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    Source: Oxfam
    Country: Niger (the)
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    This project aims at strengthening livelihoods among pastoralist households in the rural commune of Bermo, in the Maradi Region of Niger. To achieve this aim it has facilitated the formation of a pastoralist self-help group and sought to increase household resilience to drought. These full and summary reports document the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in December 2011 and January 2012 that assessed the effectiveness of the project in this regard.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Chad

    RESUME

    Durant la campagne agricole 2012/2013, la saison des pluies a commencé précocement (dès le mois d’avril-mai) et les fortes pluies enregistrées surtout au mois d’août ont provoqué de larges inondations dans le Sud et l’Est du Tchad, ponctuellement dans des régions de la bande sahélienne (Batha, Salamat) et au Lac. Ces inondations ont causé des dégâts sur les cultures et notamment dans le Sud, où le Ministère de l’Agriculture évaluait fin août à plus de 255 000 ha les surfaces détruites.

    La FAO a participé pour le cluster sécurité alimentaire à une mission d’évaluation rapide inter agence (MIRA) dans le Sud. Suite à cette évaluation, la FAO a réalisé une enquête approfondie dans les trois régions les plus touchées dans le Sud (Tandjilé, Mayo Kebbi Est et Mayo Kebbi Ouest). La mission s’est déroulée du 22 octobre au 1er novembre. Les points saillants ressortis de l’analyse des données montrent que les populations vulnérables ont été fortement touchées par ces inondations qui auront des conséquences sur la sécurité alimentaire des ménages.

    Dans les trois régions de la Tandjilé, du Mayo Kebbi Est et du Mayo Kebbi Ouest, l’évaluation estime que plus de 100 000 ménages ont été. La superficie totale de ces parcelles affectées est estimée globalement à environ 161 562 hectares toutes cultures confondues. Parmi les ménages affectés, 57 417 ménages ont besoin d’une assistance pour ne pas perdre leurs moyens d’existence.

    La majorité des ménages enquêtés sont dirigés par des hommes (85%) ; ils sont de grande taille (12 personnes en moyenne) et comprennent en moyenne 3 enfants de moins de 5 ans. La source de revenus de la grande majorité des ménages est l’agriculture, dans la plupart des cas associée à l’élevage (92% des ménages). Hormis dans le Mayo Kebbi Ouest où les activités semblent plus diversifiées, seulement un peu plus de la moitié des ménages a une activité secondaire (généralement le petit commerce). De ce fait, la plupart des ménages enquêtés ont des revenus quasiment exclusivement liés à l’agriculture (entre 84% et 100% des revenus d’origine agricole). La plus grande partie des aliments consommés (plus de 75%) provient de la production des ménages. Le reste des produits consommés sont achetés sur le marché.

    Dans les zones enquêtées, les cultures céréalières principales sont le sorgho et le maïs. Les cultures de rente principales sont le riz, l’arachide, le sésame et le coton. D’autres cultures (mil, bérébéré, tubercules, maraîchage, niébé) sont également pratiquées. Les cultures de rente, et notamment l’arachide représentent entre 40 et 100% du revenu des producteurs. La grande majorité des producteurs enquêtés conservent des semences de leur production, et l’utilisation de semences améliorées est marginale.

    Les inondations ont sérieusement impacté les cultures. Une proportion importante des surfaces emblavées ont été détruites, à la fois sur les cultures vivrières et sur les cultures de rente. Les cultures vivrières comme les cultures de rente ont été largement touchées, entraînant des pertes de récolte potentielles allant jusqu’à 70 à 80%. 58% des ménages seront entièrement dépendant des marchés pour l’acquisition des semences pour la prochaine campagne, alors même que leurs revenus agricoles seront quasiment inexistants du fait de la perte de récolte.

    Un appui à la prochaine campagne pluviale pour les ménages n’ayant plus de semences et ne pouvant pas y accéder sur le marché est requis pour éviter la perte des moyens de production et ne pas fragiliser les moyens d’existence de ces populations. L’évaluation estime que 57 417 ménages auront besoin d’assistance pour pratiquer l’agriculture de contre-saison et pour la prochaine campagne pluviale afin d’éviter la perte de leurs moyens de production et renforcer leur résilience.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Senegal
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    L’essentiel

    • Plus d’un million de personnes ont pâti de la mauvaise campagne agricole 2011-2012, surtout dans les parties Est et Sud du pays. De plus, la situation d’insécurité alimentaire qui en a découlé a été exacerbée pendant la période de soudure. Grâce aux mesures sur les prix des produits de consommation courante (riz importé, sucre et huile) prises par le Gouvernement et à l’assistance alimentaire, les ménages les plus vulnérables ont pu être protégés;

    • La situation nutritionnelle reste précaire dans la partie orientale et méridionale du pays. La prévalence de la MAG a augmenté depuis novembre 2011 et les taux de 2012 sont au dessus du seuil critique de 15% à Podor, Kanel et Ranérou et au-delà de 10% dans 13 départements sur 45;

