris un bloc opératoire, afin d’assurer un accès gratuit aux soins. Dans le district de Goundam, les équipes médicales se déplacent en clinique mobile afin de dispenser des soins et distribuer de l’eau potable aux populations déplacées. En 2015, près de 170 000 consultations, 5 000 hospitalisations, 3 600 accouchements et 522 interventions chirurgicales ont été effectué dans la région de Tombouctou.
When Burkina Faso’s Ministry of Health asked for help responding to an outbreak of dengue fever, ALIMA and its partners, SOS Médecins Burkina and KEOOGO, began supporting the government-led response on November 18, in three hospitals in and around the capital, Ouagadougou, where the majority of cases were concentrated.
The outbreak now appears to be slowing, but some 2,400 people contracted dengue fever between August and December and at least 20 died. This is the largest dengue outbreak ever reported in the country. The last flare up of the disease was back in 2013.
Here we speak with Doctor Fatoumata Mabeye Sidikou, the coordinator for the consortium’s emergency dengue project in Burkina Faso.
To start, can you explain what is dengue fever?
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by mosquitoes of the Aedes type. There are multiple symptoms such as joint pains, high fever and vomiting. Those symptoms can be relatively close to the symptoms of malaria, which partially explains the delays in terms of diagnosis. In certain cases, the fever becomes hemorrhagic and the symptoms include bleeding. The disease can be diagnosed thanks to Rapid Diagnosis Tests. Only symptoms can be treated, and the most severe cases may require blood transfusions.
The most efficient way to fight against dengue fever is to destroy mosquito breeding sites and protect the population against mosquitoes (wear long clothing, use mosquito repellent, avoid keeping stagnant water…)
Why did ALIMA and its partners decided to launch an emergency response to the outbreak?
For this epidemic, ALIMA wanted to support the Ministry of Health because really there was a gap in terms of all other support to the Ministry regarding the operations aspect, regarding the support to the hospitals, regarding the logistics aspect, in terms of RDTs [rapid diagnostic tests], in terms of drugs, in terms of laboratory analyses, exam prices and so on. For example, until we sent 2,100 RDTs, there weren’t enough tests available in the country [to correctly diagnose people]. So the authorities were happy to receive these. Also, for those patients who may not have access to health care or for patients who don’t have the means to do the exam, they now have the opportunity to do the test and have access to free care. We wanted to support the hospitals to treat the patients.
What kind of support did ALIMA and its partners provide?
In addition to sending the RDTs, we began treating patients at the end of week 45 [November 18], in Yalgado Hospital and later two district hospitals, Bogodogo and Kossodo. This included supporting the care of the most complicated dengue cases, like the hemorrhagic cases, the comatose patients, the shock cases and providing drugs. More than 200 patients were treated since we began. ALIMA and its partners also continue to support the Ministry of Health to train medical staff. We financed the training of more than 400 medical staff on dengue fever prevention, how to best take care of the patients with dengue…all these things. So this training is being done and it will be important in the short- and long- terms to end this outbreak and to follow up on the disease of dengue in Burkina Faso in the future.
The second important aspect is the spraying of health centers and patients house against mosquitos. ALIMA sprayed more than 50 health structures. This is really important if you want to end this kind of disease.
Ongoing at the same time was communication campaigns. We worked with local authorities to educate communities about dengue: what it is and how people can protect themselves, and where people can get care. This was done through animations and the diffusion of more than 7,000 posters and flyers.
What were some of the challenges?
In Burkina Faso, dengue isn’t well known. People get sick with dengue but think that the fever and headache means they have malaria and they don’t think about dengue. So they treat malaria first and think about other issues later and this delays treatment of the disease itself. Before the outbreak was declared, this created a lot of trouble for people because they waited too long to get care. This was why the sensitization messages were so important.
Also, at the beginning of the outbreak, before the response began, many people who came to the hospital couldn’t afford the treatment. So they came to this place where there they are seeing deaths but don’t have the means to buy the drugs and so they go away. We had to make sure people knew they that the treatment of simple and severe cases was free of charge in the hospitals we were supporting.
The emergency response came to an end on December 26. Was it a success?
