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- 12/10/16--07:37: _Mali: Mali: Bulleti...
- 12/10/16--14:47: _Nigeria: Within and...
- 12/11/16--01:20: _Nigeria: North East...
- 12/11/16--10:25: _Niger: A Modified E...
- 12/12/16--02:49: _Nigeria: Regional D...
- 12/12/16--03:24: _Chad: WFP Chad Coun...
- 12/12/16--03:34: _South Sudan: WFP So...
- 12/12/16--09:04: _Cameroon: Cameroon:...
- 12/12/16--09:25: _Niger: Niger Flow M...
- 12/12/16--12:11: _World: World Humani...
- 12/12/16--13:51: _Nigeria: Food secur...
- 12/12/16--18:50: _Nigeria: Nigeria - ...
- 12/12/16--19:45: _Nigeria: The lifesa...
- 12/13/16--00:39: _Nigeria: Nigeria Sp...
- 12/13/16--02:11: _Nigeria: Communique...
- 12/13/16--02:37: _Cameroon: Cameroon ...
- 12/13/16--04:11: _Mali: UNOWAS E-Maga...
- 12/13/16--04:14: _Mali: UNOWAS E-Maga...
- 12/13/16--05:36: _South Sudan: WFP So...
- 12/13/16--06:44: _Niger: Niger: Popul...
- 12/10/16--07:37: Mali: Mali: Bulletin humanitaire, octobre – novembre 2016
Augmentation des écoles fermées dans le centre et le nord du pays par rapport à l’année dernière
Aggravation de l’insécurité alimentaire au niveau national
Légère baisse du taux de malnutrition aiguë globale
Fin de l’alerte sur les inondations liée à la crue du fleuve Niger
- 12/12/16--03:24: Chad: WFP Chad Country Brief | November 2016
- Thanks to the EU’s contribution of 5 million euro, UN agencies (WFP, FAO, UNICEF and WHO) launched a new joint project (PRO-FORT) to locally produce complementary fortified food in Chad.
- The Board approves the proposed budget increase of USD 141 million for Chad protracted relief and recovery operation, PRRO 200713, with a 12-month extension from 1 January to 31 December 2017.
- On 25 November, WFP launched the “16 days Orange Campaign” with an emphasis on the financial, technical (tools) and human resources needed to prevent and eliminate violence against women, men, girls and boys.
- 12/12/16--03:34: South Sudan: WFP South Sudan Country Brief, November 2016
- The urban assessment found 51 percent of households in Juba food insecure – double the number of last year.
- Teams from WFP and UNICEF provided assistance to 15,700 people in Ngoku, a community near Wau in Western Bahr el Ghazal.
- WFP has conducted successful test convoys to locations which have been inaccessible since July due to deteriorated road conditions and insecurity.
- 12/12/16--12:11: World: World Humanitarian Data and Trends 2016
- According to the most recent analysis of the “Cadre harmonisé” of October 2016:
55 000 people face the threat of famine (phase 5) in the worst affected and less accessible pockets of Borno state.
1.8 million people are internally displaced within North-East Nigeria.
Three suicide bombing attacks, reportedly attributed to Boko Haram, targeted several locations in Northeast Nigeria between 9 and 11 December. Each of these attacks was carried out by young girls.
The first attack occurred in a crowded market in Madagali city (Adamawa state), killing at least 56 people and injuring more than 50. The second attack targeted a market in Maiduguri (capital of Borno state), resulting in the death of one person and seriously wounding 18. The third attack occurred in Kaburi village, on the Bama-Konduga road, with no killed or injured apart from the two young suicide bombers.
This increase in violence is a major concern for humanitarian agencies that have been scaling up their response capacity to address the massive humanitarian needs resulting from the Boko Haram conflict. According to the recently released Humanitarian Response Plan, 8.5 million people are in need in the three most affected states.
- 12/12/16--19:45: Nigeria: The lifesaving power of cash
- A Famine likely occurred in Bama and Banki towns during 2016, and in surrounding rural areas where conditions are likely to have been similar, or worse. Although this conclusion cannot be fully verified, a preponderance of the available evidence, including a representative mortality survey, suggests that Famine (IPC Phase 5) occurred in Bama LGA during 2016, when the vast majority of the LGA’s remaining population was concentrated in Bama Town and Banki Town. Analysis indicates that at least 2,000 Famine-related deaths may have occurred in Bama LGA between January and September, many of them young children. Famine may have also occurred in other parts of Borno State that were inaccessible during 2016, but not enough data is available to make this determination.
- While assistance has improved conditions in accessible areas of Borno State, a Famine may be ongoing in inaccessible areas where conditions could be similar to those observed in Bama LGA earlier this year. Significant assistance in Bama Town (since July) and in Banki Town (since August/September) has contributed to a reduction in mortality and the prevalence of acute malnutrition, though these improvements are tenuous and depend on the continued delivery of assistance. Food assistance may also be preventing Famine in other IDP concentrations. However, given that large areas of Borno State remain inaccessible to all civilian actors, including humanitarian partners, and given the severity of food insecurity observed in those adjacent areas that humanitarians can reach, it is possible that Famine (IPC Phase 5) is ongoing in inaccessible parts of Borno State. However, without additional information, this cannot be confirmed or disproven.