    • Bien que la récolte s’annonce globalement bonne dans le pays, les productions agricoles ont été affectées par les inondations en août et septembre dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal et dans les régions occidentales du pays. Environ 265 000 personnes ont été affectées;

    • En 2012, les importations de céréales ont progressé de 24% par rapport à la moyenne des cinq dernières années, conséquence de la mauvaise campagne agricole 2011/2012, rendant le pays encore plus vulnérable aux fluctuations des prix sur le marché mondial;

    • Au troisième trimestre les prix des céréales et des légumineuses sont restés au-dessus de la moyenne quinquennale (+20%) mais l’impact cumulatif trimestriel de la variation de prix sur le coût du panier alimentaire de base a été réduit de 0,3%, reflétant ainsi la diminution trimestrielle du prix du riz importé.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia (the), Mali, Mauritania, Niger (the), Nigeria, Senegal
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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic (the), Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (the), Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger (the), occupied Palestinian territory, Philippines (the), Somalia, Sudan (the), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe, South Sudan (Republic of)

    (Rome/Geneva/New York, 14 December 2012): Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Valerie Amos, called today for US$8.5 billion to help an estimated 51 million people who will need urgent humanitarian relief in 2013. Ms. Amos made the appeal on behalf of the UN and international humanitarian organisations working in 16 crisis-affected countries around the world.

    “Humanitarian needs continue to grow around the world and there are millions of people in need as a result of the impact of disasters and conflicts. People need our help and support as they strive to rebuild their lives,” Ms. Amos said at the launch of the Humanitarian Appeal 2013 in Rome.

    The global appeal for 2013 includes 16 national appeals for Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, occupied Palestinian territory, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Yemen and Zimbabwe.

    “The ongoing global economic crisis means that fewer resources are available, yet we are seeing large numbers of people living in crisis situations due to poverty, conflict and natural disasters,” said Caritas Internationalis Secretary General, Michel Roy. “It’s vital that donors support us, through the consolidated appeals, to carry out this joint humanitarian work.”

    “Working jointly in these 16 countries, we are strengthening our response. We are meeting the urgent need for food security and nutrition, shelter, water, health and other basic needs, while simultaneously helping communities recover from emergencies. A unified response can save lives and help communities become more resilient,” said WFP's Executive Director, Ertharin Cousin.

    The consolidated appeal for 2013 is the culmination of a process in which 520 aid organizations including United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations and other international organizations have come together to coordinate operational plans and funding requests to meet ongoing needs in a strategic and comprehensive way.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo (the), Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan (the), Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania (the), South Sudan (Republic of)
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    HIGHLIGHTS

    • African Union IDP Convention enters into force
    • Possible crop yield reductions in parts of Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania due to reduced rains
    • Staple food prices on decline in most eastern African countries due to second harvest
    • Humanitarian appeals launched for Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia
    • Increasing number of Somali refugees cross into Ethiopia fleeing insecurity
    • Humanitarian community in Kenya tests the contingency plan for 2013 general elections
    • Food security improvements in Somalia remain fragile
    • Humanitarian needs in DRC remain dire, as appeal is only half-funded
    • At least 240,000 students in North and South Kivu have missed school since conflict started in April
    • Refugee influx from DRC into Rwanda and Uganda on the decline

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Kenya

    Through an innovative cash transfer scheme, WFP is using mobile phones to transfer money in a fast and timely way to those needing assistance in Kenya.

    Tisiana Narumbe is looking forward to this Christmas because she can afford to treat her family to meat, chapatis and rice...thanks to the cash she has received from WFP through her mobile phone. Tisiana (42) is among more than 7,000 people in Isiolo who are benefiting from cash transfers via mobile phones as part of an innovative scheme being piloted by WFP.

    Previously, these pastoralists who lost their livestock to drought and cattle rustling would have received assistance by way of food distributions. But, because they live near well-stocked markets, they are in a position to do their own shopping. Cash transfers work well for these people – and they are also good for the local economy. That is why in Isiolo WFP has partnered with Orange Money, a mobile phone cash transfer service run by the Orange mobile phone company.

    Food for her family

    “Unlike a food distribution where we receive all our food for the month in one go, I don’t have to withdraw all the money at once," says Tisiana. "I can withdraw what I need and leave the rest on my mobile phone to withdraw later.”

    With a colourful cloth draped round her shoulders, this mother of four received her first payment from an Orange money agent and headed off to the market to buy food for her family.

    “WFP did a market survey to establish the viability of using cash transfers and found that, in the pilot areas, there was food availability in the market, it was easily accessible and the prices were competitive,” says Nicholas Mugo, WFP’s Field Monitor in Isiolo.

    Although Tisiana has a mobile phone, there are some in her community who do not own one. To ensure that they too can withdraw their cash, WFP is providing them with cheap mobile phones.

    Similar pilot schemes

    “WFP is providing one phone to be shared among every five households and the communities nominate community assistants who have experience using the phones to be their custodians and also to help those who are not familiar with using them,” says Mugo.