For me, I think we had a very good impact. We helped a lot of patients, we trained a lot of medical staff. So yes, it was a success. But, but we can also say the response came a little bit late. If, for example, the intervention happened before the time it did, the impact will be even greater the next time. It’s one of the lessons learned. But this was related to the fact that it is a new disease in Burkina Faso and it’s related to the fact of what we call the “epidemic threshold” [the number of cases needed before its declared an outbreak], and for this kind of epidemic we don’t know about that. So if we don’t know that, it’s hard to come on time. But from this epidemic, we all learned from this, and next time we will know how to intervene in time and how we can come before it’s already after the peak.
ALIMA has been working in Burkina Faso since 2012. Currently, ALIMA is conducting two medical-nutritional projects in the districts of Yako and Boussé. Nearly 4,000 children with severe acute malnutrition were admitted to ALIMA’s nutritional programs between January and October 2016.
ALIMA is an independent humanitarian medical organization founded in 2009. ALIMA aims to produce quality medical care in areas of high mortality and improve the practice of humanitarian medicine by developing innovative projects. In Burkina Faso, ALIMA works with two national medical organizations, SOS Medecins and the Association Keoogo. The ALIMA projects in Burkina Faso are supported by the Office of Humanitarian Affairs of the European Commission (ECHO).
As part of its ongoing strategy to combat malaria in Mali, ALIMA and its Malian partner Alliance Médicale Contre le Paludisme (Medical Alliance Against Malaria, or AMCP) has completed, in collaboration with health authorities, a Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) campaign, in two districts of the Koulikoro region, where malaria is the leading cause of death among children under five years of age.
SMC is a preventative measure that administers a full-treatment course of anti-malarial medicine to children living in endemic malaria zones, each month during rainy season. The World Health Organization says that SMC has been shown to protect up to 75 percent of children under the age of five against uncomplicated and severe malaria.
A single dose of SMC can protect a child for one month. This year, ALIMA-AMCP distributed four rounds of anti-malarial medications to more than 84,000 children under the age of five, in Kangaba and Kolokani districts in Mali, between August and November, during the rainy season, when the risk of transmission is highest, in order to prevent them from contracting the disease. Health workers were able to reach children in even the most remote areas.
While SMC does not prevent all cases of malaria, the results of previous rounds of SMC campaigns in Mali have been very encouraging.
“The SMC has already demonstrated a decrease of more than70 percent of malaria cases in children under five years old during peak season,” said Dr. Soma Bahonan, the ALIMA-AMCP medical coordinator in Mali.
This year, a distribution of ready-to-use supplementary food was also included in the SMC distribution in Kolokani district in order to prevent malnutrition. Children suffering from malnutrition are more often affected by malaria and the distribution of supplementary food should bring additional benefits as well.
“We wanted to go further by taking advantage of distributions in remote areas,” Dr. Bahonan said, “to protect children against malnutrition and see if it has a positive effect on malaria incidence too.”
SMC is a preventive action designed to complement other strategies, such as the distribution of mosquito nets, which are already being employed in efforts to combat malaria. It is especially beneficial in areas like the Koulikoro region, where access to health care is limited.
“It remains essential that people have access to the means of diagnosis and early treatment,” Dr. Bahonan emphasized.
In Mali, SMC has also been integrated into the national plan against malaria. In Koulikoro region, the Ministry of Health implemented SMC in Koulikoro, Dioila, Fana and Ouelessebougou districts, where ALIMA-AMCP provides logistical support.
“The integration of the SMC in the national plan against malaria is a significant step forward, which must be supported in its implementation,” concluded Dr. Bahonan. SMC in Koulikoro region is an activity funded by the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department (ECHO).
Since 2011, ALIMA works with Alliance Médicale Contre le Paludisme (Medical Alliance Against Malaria, or AMPC),a Malian NGO dedicated to making healthcare more accessible and reducing malaria-related mortality. In Koulikoro region, ALIMA-AMCP is working hard to reduce deaths from the leading causes of infant mortality, including malaria, acute respiratory infections, diarrhea and malnutrition. Together they have treated more than 43,000 children affected by malaria in Koulikoro region, throughout 111 community health centers and six referral health centers supported by the organization.
In Dioïla, in southern Mali, ALIMA also opened an intensive nutritional rehabilitation unit to train Malian healthcare workers. They are taught to screen for severe acute malnutrition with complications and how to manage such cases in a hospital setting. To date, the project has trained 276 nurses and doctors.