- The risk of Famine in inaccessible areas of Borno State will remain high over the coming year. Given current levels of food insecurity, significantly below-average crop production, disrupted livelihoods, and very high staple food prices, millions of people are likely to remain severely food insecure over the October 2016-September 2017 consumption year. Food security outcomes are likely to be especially severe in inaccessible areas where livelihoods are disrupted and populations are cut-off from markets, health care, and assistance. In these areas, levels of malnutrition and mortality are likely to remain elevated given the combination of this food insecurity, a high probability of disease outbreaks, and inadequate humanitarian response.
- Assistance is likely to continue preventing Famine in many IDP concentrations, but sustained humanitarian access is critical. In a worst-case scenario, where conflict cuts off areas that are currently accessible and dependent on assistance, the likelihood of Famine in these areas would be high.
- The current response is insufficient to meet the very large emergency assistance needs in Borno State. Regardless of whether a Famine is occurring, the severity of current food insecurity is extreme and the size of the food insecure population is very large. Large areas of the state are classified as Emergency (IPC Phase 4), meaning that at least one in five households faces large food consumption gaps, the prevalence of acute malnutrition is very high, and excess mortality is likely, especially among young children. The October 2016 Cadre Harmonisé estimates that 4.7 million people are in need of emergency food assistance in Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states of northeast Nigeria, 3 million of them in Borno State alone. While large-scale emergency operations are ongoing in the northeast, only about 1 million people have received food assistance in 2016. Displaced people and those trapped in inaccessible areas face the worst food security outcomes.
Takes note of the briefings provided by the Commission on regional and international efforts to combat the Boko Haram terrorist group and the Force Commander of the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) on the security situation in the Lake Chad Basin and the MNJTF operations against Boko Haram. Council also takes note of the statements made by the representatives of Cameroon, Senegal, as Member of the A3 Group, the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the United Nations and the European Union (EU);
Recalls its earlier communiqués and press statements on the activities of Boko Haram terrorist group and the efforts aimed at neutralizing the group, particularly communiqués PSC/AHG/COMM.2(CDLXXXIX) of its 484th meeting held on 28th January 2015 and PSC/PR/COMM.(CDLXXIV) of its 489th meeting held on 3 March 2015;
Strongly condemns the attacks by Boko Haram on innocent civilians and public institutions, as well as its abductions and kidnappings, carried out in the Lake Chad Basin;
Welcomes the tremendous progress made by the Member States of Lake Chad Basin and Benin in weakening and degrading the capacity of Boko Haram. In this regard, Council commends the efforts made by the MNJTF in dislodging Boko Haram from its all its strongholds in the Lake Chad Basin;
Expresses concern over the persisting acute humanitarian situation caused by Boko Haram activities and appeals to the international community to continue providing assistance to the affected populations;
Further expresses concern that a significant number of Boko Haram elements which surrender, and return with their families, exacerbates the existing dire humanitarian situation in the Lake Chad Basin and urges Member States, as well as the international community to mobilize and provide support to the ex-Boko Haram elements and their families;
Welcomes the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and Support Implementation Agreement (SIA) between the Commission and the LCBC and MNJTF troop contributing countries for streamlining AU support to MNJTF. Council also welcomes the Steering Committee meeting held on 14 November 2016, to coordinate and share information on funding and support provided to MNJTF operations against the Boko Haram terrorist group, as well as the coordination meeting between AU and MNJTF senior military leaders held from 10 to 12 November 2016. In this regard, Council calls for acceleration of implementation of SIA and MoU, which aims at further strengthening the capacities of the multinational force;
Expresses appreciation for the support provided by the partners, particularly the United Kingdom, European Union, the United Nations, the Economic Commission for West African States (ECOWAS) and other partners, and urges them to step up their efforts;
Stresses the urgent need for resource mobilization in support of recovery efforts in those areas that have been affected by Boko Haram terrorist activities, including assistance to women, girls and other victims of the Boko Haram terrorist group;
Also stresses the importance of sustained combat operations by the MNJTF to completely eliminate the Boko Haram menace. In this context, Council decides to renew the mandate of the MNJTF for another period of twelve (12) months, from its expiry on 31 January 2017;
Requests the Commission, in coordination with the LCBC Secretariat, to regularly update the Council, in line with the relevant provisions contained in the Communiqué PSC/AHG/ COMM.2 (CDLXXXIV) of 29 January 2015;
Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
- 12/13/16--02:37: Cameroon: Cameroon Factsheet November 2016
- 12/13/16--04:11: Mali: UNOWAS E-Magazine Issue 2
- 12/13/16--04:14: Mali: UNOWAS E-Magazine Numéro 2
- 12/13/16--05:36: South Sudan: WFP South Sudan Situation Report #155, 13 December 2016
WFP launched a Special Operation for road rehabilitation for the Northern Corridor from Sudan to South Sudan.