    WFP is planning to undertake similar cash transfer pilot schemes in the Turkana and Wajir parts of Kenya where it will partner with Safaricom’s Mpesa, Kenya’s leading mobile phone money transfer service.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan (Republic of)

    (Nairobi, 14 December): The United Nations and partners today launched the 2013 appeal for humanitarian funding support for Kenya, likely to be the last year of doing so as the country transitions from humanitarian crisis to recovery. The new year marks the third and final year of Kenya’s three-year Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan (EHRP), which comprises 116 projects from more than 50 organizations requesting a grand total of US$743 million to assist nearly two million food-insecure Kenyans and 673,788 refugees residing in Kenya’s two refugee complexes.

    To date since 2010, donors have very generously contributed more than $1.7 billion in support of humanitarian relief efforts in Kenya.

    Kenya continues to experience humanitarian emergencies linked to natural disasters such as drought and floods, etho-political and resource-based conflicts, and outbreak of human and livestock diseases. The situation in Somalia and South Sudan continues to send more refugees into Kenya, insecurity in north-eastern Kenya persists, while the March 2013 elections risk increasing inter-communal violence. Despite these challenges, the country is making impressive progress towards consolidating the gains of humanitarian investment and creating an enabling environment to link emergency assistance to longer-term development programming. 2013 marks the end of the multi-year strategy and the transition to longer-term programming through the engagement of development networks.

    “The 2011-2013 EHRP and multi-year strategy has enabled humanitarian actors to not only plan responses to immediate and acute needs, but also to integrate resilience in programming,” said Patrick Lavand’homme, head of Kenya coordination at OCHA Eastern Africa. “This has contributed to the enhancement of national and local capacity for emergency preparedness and response.”

    The 2011 Short Rains and the 2012 Long Rains seasons brought relief to protracted drought conditions, helping to reduce the number of food-insecure people from 3.75 million at the beginning of the year to 2.1 million as of October. It is expected that the current Short Rains will further improve the food-security condition. Nutrition surveys carried out in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) in 2012 also reflect this improvement, showing significantly reduced malnutrition levels in many areas. However, the situation in Wajir County and Mandera East has not improved, and this will require special attention in 2013.

    For further information, please contact:
    Patrick Lavand’homme, Head of Kenya Coordination, lavandhomme@un.org, Tel. +254 (0)20 7625148, Cell +254 (0) 710 602326
    Lucy Dickinson, Humanitarian Affairs Officer, dickinsonl@un.org, Tel. +254 (0)20 7625191, Cell +254 (0) 722 521031
    OCHA press releases are available at www.unocha.org or www.reliefweb.int

    www.unocha.org
    The mission of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is to mobilize and coordinate effective and principled humanitarian action in partnership with national and international actors.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Somalia

    For five years, the coastal city of Kismayo was a no-go-zone... but slowly this is changing.


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    Source: ICRC
    Country: Bangladesh, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (the), Haiti, Iraq, Libya, Myanmar, Pakistan, Somalia, Tunisia, World
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    Volume 93 Number 884 December 2011

    EDITORIAL: THE FUTURE OF HUMANITARIAN ACTION

    What evolution and underlying trends influence the future of humanitarian action and its ability to respond to the crises of tomorrow? Since the end of the Cold War, humanitarian activity has grown exponentially to the point that, given the development of such organizations in number, weight, and professionalization, it is now possible to speak of a ‘humanitarian sector’ or an ‘industry’.1 Polymorphic and complex, this sector is composed of different systems or ‘networks of networks’ with no central governance. We see three main components to this sector today: non-governmental organizations of extremely diverse size and missions, the United Nations humanitarian agencies, and finally, the components of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The largest of these organizations, whose headquarters are all in the Western world, manage large and constantly increasing budgets, and exercise an influence that, while fluid, is nonetheless real and one of a truly international civil society.

    Several factors today seem to demonstrate profound changes in the humanitarian sector. These are factors related first to the development of crises and vulnerabilities and the risks that are emerging, second to the environment around humanitarian action and the contemporary challenges to compliance with humanitarian principles, law, and access to victims, and third to new methods and changes in the composition of the sector itself.

    In this edition, the Review gives the floor to representatives of a number of humanitarian organizations and research centres to discuss each of these three aspects of change that we think are critical to the future of humanitarian action.

    New threats, new responses While conflicts, in particular non-international ones, still represent a major cause of suffering, humanitarian action also responds with increasing frequency to disaster situations, natural or massive technological catastrophes, which have worsened in terms of frequency and magnitude.