In northern Mali, ALIMA and AMCP support 33 community health centers and two referral health centers – including an operating room – in the Diré and Goudam districts in the Timbuktu region, providing free access to health care. In the Goudam district, medical teams in mobile clinics dispense care and distribute drinking water to displaced people. In 2015, nearly 170,000 consultations, 5,000 hospitalizations, 3,600 births, and 522 surgical procedures were recorded in the Timbuktu region.
On 11 January 2017, the Council extended the mandate of the EU mission EUCAP Sahel Mali for two years, **until 14 January 2019**. The Council also allocated a budget of **€29.7 million** to the mission for the period from 15 January 2017 to 14 January 2018.
The EUCAP Sahel Mali civilian mission assists and advises Mali's internal security forces as they implement the **reform in the security sector** laid down by the government.
It provides **training and strategic advice** to the Malian police, gendarmerie and national guard, and to relevant ministries, in order to support the security sector reform.
The mission is part of the **EU's comprehensive approach** to security and development in the Sahel, which aims to support the Malian state in ensuring constitutional and democratic order, establishing the conditions for lasting peace and maintaining authority throughout the entire territory. There are two other CSDP missions underway in the region: EUTM Mali, which contributes to the restructuring and reorganisation of the Malian Armed Forces through training and advice, and EUCAP Sahel Niger, which supports the fight against organised crime and terrorism in Niger.
EUCAP Sahel Mali was launched on 15 April 2014. The Head of Mission is Mr Albrecht Conze, from Germany. On 14 December 2016, his mandate was extended until 14 July 2017. The headquarters of the mission are located in Bamako, Mali.
The decision was adopted by written procedure.
Over 4.7 million people will need humanitarian assistance in Chad in 2017
Multiple humanitarian crises
Low human development exacerbated by climatic and health risks associated with severe food insecurity and population displacement precipitate the majority of the Chadian population, about 8 million people, into acute or chronic vulnerability. According to the Humanitarian needs overview (HNO) of 2017, over 4.7 million1 people among whom 52% are women will need humanitarian assistance next year.
Regarding food security and nutrition, despite good prospects for the 2016/2017 crop year compared to the previous year, the analysis from the Harmonised Framework of November 2016 estimated that about 3.9 million people will be food insecure, including over one million severely food insecure during the next lean period (JuneAugust 2017). This represents an increase by 100,000 people compared to the 2016 lean period. Over two million people will be food insecure as of June in the eight regions of the Sahel belt (Batha, Kanem, Barh El Ghazal, Ouaddai, Sila, Wadi Fira, Guera and Hadjer Lamis), including about 702,000 people in severe food insecurity. These people will need emergency food assistance as well as support for agricultural production and livestock to help them get out of their vulnerable situation. In addition, nearly 500,000 people in displacement still need food assistance2 .
The nutritional situation remains worrisome, with almost 438,101 expected malnutrition cases in 2017 (a deterioration compared to 410,314 expected cases in 2016), including 237,8073 moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) cases and 200,294 cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affecting children under five years old who will require urgent nutritional treatment. Given the correlation between food insecurity and malnutrition, food assistance should be combined with the treatment and prevention of malnutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women. To reduce the prevalence of acute malnutrition, an integrated nutrition - health - education - water, hygiene and sanitation response is needed.
The conflict in North-East Nigeria has left 5.1 million people across Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states in a food and nutrition crisis. Millions have already escaped violence with up to 77 per cent of internally displaced people seeking refuge in host communities.
On 2 December 2016, the Nigeria Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) for 2017 was launched in Abuja jointly with the Federal Government of Nigeria, the United Nations (UN), and 75 partner organisations. Seeking US$1 billion, the HRP focuses on 8.5 million people in urgent need of assistance, and aims to provide 6.9 million of these with life-saving humanitarian support, across the north-eastern states.
The ETS will concentrate its response in the states of Borno and Yobe to support the wider humanitarian response with the provision of lifesaving communications services. In these states, the ETS will deploy services in 8x common operational areas.
In 2014 and 2015, IOM teams worked tirelessly to provide humanitarian assistance to displaced and conflict-affected populations across South Sudan. Efforts focused on addressing the needs of the most vulnerable through assistance in the fields of camp coordination and camp management, health, logistics, shelter and non-food relief items, protection, and WASH.
