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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Nigeria

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five - year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Sorghum, maize, millet, cowpea, gari (fermented cassava starch), and rice are all found in Nigerian markets. Sorghum, millet and maize are widely consumed by most households, but especially in the north, and are used by various industries. Maize is mainly used by the poultry industry as a raw material for feed while sorghum is used by breweries for producing beverages. Sorghum and millet are important for households in the north, particularly the border markets where millet is also heavily traded with Niger. Gari is widely consumed by households in the south and some in the north. Rice is produced and consumed throughout the country. The north is a major production and consumption area for cowpea which flows to the south for use by households and food processing industries. Ilela, Maidua, and Damasak are all critical cross - border markets with Niger. Saminaka, Giwa, Dandume, and Kaura Namuda are important grain markets in the north, which are interconnected with the Dawanu market in Kano, the largest wholesale market in West Africa, and some southern markets such as the Bodija market in Ibadan. Millet, sorghum, maize, and cowpea are among the most important cereals traded at Dawanu, while cassava and some cereals are traded with Bodija .


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    Malgré le retard, la campagne agricole s’installe grâce aux pluies de juillet

    MESSAGES CLÉS

    • Le cumul pluviométrique au 20 juillet 2015 est déficitaire dans plusieurs zones comparé à la même période de 2014, surtout sur la bande central du pays. Ces déficits ont retardé le semis d’une à deux semaines selon les zones agricoles.
    Cette situation risque de réduire les superficies de certaines cultures et partant compromettre les rendements. Les travaux dominant actuellement en cours sont le labour, le semis et le sarclage.

    • Les prix des céréales sont stables dans la bande sahélienne pour le troisième mois consécutif, mais avec un niveau légèrement en hausse comparés aux prix de juillet 2014.
    Cette stabilité observée pourrait continuer jusqu’à septembre avec une baisse saisonnière normale entre octobre et décembre. Cependant, les prix des céréales resteront toujours supérieurs comparés à la moyenne quinquennale.

    • L’insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) devrait se maintenir pour les ménages du sud pays d’ici à octobre et audelà dans les autres zones, grâce notamment aux diverses activités agricoles productifs. L’amélioration des conditions pastorales qui entraine actuellement la régénération progressive du pâturage et la reprise d’embonpoint des animaux améliore le revenu des pasteurs et la disponibilité laitière.

    • Dans le sahel Ouest, l’insécurité alimentaire de type Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) se maintiendra jusqu’en septembre du fait des déficits des récoltes de la campagne 2014/2015 et aussi par l’afflux des déplacés suite au conflit Boko Haram. Toutefois, la consommation alimentaire s’améliorera à partir du mois d’octobre en Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) à cause des nouvelles récoltes qui augmentent la disponibilité et l’accès à la nourriture.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    Sorghum, millet, white maize, and local and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is most heavily consumed in the eastern and northern regions of the country. Local rice is another basic food commodity, especially for poorer households. Imported rice and white maize are most commonly consumed in and around the capital. The Marché d'Atrone in N’Djamena, the capital city, is the largest market for cereals. Moundou is an important consumer center for sorghum and the second largest market after the capital. The Abéché market is located in a northern production area. The Sarh market is both a local retail market and a cross-border market.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tajikistan, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    KEY MESSAGES

    • In West Africa, market availability was adequate in June with supplies from 2014/15 harvests and international rice and wheat imports. Regionally-produced staple food prices increased seasonally, except in areas directly and indirectly affected by conflict in northeastern Nigeria and neighboring areas, the CAR, and northern Mali.

    • In East Africa, maize prices increased seasonally in Ethiopia, Somalia, and parts of Kenya. Maize prices were stable or began decreasing in Uganda and most of Tanzania with the onset of the May-to-August harvests. Sorghum prices were atypically stable in Sudan as the lean season progressed, but increased seasonally in Ethiopia and Somalia. Conflict and insecurity continued to disrupt markets in parts of South Sudan, Somalia, the Darfur and South Kordofan States in Sudan, and across Yemen.

    • In Southern Africa, regional staple food availability on markets continued increasing in June as ongoing harvests reached markets across the region. Maize production for the 2015/16 marketing year is estimated to be below-average at the regional level, including South Africa. Production is significantly below average in Malawi and Zimbabwe. Maize prices mostly followed seasonal trends, remaining stable or continuing to decrease, but began increased atypically in Malawi.
      Prices are above their five-year levels in every country except Tanzania.

    • Staple food availability remained generally adequate to meet local needs throughout Central America and Haiti. However, market supplies of locally-produced maize and beans were below-average across the region due to the effects of below-average harvests over the past year. Maize and bean prices were seasonally stable throughout most of Central America, except in Honduras where white maize prices increased. Locally produced maize and bean prices increased considerably in Haiti in recent months, while imported commodity prices remained stable.

     In Central Asia, wheat availability remained good in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Prices remained stable in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan after increasing over the last quarter of 2014 (Figure 1).