    The basic idea behind the humanitarian approach is that human suffering knows no borders and, that in dealing with crises, not all countries seem to be in the same boat. Southern countries, more vulnerable to climate change, pay the price of the ecological bill for the development of the powers of the ‘North’. In addition, those who live in the slums of Port-au-Prince or the farmers of the Indus Valley are just as much the victims of earthquakes or floods as they are of poor infrastructure, a lack of local relief capacity, and governance problems. The map of climatic risks is thus often overlapped by patterns of political instability, chronic insecurity, and underdevelopment. The line between crisis response and long-term development is consequently unclear, particularly in the context of chronic conflict (for example, in Afghanistan, Somalia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo). One uses the term ‘complex emergencies’ to emphasize the interdependence of the factors governing the vulnerability of populations. Nevertheless, the earthquake in Japan and the nuclear crisis that the tsunami triggered remind us that, in certain circumstances, even rich countries are not immune from crisis, and that their technological superiority can be intricately related to their weaknesses.

    The root causes of conflicts between nations have not all been extinguished – far from it. Tensions around Iran, the two Koreas, and both Sudans are just some examples of political and humanitarian fault lines. Nor have noninternational armed conflicts decreased in frequency and gravity. In fact, most conflicts today have a long history and some are seemingly intractable, while the popular uprisings in the Arab world (and the repression that they have encountered) have caused new outbreaks of violence.

    Finally, whether manmade or not, whether they strike the richest or the poorest, crises of political, climatic, epidemiological, or tectonic origins affect communities that are increasingly populated and urbanized, the city acting as an amplifier to the vagaries of nature and war.3 Faced with these multiple causes, planning the humanitarian response becomes more demanding and difficult to implement.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania (the), Yemen
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    UNHCR Operation highlights

    Somalia is the country generating the third highest number of refugees in the world, after Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Somali people are facing one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world today. One in three Somalis is in urgent need of humanitarian assistance and one in every three children living in the South-Central region is malnourished.

    UNHCR leads protection and emergency relief interventions targeting 700,000 IDPs out of a total IDP population estimated at 1.1 and 1.36 million and over 2,100 refugees in Somalia.

    General Situation

    Somalia generates the third highest number of refugees in the world (after Afghanistan and Iraq). As at 06 December 2012, there were 1,022,881 Somali refugees in the region, mainly hosted in Kenya, Yemen, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Tanzania and Uganda and almost 1.36 million Somalis internally displaced within the country, settled mainly in the South-Central region.

    77,000 Somalis have so far sought refuge in neighboring countries in 2012. As of 06 December 2012, 430 people were internally displaced while in November alone, another 5,400 were internally displaced, mainly in South Central Somalia, in particular from the coastal city of Kismayo.

    Somalia is the most affected country within the Horn of Africa by the ongoing drought, widely regarded as the worst in 60 years. Consecutive seasonal rain failures have led to sky-rocketing food prices, in a country already devastated by two decades of civil war.

    An estimated 3.7 million Somalis are now in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Increasingly, Somalis are leaving their homes, walking thousands of kilometres in search of food, most of them ending up in IDP settlements within Somalia and refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia, in extremely malnourished conditions.

    With the term of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) having ended in August 2012, a new parliament has since been created, electing Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as President. President Hassan then named Abdi Farah Shirdon as Prime Minister. Since the fall of the Siad Barre’s regime in 1991, Somalia fell into the hands of armed opposition groups , who divided the country along clan lines, and still continue to control large parts of the county.

    Most of Somalia continues to be in security level 5 (high), with Mogadishu and other areas on level 6 (extreme). Ongoing conflict continues to restrict humanitarian access and hamper delivery of life - saving assistance. Distribution of emergency / temporary shelter materials and other relief items and protection cum livelihood interventions are the activities carried out by UNHCR in favour of IDPs.

    As of 06 December 2012, UNHCR has distributed 41,104 emergency assistance packages (EAPs) for 246,642 people in Mogadishu and other districts within southern Somalia. These EAPs include kitchen sets, sleeping mats and plastic sheeting that would aid the most vulnerable population in crisis.

    IDPs

    In 2012, the number of IDPs in Somalia is estimated to be between 1.1 and 1.36 million most of whom fled Mogadishu in 2007 and 2008, due to increased military activities between pro and anti-govenment forces. Up to 120,000 of them now live in makeshift shelters along the road linking Mogadishu to Afgooye, some few kilometers to the west of the capital.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Niger (the), Nigeria, Togo
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    Above-average harvests, with high prices persisting

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Total cereal production by Sahelian and West African countries for the 2012/2013 growing season is estimated at 57,318,000 metric tons. Even without data for Burkina Faso, this puts production up by 13 percent from last year and 18 percent from the five-year average.

    • However, prices remain high and, in many cases, are both above-average and up from 2011, particularly for millet. This could undermine the food security of poor agropastoral households beginning in June and pastoral households by March (the beginning of the lean season in pastoral areas), for which millet is an essential dietary staple.

    • The region-wide improvement in food availability is bolstering food security, currently classified in IPC Phase 1: Minimal food insecurity. The increasingly large availability of off-season crops in the Sahel and crops from the second growing season in bimodal coastal areas should keep food insecurity at minimal levels through March of next year. However, at least 20 percent of the population of flood-stricken areas and certain household groups in poor market-dependent agropastoral and pastoral areas in IPC Phase 2 (stressed) will require well-targeted assistance programs to build their resilience and prevent any further deterioration in their food security situation.