When conflict erupted in Juba, South Sudan, on 15 December 2013, IOM responded quickly to rapidly expanding humanitarian needs. IOM, already active in the country, swiftly restructured it programmes in response to the new dynamic. Missions engaged primarily in transition and recovery activities were down-sized, offices in Malakal and Bentiu were augmented to provide multi-sectors assistance in PoC sites and a new office was opened in Bor.
In parallel with these activities, IOM carried out peace building and migration management programs to protect development gains and support implementation of the Peace Agreement.
IOM HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE IN 2014 & 2015
By the end of 2015, the crisis had internally displaced an estimated 1.69 million people, including nearly 220,000 IDPs at PoC sites, and forced more than 643,000 people to seek refuge in neighboring countries.
The sudden outbreak of the war meant that thousands of civilians fled to remote areas and UNMISS peacekeeping bases for shelter. Many were faced with desperate conditions, including those at the UNMISS bases, known as protection of civilian (PoC) sites, which were not designed to host large numbers of civilians. These sites quickly became overcrowded and worsened during the severe rainy season in 2014.
Throughout the crisis, IOM has been a leader in providing assistance to IDPs sheltering at PoC sites, establishing a biometric registration systems to improve service provision; expanding the sites to relocate IDPs to areas suitable for shelters and providing multi-sector, life-saving humanitarian assistance.
Although challenges persisted through 2015, these efforts helped mitigate the very difficult and flooded conditions that IDPs endured during the 2014 rainy season and accommodate new arrivals.
In the first few weeks of the crisis, the IOM-managed RRF mechanism proved critical to helping partners fill response gaps as many aid workers had been forced to relocate from field locations. RRF enabled IOM and its NGO partners to implement quick projects in key areas, such as the Juba PoC sites.
IOM took quick action to provide clean water and health care to IDPs in PoC sites and other areas in 2014, helping to mitigate the spread of disease even during the rainy season. IOM static and mobile teams directly provided safe drinking water, sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion to 187,000 people in 2015 alone. Through more than 322,800 health consultations, IOM health teams sought to address the needs of IDPs, host communities and vulnerable populations across the country.
As the crisis forced millions from their homes, IOM and its partners sought to restore dignity and address basic needs through shelter and relief item support that reached more than 450,000 people. In coordination with UN and NGO partners, IOM helped deliver 27,800 survival kits to vulnerable populations in hard-to-reach places across Greater Upper Nile.
As one of the largest emergency operations in the world in 2014 and 2015, IOM provided critical logistics support to relief agencies, helping to move 21.8 MT of humanitarian supplies to field locations.
TRANSITION & RECOVERY & MIGRATION MANAGEMENT IN 2014 – 2015
Alongside the humanitarian response, IOM continued to operate transition and recovery and migration management activities. IOM carried out peace building and development initiatives, addressing the root causes of instability and conflict. IOM supported the improvement of migration management in South Sudan and assisted more than 700 migrants from across the continent who became stranded in South Sudan when the conflict erupted.
CONTEXTE DE L’ETUDE
Le nord du Tchad, régions du Borkou, de l’Ennedi Est et Ouest et du Tibesti, est une zone généralement peu connue des acteurs humanitaires. Les conditions d’accès difficiles pour des raisons climatiques et sécuritaires ainsi que la très faible densité de population sont des facteurs explicatifs de leur intérêt et présence limités dans ces régions. De plus, l’organisation sociale particulière de la communauté toubou, et les rapports qui existent entre les principales communautés nécessitent une compréhension en profondeur par les acteurs humanitaires.
Pourtant, cette région est une zone à risque en ce qui concerne les crises humanitaires, en raison de son instabilité potentielle. De par sa topographie et sa localisation, zone transfrontalière difficilement contrôlable et par conséquent propice à la traite des êtres humains et aux trafics de produits illégaux ainsi qu’au passage de groupes armés ; de par son histoire marquée par de nombreuses rébellions et par le conflit tchado-libyen, et de par la découverte récente de gisements aurifères, ce territoire porte en lui des germes de déstabilisation que la désintégration de la Libye suite à la chute du général Khadafi a renforcé.
