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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Senegal

    Rice, millet, sorghum, and maize are the primary staple foods in Senegal. Groundnuts are both an important source of protein and a commonly grown cash crop. Imported rice is consumed daily by the vast majority of households in Senegal particularly in Dakar and Touba urban centers. Local rice is produced and consumed in the Senegal River Valley. St. Louis is a major market for the Senegal River Valley. Millet is consumed in central regions where Kaolack is the most important regional market. Maize is produced and consumed in areas around Kaolack, Tambacounda, and the Senegal River Valley. Some maize is also imported mainly from the international market. High demand for all commodities exists in and around Touba and Dakar. They are also important centers for stocking and storage during the lean season. The harvests of grains and groundnuts begin at the end of the marketing year in October; and stocks of locally produced grains are drawn down throughout the marketing year. Senegal depends more on imports from the international market for rice than from cross border trade which mainly includes cattle from Mali and Mauritania that supply Dakar and surrounding markets.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger

    Millet, maize, cowpea, and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is consumed by both rural and poor urban households throughout the country. Maize and imported rice are most important for urban households, while cowpea is mainly consumed by poor households in rural and urban areas as a protein source. Niamey is the most important national market and an international trade center, and also supplies urban households. Tillaberi is also an urban center that supplies the surrounding area. Gaya market represents a main urban market for maize with cross-border connections. Maradi, Tounfafi, and Diffa are regional assembly and cross-border markets for Niger and other countries in the region. These are markets where households and herders coming from the northern cereal deficit areas regularly buy their food. Agadez and Zinder are also important national and regional markets. Nguigmi and Abalak are located in pastoral areas, where people are heavily dependent on cereal markets for their food supply. They are particularly important during the rainy season, when herders are confined to the pastoral zone.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania

    Local rice and sorghum are the most consumed food products by poor households in Mauritania followed by imported wheat which is a substitute that these households turn to the most. Local rice is grown in the river valley (in the southern regions of Trarza, Brakna, Gorgol and Guidimakha). Sorghum is produced in all areas of production (rainfed) and in flood-recession areas. However, a significant portion is imported from Mali and Senegal. Mauritania depends greatly on food imports (70% in a good agricultural year and 85% in a bad year) than on internal production. Nouakchott is the principal collection market for imported products and also the distribution market where traders acquire supplies for the secondary markets referenced below. Cooking oil is consumed mainly in urban areas. The sale of animals is a lifestyle in all areas and an important source of income and food.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    Millet, rice, and sorghum constitute the basic staple foods for the majority of the Malian population. Millet has traditionally been the most widely consumed, but since 2005 rice has become a popular substitute in urban households. Sorghum is generally more important for rural than urban households. Markets included are indicative of local conditions within their respective regions. Ségou is one of the most important markets for both the country and region because it is located in a very large grain production area. Bamako, the capital and largest urban center in the country, functions as an assembly market. It receives cereals from Koulikoro, Ségou, and Sikasso for consumption and also acts as an assembly market for trade with the northern regions of the country (Kayes and Koulikoro) and Mauritania. Markets in the deficit areas of the country (Timbuktu and Gao) receive their supplies of millet and rice from Mopti, Ségou and Sikasso.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    Sorghum, millet, white maize, and local and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is most heavily consumed in the eastern and northern regions of the country. Local rice is another basic food commodity, especially for poorer households. Imported rice and white maize are most commonly consumed in and around the capital. The Marché d'Atrone in N’Djamena, the capital city, is the largest market for cereals. Moundou is an important consumer center for sorghum and the second largest market after the capital. The Abéché market is located in a northern production area. The Sarh market is both a local retail market and a cross-border market.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso

    Millet, maize, and sorghum are the most important food commodities for household consumption. Millet is the staple of the most vulnerable households, while maize and sorghum also contribute to the food basket of a majority of all households. Sankaryare market is the largest and most important market in Ouagadougou and supplies other markets within the country and region. Koudougou is located in one of the most populated areas in the country, where a majority of households depend on the market for their food needs. Djibo is in the highly vulnerable Sahelian zone. Pouytenga is an assembly market for products from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Togo. Solenzo is a rural market located in the middle of a surplus production zone. Bobo Dioulasso is important center for both consumption and production – it functions as both the economic capital of Burkina Faso and is located in an important cereal production zone.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone

    Urgence alimentaire (Phase 4 de l’IPC) persistante au nord-est Nigeria

    Messages clés

    L’Urgence (Phase 4 de l’IPC) persiste dans des zones nouvellement libérées et avec des opérations militaires actives des Etats de l'Adamaoua, du Borno et de Yobé du nord-est Nigeria. Les déficits alimentaires extrêmes persistent, de même que la prévalence critique de la malnutrition aiguë conduisant à un risque élevé de mortalité. Les zones inaccessibles pourraient faire face à des résultats plus graves. L’information limitée sur ces zones suggère une situation de catastrophe alimentaire (Phase 5 de l’IPC) pour certains ménages isolés par le conflit.