WFP and partners delivered training on post-harvest management and grain storage techniques to support smallholder farmers.
WFP and World Vision kicked off registration of vulnerable households for Juba urban poor response.
- WFP’s Special Operation for the rehabilitation of the Rabak-Joda road (Sudan) has been approved, valued at US$2.5 million. The 130km road repair project will enable WFP to facilitate an un-interrupted provision of emergency assistance through WFP South Sudan’s Northern Corridor from Kosti, White Nile State in Sudan to Renk, Upper Nile State in South Sudan. Continued use of the Northern Corridor—through which WFP has moved nearly 29,000mt this year—is contingent upon the successful rehabilitation of the road, as stipulated in the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the governments of Sudan and South Sudan.
- In areas of the country that are more stable, WFP continues to support smallholder farmers through its Purchase for Progress (P4P) model. From 6-8 December, in coordination with UNIDO and South Sudan’s Ministry of Agriculture, WFP provided training to 30 government and NGO extension workers on post-harvest management and storage techniques of food grain crops in the Greater Bahr el Ghazal region. The extension workers will then be able to pass this knowledge on to local smallholder farmers to help improve the management and storage of their harvested crops.
Plus d’écoles fermées en lien avec l’insécurité
Le nombre d’écoles fermées dans les zones affectées par l’insécurité dans le nord et le centre du pays a augmenté cette année par rapport à l’an dernier. Lors de la rentrée scolaire en octobre 2016, 421 écoles étaient fermées comparativement à 296 lors de la fin de l’année scolaire en juin dernier. Cela est dû en général à la reprise des combats entre groupes armés ainsi qu’au climat de violence et de peur liée aux actes terroristes enregistrés dans certaines localités du centre et du nord du pays. Des individus armés ont aussi demandé la fermeture d’établissements scolaires par endroits, de même que certaines écoles et enseignants ont été ciblés par des actes de banditisme. La seule région où le nombre d’écoles fermées n’est pas en hausse est Tombouctou. Les régions de Gao, Kidal et Ségou ont pour leur part enregistré les augmentations les plus significatives du nombre d’écoles fermées.
Des milliers d’enfants privés de repas scolaires faute de financement
Alors que le nombre d’écoles fermées a augmenté dans les zones affectées par l’insécurité, le Programme Alimentaire Mondiale (PAM) a annoncé qu’il ne pourra pas fournir des repas scolaires à l’ensemble des enfants dans le besoin, en raison d’un manque de financement.
Le programme de cantines scolaires du PAM était entièrement compromis en début d’année scolaire mais une contribution de deux millions d’euros (environ 1.3 milliard de FCFA) du Gouvernement Belge a permis sa relance dans environs 500 écoles du pays à partir de novembre. Cependant 400 écoles, comptant environ 69 000 élèves, ne pourront pas être assistées par manque de fonds. Le PAM cherche toujours à mobiliser quelque 1,3 million de dollars USD supplémentaires (environ 795 millions de FCFA) pour combler ce manque.
Assistance en cours
Les acteurs humanitaires, partenaires de l’Etat dans le secteur de l’éducation ont poursuivi leur soutien aux enfants dans le besoin en cette période de rentrée scolaire.
La distribution de 90 000 kits scolaires dans l’ensemble des régions touchées par la crise est notamment en cours par le cluster éducation et ses partenaires. Par ailleurs, des activités visant à renforcer la résilience des communautés sont aussi en cours, comme dans la région de Tombouctou, où l’ONG Plan International poursuit son programme « Cash for work » (travail contre argent) qui a permis d’aider plus de 930 chefs de ménage à assurer l'éducation de leurs enfants.
The crisis currently affecting the Lake Chad Basin countries, and resulting from the Boko haram insurgency, triggered significant displacement of populations. As of 4 November 2016, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria host an estimated 3,658,722 affected individuals made up of internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees (both in and out of camps), returnees and third country nationals (TCNs). 82% of the affected population (representing 2,990,406) is currently located in Nigeria, while 9% is located in Cameroon (320,736 individuals), 6% in Niger (221,790 individuals) and 3% in Chad (125,790 individuals).
Almost seven years of violent conflict in the Lake Chad Basin region of West Africa – involving Boko Haram and military operations to counter them – has led to a devastating humanitarian crisis. Originating in northeast Nigeria, the conflict has now spread across borders into Niger, Chad and Cameroon.
The people of the Lake Chad Basin region are some of the poorest in the world. Even under normal circumstances they suffer from high levels of hunger and malnutrition. Over the last two years, the conflict has led to mass forced displacements and population movements, uprooting people from their homes and cutting them off from their livelihoods and sources of income, exacerbating an already dire situation.