Dans ce contexte, OCHA a commandité une étude sur les aspects anthropologiques, historiques, juridiques et socio-économiques ainsi que sur les enjeux politiques des régions du Borkou, de l’Ennedi Est et Ouest et du Tibesti. Il s’agit d’accompagner la communauté humanitaire dans sa compréhension de ce contexte pour l’aider à anticiper d’éventuelles actions en cas de situation d’urgence.
Cette étude a été réalisée sur la base d’entretiens avec des acteurs politiques, sécuritaires, de la société civile et religieux ainsi que sur des recherches documentaires : archives, thèses, articles de presse… Ce travail a permis de dégager quelques grandes tendances en termes d’évolution du tissu socio-économique et des relations intercommunautaires, d’identifier des facteurs de fragilisation de la population et de donner quelques clés de lecture sur le nouveau contexte régional. Une large part a ainsi été faite à l’étude de la communauté toubou car le nouveau paysage de cette région l’a placée dans une position stratégique. Une meilleure connaissance des ressorts de cette communauté permet par conséquent d’analyser avec plus de recul les potentiels facteurs d’instabilité, nombreux dans cette zone.
Les régions du Borkou, de l’Ennedi Est et Ouest et du Tibesti (BET) étendues sur 600 350 km2, représentent 47% du territoire tchadien et abritent 2,5% de la population soit 286 986 habitants (167 919 habitants dans l’Ennedi, 93 584 dans le Borkou et 25 483 dans le Tibesti) . Ce faible peuplement s’explique par le climat principalement saharien qui limite les potentialités agro-pastorales de ces régions à l’exploitation d’oasis et à l’élevage de camelins et de bovins par différentes communautés sédentaires, semi-nomades ou nomades. La présence de ressources minières a permis de générer des revenus notamment avec l’exportation du natron et du sel jusqu’au milieu des années 1990 mais des investissements seraient nécessaires pour développer ce secteur d’activité et exploiter le potentiel minier varié de cette région, ainsi que ses ressources en hydrocarbures, qui sont mal connues. Or, un manque notoire d’investissements caractérise cette zone. Quant aux gisements aurifères, ils apparaissent à ce jour comme une source potentielle de déstabilisation plutôt qu’un vecteur de développement. En effet, quelle que soit la situation, elle porte en elle des facteurs d’instabilité. Dans la situation actuelle où l’orpaillage anarchique perdure et permet un enrichissement de la communauté toubou, cela garantit une certaine allégeance de cette communauté au pouvoir central au prix cependant de tensions intercommunautaires entre autochtones et allogènes orpailleurs. A contrario, dans le contexte d’un plus grand contrôle et d’une réglementation que laisse présager l’ouverture de l’exploitation aurifère aux compagnies étrangères, il est à prévoir un sentiment de spoliation des ressources de son territoire de la part de la communauté toubou.
By Mbom Sixtus
Freelance journalist based in Cameroon, and regular IRIN contributor
The Minawao refugee camp in the Far North Region, the poorest and least-developed province in Cameroon, is an inhospitable home for some 60,000 refugees of Nigeria’s Boko Haram conflict. A further 27,000 live precariously, often among struggling relatives and friends, closer to the insecure border.
Ayuba Fudama pulls up the sleeve of his T-shirt to reveal a bullet wound on his arm then hikes up the front and turns around to show yet more scars.
Read the Full Report on IRIN
Le 11 Janvier 2017, le Conseil a prolongé le mandat de la mission de l'UE EUCAP Sahel Mali pour deux ans, jusqu'au 14 janvier 2019. Le Conseil a également alloué un budget de EUR 29.7 million à la mission pour la période allant du 15 janvier 2017 au 14 janvier 2018.
La mission civile EUCAP Sahel Mali assiste et conseille les forces de sécurité intérieure du Mali dans la mise en œuvre de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité fixée par le gouvernement.
Elle fournit des formations et des conseils stratégiques à la police, à la gendarmerie et à la garde nationale maliennes, ainsi qu'aux ministères compétents du pays, afin de soutenir la réforme du secteur de la sécurité.