    • With the end of the rainy season in the Sahel, there is no longer any major threat to crops from the 2012 growing season from desert locusts. However, the reported swarms of locusts in Niger, Chad, Mali, and Mauritania will require continuing monitoring and treatment to prevent a locust infestation of North Africa and to protect the 2013/14 season.


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    Source: International Fund for Agricultural Development
    Country: Eritrea

    Rome, 14 December 2012 – The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) will provide a US$17.28 million grant to the State of Eritrea to help improve livelihoods of smallholder farmers with a particular focus on women in the country.

    The financing agreement for the National Agriculture Project was signed today by Yohannes Tensue, Alternate Permanent Representative of the State of Eritrea to IFAD, and Kevin Cleaver, Associate Vice President, IFAD.

    The agricultural sector in Eritrea employs nearly 60 per cent of the active population and contributes 24 per cent to the country’s gross domestic product. Since domestic food production does not meet national demand, Eritrea must import about half of its food requirement. In addition, agricultural productivity is generally extremely low and few farmers can afford to buy fertilizers to improve their production.

    The new IFAD supported project will contribute to improve household food security and alleviate poverty in rural areas of 34 districts of the country’s 6 provinces and in 3 agroecological zones. It also aims to increase smallholder agricultural production and productivity and reduce the country’s dependence on food imports through the intensification of irrigated and rainfed crop production, and the provision of fertilizer and improved seeds to the smallholder farmers.

    In addition, the project will promote investment in small livestock for the very poor people in rural areas with limited access to land and also develop a system to control the spread of pest and diseases and raise livestock productivity.

    Cofinanced by the government of Eritrea, the project will be implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the private sector. About 81,000 poor rural households, including 16,258 women headed households will directly benefit from the project. Households headed by women will be given priority in land allocation in new irrigated areas.

    Since 1995, with this new project, IFAD will have financed six programmes and projects in Eritrea for a total investment of approximately $73.1 million benefitting 293,942 households.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger (the)
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    Good cereal harvest and significant food security improvements

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Early findings from the preliminary harvest assessment released by the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, corroborated by the joint CILSS/FAO/WFP/FEWS NET/Government mission estimate cereal production at approximately five million metric tons, with a surplus of over 800,000 MT, comparable to the production figure for 2010.

    • Consults by National Disaster and Food Crisis Prevention and Management Network experts in November of this year resulted in the identification of 185 at-risk areas with an estimated population of 2,483,051 inhabitants, compared with a food-insecure population of 6,005,993 inhabitants at the same in 2011.

    • According to calculations of kcal equivalents by the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, cereals, pulses, and tubers from this season’s harvest should ensure sufficient kcal availability to keep food insecurity at minimal levels (IPC Phase 1) between now and March.

    • In spite of the nationwide production surplus, certain areas affected by localized shocks saw below-average harvests, particularly in Ayorou, Tillabéri, and Torodi departments where 700,000 people will be unable to meet their food needs as of next January/February without social assistance, compared with the norm of 300,000 to 400,000 people in these areas.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali
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    Good food availability across the country

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Current harvest activities, continuing assistance programs, good milk availability, ongoing farming and fishing, favorable pastoral conditions, and downward shifts in cereal prices since September are improving food availability. At least 80 percent of the population will meet their food needs between now and the end of December during the postharvest period.

    • While the majority of the population should meet their food needs, pockets of food insecurity remain (rice-growing areas along the Senegal River in Timbuktu and Gao and along the Bani River in Djenné), where up to 20 percent of the population faces production and income deficits, requiring the continuation of well-targeted assistance programs for poor households and IDPs.

    • While official crop production figures for the 2012-2013 growing season have not yet been released, in general, the harvest is looking good and is likely to exceed the five-year average.

    • Cereal prices in general and particularly for corn and sorghum are decreasing. Staple cereal prices on most markets tracked by FEWS NET are above the five-year average by five to 10 percent (corn and sorghum) and by more than 50 percent in the case of millet.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania
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    Steady decline in food insecurity in all livelihood zones

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Current projections put cereal production 43 percent above the five-year average, which should ensure good nationwide and household cereal availability between October and March of next year.

    • Good pastoral conditions, harvests of short-cycle crops, income from farming activities, and the continuation of assistance programs should keep food insecurity to a minimum (IPC Phase 1) in most parts of the country between November and next March.

    • The National Locust Control Center is reporting a steady new upsurge in locust activity. The increasingly large groups of mature winged mating and egg-laying adult locusts and the presence of dispersed and localized hopper bands (in Hodh El Gharbi, Tagant, Brakna, Trarza, Inchiri, and Adrar) will require monitoring to prevent possible damage to crops.


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    Source: ICRC
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania

    Communities in northern Mali have been struggling since the majority of farming and stockbreeding services have withdrawn from the area. The Mali Red Cross and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have responded by distributing food to over 400,000 people and supporting a large-scale livestock vaccination campaign.