This report uses the Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) methodology combined with protection risk analysis to capture aspects of the situation in the Diffa region of Niger and to offer a view of how vulnerable populations are accessing income and the risks associated with that.
The crisis currently affecting the Lake Chad Basin countries, and resulting from the Boko haram insurgency, triggered significant displacement of populations.
As of 4 November 2016, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria host an estimated 3,658,722 affected individuals made up of internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees (both in and out of camps), returnees and third country nationals (TCNs). 82% of the affected population (representing 2,990,406) is currently located in Nigeria, while 9% is located in Cameroon (320,736 individuals), 6% in Niger (221,790 individuals) and 3% in Chad (125,790 individuals).
PRRO 200713: Under the PRRO, WFP provides food assistance to 350,000 long-term refugees from Sudan and the Central African Republic (C.A.R), and to 80,000 returnees from C.A.R as well as food-insecure Chadian households, particularly in the Sahelian belt of Chad. The PRRO also includes nutrition interventions for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, and activities to enhance the capacity of food-insecure communities and households to meet their food needs, strengthen their resilience and reduce risks associated with disasters and shocks.
Chad is a pilot country for the WFP-UNHCR self-reliance project. Vulnerability-based targeting and livelihood activities are part of the strategy to empower refugees and build their capacities for self-sufficiency. In 2016, WFP lean season assistance targets 410,000 food insecure people in the Sahelian belt of Chad, where the combined effects of a poor agricultural season and the disruption of trade and pastoralism in the Lake Chad region have led to a deterioration of food security compared to the past three years. Children under two and pregnant and nursing mothers are also receiving specialised nutritional support to prevent the deterioration of their nutritional status.
Regional EMOP 200777 (Lake Chad Crisis): The spill over effects from insecurity in northern Nigeria have caused a humanitarian crisis; island communities have fled their homes, fishing, livestock and agricultural livelihoods are disrupted and trade with neighbouring countries is impacted. WFP provides food and nutrition assistance to vulnerable people affected by this crisis. This includes 6,500 refugees and over 130,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs). WFP’s portfolio combines cash-based and food-based transfers tailored to market conditions as well as prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition.
Jointly with FAO and UNICEF, WFP develops more durable solutions with livelihoods support for both displaced and host communities. Participative Seasonal Livelihoods Programming workshops and community-level planning exercises were held to analyse the livelihoods needs of the vulnerable communities.
Regional EMOP 200799 (C.A.R crisis): Under this operation, WFP Chad supports returnees in the Salamat region (southern Chad) who have fled the violence in C.A.R.
DEV 200288: The limited funding available to WFP currently restricts the scope of the school meals programme to the Lake Chad region. Resources permitting, WFP plans to provide 128,000 primary school children with hot meals and take-home rations for girls in the Sahelian regions where food insecurity, acute and chronic malnutrition levels are high.
SO 200785: UNHAS provides essential passenger services and light cargo transport to 100 humanitarian organizations. UNHAS serves 19 destinations across the country, with a fleet of 4 aircrafts. This service is essential to ensure the humanitarian community reaches areas where populations need assistance, in a country with vast distances and limited transport infrastructure, and where insecurity and heavy seasonal rains limit road transport.
UNHAS transports 1,650 passengers and 8.9 metric tons of light cargo per month.
EMOP 200859: WFP’s emergency operation (EMOP) aims to provide life-saving assistance to 3 million people displaced and affected by conflict through food distributions and nutrition interventions.
PRRO 200572: WFP’s protracted relief and recovery operation (PRRO) aims to assist 1.1 million people through food distributions, nutrition interventions, food assistance for assets, food for education and Purchase for Progress (P4P).
SO 200775: The Food Security and Livelihoods Cluster, which WFP co-leads with FAO, is dedicated to coordinating the food security sector nationally to ensure the most efficient response to food availability and access issues. The SO will come to a close in December and will be incorporated into EMOP 200859 in 2017.
SO 200778: Through the Logistics Cluster, WFP supports the humanitarian community by providing logistical expertise, coordination and transportation of humanitarian cargo.
SO 200931: The Emergency Telecommunications Cluster (ETC) provides necessary telecommunication services where basic infrastructure is limited.
SO 200786: WFP operates the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) on behalf of the humanitarian community, providing safe and reliable air transport to thousands of humanitarian personnel.
SO 200379: The feeder roads operation is dedicated to linking farmers and communities to markets and basic services as well as to reducing transportation costs and improving delivery efficiency for humanitarian partners.
FLOWS OBSERVED THROUGH THE FLOW MONITORING POINTS
The observed migrant movements during the month of November have decreased drastically compared to previous months.