Cette mission s'inscrit dans le cadre de l'approche globale de l'UE en matière de sécurité et de développement dans la région du Sahel, qui vise à aider l'Etat malien à garantir l'ordre constitutionnel et démocratique, à garantir les conditions d'une paix durable, et à maintenir son autorité sur l'ensemble du territoire. Deux autres missions PSDC sont déployées dans la région: l'EUTM Mali, qui contribue à la restructuration et à la réorganisation des forces armées maliennes en leur prodiguant des formations et des conseils et l'EUCAP Sahel Niger, qui soutient la lutte contre la criminalité organisée et le terrorisme, au Niger.
L'EUCAP Sahel Mali a été lancée le 15 avril 2014. Le chef de la mission est le diplomate allemand Albrecht Conze. Le 14 Décembre 2016 son mandat a été prorogé jusqu'au 14 Juillet 2017. La mission a son quartier général à Bamako, Mali.
La décision a été adoptée par procédure écrite.
BAMAKO – Grâce à une étroite collaboration entre l’Union Européenne (UE) et les Gouvernements du Royaume-Uni et du Mali, le Programme Alimentaire Mondial des Nations Unies (PAM) a été en mesure de secourir plus d’un quart de million de Maliens en 2016.
Les cinq millions d’euros fournis par l’UE et le Gouvernement britannique, à travers l’Office d’aide humanitaire de la Commission Européenne (ECHO), ont ainsi permis de sauver des vies au nord et au centre du pays.
Selon l’enquête nationale sur la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle (ENSAN), 425.000 Maliens se trouvaient en insécurité alimentaire sévère en 2016, nécessitant un secours d’urgence. Afin de répondre aux besoins, un Plan National de Réponse pour la sécurité alimentaire a été mis en place, avec le soutien financier et opérationnel du PAM – soutien qui aurait été impossible sans l’appui européen et britannique.
En collaboration avec le Gouvernement, le PAM a ainsi porté secours à 205.000 Maliens, y compris des déplacés internes et rapatriés, pendant la période de soudure agropastorale (juin à septembre).
“Ce fonds ont financé une assistance immédiate aux personnes les plus touchées, notamment aux populations exposées aussi bien à la sécheresse qu’au conflit,” a souligné la Représentante du PAM au Mali, Silvia Caruso.
Toujours grâce à cette contribution, le PAM a pu apporter une assistance nutritionnelle urgente à 92.200 enfants de 6-23 mois et à 45.500 femmes enceintes et allaitantes à Gao, Mopti et Tombouctou.
La malnutrition a des graves conséquences sanitaires et mentales pour les enfants, pouvant même entraîner la mort. L’enquête SMART réalisée en Septembre 2015 établit le taux de malnutrition aiguë au Mali à 12,4%. Pire, selon la même enquête, dans la région de Tombouctou, ce taux atteint 17,5%, dépassant le seuil critique défini par l’OMS.
“Face à l’urgence de la situation, la réaction rapide de l’Union Européenne constitue un pas important dans la lutte contre la malnutrition au Mali” a ajouté Mme Caruso.
Au total, ce sont près de 350.000 personnes en crise alimentaire ou nutritionnelle qui ont été assistées grâce à la contribution européenne au cours de l’année 2016.
Le PAM est la plus grande agence humanitaire qui lutte contre la faim dans le monde en distribuant une assistance alimentaire dans les situations d'urgence et en travaillant avec les communautés pour améliorer leur état nutritionnel et renforcer leur résilience. Chaque année, le PAM apporte une assistance à quelque 80 millions de personnes dans près de 75 pays.
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Pour plus d’informations, veuillez contacter (adresse email : prénom.firstname.lastname@example.org) :
Laura Lee Morris, WFP/Bamako: +223 75 81 44 67
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Nigeria makes history today with the launch of a strategic plan and roadmap to achieve zero hunger by 2030.
The plan tagged: “Synthesis Report of the Nigeria Zero Hunger Strategic Review” articulates what Nigeria needs to do to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG2)—one of the recently adopted global goals that seeks to “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture” by 2030.
The 60-page home-developed document reflects Nigerians’ perspectives as to what steps need to be taken to win the battle against hunger and malnutrition.
Former President Olusegun Obasanjo who chairs the development of the Synthesis Report said, “The report would support and encourage the government to implement the policies, strategies, plans, and programs that have been formulated over many years, and to do so with a focus on achieving Zero Hunger by 2030, if not earlier.”