     International maize, rice, wheat, and soybean prices remained stable and below their respective 2014 levels (Figure 2). Global markets are well-supplied from record or near-record global production in 2014. Crude oil prices stabilized in June and remained below-average


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger

    Situation Update

    According to UNHCR, there are some 90,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Mali and 16,000 returnees. Burkina Faso shelters some 34,000 Malian refugees, while Mauritania and Niger each host some 50,000 Malian refugees, respectively.


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Nigeria

    Abuja, Nigeria | AFP | Sunday 8/2/2015 - 22:09 GMT |

    Boko Haram fighters killed 13 people in an attack on Malari village in northeast Nigeria's restive Borno state early Sunday, witnesses said.

    Local farmer Moha Saleh said 27 people, including women and children, were also injured in the attack, which began when the Islamist militants stormed the village at around 1:00 am (0000 GMT).

    "They also set many houses ablaze after accusing us of telling soldiers their whereabouts," he told AFP.

    Local resident Goni Musa, a vigilante who fights against Boko Haram alongside the Nigerian military, gave the same death toll.

    "They burnt down houses and shops before they left, yelling 'Allahu Akbar' (God is great). Our terrorised women and children fled into the bush and returned to Maiduguri this morning," he added.

    Maiduguri, the biggest town in northeast Nigeria, is some 20 kilometres (12 miles) north of Malari.

    "This morning 13 bodies were recovered, some had been shot in the back, which means they were fleeing when the terrorists killed them," Musa said.

    State police commissioner Aderemi Opadokun confirmed the attack but gave a lower toll.

    "The attackers burnt down some houses and killed seven persons in the village situated along Konduga-Maiduguri road," Opadokun told reporters in Maiduguri.

    Malari has been the target of numerous attacks in recent months, including a suicide bombing by a youth in a mosque in the middle of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan in July which left 12 people dead.

    The group's bloody insurgency in Nigeria alone has left more than 15,000 people dead since 2009. In recent months, the group has increasingly expanded its operations into neighbouring countries.

    • Air strikes -

    Boko Haram was also accused of attacking the town of Gamboru on Saturday, near the border with Cameroon.

    Witnesses in nearby villages said the militants had set fire to houses, sending columns of black smoke into the sky.

    Umar Babakalli, a refugee from Gamboru who fled to the nearby Cameroonian town of Fotokol several months ago, said he saw fighter jets circling overhead "but there was no sign of any bombardment".

    It was not immediately clear if the fires had caused any victims but Babakalli said Gamboru, a town which has faced repeated Boko Haram assaults, was deserted. "There is nobody in Gamboru," he told AFP.

    Earlier on Sunday, the Nigerian army said it had carried out air strikes in the northeast to repel an attack by Boko Haram and had killed a "large number" of the extremists.

    The Nigerian Air Force said it had "successfully repelled an attack on Bita village by the Boko Haram terrorist group" in a combined operation with ground troops after spotting militants planning an assault.

    The air raids came as Nigeria and its neighbours prepare to launch a new multinational force to combat Boko Haram, in the face of the group's escalating violence in the region.

    The new 8,700-strong multinational force -- made up of troops from Nigeria as well as Cameroon, Chad and Niger -- is expected to go into action soon, officials say.

    Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari, who won an election in March on a promise to defeat the jihadists, said Friday the new force would "lead to the speedy defeat and elimination of Boko Haram".

    ola-cdc/pvh/mfp

    © 1994-2015 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Nigeria

    8/3/2015 - 15:11 GMT

    by Hussaini BUKAR with Aminu ABUBAKAR in Kano

    Nigeria's military said Monday it had "besieged" Boko Haram positions in the Islamist militant group's northeastern heartland after setting free 178 hostages, mainly women and children.

    The ongoing operation has led to the capture of a Boko Haram commander, according to the army, while a "large number" of the extremists have been killed in air strikes.

    The hostages were released on Sunday near Aulari, about 70 kilometres (40 miles) south of Maiduguri, the capital of Borno state, once a jihadist stronghold.

    "During the offensive operations, 178 people held captive by the terrorists were rescued. They include 101 children, 67 women and 10 men," military spokesman Colonel Tukur Gusau said.

    The Nigerian military has announced the release of hundreds of people held by Boko Haram in recent months, many of them in the vast Sambisa forest, a longtime bastion of the Islamist group.

    "The military operation... will continue until the terrorists are totally subdued. For now, we have besieged the forest and military operations are going on from different fronts," army spokesman Colonel Sani Usman told AFP.

    He said the freed hostages were being screened and processed and would be reunited with their families after further security checks.

    However the soldier was unable to give any details on the identity or rank of the Boko Haram commander seized in the operation to free the hostages, except that the militant was "undergoing interrogation".

    Air strikes on Friday and Saturday hit the village of Bita on the fringes of the forest near the Cameroonian border, where Boko Haram was preparing to launch an offensive, the military said.

    • Air strikes -

    "A large number of them were killed while others ran away. We have have so far suspended air strikes," said air force spokesman Air Commodore Dele Alonge.

    "But we have since carried out surveillance on Bita and other nearby towns and villages and we have returned to base."

    Sunday's rescue came after several attacks by Boko Haram in recent days. Thirteen people were killed in an assault on Malari village about 20 kilometres from Maiduguri.

    Local farmer Moha Saleh confirmed the death toll and said 27 people were wounded when the Islamists stormed the village.

    "They also set many houses ablaze after accusing us of telling soldiers their whereabouts," he told AFP.

    Villager Goni Musa, a vigilante who fights Boko Haram alongside the Nigerian military, gave the same death toll.

    "This morning 13 bodies were recovered. Some had been shot in the back, which means they were fleeing when the terrorists killed them," Musa said.

    "They burnt down houses and shops before they left, yelling 'Allahu Akbar' (God is greatest). Our terrorised women and children fled into the bush and returned to Maiduguri this morning," he added.

    State police commissioner Aderemi Opadokun confirmed the attack but gave a lower toll, saying seven people had been killed.

    Malari has been the target of numerous attacks in recent months, including a suicide bombing by a teenaged girl in a mosque in the middle of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan in July which left 12 people dead.

    Many of the jihadist group's recent attacks have been carried out by women and girls.

    • 'Blind terror' -

    Boko Haram has increasingly expanded its operations into neighbouring countries in recent months, prompting Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger to launch a coordinated military fightback.

    The four countries, along with Benin, are preparing to launch a new 8,700-strong force that officials say will go into action soon.

    "The multinational joint force will eradicate... the blind terrorism of Boko Haram," Niger's President Mahamadou Issoufou said in a televised speech on Sunday.

    The jihadist group has stepped up its attacks since Nigeria's new President Muhammadu Buhari took office in May, unleashing a wave of violence that has claimed 800 lives in just two months.

    Witnesses said the group attacked the town of Gamboru on Saturday, near the border with Cameroon.

    Residents in nearby villages said the militants had set fire to houses, sending columns of black smoke into the sky.

    Umar Babakalli, a refugee from Gamboru who fled to the nearby Cameroonian town of Fotokol several months ago, said he saw fighter jets circling overhead "but there was no sign of any bombardment."

    It was not immediately clear if anyone had been killed in Gamboru but Babakalli said the town, which has faced repeated Boko Haram assaults, was deserted.

    "There is nobody in Gamboru," he told AFP.

    burs-abu/ft/ser


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    Source: Inter Press Service
    Country: Cameroon

    By Mbom Sixtus

    YAOUNDE, Aug 2 2015 (IPS) - Marking a shift away from the growing trend of abandoning sustainable life styles and drifting from traditional customs and routines, Joshua Konkankoh is a Cameroonian farmer with a vision – that the answer to food insecurity lies in sustainable and organic methods of farming.

    Konkankoh, who left a job with the government to pursue that vision, founded Better World Cameroon, which works to develop local sustainable agricultural strategies that utilise indigenous knowledge systems for mitigating food crises and extreme poverty, and is now running Cameroon’s first and only eco-village – the Ndanifor Permaculture Eco-village in Bafut in Cameroon’s Northwest Region.

    “Biodiversity was protected by traditional beliefs. Felling of some trees and killing of certain animal species in certain forests were prohibited. They were protected by gods and ancestors. We want to protect such heritage” – Joshua Konkankoh

    Talking with IPS, Konkankoh explained how the eco-village organically fertilises soil through the planting and pruning of nitrogen-fixing trees planted on farms where mixed cropping is practised. When the trees mature, the middles are cut out and the leaves used as compost. The trees are then left to regenerate and the same procedure is repeated the following season.

    “Here we train youths and farmers on permanent agriculture or permaculture,” he said. “I call it ‘permaculture the African way’ because the concept was coined by scientists and we are adapting it to our old ways of farming and protecting the environment.”

    While government is keeping its distance from the project, Konkankoh said that local councils and traditional rulers are encouraging people to embrace the initiative, which is said to be ecologically, socially, economically and spiritually friendly.

    “I was active during the U.N. Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. In studying the reason why many countries failed to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we realised that there were some gaps but we also found out that permaculture was a solution to sustainability, especially in Africa. So I felt we could contextualize the concept – think globally and act locally.”

    The permaculture used at the eco-village makes maximum use of limited agricultural land, and villagers are taught how to plant more than one crop on the same piece of land, use a common organic fertiliser and obtain high yields.

    Farmers, said Konkankoh, are encouraged to trade and not seek aid, to benefit from their investment and prevent middlemen and multinationals from scooping up a large share of their earnings. The organic agriculture practised and taught in the eco-village is a blend of culture and fair trade initiatives.

    “We encourage rural farmers to guarantee food sovereignty by producing what they also consume directly and not cash crops like cocoa and coffee.”

    Farmers are trained in the importance of manure, of producing it and selling it to other farmers, as well in innovative techniques of erosion control, water management, windbreaks, inter-cropping and food foresting.

    Konkankoh also told IPS that it was a mistake to have left the spiritual principle out of the MDG programme. “Biodiversity was protected by traditional beliefs. Felling of some trees and killing of certain animal species in certain forests were prohibited. They were protected by gods and ancestors. We want to protect such heritage.”

    The eco-village has started a project to replant spiritual forests with 4,000 medicinal and fruit trees in a bid to reduce CO2 emissions.

    Fon Abumbi II, traditional ruler of Bafut, the village which hosts the Ndanifor Permaculture Eco-village, believes that the type of cultivation of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants used by the eco-village will improve the health of local people.

    He is also convinced that with many firms around the world producing health care products with natural herbs, the demand for the products of the eco-village is high, guaranteeing a promising future for the villagers who cultivate them.

    Houses in the eco-village are constructed with local materials such as earth bags and mud bricks, and grass for the roofs. Domestic appliances such as ovens and stoves are earthen and homemade.

    Sonita Mbah Neh, project administrator at eco-village’s demonstration centre, said that the earthen stoves bit not only reduce the impact of climate change by minimising the use of wood for combustion but the local women who make then also earn a living by selling them.

    Lanci Abel, mayor of the Bafut municipality, told IPS that his council is mobilising citizens to embrace permaculture. “You know, when an idea is new, people only embrace it when it is recommended by authorities. We are carrying out communication and sensitisation of the population to return to traditional methods of farming as taught at the eco-village.”

    Abel also had something to say about the performance of genetically modified plantain seedlings planted by the Ministry of Agriculture at the start of the 2015 farming season in Cameroon’s Southwest Region, which recorded a miserable 30 percent yield.

    The issue had been raised by Mbanya Bolevie, a member of parliament from the region who asked Minister of Agriculture Essimi Menye about the failure of the modern seeds during the June session of parliament.

    Julbert Konango, Littoral Regional Delegate for the Chamber of Agriculture, said the failure was due the fact that seeds are often old because “there is inadequate finance for agricultural research organisations in Cameroon as well as a shortage of engineers in the sector,” a sign that the country not fully prepared for second-generation agriculture.

    Commenting on the incident, Abel said that citizens using natural seeds and compost would not have faced these problems, adding that “besides the possibility of failure of chemical fertilisers, they also pollute the soil.”

    The eco-village, which would like to become a model for Cameroon and West Africa, is a member of the Global Ecovillage Network.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger


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    Source: Government of the United States of America, US Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Country: Mali, United States of America

    The President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI)

    Malaria prevention and control is a major U.S. foreign assistance objective, and PMI’s strategy fully aligns with the U.S. Government’s vision of ending preventable child and maternal deaths and ending extreme poverty. Under the PMI Strategy for 2015–2020, the U.S. Government’s goal is to work with PMI-supported countries and partners to further reduce malaria deaths and substantially decrease malaria morbidity toward the long-term goal of elimination.

    Country Context

    Mali is one of poorest countries in the world, with nearly 65 percent of the population living in poverty. Following a 2009 coup d’état, the U.S. government and many other donors suspended aid to the Government of Mali. Restrictions were lifted in 2013 following the democratic election of a new president. The current health system is decentralized. It is composed of three levels and involves an integrated community case management package at the community level. All levels, however, suffer from a critical staff shortage, with a disparity in the doctor to population ratio between urban and rural areas.

    Malaria is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Mali, particularly among children under the age of five. According to the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey, the prevalence of malaria among children under age five was 52 percent. Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of infection. The entire population of Mali is at risk for malaria, although transmission varies across the country’s five geo-climatic zones. The disease is endemic in the central and southern regions where more than 90 percent of the population lives, and epidemic in the north. Internally displaced persons migrating from the north are especially at risk given their low immunity to infection.

    Due to the diversity of malaria transmission in Mali, the malaria control strategy emphasizes specific epidemic and entomological surveillance and universal coverage of key malaria interventions as well as targeted operational research in areas with unstable malaria transmission. Mali has demonstrated significant progress in scaling up malaria prevention and control interventions, especially in vector control. Results from the DHS indicate a nearly 50 percent reduction of under-five mortality rates from 2006 to 2012.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Liberia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Tunisia, World, Yemen


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    Source: International Crisis Group
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    July 2015 – Trends

    • Deteriorated situations
      Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, Kashmir, Turkey, Yemen

    • Improved situations
      Colombia

    August 2015 – Watchlist

    • Conflict risk alerts
      Turkey, Yemen

    -Conflict resolution opportunities
    Iran, South Sudan


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    Source: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
    Country: Mali, Switzerland

    La Suisse vient d’investir 6,3 milliards de FCFA (environ CHF 10 millions) pour la mise en œuvre de son programme d’appui à l’éducation non formelle. L’appui bénéficiera aux enfants, aux jeunes non scolarisés et déscolarisés précoces et aux adultes des régions de Sikasso, de Mopti et de Tombouctou.

    Le Ministre des Maliens de l'extérieur - assurant l’intérim du Ministre des Affaires Etrangères de l’Intégration Africaine et de la Coopération Internationale - et la Directrice Résidente du Bureau de la Coopération suisse au Mali ont signé, le vendredi 31 juillet 2015, un accord de financement de plus de 6 milliards de FCFA. Cet accord marque le démarrage de la deuxième phase du programme d’appui à l’éducation non formelle. Grâce à ce programme, la Suisse contribuera aux efforts de l’Etat en faveur de l’éducation non formelle ainsi qu’à la mise en œuvre de l’accord pour la paix et la réconciliation du Mali. Sur une durée de quatre ans, il permettra d’alphabétiser et d’insérer 10'000 enfants et jeunes non scolarisés et déscolarisés ainsi que 3’000 adultes.

    Pour un retour des enfants à l’école

    Pour les enfants déscolarisés ou qui n’ont jamais été à l’école, notamment dans les zones post-conflit, le programme mettra en place des centres de stratégie de scolarisation accélérée. Cette méthode pédagogique permet d’apprendre en un an le contenu de l’enseignement primaire de la 1ere à la 3ième année. En effet, les enfants pourront ainsi rattraper leur retard et rejoindre avec succès les bancs de l’école. Par ailleurs, dès la prochaine rentrée des classes, le programme mènera des actions spécifiques au profit des enfants des régions de Mopti et Tombouctou ainsi que d’autres localités privées d’écoles pendant le conflit.

    Des innovations pour accéder à la formation

    Grâce au programme, les adultes, quant à eux, suivront des cours d’alphabétisation avec des modules liés à leur environnement et mode de vie. Ces cours (pédagogie du texte) leur permettront, en outre, d’acquérir des connaissances adaptées à leurs besoins de travail. Formés, ils seront alors à même de diversifier leurs activités agricoles, maraîchères ou artisanales.

    Pour plus d’amples informations, consultez :

    L’extrait du reportage de l’ORTM en date du 31 juillet 2015

    L’article dans le quotidien gouvernemental l’Essor en date du 03 aout 2015, P13


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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    MAROUA, CAMEROUN, 3 août 2015 (IRIN) - Il y a un mois, vendeurs et acheteurs se bousculaient au marché principal de la ville camerounaise de Maroua. Aujourd’hui cependant, l’endroit inspire peur et soupçon - à la limite de la paranoïa.

    En 13 jours seulement, la région de l’Extrême-Nord a été frappée par cinq attentats-suicides - tous imputés au groupe islamiste nigérian Boko Haram – et la population est sur le qui-vive. Le gouvernement a dépêché des milliers de troupes dans le nord, depuis la lointaine Yaoundé, et des mesures de sécurité draconiennes sont entrées en vigueur sur l’essentiel du territoire.

    « Depuis les attaques, personne n’ose se rendre dans mon bar ou se réunir où que ce soit d’autre le long de cette rue », a dit Clément Tchinda à IRIN, devant son commerce du centre-ville de Maroua. « Les affaires ont plus que dégringolé et je ne sais pas quoi faire avec ce qui me reste de marchandises. »

    La vague d’attentats-suicides a débuté le 12 juillet dans la ville de Fotokol, au nord de Maroua, à la frontière avec le Nigéria. Deux femmes dissimulant des explosifs sous leurs burqas ont ciblé un bar de l’armée et un camp militaire, faisant 14 victimes dont un soldat tchadien. Les autorités de la région de l’Extrême-Nord ont réagi quelques jours plus tard en interdisant le port du voile intégral, notamment la burqa, et en imposant aux musulmans de demander une autorisation avant tout rassemblement de grande ampleur.

    Mais le 22 juillet, Maroua – la capitale de la région de l’Extrême-Nord, située à 100 km à l’intérieur du territoire camerounais – a été ciblée à son tour. Selon les informations disponibles, les auteurs des attaques seraient deux fillettes âgées de neuf ans seulement, habillées en mendiantes. La première explosion a frappé le marché central ; la seconde a ravagé un quartier résidentiel densément peuplé. Trois jours plus tard, samedi dernier, un autre kamikaze – il s’agirait d’une adolescente – s’est fait exploser dans un bar très fréquenté de la capitale.

    Personne n’a revendiqué ces attaques, qui ont fait au moins 48 morts et de très nombreux blessés, mais beaucoup sont d’avis qu’il s’agit de représailles liées à l’engagement du Cameroun dans la force régionale de lutte contre Boko Haram. Depuis l’offensive commune lancée plus tôt cette année, les islamistes ont multiplié leurs attaques au Tchad et au Niger, les autres pays membres de la coalition dont les territoires jouxtent le bastion du groupe, situé dans le nord-est du Nigéria. Maroua abrite en outre le commandement des opérations de l’armée camerounaise contre les islamistes.

    Mise en péril des moyens de subsistance

    Depuis les dernières attaques à Maroua, le gouvernement a pris des mesures drastiques, bien déterminé à éviter que d’autres kamikazes s’infiltrent à l’intérieur du territoire camerounais et s’en prennent à des centres urbains tels que Yaoundé ou Douala, la capitale commerciale du pays. L’interdiction du port de la burqa – qui a été étendue de façon à inclure tous types de vêtements amples, tant pour les femmes que pour les hommes – a été décrétée dans l’essentiel du pays.

    « Toute personne cherchant à dissimuler son identité sera considérée comme suspecte, et il est du devoir de chacun de signaler immédiatement de telles personnes et de s’en tenir à l’écart », a dit Donatien Bonyomo, une figure politique locale, lors de l’annonce d’une nouvelle série de mesures draconiennes dans le département central de Noun.

    « Aucun individu non identifiable ne doit être vu dans les transports publics, sur une moto ou tout autre moyen de transport », a-t-il ajouté. « Les personnes désireuses de porter [la burqa] doivent rester chez elles. »

    En dépit des controverses qu’elle soulève, de nombreux Camerounais – dans un pays où les musulmans, essentiellement concentrés dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord, représentent 20 pour cent de la population – se disent favorables à l’interdiction du port de la burqa.

    « Si ça doit permettre de protéger la vie de personnes innocentes, alors [le port de la burqa] doit être interdit », a dit Alijah Moussa, un habitant de Maroua, à IRIN.

    Un couvre-feu a été instauré de 20h à 6h dans le nord et les régions frontalières, où les horaires d’ouverture des commerces et des bureaux ont également été restreints de 6h à 18h. D’autres mesures ont été mises en place, notamment d’importantes restrictions de mouvement, des postes de contrôle le long des routes, la fouille arbitraire de personnes, de véhicules et de marchandises, et des contrôles d’identité aléatoires.

    Malgré le climat de peur, nombre de Camerounais se plaignent non pas de la menace que représente Boko Haram, mais de la mise en péril de leurs moyens de subsistance.

    « On m’a demandé de ne plus vendre dans la rue », a dit à IRIN Salif Bashir, un habitant de Maroua âgé de 16 ans.

    Il vend habituellement des chargeurs de téléphone et autres gadgets aux passants durant les vacances scolaires afin de financer ses études.

    « Je ne sais pas comment je vais bien pouvoir subvenir à mes besoins lorsque l’école reprendra en septembre. J’ai peur des attaques, mais je ne peux tout simplement pas rester à la maison. »

    Ismael Sani, un chauffeur de camion effectuant du transport de marchandises entre le Cameroun et le Tchad, partage la colère de M. Bashir. « [Lorsque je passe la frontière], mon camion se fait arrêter en plusieurs endroits. Certaines de mes marchandises me sont confisquées et d’autres sont détruites parce que l’armée veut savoir ce que je transporte. »

    Identifier l’ennemi

    Le besoin soudain d’avoir des papiers d’identité a de fortes implications pour les migrants, les réfugiés et les Camerounais déplacés à l’intérieur de leur propre pays. D’après les autorités locales, on compte aujourd’hui pas moins de 74 000 réfugiés originaires du Nigéria rien que dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord. Des milliers d’autres Camerounais ont fui les violences secouant les zones frontalières et sont désormais déplacés à l’intérieur de leur propre pays. Les opérations camerounaises de contre-insurrection ont entraîné une nouvelle vague de déplacements. Toutes ces personnes ont besoin d’aide.

    Faute d’être en mesure de présenter des documents d’identité, plus de 500 migrants et réfugiés originaires du Nigéria, du Tchad et du Niger – qui vivaient dans des villes frontalières au Cameroun – ont récemment été escortés vers des camps situés à la frontière nigériane.

    « Ces mesures ne concernent que les sans-papiers », a dit Albert Mekondané Obonou, le préfet du département de Logone-et-Chari, situé dans la province de l’Extrême-Nord, à la pointe nord du Cameroun. « Nous voulons pouvoir identifier toutes les personnes vivant parmi nous, afin de mieux protéger notre territoire et notre peuple. »

    Mais de nombreux Camerounais déplacés par les violences disent avoir fui Boko Haram sans leurs papiers. « J’espère que les autorités nous comprendront et qu’elles nous aideront à obtenir des papiers d’identité », a dit Moussa Dhubu à IRIN. Il espère ne pas être renvoyé vers la zone frontalière, où le danger guette, avec d’autres étrangers suspects.

    De nombreux réfugiés sont confrontés à des problèmes analogues, car ils n’ont jamais été formellement enregistrés et ont fait le choix de vivre au sein de populations d’accueil ou comme éleveurs nomades plutôt que dans des camps.

    « Les nouvelles mesures de sécurité signifient que de larges pans de la population vont souffrir de la faim et de la pauvreté dans cette région où bon nombre d’habitants vivent du petit commerce », a dit David Magulu, professeur à l’université de Maroua.

    Bon nombre d’habitants de la province de l’Extrême-Nord sont peu instruits, et n’ont jamais jugé nécessaire de se faire faire des papiers d’identité. « Certains n’ont même pas de certificat de naissance », a fait remarquer M. Magalu.

    « Comment ces personnes, qui vivent majoritairement du colportage, vont-elles survivre à ces mesures sans en être victimes ? »

    Dans ce genre de situations, l’aide est cruciale. Mais la plupart des projets - y compris ceux autrefois gérés par les Nations Unies, la Banque mondiale, les Chinois ou encore des organismes religieux internationaux - ont été revus à la baisse ou abandonnés en raison de la situation sécuritaire.

    Marthe Wandu, la porte-parole de l’ONG locale ADELPA, a dit que certains projets fondamentaux menés par les Nations Unies dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord – notamment celui visant à réduire les taux de mortalité et de morbidité prénatale et infantile liés au VIH/sida – « ont été ralentis par les menaces de Boko Haram ».

    Les trois régions les plus gravement touchées de la pointe nord du pays, où de nombreux centres de santé ont fermé, sont inaccessibles.

    Selon les Nations Unies, qui ont réévalué le niveau de risque de la région de 3 (modéré) l’année dernière à 5 (élevé) cette année, il est devenu difficile d’acheminer de l’aide aux communautés les plus nécessiteuses de la province de l’Extrême-Nord en raison des risques d’attaques et d’enlèvement. Les camions que le gouvernement loue pour approvisionner l’armée et les camps de PDIP de la région en nourriture exigent désormais une escorte armée. Le Cameroun paie au prix fort son engagement dans la lutte contre Boko Haram.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Aggravation de l’insécurité alimentaire dans la région de Diffa

    MESSAGES CLÉS

    • La saison pluvieuse 2015 a connu une installation tardive dans les régions agricoles du pays et dans les zones pastorales ou on observe une prolongation de la période de soudure pastorale.

    • Cependant après le retard observé, la saison des pluies bénéficie depuis la première décade de juillet 2015 d’un régime pluviométrique favorable pour la mise en place définitive des semis et pour un développement végétatif normal des cultures en places. Les prévisions saisonnières indiquent des cumuls pluviométriques moyens à supérieur à la moyenne pour le reste de la saison.

    • Malgré la période de soudure en cours qui correspond à une forte dépendance à l’achat, les prix de consommation pour les céréales évoluent selon une tendance inférieure à celle de la moyenne saisonnière grâce à une offre suffisante sauf dans la région de Diffa ou le conflit lie à Boko Haram perturbe le fonctionnement normal des échanges.

    • Excepte dans la région de Diffa ou les ménages sont dans une situation de Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) dû à les effets de conflit Boko Haram, l’insécurité alimentaire aiguë peut rester globalement Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) dans le reste du pays entre octobre et décembre suite à l’amélioration de disponibilité et accès alimentaire pendant la période de récolte et de meilleures conditions pastorales.


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    Source: UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali
    Country: Mali

    MINUSMA strongly condemns the cowardly terrorist attacks against the Malian Armed Forces and Security Forces by unidentified gunmen in the centre and north of the country. The first attack targeted the Malian Armed Forces on 1 August with an ambush on the road between Diabaly and Nampala, at 6 km from Toulé, in the community of Nampala in the Ségou region. The second attack was carried out early this morning against a unit of the National Guard based in Gourma Rharous, located about 120 km east of the city of Timbuktu.

    MINUSMA extends its condolences to the Government and to the Malian Armed Forces and Security Forces, as well as to the families of the victims. The Mission wishes a speedy recovery to the injured.

    MINUSMA once again stresses the urgent need to advance the peace process to ensure that the Government and the stakeholders work and act together, with the support of the population, to ward off the terrorist challenge that threatens Mali and its people.


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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Mali

    STORY HIGHLIGHTS

    Representatives of government services, donors, and international organizations convened at a workshop on social protection organized by the World Bank in Mali.

    Facing instability and food insecurity, large swaths of the Malian population are vulnerable and struggle to make ends meet.

    Since 2013, the World Bank has been supporting an Emergency Safety Nets project, which has provided targeted cash transfers to 62,000 households.

    BAMAKO, August 3, 2015—Are social safety nets effective? This was the topic debated at a two-day workshop organized by the World Bank in Bamako on June 22 and 23. Attended by representatives of government services and humanitarian and Malian development organizations, these workshops provided an opportunity to review the various approaches and strategies used in the implementation of safety net programs in the country.

    Faced with the crises in the Sahel region—natural disasters, political and economic uncertainty, and food insecurity—the Malian people, especially the poor, are vulnerable. In many Malian villages, each day is a struggle for survival.

    “We eat what we can find, and we live day to day. Despite all my efforts, it’s not always enough,” says Sira Coulibaly. Ms. Coulibaly lives in the village of Koulouniko, making her living by selling firewood. Her daily earnings determine whether she eats or not.

    In order to alleviate this acute poverty and food insecurity, the World Bank and the Malian Government have set up a $70 million Emergency Safety Nets project. Better known as Jigiséméjiri in Mali, meaning “tree of hope” in the Bambara language, this project distributes targeted cash transfers to 62,000 households in 106 communes suffering from food insecurity. “Jigiséméjiri is laying the foundations for a national social protection system in Mali,” explains Mahmoud Sako, project coordinator.

    Beneficiaries are witnessing the project’s positive impact and the need for a permanent system to protect households living in poverty is becoming increasingly apparent.

    “I was so relieved the day I received money from the project because I was very indebted. The money allowed me to pay all my debts,” explains Togorotien Sacko, who also lives in the village of Koulouniko, in the southern part of the country. “Our children’s work doesn’t bring in enough money to cover the family’s expenses. Times are hard,” she adds.

    Ms. Coulibaly bought grain for her family. “I received 30,000 CFA francs from the project, and it really helped to lighten my financial burden.”

    The main topics discussed at the workshop included institutional anchorage of safety nets, social registries, targeting vulnerable populations, payment methods, and accompanying measures seeking to improve the human capital of children.

    According to views exchanged during the workshops, a national safety net system would be greatly enhanced by specific humanitarian assistance efforts, thereby emphasizing the need to build bridges between emergency responses and longer-term development, while taking into account constraints such as access, distances, and settlements.

    In the case of an economic shock or natural disaster, the system could ideally be rolled out at a larger scale to offer rapid assistance to vulnerable households, fostering close coordination among government services, donors, nongovernmental organizations and international organizations. The interventions would in turn go beyond cash transfers to include the development of human capital, nutrition, and household resilience.

    Workshop participants felt it was also important to take action to improve nutrition through the distribution of locally produced food supplements composed of enriched flour. These distributions would target the most vulnerable members of Malian households, notably young children, nursing mothers, and pregnant women.

    As for the building of household resilience, participants stressed the importance of holding specific workshops to raise awareness about savings, income-generating activities, microfinance institutions, and labor-intensive jobs.


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    Source: Government of Belgium
    Country: Mali

    Entrepreneur malien, Karim Traore s'est lancé depuis trois ans dans la pisciculture. Il vit dans le quartier rural de Mandela, un village situé dans la région de Sikasso, qui connaît un taux de malnutrition infantile supérieur à la moyenne nationale et fait face à un exode rural important.

    Sélectionnés avec une vingtaine d'autres entrepreneurs, Karim a suivi une formation en techniques de construction d'étangs en 2012, appuyée par le Projet d'Appui au Développement de la Filière Aquacole (PRODEFA). Confronté à l'exode rural de nombreux membres de sa famille, il a vu là une opportunité de créer de l'emploi. « Mon objectif au départ dans la pisciculture, c'était de créer de l'emploi pour ma famille. Le petit était prêt à partir. Quand je suis venu avec le projet des étangs, tout de suite, il n'a plus voulu partir. »

    Après la formation, Karim démarré avec la construction de huit étangs, sur ses fonds propres. Aujourd'hui, il est régulièrement sollicité par les pisciculteurs de la région pour construire des étangs aux normes techniques et leur fournir des alevins. Dès qu'il en a l'opportunité, il réinvestit son capital dans ses activités afin d'augmenter sa production. Il peut, de cette manière, honorer un plus grand nombre de commandes. Récemment, il a acquis un moulin afin de disposer plus rapidement de la matière première nécessaire à la fabrication d'aliments pour les poissons. Pour encourager ses voisins à manger du poisson, il écoule sa production de poissons à un prix moins élevé à Mandela que sur les marchés extérieurs.

    A quelques kilomètres de là, dans le village de Katogola, les habitants ne consommaient que du poisson séché importé et en faible quantité. Comme beaucoup de mares et de marigots des alentours, le plan d'eau situé à quelques kilomètres du village servait à abreuver le bétail. En 2012, il a été empoissonné grâce à l'appui du PRODEFA. Les membres du comité de gestion du plan d'eau ont également été formés en comptabilité et en dynamique interne. L'organisation de la pêche s'est par la suite fortement améliorée. Actuellement, une centaine d'hommes du village se rejoignent chaque mois pour pêcher bénévolement. Une partie du poisson est distribuée gratuitement aux plus nécessiteux et le reste est entièrement vendu au sein même du village. Pour Seydou Tiare, chef du village et secrétaire administratif du comité de gestion du plan d'eau, c'est extrêmement positif : « Les points positifs de la pêche, c'est d'abord la santé : il y a moins de malades car on consomme plus de protéines et de vitamines. Je le sais car le nombre de consultations a diminué. Aussi, quand quelqu'un est malade, on utilise l'argent des revenus de la pêche pour payer la consultation. »

    Les bénéfices issus de la vente servent aussi à financer les besoins communautaires. Le comité de gestion a par exemple appuyé la réhabilitation de l'école du village.

    Karim Traore à Mandela, Seydou Tiare à Katogola, voici deux histoires, deux parcours, qui montrent comment la pisciculture, qu'elle soit semi-intensive ou artisanale, permet d'améliorer sensiblement et durablement la situation alimentaire d'une communauté entière.

    Projet d'Appui au Développement de la Filière Aquacole dans la Région de Sikasso

    • Financement : Mali, Belgique

    • Budget : 7.400.000 euros

    • La production du poisson marchand des pisciculteurs privés accompagnés par le projet a presque triplé entre 2013 et 2014.

    • Au total, 119 plans d'eau ont été empoissonnés grâce à l'appui du PRODEFA.

    • 72 tonnes de poisson issus de la pisciculture artisanale ont été pêchés et consommés par les villageois en 2014 (contre 23 en 2013).


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Algeria, Chad, Eritrea, India, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Pakistan, Sudan, World, Yemen


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