Several reasons are put forward to explain this change. Firstly, measures have been put in place by the government of Niger to prevent crossing of borders by persons without proper documentation. Migrants in this geographical area (north Niger) are mainly travelling with smugglers and are hoping to cross the border into Libya or Algeria without proper documentation (visa) so fall into this category. The tighter security controls in Séguédine and Arlit have resulted in fewer direct departures of migrants through these cities. Migrants are sent back from Arlit and Séguédine towards Agadez but also from the Madama border point. It could be hypothesised that migrant movements are going around Séguédine and Arlit and the transit towns are being avoided as direct departure points for fear of repression.
Secondly the current ongoing difficulties for migrants in Algeria with deportations and difficulties of moving around once in Algeria make it less attractive for migrants and smugglers to go towards Algeria at the moment but also to come into Niger using these trajectories.
These measures and current events have lead to an increased cost of using smuggler networks in and through Niger which could be deterring migrants.
World Humanitarian Data and Trends presents global and country-level data-and-trend analysis about humanitarian crises and assistance. Its purpose is to consolidate this information and present it in an accessible way, providing policymakers, researchers and humanitarian practitioners with an evidence base to support humanitarian policy decisions and provide context for operational decisions. The information presented covers two main areas: humanitarian needs and assistance in 2015, and humanitarian trends, challenges and opportunities.
The report intends to provide a comprehensive picture of the global humanitarian landscape, and to highlight major trends in the nature of humanitarian crises, their drivers, and the actors that participate in prevention, response and recovery. The 2016 edition of the report builds on previous iterations of the report, providing an overview of 2015 as well as selected case studies that can be used for humanitarian advocacy.
There are many gaps in the available information due to the complexity of humanitarian crises. Even the concepts of humanitarian needs and assistance are flexible. There are also inherent biases in the information. For example, assistance provided by communities and by local and national Governments is less likely to be reported. The outcomes and impact of assistance are difficult to measure and rarely reported. Funding data is more available than other types of information. There are also limitations on the availability and quality of data. Further information on limitations is provided in the ‘User’s Guide’.
The data presented in this report is from a variety of source organizations with the mandate, resources and expertise to collect and compile relevant data, as well as OCHA-managed processes and tools, such as the inter-agency appeal process and the Financial Tracking Service (FTS). All the data presented in this report is publicly available through the source organizations and through the report’s own data set (available through the Humanitarian Data Exchange). Further information on data sources is provided in the ‘User’s Guide’.
World Humanitarian Data and Trends is an initiative of the Policy Analysis and Innovation Section of OCHA’s Policy Development and Studies Branch. This report s just one part of OCHA’s efforts to improve data and analysis on humanitarian situations worldwide and build a humanitarian-data community. This edition was developed with internal and external partners, whose contributions are listed in the ‘Sources and References’ section. OCHA extends its sincere gratitude to all those partners for their time, expertise and contributions.
Interpreting the visuals and data The report uses many visual representations of humanitarian data and trends. There is also some limited narrative text and analysis, which provides basic orientation and helps to guide individual interpretation. However, there may be multiple ways to interpret the same information.
The ‘User’s Guide’ contains more detailed methodological information and specific technical notes for each figure. Readers are encouraged to refer to the technical notes for more detailed descriptions of decisions and assumptions made in presenting the data.
For the latest information on needs and funding requirements for current strategic response plans or inter-agency appeals, see fts.unocha.org/.
Accessing the data and exploring the report online All the data presented in this report can be downloaded through the Humanitarian Data Exchange https://data.humdata.org/dataset/world-humanitariandata-and-trends.
The report itself can be explored through its interactive companion microsite www.unocha.org/datatrends2016.
Members of the Food Crisis Prevention Network (RPCA) gathered on 12 December 2016 in Abuja at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Food Crisis Prevention Network (RPCA), held under the political leadership of the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), and hosted by the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. A special session was dedicated to the critical food and nutrition situation in North-East Nigeria.
H. E. Mr. Marcel de Souza, ECOWAS Commission President, participated in the Opening Ceremony and chaired the special session. He recalled the importance of holding this year’s RPCA meeting in Abuja: “The fact that we meet in Abuja today illustrates our willingness to strongly support the Government of Nigeria. Indeed, we acknowledge the strong efforts that have been made; however, the challenges remain enormous. Considering the seriousness of the current situation, we call upon the international community to scale up assistance in supporting Nigeria and the broader Lake Chad area in addressing this crisis”.
Eight years of violent conflict across north-eastern Nigeria have severely weakened already fragile livelihoods resulting in a deep humanitarian crisis. Due to the Boko Haram insurgency and massive population displacement, the three north-eastern states, Adamawa, Borno and Yobe, reached extremely high levels of food insecurity in 2016.
4.6 million people are currently faced with acute food insecurity in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe.
The session closed with the reading of Declaration in which the RPCA called upon the international community, regional organisations and government representatives to join forces and urgently address the food and nutrition crisis in North-East Nigeria.
When you ask Zulyatu what her family needs most after being displaced by Boko Haram, the answer comes to her lips instantly: abinci, the Hausa word for food.
“We cannot do anything,” Zulyatu says. “We are very hungry and we don’t have anything to eat.”