    Poor security conditions in the north have driven many herders south or to neighbouring countries. Some have lost animals on the way, through disease and difficulties in reaching water and grazing land. Arable and livestock farming, the lifeblood of the household economy, are suffering the combined impact of conflict and repeated food crises.

    "Armed conflict, unpredictable weather conditions and economic instability have exacerbated an already difficult situation,” said Jean-Nicolas Marti, head of the ICRC regional delegation for Mali and Niger. “So we must keep supporting communities to help them cope with the crisis and sustain their livelihoods.”

    Vaccinating livestock

    Keeping livestock healthy is extremely important for people living in northern Mali, who rely heavily on their herds for income and food. ICRC veterinary programmes are helping to meet the essential needs of these communities.

    The Mali Red Cross and the ICRC are continuing to support a large-scale campaign, launched by the Malian Ministry of Stockbreeding, to vaccinate and treat livestock for free. The ICRC hopes that 1,500,000 heads of livestock will benefit from the programme – including cows, sheep, goats and camels – in the regions of Timbuktu, Kidal, Gao and Mopti. The animals are treated for parasites and vaccinated against diseases such as sheep and goat plague, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, camel pasteurellosis and sheep pox.

    By the end of November, the ICRC had purchased 15,000 cows, sheep and goats from herders across the Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu regions, even in the remotest rural areas. Through this destocking initiative, herders sold off their weakest animals, which were slaughtered and the meat given to the poorest families.

    Continuing large-scale food distributions

    With the departure of most civil servants and people involved in the informal sector, economic activity is sluggish in towns and cities in the north. Much of the population is reliant on humanitarian aid.

    “Essential goods are expensive, considering people’s purchasing power,” explained Jean-Nicolas Marti. “They simply can’t afford to meet their basic needs without outside help.”

    The Mali Red Cross and the ICRC are therefore continuing to distribute food, an operation that began in July, to 420,000 displaced people and residents in need.

    Supporting farming activities

    The conflict has prevented most families in the region from farming their land. The Mali Red Cross and the ICRC are helping farmers to diversify their food crops and develop other sources of income. A farming-support programme has therefore been rolled out in urban and especially rural areas of Mopti, Timbuktu, Gao and Kidal. More than 1,000 families are benefiting from the programme, which focuses on repairing irrigation systems, providing technical support and distributing seed and tools.

    Helping people on their return home

    When the conflict intensified in March 2012, many families fled to neighbouring countries. After spending five months in the Djibo and Deou refugee camps in Burkina Faso, and the M'berra refugee camp in Mauritania, some chose to return to their villages.

    The Mali Red Cross and the ICRC provide these people with assistance. Upon their arrival, more than 12,000 returnees have received tarpaulins, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, sleeping mats, blankets, cooking utensils, hygiene kits, buckets and clothing.

    For further information, please contact:
    Germain Mwehu, ICRC Niamey, tel. +227 97 45 43 82 or +223 76 99 63 75 Wolde-Gabriel Saugeron, ICRC Geneva, tel. +41 22 730 31 49 or +41 79 217 32 06


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    Source: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de I'Homme
    Country: Mali

    Après la démission sous la contrainte du gouvernement Diarra et la nomination de Django Sissoko, la FIDH condamne l’immixtion des forces militaires dans les affaires politiques, appellent les autorités maliennes à assurer la stabilité et le bon fonctionnement des institutions nationales, et la communauté internationale à soutenir activement la mise en œuvre de la feuille de route de la CEDEAO pour une résolution de la crise politique et du conflit.

    Mardi 11 décembre au matin, Cheick Modibo Diarra, Premier ministre malien, a annoncé sa démission et celle de son gouvernement à la télévision nationale. La veille, M. Diarra avait été arrêté à son domicile par des hommes armés et conduit, en pleine nuit, au camp de Kati, quartier général du Conseil national pour le redressement de la démocratie et la restauration de l’État (CNRDRE), où il s’est entretenu avec le capitaine Amadou Haya Sanogo, chef de la junte qui avait pris le pouvoir le 22 mars 2012. Aucune information n’a été communiquée quant aux raisons de cette arrestation, ni de la démission du Premier ministre qui s’en est suivie.

    « Notre organisation ne peut que condamner les circonstances, pour le moins douteuses, ayant entraîner la démission du Premier ministre malien », a déclaré Sidiki Kaba, président d’honneur de la FIDH. « Il faut garantir l’union nationale entre toutes les forces en présence pour trouver une issue politique à la crise que traverse le Mali, et cela ne peut en aucun cas passer par une telle ingérence des militaires », a-t-il ajouté.