    Un accès humanitaire amélioré et une augmentation significative de l'assistance demeurent nécessaires de toute urgence pour sauver des vies dans ces Etats du nord-est Nigeria, ainsi que dans les zones voisines au Niger et au Tchad et en République Centrafricaine où l’insécurité alimentaire du niveau Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) se maintient aussi.

    Ailleurs, les récoltes ont localement débuté au Sahel. Les conditions agro-climatiques continuent à être favorables pour le développement des cultures tardives et des pâturages. L’intensification des activités agricoles avec la généralisation des récoltes crée des opportunités de revenus pour les ménages pauvres. Toutefois, des inondations continuent à être enregistrées dans plusieurs localités du Sénégal, du Nigeria, du Mali, du Niger, et de la Guinée entrainent des pertes de cultures et de stocks alimentaires.

    Les résultats de la sécurité alimentaire sont en nette amélioration avec le début des récoltes. La majorité des ménages évolue vers une situation Minimale (IPC Phase 1) suite à l’amélioration de leurs stocks et revenus tirés des activités saisonnières de récoltes. Toutefois, dans certaines zones agropastorales du Sahel, le Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) et la Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) demeurent jusqu'aux récoltes en octobre. En Sierra Leone, le Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) persistera dans les zones à faible pouvoir d’achat.

    D’une manière générale, l’approvisionnement du marché continue à être normal dans la région suite aux nouvelles récoltes et aux échanges transfrontaliers normaux. Cependant, l'insécurité et les conflits perturbent le fonctionnement des marchés au nord du Mali et autour du Lac Tchad. La dépréciation de la Naira continue à maintenir les prix des céréales à un niveau atypique au Nigeria malgré les récoltes en cours. Elle crée aussi des conditions défavorables pour les flux du bétail du Sahel vers le Nigeria.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Nigeria

    Large food security Emergency to persist in northeast Nigeria even in the post-harvest period

    Key Messages

    • Impacts of conflict in northeast Nigeria continues to leave a significant portion of the population with very limited access to food, water, and health services as active fighting between Boko Haram and the Multinational Joint Taskforce continues. Although data remains limited, information from recently liberated populations suggest that possible Famine (IPC Phase 5) acute food insecurity could be occurring in the worst affected and less accessible pockets of the state.

    • Populations in several recently accessible LGA centers in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States (Figure 2) remain in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) acute food insecurity – recent information from these areas show larger gaps in basic food needs and suggest high levels of acute malnutrition. While there has been some improvement in food assistance delivery, market functioning and government services in these LGAs, there are still security risks and limited opportunities for both IDPs and returnees.

    • The Nigerian Naira (NGN) has depreciated by more than 40 percent since early- 2016, a trend that persisted in August when the national inflation rate increased to 17.6 percent from 17.1 percent in July. This followed the decision by the Central Bank to allow the exchange rate to float beginning in June. Depreciation has led to a significant increase in food prices which has diminished purchasing power for households across the country.

    • Rivers across the country have been at above-average water levels for the time of year and NEMA, NIMET and NIHSA have issued flood alerts in lowland areas along the Benue and Niger rivers and in major tributaries in the Delta region. There have been some reports of fatalities, destruction of infrastructure, damage to farmlands and displacement of populations in affected areas across the country.

    CURRENT SITUATION

    National Overview

    Boko Haram related conflict in northeast Nigeria has left a significant portion of the population with very limited access to food, water, and health services. Roughly 1 million people remain displaced in Maiduguri and Jere alone, with another 450,000 displaced elsewhere in the state (IOM DTM, August). Military operations continue in North and Central Borno, southeastern Yobe and Northern Adamawa States. Although data remains limited and exact populations in these areas are difficult to estimate, food security and nutrition reports from recently liberated areas continue to suggest extreme levels of food insecurity for displaced and trapped populations. Larger populations in less-affected areas of the northeast also face difficulty meeting their basic food needs as the protracted conflict has limited participation in agricultural livelihoods and food access remains constrained by high market prices for key staples.

    The rainy season is forecast to end as usual during October in the northern areas and in December in the southern areas. The main harvests will begin in October across the country and are expected to be average in most areas. Millet, maize, groundnut and tuber harvests are already underway in some areas, which is increasing food availability and access across the country. Some localized areas where flooding, conflict, pest infestation and dry spells have occurred will have below-average production.

    River levels are at above-average levels for this time of year in localized areas along the major floodplains of rivers Niger and Benue and their tributaries. Flooding, however, remains at typical levels with some population displacement as well as damaged infrastructure, houses, farmland and livestock in affected areas. Harvest levels in some localized areas will be negatively affected by flooding. A flood response plan developed by NEMA and partners anticipates that floods may impact 14 states and 34 LGAs across the country with an estimated five million people facing some impact by the end of the season.

    Resource based farmer/pastoralist conflict persists, mainly in the central states of Kaduna, Benue, Nasarawa, Taraba, and Plateau. Pastoralists are avoiding the widely available pasture land within these areas for fear of attack. Farmer/pastoralist conflict is also expanding towards the southern areas as pastoralists avoid the central states. Similarly, the cattle rustling activities in the northwestern part of the country, in Sokoto, Zamfara, Katsina, and Kaduna are still occurring largely as a result of conflict in the Northeast as affected farmers try to rebuild herds and find new lands.