Zulyatu’s father died during a Boko Haram raid on her home village two years ago. Seeking safety, the family fled to Biu, in Nigeria’s Borno state. But her mother left the family last year to seek care for chronic health problems in another village.
Just 16, Zulyatu is now responsible for her 12-year-old brother and 8-year-old sister.
Zulyatu and her siblings are three of the nearly 2 million Nigerians facing a new crisis of hunger after being displaced by Boko Haram. She says they never have three meals a day.
Feeling hungry “makes us miss our dad more,” Zulyatu says. Her father was a butcher in their home village and the family always had enough to eat. “If he was here, this wouldn’t be happening.”
A hunger emergency in Nigeria
As a global organization delivering aid in Nigeria, Mercy Corps is among the first responders to gain access to parts of south Borno state as security has begun to improve there. But where Boko Haram has retreated, it has left a hunger crisis in its wake. An estimated 250,000 children are severely malnourished in Borno state alone. Nearly 50,000 kids are on the verge of starvation.
Across the Lake Chad Basin, which includes parts of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad, some 9 million people in areas affected by Boko Haram need emergency assistance.
Last year we reached nearly half a million people in Nigeria, including more than 350,000 youth like Zulytau under 25. Today we are reaching up to 132,000 people in northeast Nigeria with lifesaving assistance.
With needs so urgent and the scale of the crisis so great, Mercy Corps is focusing our response on the most vulnerable families, and we’re doing it with a simple but powerful tool: cash and cash vouchers.
The flexible power of cash
On a cool morning in late fall, hundreds of displaced people — mostly women in brightly colored hijabs — gathered outside their community leader’s house in a neighborhood in Biu hoping for some help. For hours they waited patiently as a Mercy Corps team member called their names, one by one, from his list. Once he confirmed their identity, they entered the courtyard to receive a voucher card loaded with 17,000 Naira, about $53.
When it was Zulyatu’s turn, she pressed her thumb onto the inkpad and left her mark on the sheet confirming the receipt of her voucher card. She tucked the card away safely under her white hijab, a smile of relief spreading across her face.
The electronic card, similar to an ATM card, has several benefits over traditional food distributions. It gives Zulyatu and others like her control over how they use the money. Since cash is flexible, she can use it to buy whatever her family needs most, including food, household supplies and medicine.
The card is convenient, too. Mercy Corps will electronically refill Zulyatu’s account with $53 each month, so she won’t have to wait in line at the distribution again.
Mercy Corps is targeting over 7,500 displaced families with cash and vouchers in Biu alone, so they can meet their most urgent needs. The idea is to help these families stabilize immediately so they can begin to build a stronger future.
Zulyatu hailed a rickshaw and headed straight to the main market.
Cash helps markets work
To newcomers, Biu’s main market is crowded and chaotic, with stalls and shops selling all kinds of food. Zulyatu wound her way through alleys looking for a particular shop to buy food for her family.
The liveliness of this market is one of the reasons Mercy Corps is using cash to help people here. Traditional food aid, in the form of food bundles distributed to hungry people, is necessary in areas where conflict or crisis destroys markets. But that same aid can have a devastating impact on local economies if markets like this one are working, since it distorts the supply and demand for food.
Instead, Mercy Corps has enlisted more than 30 local shop owners to participate in the voucher program. They agree to sell food and other household necessities at reasonable prices, and Mercy Corps equips them with a tablet they use to process the voucher cards.
Zulyatu checked the prices for the staple foods she wanted to buy, ensuring the food she bought would be able to stretch until her next voucher top-up. She settled on 60 pounds of rice, one carton of spaghetti, salt, groundnut oil and a popular Nigerian seasoning. It is a modest menu, but from it, Zulyatu knows she and her family will eat three meals a day.
At home, Zulyatu and her neighbor, Habiba, prepare a meal. Habiba and her young family also escaped from Zulyatu’s home village, and though they all share the same struggles, they support each other, too. They grind up the spicy red peppers that give Nigerian food its signature heat and cook the rice over a small fire.
“I felt happy after I got the card,” Zulyatu says, looking at the food. “I am feeling happy [now] too.”
When the rice is done, she pours it out onto a big, round dish and tops it with the pepper sauce. Both families gather around it. The future is unclear for Zulyatu’s family, and for so many others like them. But now they have food, which she says is a good place to start. Together, they begin to eat.
This report summarizes an IPC-compatible analysis of Local Government Areas (LGAs) and select IDP concentrations in Borno State, Nigeria. The conclusions of this report have been endorsed by the IPC’s Emergency Review Committee. This analysis follows a July 2016 multi-agency alert, which warned of Famine, and builds off of the October 2016 Cadre Harmonisé analysis, which concluded that additional, more detailed analysis of Borno was needed given the elevated risk of Famine.
The Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU), at its 639th meeting held on 29 November 2016, adopted the following decision on regional and international efforts to combat the Boko Haram terrorist group:
Central African refugees registered by UNHCR in rural areas in the East, Adamaoua and North regions, of which 158,418 arrived since December 2013
Nigerian refugees in the Far North region (of which 59,581 have been registered at Minawao camp)
Internally Displaced Persons in the Far North region (sources: DTM by IOM as of August 2016 and UNHCR protection monitoring Flash Updates)
“Not to take our eyes off the ball”
It is well known that the overall security situation in the Lake Chad Basin area remains precarious and volatile. The efforts exerted by the international community to confront and curb the horrendous violence perpetrated by Boko Haram are commendable, yet the group is still able to continue its campaign of terror. While it is avoiding direct combat, it relies on ambushes, use of Improvised Explosive Devices and suicide bombers targeting vulnerable groups.
As a result, the humanitarian situation has worsened, with an increasing number of people suffering from food insecurity and malnutrition. According to OCHA, of the 21 million people living in affected areas in Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger, about 2.4 million have been displaced by the insurgency. Additionally, over 9 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance across the region, including 7 million that are severely food insecure, and about 480,000 children facing acute malnutrition. And malnutrition rates are expected to increase in the coming months.
I repeat these statistics to remind all of us of the appalling conditions of daily life suffered by the affected communities, not to take our eyes off the ball, to keep in mind that women, children and elders remain most vulnerable. That is what I had in mind when I visited Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State. Maiduguri is a symbol of the suffering caused by the Boko Haram-instigated violence, with the hundreds of thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) it is hosting, yet at the same time a demonstration of the courage, resilience and hospitality of its people.
During my visits to the NSG and Bakasi Camps, which host respectively 17,000 and 10,000 IDPs, I could see, through the distress in their eyes, that these statistics are a reflection and a consequence of a human-made ordeal. I assured the people of Borno State of the commitment of the UN to support them during these challenging times, and I appealed to the surge of UN humanitarian assistance.
I wholeheartedly commend the Nigerian government, the Nigerian Army, and the military coalition of the Multi National Joint Task Force in the fight against Boko Haram. It is imperative that the international community provide concrete and effective support to the Task Force to enable them achieving even better results. It is very worrying that the 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan for the Lake Chad Basin region, necessitating US $739 million, is still only 41 per cent funded. It goes without saying that additional $163 million pledged by donors in September is welcomed. The needs are enormous, and an appropriate response should continue to help us provide much-needed support to the suffering populations.
It has now become common knowledge that addressing the roots causes of violent extremism and terrorism remains the key to curb the untold campaigns of violence we have been witnessing over the last years. This calls for a more equitable distribution of national resources, and meaningful action by policy makers to address structural issues of exclusion, social injustice, and deprivation.
In the same vein, it is worth underlining that the armies comprising the Task Force are national institutions, which are regulated by codes, principles and rules of engagement. According to these rules, the strict observance of standards of human rights and humanitarian laws must guide their action under all circumstances. State Security apparatuses and institutions should not resort to methods in combating terrorists that are likely to not only turn the population against them but also push them to the side of the insurgents.
Once again, I wish to reiterate the active solidarity of the UN and the entire international community with the governments and the peoples of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger, in the fight against international terrorism which has manifested itself the Lake Chad Basin countries in the form of Boko Haram terrorist activities.
Mohamed Ibn Chambas
Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the UN Office for Africa West and the Sahel
« Ne perdons pas l’objectif des yeux »
C’est bien connu que la situation sécuritaire globale dans la zone du bassin du Lac Tchad demeure précaire et volatile.
Les efforts de la communauté internationale à faire face et à juguler la terrible violence de Boko Haram sont louables. Mais le groupe est toujours capable de mener sa campagne de terreur. Evitant l’engagement direct, il s’appuie sur les embuscades, l’utilisation d’engins explosifs improvisés et des attaques-suicide pour cibler les groupes vulnérables.
La situation humanitaire s’est, de ce fait, détériorée, avec son lot d’insécurité alimentaire et de malnutrition. Selon OCHA, des 21 millions de personnes vivant dans les zones affectées du Nigeria, du Tchad, du Cameroun et du Niger, près de 2,4 millions ont été déplacées par la rébellion. Plus de 9 millions de personnes dans la région sont en besoin d’aide humanitaire, 7 millions en situation critique d’insécurité alimentaire et près de 480 000 enfants sont confrontés à une malnutrition sévère. Et dans les mois à venir, il est prévu une hausse des taux de malnutrition.