    Le 20 août 2012, Dioncounda Traoré, président du Mali, avait signé le décret portant formation du nouveau gouvernement d’union nationale, conformément à la demande de la Communauté économique des États d’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) pour la formation d’un nouvel exécutif suffisamment stable pour mener la transition politique et la reconquête du nord du pays. Amadou Haya Sanogo, ancien chef de la junte, avait été nommé président du Comité de suivi et de réforme de l’armée, et un certain équilibre avait été trouvé en formant une sorte de triumvirat composé de ce dernier, du Président et du Premier ministre. « Bien que la volonté de renforcement de l’unité nationale est à saluer, les autorités maliennes peinent à traduire cette union dans les faits par des décisions politiques en faveur d’une sortie de crise rapide », a déclaré Paul Nsapu, secrétaire-général de la FIDH.

    La FIDH a présenté ces positions, le 12 décembre 2012, au Conseil de Paix et de Sécurité de l’Union africaine (UA) au cours d’une audition publique en présence des ambassadeurs de l’UA qui ont souligné l’importance et la place primordiale des droits de l’Homme dans la résolution des conflits (voir le communiqué du CPS : http://www.peaceau.org/uploads/cps....). A la suite de cette intervention,le CPS s’est d’ailleurs exprimé sur la situation au Mali, réaffirmant la nécessité « d’organiser, le plus rapidement possible et dans les conditions d’inclusivité requises, des élections libres, transparentes et crédibles, [ainsi que] les consultations nationales devant déboucher sur l’adoption d’une feuille de route pour la gestion de la transition ».

    Depuis le début de la crise, la FIDH a alerté la communauté internationale sur les graves crimes commis au nord et sud du pays. [Tous les communiqués de presse de la FDH et de l’AMDH sur le Mali : http://www.fidh.org/-Mali,69-] La FIDH et son organisation membre au Mali, l’AMDH, ont notamment publié un rapport d’enquête intitulé : « Crimes de guerre au nord Mali ». qui a contribué à mettre en lumière les violations des droits de l’Homme subies par les populations civiles au nord. Plus de huit mois après la prise des régions du nord par les forces conjointes du Mouvement national pour la libération de l’Azawad (MNLA) et des groupes armés islamistes, les populations civiles subissent encore de nombreuses violations des droits de l’Homme.

    Ce changement politique intervient alors que se dessinent les contours d’une possible intervention militaire avec un appui international, demandée par les autorités maliennes et la CEDEAO. Adoptée le 12 octobre 2012 à l’unanimité et au titre du chapitre VII de la Charte des Nations unies, la résolution 2071 demande au Secrétaire général des Nations unies de présenter un rapport, en concertation notamment avec la CEDEAO et l’Union africaine, sur la base duquel le Conseil de sécurité pourra autoriser dans 45 jours le déploiement d’une opération africaine au Mali, avec pour objectif de permettre au Mali de recouvrer la souveraineté et l’intégrité de son territoire et de lutter contre le terrorisme international. Ce rapport a été présenté au Conseil de sécurité le 5 décembre dernier et les discussions quant à une résolution sur le Mali se poursuivent.

    Pour éviter les écueils et les violations des droits de l’Homme perpétrés lors de précédentes interventions militaires comme en Somalie, la FIDH a rappelé l’importance de placer les droits de l’Homme au cœur du dialogue national pour une sortie de crise et de garantir strictement les droits humains lors de l’éventuelle intervention militaire. Ainsi, une lettre ouverte conjointe a été adressée aux membres du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies demandant notamment, si intervention militaire il y a, la formation des forces de sécurité et de défense maliennes et étrangères aux droits de l’Homme, humanitaire et des réfugiés, l’incorporation d’un contingent civil d’observateurs des droits de l’Homme permettant de suivre le respect de ces droits sur le terrain, et le soutien des efforts nationaux et internationaux pour traduire en justice les auteurs de violations graves des droits de l’Homme et du droit international humanitaire au Mali, actuellement sous analyse préliminaire de la CPI.

    La FIDH appelle les autorités maliennes à tout mettre en œuvre pour assurer la stabilité des autorités de transition, la résolution de la crise politique et du conflit dans le respect des droits de l’Homme qui passe par la légitimité des institutions et donc, l’organisation d’élections libres et transparentes. Par ailleurs, notre organisation appelle la communauté internationale, et notamment les membres du Conseil de sécurité qui doivent adopter une résolution sur le Mali, à accentuer ses efforts en faveur de solutions politiques pour l’avenir démocratique du Mali et de garantir une composante substantielle droits de l’Homme de formation et de protection en cas de déploiement d’une force armée internationale d’assistance.


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    Source: SAACID
    Country: Somalia
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    Highlight This Month: Early Identification of Cases

    The success of Community-Based Therapeutic Care relies heavily on strong outreach and community awareness of malnutrition. Finding cases early before they become severe is critical. The MUAC cut-off between moderate and severe acute malnutrition in children under 5 years is 11.5 cm. Finding cases when they are still moderate prevents them from becoming severely malnourished, and of those children already severely malnourished, the sooner they are identified in the community, the greater the chances they survive.

    With a network of 30 outreach workers per district, the programme has been incredibly successful at active case-finding and early identification. The average MUAC at admission for SAM cases is 10.8cm with 79% of cases being identified before they drop below 10.5cm. However, any case found too late is one case too many.

    To better understand reasons for late admission, SAACID has been collecting data on all children admitted with MUAC <10cm since September. Not surprising, the findings have shown that 72% of the cases are from internally displaced families, and that 48% only knew of the CTC centre in their district for a week or less.


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    Source: ICRC
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali

    Les populations du nord du Mali sont fragilisées par le départ de la plupart des services techniques, notamment ceux de l'agriculture et de l'élevage. Pour leur venir en aide, la Croix-Rouge malienne et le CICR procèdent à des distributions de vivres en faveur de plus de 400 000 personnes et ont entamé une vaste campagne de vaccination animale.

    L'insécurité a contraint plusieurs éleveurs à se déplacer vers le sud ou vers les pays voisins. Dans leur fuite, certains ont perdu une partie de leur troupeau à la suite de maladies ou de difficultés d'accès à l'eau et aux pâturages. Le secteur agropastoral, poumon de l'économie de ménage, souffre des effets conjugués du conflit et des crises alimentaires récurrentes.

    « Le conflit armé, les aléas du climat et la fragilité des équilibres économiques ont exacerbé une situation déjà précaire. D'où la nécessité de continuer à aider les populations à faire face à la crise et à préserver leurs moyens de subsistance », explique Jean-Nicolas Marti, chef de la délégation régionale du CICR pour le Mali et le Niger.

    Soutien à la vaccination animale

    La santé animale joue un rôle majeur pour les communautés du nord du Mali, dont les revenus et la sécurité alimentaire dépendent grandement de l’élevage. Les programmes vétérinaires mis en œuvre par le CICR contribuent à répondre aux besoins essentiels des populations.

    La Croix-Rouge malienne et le CICR poursuivent leur appui à la vaste campagne de vaccination et de traitement gratuit du cheptel contre les épizooties locales, lancée par le ministère malien de l'Élevage. Le CICR compte ainsi toucher 1 500 000 têtes de bétail (bovins, ovins, caprins et camelins) dans les régions de Tombouctou, Kidal, Gao et Mopti. Les animaux sont traités contre les parasites et vaccinés contre des zoopathies comme la peste des petits ruminants, la péripneumonie contagieuse (bovidés), la pasteurellose (dromadaires) et la clavelée.

    Le programme de rachat de 15 000 bovins, ovins et caprins qui a pris fin en novembre 2012, dans les régions de Kidal, Gao et Tombouctou, jusque dans les zones rurales les plus reculées, a permis aux populations de vendre leurs animaux les plus faibles mais également de fournir de la viande aux plus démunis.

    Assistance alimentaire d'envergure

    Avec le départ de la plupart des acteurs du secteur informel et des fonctionnaires de l'État, les activités économiques tournent au ralenti dans les centres urbains du nord. Une grande partie de la population se retrouve dépendante de l'aide humanitaire.

    « Les prix des produits de première nécessité sont élevés par rapport au faible pouvoir d’achat. La population n’arrive pas à subvenir à ses besoins essentiels sans un soutien extérieur », explique Jean-Nicolas Marti.

    Dans ce contexte, la Croix-Rouge malienne et le CICR poursuivent leurs distributions alimentaires, entamées au mois de juillet dernier, en faveur de quelque 420 000 personnes vulnérables, déplacées ou résidentes.

    Soutien aux activités maraîchères

    Le conflit a empêché la majorité des familles vivant dans cette région de profiter de la campagne agricole. La Croix-Rouge malienne et le CICR appuient ces agriculteurs dans le but de les aider à diversifier leur production vivrière et à développer de nouveaux mécanismes de survie. Ainsi, un programme de soutien à la production maraîchère a été lancé dans les régions urbaines et surtout rurales de Mopti, Tombouctou, Gao et Kidal, dont bénéficient plus de 1 000 familles. Il porte notamment sur la réhabilitation des systèmes d'irrigation, la fourniture d'un encadrement technique et la distribution de semences et d’outils.

    Soutien à la réinstallation des personnes de retour chez elles

    Lorsque le conflit s'est intensifié en mars 2012, de nombreuses familles ont fui leurs villages d'origine pour se réfugier dans les pays voisins. Après quelque cinq mois passés notamment dans les camps de réfugiés de Djibo et Deou (Burkina Faso) et de M'berra (Mauritanie), plusieurs réfugiés ont décidé de leur plein gré de retourner dans leurs communes d'origine.

    La Croix-Rouge malienne et le CICR apportent un soutien à ces populations de retour chez elles. Plus de 12 000 personnes ont ainsi reçu à leur arrivée une assistance sous forme de bâches, moustiquaires imprégnées, nattes, couvertures, ustensiles de cuisine, kits d'articles d’hygiène, seaux et vêtements.

    Informations complémentaires :
    Germain Mwehu, CICR Niamey, tél. : +227 97 45 43 82 ou +223 76 99 63 75 Wolde-Gabriel Saugeron, CICR Genève, tél. : +41 22 730 31 49 ou +41 79 217 32 06


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