    Depreciation of the naira, which has been driven mostly by declining international oil prices, continues despite the central bank’s decision to float the currency in June. The gap between parallel market and official market rates continues to decrease as the rates are expected to stabilize in the long term, however the economy continues to contract as it moved toward recession in August. Crude oil pipeline bombings by the Niger Delta militants also persist, leading to further reductions in government oil revenue. The annual inflation rate has slightly increased to 17.6 percent in August as compared to 17.1 percent the previous month. These factors have negatively impacted household purchasing power and has continued to limit food access for market dependent households, despite markets being well stocked throughout the lean season.

    Staple food prices in areas outside of the northeast are slightly declining relative to previous months due to new harvests of maize, millet, legumes and tubers. These harvests are increasing market and household stocks, reducing market dependence for food and causing prices to seasonally decline. Although food prices will continue to decline as the harvest peaks in October and November, prices remain elevated as the Naira continues to depreciate. Food and fuel prices remain highly elevated compared to one month, one year and five year averages across the country. Sorghum, millet and maize prices remain 155, 129, 97 percent higher, respectively, from July 2015 to July 2016 in Kano where Nigeria’s largest market is.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: South Sudan, Sudan

    Food insecurity likely to remain worst in conflict-affected areas**

    Key Messages

    • Average to above-average rainfall through October is likely to lead to favorable cropping and pasture prospects that should improve food security outcomes with harvests starting in October/November. The number of people facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse acute food insecurity will likely decline significantly in the post-harvest period, most of whom are conflict-affected populations and/or IDPs in South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Darfur States.
    • Heavy rains and flooding since June have damaged infrastructure and houses, destroyed crops, and delayed planting and weeding in localized areas throughout Sudan. More than 204,000 people have been directly affected and over 74,000 ha of crops destroyed by floods. States worst affected by flooding include Kassala, South Darfur, Al Gazira, Sennar, West Kordofan, Al Qadaref, White Nile, South Kordofan, and North Darfur.
    • Staple food prices showed mixed trends for the different markets between July and August, but in Al Qadarif, the main supply market, sorghum prices decreased by 10 percent between July and August as traders and commercial farmers began to sell off old stocks. Sorghum and millet prices in August were 24 to 32 percent higher than in August 2015, and 50 to 57 percent higher than the recent five-year average. Staple food prices are likely to begin declining seasonally in most markets with the onset of harvests in October/November.
    • Recent clashes between conflicting groups in northwestern Ethiopia have temporarily driven approximately 5,000 to 10,000 refugees into Sudan since early August, though most have now returned to Ethiopia. Further deterioration of security conditions in Ethiopia would likely to result in disruption of the agricultural season in areas along the border and force more refugees from Ethiopia to flee into Sudan.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger

    Messages clés

    • Compte tenu d’une pluviométrie globalement favorable, les cultures de mil et de niébé sont à la maturité plus tôt que la moyenne, se traduisant par une amélioration des disponibilités alimentaires et une insécurité alimentaire globalement Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC). Toutefois, des retards dans le développement phénologique des plantes et des attaques parasitaires sont observés dans la région de Maradi et dans certaines poches des régions de Zinder et Tahoua à cause d’une mauvaise répartition de la pluie dans le temps et dans l’espace.

    • Les conditions de pâturages et d’abreuvement en milieu pastoral se sont nettement améliorées avec la réhabilitation de l’embonpoint des animaux et de la production laitière sauf dans certaines poches de la zone pastorale. Les vents violents dans la zone pastorale de Tahoua et les inondations dans la zone pastorale d’Agadez ont empêché l’émergence du pâturage et prolongé la période de soudure jusqu’en fin septembre au lieu de juillet/août normalement entrainant une situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) chez les ménages pauvres.

    • Les importations régionales des céréales favorisées par la dépréciation du naira Nigérian continuent à assurer l’approvisionnement régulier des marchés. Cependant, des hausses de prix sont enregistrées entre juillet et août pour le mil de 19 pourcent à Abalak, 23 pourcent à Zinder et 53 pourcent à Bakin Birdji suite à une forte demande liée au retour des migrants et des éleveurs et la rétention des stocks de certains commerçants. Comparés à la moyenne quinquennale, les prix sont restés globalement stable.

    • Les résultats d’insécurité alimentaire aigüe de niveau Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) et de Stress (Phase 2! de l’IPC) sont encore observés présentement dans la région de Diffa affectée par le conflit Boko Haram. Ces résultats vont persister jusqu’au moins janvier 2017 à cause des récoltes et des sources de revenus en dessous de la moyenne et des hausses des prix de céréales qui sont au-dessus de la moyenne quinquennale plus de 20 pourcent et qui entrainent un accès alimentaire réduit.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    • Les cumuls pluviométriques au 10 septembre 2016 montrent une situation d'excédent modéré à large (Centre Salamat et aux frontières Ouaddai et Wadi Fira) voire équivalente dans toutes les régions agricoles du Nord comme du Sud à légèrement déficitaire (Centre Mayo-Kebbi Est et extrême Nord des régions agricoles). Les prévisions des récoltes attendues indiquent une production au niveau national au-dessus de la moyenne.

    • La situation alimentaire des ménages pauvres dans les zones en insécurité alimentaire (Sahel) s’est nettement améliorée grâce aux prémices (maïs, manioc, patate douce et arachide), ainsi qu’aux produits de cueillette et à la disponibilité laitière. Mais leur contribution à la consommation alimentaire reste limitée jusqu’en octobre où les grandes récoltes amélioreront l’insécurité alimentaire en Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) dans toutes les zones à l’exception du Lac. Dans la zone soudanienne, les ménages consomment du maïs frais, ce qui améliore leur ration alimentaire.

    • La situation phytosanitaire est globalement calme malgré l’apparition des sautereaux signalés dans certaines régions de la bande sahélienne. Les zones infestées font actuellement l’objet de suivi par les bases phytosanitaires qui déplorent des manques des produits de traitements en cas de gravité dans certaines zones telle que le Wadi Fira; ce qui pourrait avoir un impact sur le pâturage et les épis qui sont en phase de maturité.

    • La situation sécuritaire due à Boko Haram restreint la bonne circulation des biens et personnes compromettant les activités agro-sylvo-pastorales dans certaines localités de la région du Lac Tchad. De nouveaux mouvements de populations sont signalés augmentant les effectifs de déplacés. La situation des réfugiés, retournés, et populations hôtes est calme à cause de la distribution alimentaire qui se poursuit et qui maintiendra, dès octobre, cette partie du pays en situation alimentaire de Stress (Phase 2 ! de l’IPC) jusqu’au moins en janvier.


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    Source: Save the Children
    Country: Niger

    As part of our work to promote transparency and accountability in relation to Sustainable Development Goal 2 – to end hunger and improve food security and nutrition – Save the Children has been analysing government budgets in a number of countries. One of these is Niger.

    Here we present some initial results of the analysis of the Ministry of Health (MOH) budget of the Government of Niger – with a specific focus on internal vs. external funding – in the context of a continued burden of child malnutrition and poor budgetary transparency.

    In fragile and conflict-ridden states the majority of funding for health and nutrition generally originates from external sources. This represents a threat to the sustainability of services and to scaling up interventions.

    Analysing budgetary allocations for nutrition in Niger is important because of the ongoing malnutrition crisis in the country. The prevalence of child stunting in Niger is estimated at 42.5%, while the prevalence of severe stunting is around 16.9%. Severe acute malnutrition is estimated at 2.6%, with the highest prevalence in the Diffa region at 3.9%. UNICEF highlighted that malnutrition was an underlying cause of death for one out of three children in the country.

    In addition, and related to poor socio-economic performance, Niger ranks very poorly when it comes to citizen participation and budget transparency, which are key to ensuring greater effectiveness in financial planning and allocating funds to priority sectors, programmes and interventions. Data collected by the International Budget Partnership shows that Niger scores just 4 out of 100 for public participation and 17 out of 100 for transparency (second lowest in the West Africa region after Chad).

    In order to gain a greater understanding of how the Government of Niger is investing in nutrition, Save the Children has recently undertaken an analysis of the Annual Action Plan (Plan d’Action Annuel) of the MOH. The results of this analysis show that between 2015 and 2016, the overall MOH budget decreased from 231.7 billion CFA to 131.2 billion CFA. This means that in 2016, the per capita spending is around USD 10.7 per annum, or just USD 0.9 per month. External funds (donor funding) constitute a considerable part of all funding for health.

    The graph below (Figure 2) illustrates the most recent trends in funding sources of the MOH in Niger. As can be observed, in 2015 the share of state funding was 45.5% compared with 65.2% in 2016. While this is a positive trend, the total amount of state allowances for MOH actually decreased, from 105.4 billion CFA in 2015 to 85.5 billion CFA in 2016.This was accompanied by a very sharp drop in donor funding. Regarding specifically the allocations to the Nutrition Division (situated within the MOH), there has been a similar trend, although less sharp: both the state and non-state allocations have decreased, with a greater decline in non-state allocations. These alarming trends – in particular the very sharp decline in funding for health – highlight the dangers involved in dependency on external funding for eradicating malnutrition and ensuring the socio-economic progress of the country.

    In order to gain a greater understanding of how the Government of Niger is investing in nutrition, Save the Children has recently undertaken an analysis of the Annual Action Plan (Plan d’Action Annuel) of the MOH. The results of this analysis show that between 2015 and 2016, the overall MOH budget decreased from 231.7 billion CFA to 131.2 billion CFA. This means that in 2016, the per capita spending is around USD 10.7 per annum, or just USD 0.9 per month. External funds (donor funding) constitute a considerable part of all funding for health.

    The graph below (Figure 2) illustrates the most recent trends in funding sources of the MOH in Niger. As can be observed, in 2015 the share of state funding was 45.5% compared with 65.2% in 2016. While this is a positive trend, the total amount of state allowances for MOH actually decreased, from 105.4 billion CFA in 2015 to 85.5 billion CFA in 2016.This was accompanied by a very sharp drop in donor funding. Regarding specifically the allocations to the Nutrition Division (situated within the MOH), there has been a similar trend, although less sharp: both the state and non-state allocations have decreased, with a greater decline in non-state allocations. These alarming trends – in particular the very sharp decline in funding for health – highlight the dangers involved in dependency on external funding for eradicating malnutrition and ensuring the socio-economic progress of the country.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan, Uganda

    In Numbers

    • 1.67 million internally displaced people (OCHA est.)

    • 1,009,854 South Sudanese refugees (UNHCR est.)

    • 201,997 people seeking shelter with the UN (UNMISS est.)

    • 4.8 million people in emergency or crisis level food insecurity (IPC, May - July 2016)

    Highlights

    • Out-migration from South Sudan continues as a result of ongoing fighting and insecurity.

    • WFP is working with humanitarian partners to meet needs of displaced in Lainya and Yei counties.

    • Fighting in Unity state increases displacement and prevents food distributions.

    • UNHCR reports that the average rate of new arrivals per day from South Sudan to Uganda is 2,829 as of 28 September. Refugees continue to report insecurity and fighting amongst armed groups, with the greatest number of refugees fleeing Central Equatoria. White Nile State (Sudan) has also recorded a rise in refugees from South Sudan, with 1,500 arriving in the first two weeks of September.

    • WFP is extremely concerned about those displaced from Lainya and affected by the recent insecurity around Yei. The operating environment in these areas remains complex: the displacement patterns over vast and inaccessible areas and insecurity along major supply corridors remain major challenges to mount a humanitarian response. WFP, alongside other humanitarian actors, is working on developing appropriate modalities to meet the needs of these population groups in a manner consistent with humanitarian principals.

    • Due to ongoing insecurity in Unity state, WFP is also concerned about the populations in Rubkona and Koch counties who were facing IPC phase 3 and 4 (crisis, emergency) levels of food insecurity, respectively, in the June 2016 IPC report. Due to recent fighting new displacements have been reported. WFP is working to ensure assistance can be resumed to the most vulnerable people when the security situation permits WFP to do so and when people feel safe to receive assistance. WFP had food assets on the ground and continues to engage with the local authorities, urging all parties to respect humanitarian assets and operations.

    • A Ministerial Order has indicated that aircraft with a manufacture date of 20 years and above will not be allowed to operate in South Sudan. This would have an impact on the WFP, UNHAS and Logistics Cluster fleets. WFP, in its capacity as the lead agency of the Logistics Cluster, is liaising with the relevant government authorities to seek a wavier for aircraft that do not fulfill this criteria. All aircraft contracted by WFP undergo rigorous safety checks and follow United Nations Aviation Safety Standards.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Eritrea, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, World, Yemen

    By: Keith Cressman, Alice Van der Elstraeten and Clare Pedrick

    Objective

    This good practice fact sheet aims to share the experience and technology behind eLocust3, a highly effective data recording and transmission system for crop pest monitoring. The document highlights the system’s innovative features and the lessons learned from the process of product development. It also sets out to explore how this technology, currently being used with considerable success as a detection and early warning tool for Desert Locusts, could be adapted and replicated to monitor other crops pests, both migratory and sedentary.

    Geographical coverage

    The area includes 19 frontline countries in West and Northwest Africa, East and Northeast Africa, Arabia and Southwest Asia, and other countries that may be invaded in the case of a major outbreak.

    Introduction

    The Desert Locust is considered the world’s most dangerous migratory pest species. It threatens people’s livelihoods, food security, the environment and economic development. A single outbreak can affect as many as 65 of the world’s poorest countries, and up to 20 percent of the Earth’s land mass.

    An innovative technology developed by FAO and partners is helping to improve early warning by enabling rapid detection of locust outbreaks and green vegetation likely to become sites of locust infestations. Released in 2014, eLocust3 is a tried and tested data recording and transmission system, suitable for difficult and remote locations where monitoring is a challenge. The device consists of a robust tablet and custom designed software, which enable field staff to gather data and transfer it in real-time via satellite from the field to their national locust centres, before transmission to the Desert Locust Information Service (DLIS) at FAO Headquarters in Rome. eLocust3 is the latest update to the eLocust series, which has proved effective in early warning and preventive control in locust-affected countries.

    Information obtained via eLocust3 is used to assess the current situation, forecast its development and warn locustaffected countries and the international donor community of likely locust invasions and plagues. Designed for use in areas with no Internet connection, the device is suitable for monitoring large expanses of inaccessible territory. A navigation feature enables locust survey and control teams to pinpoint and find their way to areas of green vegetation and potential locust infestations.

    This tool, based on new advances in technologies, could be adapted and replicated for other migratory or sedentary crop pests as a way of monitoring pest levels and implementing more timely control, as needed.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Pledges of increased funding for the Lake Chad crisis at GA side event.

    • IDPs move back to LGAs

    • New Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator appointed

    FIGURES

    • # people in need of humanitarian assistance 7m

    • # IDPs 1.8 m

    • # of people facing acute food insecurity 4.5 m

    • # severe acute malnourished children in Borno state 250,000

    • # in Borno state in need of food assistance 3.1 m

    • # of refugees who have crossed into Cameroon, Chad and Niger 159,560

    FUNDING

    484 million requested (US$) 25% funded (as of 30 September 2016)

    General Assembly side-event focuses on Lake Chad crisis

    A high level side-event at the 71st UN General Assembly in September focused on the Lake Chad crisis bringing together governments, donors and regional organizations. The crisis, affects a total of nine million people in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria where 6.3 million are food insecure and 2.6 million forced to flee their homes. Nigeria is the worst affected, with over two million displaced and in need of food, shelter, health, education, water and sanitation, and protection.

    Scaling up

    To meet these growing needs NGOs, the ICRC and UN agencies continue to scale up operations in the affected states in support of government mechanisms, to deliver much needed life-saving assistance.
    As Nigerian Armed Forces push out rebel forces, a limited number of previously insecure areas are becoming accessible, opening up access to communities. However, there are still areas where an unknown number of people are unreachable, trapped in rebel-held conclaves and who doubtless require humanitarian assistance.
    In order to address the needs of both displaced people and host communities affected by the crisis, the Nigerian Humanitarian Response Plan for 2016 was revised, based on the most recent assessments. To meet the most urgent life-saving needs a sum of US$484 million is required. At the 30 September just 25 per cent of the required amount was raised, resulting in a shortfall for the most immediate needs.

    Funding pledges

    Member States at the General Assembly meeting in New York including Belgium, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States pledged $168 million in support of the scale up of operations. Beyond financial support, the governments of affected countries in the Lake Chad Basin and humanitarian partners pledged to strengthen collaboration to meet the needs of affected communities, provide longer term development assistance and address the root causes of the crisis.

    Return of IDPs

    With at least 1.8 million1 IDPs across the four most affected states in Nigeria’s north-east and 1.4 million in Borno state alone, the Borno state government is moving towards returning people since the beginning of 2016. While some IDPs express a willingness to return, they are seeking assurances that measures are put in place to ensure safety in their places of return. Citizens also seek assurances for improvements in the provision of basic services such as education, health, WASH etc. and an enabling environment for the resumption of farming activities, free from the threat of violence. Although the state government has begun to undertake early recovery activities in some Local Government Areas (LGAs), it will take time before all the basic facilities and services will be in place to support a sustainable return.

    Military operations

    Military operations to clear the wards and villages of Boko Haram is ongoing and available information suggests that the LGA headquarter towns of Dikwa, Gamboru,
    Ngala, Konduga and Mafa are safe for people to return. It should be stressed that the vast majority if areas outside of newly-secured LGA headquarters towns are not considered sufficiently safe or secure to absorb the return of citizens.
    The extensive damage caused by conflict leaves most LGA headquarter towns with weak capacity. Schools, health and WASH facilities and basic infrastructure require major rehabilitation or reconstruction. Government entities and international partners need to conduct in-depth assessments to identify immediate humanitarian and mid to longer term recovery requirements and to mobilise the required resources in order to better enable conditions for IDP return

    Basic needs for returning IDPs

    While families are eager to return home and restart farming and livelihood activities, they will first and foremost descend on the LGA headquarter towns rather than more remote areas, placing increasing pressure on very limited facilities and public services. Given that the farming planting season is almost ended, citizens returning now won’t be able to undertake any farming activities and will require substantial humanitarian assistance until at least the next harvest season.
    There are concerns that if IDPs return to their communities and basic services are not available, or their basic needs met, they will once again return to Maiduguri where they will receive minimum assistance. Should this happen it will further exacerbate an already dire situation in the city.

    Operational standards

    To address the issues, the Protection Sector Working Group in collaboration with the recently established IDP Return Task Force has put together Operational Standards for the return of IDPs in new accessible areas in Borno state. This initiative seeks to provide guidance for Government and humanitarian partners to address critical issues concerning the planned and ongoing return of IDPs to newly accessible LGAs. Guiding Principles were also drafted where relevant state actors commit to involve IDPs though a consultative process in all stages of planning and implementation of their return. This embraces the different needs of women, men, children, elderly and disabled citizen.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali


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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Mali, Niger, Sudan

    Reliable access to water is critical for farmers everywhere. With rainfall becoming more variable due to climate change, ensuring a sustainable irrigation source helps farmers to adapt to changing climatic conditions and maintain productivity.

    Aging diesel-powered water pumps are sometimes used for irrigation in rural developing communities, but have significant downsides. In contrast, solar-powered pumps can have lifespans of up to 25 years, require no cost for fuel or spare parts, and no pollution, emissions, or fuel spills. Introducing solar-powered solutions in Cambodia, Cabo Verde, Mali, Niger and Sudan has significantly improved the quality of life for farmers and those that depend on them and their livelihoods..

    UNRELIABILITY OF RAIN

    For many Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) that are grappling with poverty, unemployment, insufficient infrastructure, civil unrest, and environmental degradation, climate change impacts bring an additional pressure.

    In order to address these impacts, the Government of Canada, under the Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility (CCAF) partnered with UNDP and the government to fund and implement climate change adaptation projects in six LDCs and SIDS where the communities are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

    Target communities in all six CCAF countries are dependent on rainfall for their agricultural systems. The increasingly variable nature of rainfall and general trend towards shorter growing seasons has limited productivity and as a result reduces income, limits livelihood options, and decreases food security.

    AN EXTENDED DRY SPELL…

    For Cabo Verde, as rainfed agriculture has become increasingly tenuous due to the drought, the CCAF project introduced solar pumping systems in two of the most vulnerable islands to reduce energy costs and increase reliability of water. These systems are helping improve the climate-resilience of more than 500 farmers, by giving them access to water for irrigating a total of approximately 15 hectares/37 acres of arable land.

    Sudan is also experiencing unpredictable rainfall, shorter growing seasons, frequent rainfall extremes, and frequent and intense droughts. It is estimated that over 12 million hectares of rain-fed land in the Kordofan and Darfur states are under threat of drought. In response, the CCAF team in Sudan identified vulnerable areas and installed 15 solar pumps to improve seasonal irrigation schemes.

    IRRIGATING LIVELIHOODS

    Across the CCAF project countries, solar pumps are providing more secure and reliable access to water which contribute to improving and diversifying livelihoods.

    In Cambodia, the solar pumps have improved access to freshwater for both domestic use and irrigation, and have dramatically increased yields from their home gardens, resulting in higher income and food security.

    In the past, 68 year-old Tourn Sakon, from Kulen Cheug village, walked 200m to fetch water from a pond in his village. Now that there are solar pumps to access water close to his house, he can focus his attention on growing and selling his produce which has helped increase his income.

    “I expect a 50% increase [900,000 Riels (US$225)] in income this year,” said Mr. Sakon.

    Some households supported by the project in Sudan have also used water from solar pumps to irrigate small gardens, which has also led to increased income. In some cases, this project has brought about an increase of about 6,600 USD of revenue, compared to only 660 USD before the intervention..

    STRENGTHENING WOMEN’S RESILIENCE

    Solar-powered water pumping systems at watering holes have also been successful in improving climate resilience specifically for women in the agricultural sector.

    In Mali, solar pumps have been installed alongside new plots of land dedicated to vegetable gardening, which has been provided to women’s collectives. With reliable access to water, the women in the collective are able to produce many more crops, which contribute to food security of their families as well as generate income when sold on the market.

    Similarly, in Sudan, collective plots of land were established for vegetable production, called Jubraka in the local language. These plots are managed by groups typically made up of ten to twelve women and one man. The Jubraka have greatly contributed to diversifying household food crops, particularly in the dry season, which leads to better food security and nutrition. Crops are also sold on the market, increasing women’s earning potential. These additional skills support women’s increasing role as leaders of the community in managing and producing food.

    In Cambodia, women are now able to grow vegetable gardens near their homes given the increased access to water from the solar pumps. In addition, the water user groups formed to manage these water resources have included women in leadership positions. This has led to positive changes in gender dynamics at the household level, such as reduced tensions between women and men, more shared decision-making at household level and increased skills in water management for women.

    SAVING TIME, SAVING WATER

    Solar pumps save countless hours that used to be spent fetching water for daily household needs. Those tasked with water collection, usually women or children, they have brought about improvements in health and hygiene, education, and increased revenues from other livelihoods.

    In Cabo Verde, Ms. Filomena F., a widow in Órgãos Pequeno settlement on Santiago Island and head of a nine-member household, remembers: “Whoever gets there first gets the water,” she says. “So I used to go there around midnight and sleep there, in order to be the first to draw water from the well.” Now that solar pumps have been installed, she doesn’t have to spend so much time waiting by the well, and doesn’t have to contend with the social tensions surrounding water scarcity in the dry season.

    In Sudan, 15 solar powered pumping stations have been installed in four states. One immediate benefit of this is a reduction in time and effort expended by women and children – many of whom previously had to travel for over 5km daily to collect water.

    Children, in particular, are spending more time at school since they no longer have to walk to fetch water daily.

    “Now I am no longer skipping my classes because the water problem is now solved,” said Badr Eldin, 9 year old from Siraj Alnour.

    Additional time- and labor-saving solar technologies, like multifunctional platforms, have been introduced in Mali and Niger.

    Under the CCAF project in Mali, four villages were equipped with solar-powered multifunctional platforms maintained and managed by women‘s associations who mill and husk the grains for cooking, and selling on the market.

    “The arrival of the platform is welcomed in our village,” said Fatoumata Diarra, head of the women’s collective. “…[T]his platform eases our work and gives us more time to devote ourselves to other activities, such as trading or gardening.”

    These activities provide an alternative income source when the cash crops suffer. Processing units composed of mills and huskers were also installed in several communities in Niger, with cascading positive effects on women‘s time and earning capacity.

    THE POWER OF SOLAR

    Solar powered water supply systems can have multiplier effects on the surrounding communities. People have more time and energy for farming, yields go up, and costs have come down. Initial assessments suggest a 15% internal rate of return, which means that the initial investments in solar pumps can be paid back within seven years. Community user groups are already using savings on water and power fees to fund loans to members for productivity enhancement and livelihood diversification, spurring a virtuous cycle of environmental sustainability and economic growth.