Je répète ces statistiques pour rappeler à tous les conditions déplorables de vie quotidienne des communautés affectées, et que nous ne perdions pas l’objectif de vue, que nous gardions à l’esprit que les femmes, les enfants et les personnes âgées demeurent les plus vulnérables. C’est ce que j’avais à l’esprit lorsque j’ai visité Maiduguri, la capitale de l’Etat de Borno. Avec les centaines de milliers de déplacés internes qu’elle abrite, Maiduguri est un symbole des souffrances causées par la violence de Boko Haram. Elle est en même temps une démonstration du courage, de la résilience et l’hospitalité de ses habitants. Pendant mes visites aux camps de NSG et Bakassi, qui abritent respectivement 17.000 et 10.000 déplacés internes, j’ai pu voir, la détresse dans les regards, que ces statistiques sont une réflexion et une conséquence d’une épreuve créée par les hommes. J’ai assuré les populations de l’Etat de Borno de l’engagement des Nations Unies à les soutenir pendant ces moments éprouvants et j’ai appelé à une forte augmentation de l’aide humanitaire des Nations Unies.
Je félicite l’Armée et le gouvernement nigérians et la coalition militaire de la Force Multinationale Conjointe engagés dans la lutte contre Boko Haram. Il est impératif que la communauté internationale soutienne concrètement et effectivement la Force mixte afin qu’elle atteigne des résultats meilleurs.
Il est très préoccupant de savoir que le Plan de réponse humanitaire 2016 pour la région du Bassin du Lac Tchad, qui nécessite 739 millions de dollars US, est financé à seulement 41%. Cela va sans dire que les 163 millions de dollars US additionnels promis par les donateurs en septembre sont les bienvenus. Les besoins sont énormes et une réponse appropriée devrait nous permettre de poursuivre le soutien plus que nécessaire aux populations affectées.
On sait tous que s’attaquer aux racines de l’extrémisme violent et du terrorisme demeure la clé pour endiguer les incalculables campagnes de violence dont nous avons été témoins ces dernières années. La situation requiert un partage plus équitable des ressources nationales, et des actions significatives des décideurs sur les questions d’exclusion, d’injustice sociale et de privations.
Dans la même logique, il est important de souligner que les Armées composant la Force mixte sont des institutions nationales, répondant à des codes, des principes et des règles d’engagement. Selon ces règles, le strict respect des lois et droits humains doit en toute circonstance guider toutes leurs actions. Les institutions et appareils sécuritaires d’Etat ne devraient pas, dans la lutte contre les terroristes, recourir à des méthodes qui pourraient retourner les populations contre eux ou à les pousser à rejoindre les insurgés.
Une fois de plus, j’aimerais réaffirmer la solidarité active des Nations-Unies et de toute la communauté internationale avec les gouvernements et les peuples de la République fédérale du Nigéria, du Cameroun, du Niger et du Tchad, dans la lutte contre le terrorisme international qui se manifeste dans les pays du Bassin du Lac Tchad dans la forme des activités terroristes de Boko Haram.
Mohamed Ibn Chambas
Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest et le Sahel
1.8 million internally displaced people (OCHA)
1,276,513 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR)
212,071 seeking shelter with the UN (UNMISS)
3.6 million people in need of food assistance from October—December (WFP estimate)
This Operations Update decreases the budget from 1,434,323 to 1,401,982 Swiss francs to enable the IFRC to support the Red Cross Society of Niger to assist 58,000 people up to June 2017, with a focus on health, water, sanitation, hygiene promotion, nutrition, livelihoods, shelter, non-food items, and capacity building. This operations update does not modify the number of beneficiaries, the zones of intervention and the number of volunteers. It only extends the timeframe operations from December 2016 up to June 2017. From September 2014, the current funding situation is 1,086,387 Swiss francs. With the revised appeal, there is a funding gap of 347,936 Swiss francs. The planned response reflects the current situation and information available at this time of the evolving operation, and will be adjusted based on further developments and more detailed assessments.
The disaster and the Red Cross Red Crescent response to date
July 2014: Large numbers of displaced from southern Nigeria begin arriving in Niger’s Diffa region from northern Nigeria. With local resources exhausted, host communities were unable to cope with the situation. Access to water, sanitation and primary health care was critically low, and immediate humanitarian assistance required.
September 2014: 170,000 Swiss francs allocated from the IFRC’s Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF). Emergency Appeal launched for 1,062,406 Swiss francs to assist 80,000 persons in health and care, water, hygiene and sanitation, food security and livelihoods, and promote peace and social cohesion.
2015 - 2016: More than 115 serious security incidents recorded, leading to more than 240,000 displaced in Diffa. The Government’s State of Emergency extended for Diffa.
July 2015: Revised Emergency Appeal issued for a total of 851,786 Swiss francs for a reduced caseload of 50,000 people, and Appeal extended to December 2015.
December 2015: Twelve-month Update issued, extending the Emergency Appeal to June 2016 while discussions are carried out on the direction of the operation.
August 2016: Revised Emergency Appeal launched for 1,429,530 Swiss francs support the Niger National Red Cross Society to deliver assistance and support to 58,000 people for an additional 6 months
October 2016: The Government of Niger and UNHCR report a total of 221.790 population in displacement situation while the security situation remains being a big issue.
December 2016: Emergency Appeal extended up to June 2017 to allow provision of assistance in diverse domains to the target communities most affected by the population displacements.