To tap its rich agricultural potential and lift over 13 million people from hunger, Nigeria in 2015 endorsed a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as part of efforts to achieve sustainable development in general.
Former President Obasanjo said the launch of the Synthesis Report provided a framework that would “unlock the potential of our nation and emancipate our dear country from the shackles of hunger and poverty.”
He noted that the establishment of the Nigeria Zero Hunger Forum based at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), would ensure that recommendations contained in the Synthesis Report and the individual Subcommittee reports are implemented.
“We must do all we can so that this effort does not suffer the fate of previous endeavours,” he stressed. The former President commended President Muhammadu Buhari for endorsing the Nigeria Zero Hunger Strategic Review. He lauded Ms Ertharin Cousin, Executive Director of the World Food Programme (WFP) for funding and requesting that the review be conducted, and gave special thanks to the African Development Bank (AfDB) for providing majority of the funds, which financed the Review.
The Director of Policy and Program, World Food Programme, Mr Stanlake Samkange commended Nigeria for developing the strategic document, emphasising that the Report was the first in West Africa and would be a guide for other countries to emulate. He reiterated that the task of ending hunger cannot be solved by a single organisation and lauded the collaborations of the different actors in the development of the Report.
The inauguration of the Synthesis Report will be backed with immediate implementation in four states of the federation—Benue, Ebonyi, Ogun and Sokoto beginning this January.
In January 2019 eight more states will be added and by January 2021, all 36 States plus Abuja will be included.
The Director General of the IITA, Dr Nteranya Sanginga said the Synthesis Report was a departure from other previous reports in the sense that it would be backed by immediate actions.
According to him, IITA would continue to support states with relevant technologies cutting across crops such as cassava, maize, cowpea, yam, soybean, banana and plantain among others.
The launch of the Synthesis Report received commendations from the Minister of Health, federal legislatures, state governments, United Nations agencies, the African Development Bank and the private sector among others.
Date of the mission: 13th December, 2016.
Location: Ngala IDP Camp (Ngala LGA, Borno State, North-East Nigeria)
a. Military HQ (3rd battalion): 12°21'28.68"N 14°10'49.60"E A: 291m
b. Helipad: 12°21'24.70"N 14°10'42.40"E A: 292m
c. IDP camp: 12°21'34.87"N 14°10'19.57"E A: 288m
Security and logistics
(source: SIF and UN Joint Security Assessment)
Ngala has been liberated by NAF on March 2016. Fighting against insurgents has been ongoing until summer 2016. The road and the border are now open and UNHAS helicopters are currently serving Ngala since December 2016.
LGA level: On June, a clearance operation has been conducted by 3rd Battalion from Ngala towards North of the LGA, along the Cameroonian border to push away insurgents groups present in this zone of Ngala LGA.
This LGA is part of the Area of Operations of Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP). This group remains active in the North of Ngala – due to the presence of bases in Lake Chad area – and in Kala Balge LGA where it has a freedom of movement in the southern part of the LGA. ISWAP groups are very mobile and base their actions on guerrilla warfare (ambushes, IED’s, hit-and-run tactic). Skirmishes with NAF can occur during the patrols.
The actual NAF deployment is centered on:
- The control of the road Dikwa – Ngala to keep it open for commercial convoys,
- The control of the LGA’s Headquarters,
- The capability to conduct combat patrols from bases in order to conduct a zone control deeply inside the LGA’s.
The overall security situation is assessed to be safe by the UN in the towns where NAF are deployed, and under control along the main axis (Dikwa – Ngala and Ngala – Rann).
Conclusions of UN Joint Security Assessment (11/11/2016): “Ngala Town is assessed to be safe for humanitarian operations including the deployment of staff for overnights”.
Road access: Main trans-Sahara trade route. Straight highway leading from Maiduguri towards Ngala and the Cameroonian border, then to N’Djamena and further. No asphalt. 3 sensitive points (bridges) are identified on this portion: Gajibo, Logomane and Ngala Bridge. Troops are deployed to secure the spots.
Dikwa – Ngala is open but remains under threat of ISWAP (attack at Logomane bridge in the night of 11th December, 2016) - escorted convoys.
Ngala bridge: damaged but substitute bridge in place, highway tarmacked with sand in some locations, escorted truck movement along highway visible from the air, checkpoints.