    CANADA-UNDP CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FACILITY

    All six countries participating in the global Canada-UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Facility aim to strengthen resilience in the agricultural and water sectors, with an emphasis on gender-sensitive approaches. The CCAF supports documentation of results and sharing lessons learned.

    For more information on CCAF work, visit www.adaptation-undp.org/projects/ccaf.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS

    • Recurring natural disasters such as droughts and floods combined with the volatility of markets, pushed many households and communities into chronic vulnerability.

    • Conflict in northern Nigeria and CAR continue to displace refugees to Cameroon, and causes internal displacements. In addition, increasing insecurity in the far North of Cameroon and along the border of CAR hampers humanitarian access.

    • Poor coverage of sanitation and access to clean water remain the main causes of malnutrition and water-borne diseases.


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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Niger, World

    3 octobre 2016 – Un nouveau rapport de l'ONU publié lundi met en évidence les inégalités structurelles comme facteur principal d'exacerbation des conséquences des aléas climatiques sur les populations pauvres et vulnérables, plus particulièrement dans les pays en développement.

    Intitulée « Enquête économique et sociale mondiale 2016 : la résilience au changement climatique - une opportunité pour réduire les inégalités », cette étude indique qu'au cours des 20 dernières années, 4,2 milliards de personnes ont été touchées par des catastrophes liées aux conditions météorologiques qui ont entrainé des pertes humaines importantes.

    « Malheureusement, les personnes les plus exposées aux risques liés aux aléas climatiques sont les personnes pauvres, vulnérables et marginalisées qui, dans de nombreux cas, ont été exclues du progrès socio-économique », a noté le Secrétaire général de l'ONU, Ban Ki-moon, en préface du rapport publié par le Département des affaires économiques et sociales des Nations Unies. « Nous n'avons pas de temps à perdre - et beaucoup à gagner – lorsqu'il s'agit de faire face aux inégalités socio-économiques qui aggravent la pauvreté et laissent les gens sur le côté », a-t-il ajouté.

    Responsabilité des gouvernements

    Le rapport démontre que la plupart des catastrophes liées au changement climatique que subissent les pauvres et vulnérables ne sont pas des « accidents » mais sont dues à l'échec des gouvernements à combler les écarts de développement qui mettent à risque d'importants groupes de population.

    Le rapport montre toutefois que les gouvernements peuvent jouer un rôle important dans la réduction des risques liés au changement climatique vis-à-vis des populations vulnérables. La construction de politiques de résilience au changement climatique offre l'occasion de concentrer les ressources sur la réduction des inégalités ancrées depuis longtemps et qui rendent les gens vulnérables de manière disproportionnée face aux aléas climatiques.

    Le rapport indique par ailleurs que les meilleures politiques d'adaptation au climat sont de bonnes politiques de développement qui renforcent la capacité des gens à faire face et à s'adapter aux aléas climatiques aujourd'hui et à moyen terme.

    Les inégalités structurelles accroissent la vulnérabilité des populations pauvres

    Selon les conclusions du rapport, les inégalités structurelles augmentent l'exposition des groupes vulnérables aux aléas climatiques. Les familles vivant dans la pauvreté occupent systématiquement les terres les plus exposées aux dommages causés par les risques climatiques, tels que les glissements de terrain, des périodes anormales d'eau chaude, la contamination de l'eau et des inondations. Le changement climatique a le potentiel d'aggraver leur situation et d'aggraver les inégalités déjà existantes.

    Selon les dernières données, 11% de la population mondiale vivait dans une zone côtière de basse altitude en 2000. Une grande partie des populations pauvres étaient contraintes de vivre dans des plaines inondables car elles ne disposaient pas des ressources nécessaires pour vivre dans des zones plus sûres.

    Les données soulignent également que, dans de nombreux pays d'Asie du Sud et de l'Est, en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes, beaucoup de gens n'ont pas d'autre option que d'ériger leurs habitations sur les pentes de collines précaires.

    Le rapport a également constaté une plus grande concentration des groupes pauvres et marginalisés dans des zones arides, semi-arides et subhumides sèches qui couvrent environ 40% de la surface terrestre de la Terre. Environ 29% de la population mondiale vivent dans ces zones et sont confrontés à des défis supplémentaires dus au changement climatique.

    Recommandation et préoccupation

    Dans ses conclusions, le rapport recommande l'utilisation d'un meilleur accès aux projections climatiques, aux technologies modernes de l'information et de la communication et aux systèmes d'information géographique. Ces outils permettraient aux pays concernés de renforcer leurs capacités à évaluer statistiquement les conséquences des aléas climatiques et des choix de politiques mis en place.

    Une préoccupation principale ressort du rapport : l'insuffisance des ressources internationales consacrées à la résilience vis-à-vis du changement climatique.

    Lors de la conférence de Paris sur le changement climatique (COP21) organisée en 2015, les pays se sont engagés à fixer un objectif d'au moins 100 milliards de dollars par an pour des activités d'atténuation et d'adaptation au changement climatique dans les pays en développement. Le rapport souligne toutefois que les seuls coûts d'adaptation sont estimés entre 70 et 100 milliards de dollars par an d'ici 2050 dans les pays en développement et que ces chiffres sont susceptibles de sous-estimer les coûts réels.


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