Border crossing: Fotokol town on the Cameroonian side across the river. Frontier is materialized by Elbeid Bridge. Nigerian Customs and Immigration Services have a presence and relationship with Cameroonian security services are good. Commercial convoys can pass but have to transship goods on donkey carts which are the only one allowed to cross. Untill now no custom fees were applied but it might change very soon. Lobbying should be done towards Nigerian and Cameroonian authorities to allow humanitarian transit at minimum cost and procedures.
State services: Police, Customs, Immigration and Department of State Services are present in Ngala/Gambaru.
Weather: Dry with a rainy season. Warmer than Maiduguri.
Terrain: Flat, sandy. No trees or bushes, fertile thanks to irrigation channels, agricultural land, vegetation is burnt off on wide stretches of land, vegetation near the highway burnt off strategically.
As of 21 December 2016, the Shelter team of IOM Maiduguri undertaken a preliminary and general shelter assessment in Damboa. The assessment conducted by the team follows an approach to work based on age, gender and socio-cultural diversity present in the IDP location. This assessment should eventually contribute to a better information and documentation of all stakeholders on the impact of interventions and responses to the affected population, the gap identified, prospects and action to follow up in conjunction with the beneficiaries. The main sectors and Items addressed during this assessment are related to aspects of emergency shelter and WASH.
The ongoing and potential influx of IDPs into Damboa would see an increased need for humanitarian aid, particularly in the sectors of Shelter, where gaps to be identified by the sectors. Due to the high levels of shelter insecurity and the high occurrences of inadequate shelter IOM has selected Damboa for assessment.
The objectives of the assessment are to:
- Identify the emergency Shelter needs and gaps for the most vulnerable IDPs within Damboa area;
- Serve as basis for more in-depth Shelter assessment and further project design.
Data collection in the field was carried out through key informant interviews, and field observations together with IDPs in Damboa.
- Visit of infrastructures (direct observation)
- Discussion with IDP representatives
- Discussion with military commander
3.1 Key Informant Interviews:
The key informant (KI) interviews were carried out on 21 December 2016. KI interviews were conducted with IDPs within the camps, each representing a different cluster of households. The interviewees were selected according to their availability. All IDPs interviewed had been living in the area for a sustained period of time. The majority of those interviewed were men. The average size of families consisted of 7+ persons.
3.2 Field Observation:
The team also made random observations to assess the general living conditions and availability of space for shelter construction.
The current situation of IDPs is very volatile, with many new IDPs coming and predicted to arrive to Damboa in near future. The total number of IDPs is likely to have increased citing the need to provide enough shelters.
As of 31 December 2016, the Shelter team of IOM Maiduguri undertaken a preliminary and general shelter assessment in Baga. The assessment conducted by the team follows an approach to work based on age, gender and socio-cultural diversity present in the displacement sites. This assessment should eventually contribute to a better information and documentation of all stakeholders on the impact of interventions and responses to the affected population, the gap identified, prospects and action to follow up in conjunction with the beneficiaries. The main sectors and Items addressed during this assessment are related to aspects of emergency shelter and WASH.
The ongoing and potential influx of IDPs into Baga town from the shores of Lake Chad and surrounding areas would see an increased need for humanitarian aid, particularly in the sectors of Shelter, where gaps are to be identified by the sectors.
The objectives of the assessment are to:
- Identify the emergency Shelter needs and gaps for the most vulnerable IDPs within Baga town;
- Serve as basis for more in-depth Shelter assessment and further project design.
Data collection in the field was carried out through key informant interviews, and field observations together with IDPs in Baga.
- Visit of infrastructures (direct observation)
- Discussion with IDP representatives
- Discussion with military commander
3.1 Key Informant Interviews:
The key informant (KI) interviews were carried out on 31 December 2016. KI interviews were conducted with IDPs within the displaced area, each representing a different cluster of households. The interviewees were selected according to their availability. All IDPs interviewed had been living in the area for a sustained period of time. The majority of those interviewed were men. The average size of families consisted of 5 persons.
3.2 Field Observation:
The team also made random observations to assess the general living conditions and availability of space for shelter construction.
The current situation of IDPs is very volatile, with many new IDPs coming and predicted to arrive to Baga in near future. The total number of IDPs is likely to have increased citing the need to provide enough shelters.
4. Key Findings: