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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Mali

    08-11-2014 Communiqué de presse 14/211

    Bamako (CICR) – Les parlementaires maliens participent aujourd’hui à Bamako à une journée de sensibilisation sur leur rôle dans la promotion et la mise en œuvre nationale du droit international humanitaire (DIH).

    « C'est aux législateurs qu'il revient de voter les lois en vue d'une intégration effective du droit international humanitaire dans la législation nationale », explique Christoph Luedi, chef de la délégation du CICR au Mali. « En devenant partie aux quatre Conventions de Genève et à leurs Protocoles additionnels, les autorités maliennes se sont engagées à mettre en œuvre et à diffuser des lois qui assurent l'application des règles de cette branche du droit au niveau national ; et les parlementaires ont un rôle important à jouer dans ce sens. »

    Au cours de cette journée organisée par le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR), en collaboration avec la Croix-Rouge malienne, les participants seront informés de l’état actuel de la mise en œuvre des traités de DIH au Mali. Ils découvriront également les services consultatifs du CICR, auxquels ils peuvent notamment faire appel pour les aider à rédiger des projets de loi portant sur la mise en œuvre nationale du DIH. Ils auront par ailleurs l’occasion d’approfondir leurs connaissances sur le mandat et la mission du CICR.

    « À ce jour, le Mali a ratifié presque tous les traités de DIH, mais leur incorporation dans la législation nationale reste incomplète, précise M. Luedi. Or, pour être mieux respecté, le DIH doit d'abord être pleinement intégré dans les lois nationales. Cette rencontre permettra de fixer les bases pour y parvenir. »

    Le droit international humanitaire est un ensemble de règles qui protègent les civils pendant les conflits armés, en fixant des limites à la conduite des hostilités. Le CICR encourage les États à ratifier les instruments de DIH, et leur apporte ensuite un soutien technique pour qu’ils les intègrent de manière effective dans leur législation nationale.

    Informations complémentaires : Valery Mbaoh Nana, CICR Bamako, tél. : +223 76 99 63 75


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Niger

    Niamey, Niger | AFP | lundi 10/11/2014 - 13:51 GMT

    Dix personnes ont été tuées et 13 autres blessées dans une violente confrontation survenue samedi entre des agriculteurs et des éleveurs dans la zone de Birni-N'koni (sud-ouest nigérien), ont indiqué lundi les autorités locales.

    "Dix personnes, dont quatre agriculteurs et six éleveurs ont été tuées sauvagement et treize autres blessées dans des affrontements d'une rare violence à Tantounou", un village située dans le sud-ouest du Niger, a affirmé à l'AFP à Salifou Souley, le maire de la commune.

    Les affrontements "à l'arme blanche" ont éclaté lorsqu'un troupeau de vaches appartenant à des éleveurs, ont "dévasté dans la nuit un champ de haricot", a expliqué le maire.

    "Alertés, les agriculteurs sont alors arrivés armés de coupe-coupes, de couteaux et de bâtons pour punir les éleveurs", a-t-il précisé, déplorant "un bilan lourd des deux côtés".

    Parmi les 13 blessés, tous des agriculteurs, 7 ont été "gravement atteints" et évacués dans des centres de soins de la région, a-t-il souligné.

    Une source proche du gouvernorat de Tahoua, dont dépend Birni-N'koni, a confirmé l'information en indiquant que des "renforts des forces de sécurité" ont été déployés sur les lieux où "la tension est encore vive ce lundi".

    "Nous sommes actuellement en train de sensibiliser les deux communautés pour ramener définitivement le calme", assure le maire Salifou Souley.

    Les conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs sont fréquents au Niger, pays sec et très pauvre souvent frappé par de graves crises alimentaires.

    bh/ck/mw

    © 1994-2014 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali, Mauritania

    RÉSUMÉ

    Au regard de l’analyse des besoins humanitaires réalisée par l’ensemble de la communauté humanitaire, les objectifs stratégiques retenus dans le cadre de ce plan de réponse sont les suivants :

    1. Recueillir les données sur les risques et les vulnérabilités, les analyser et intégrer les résultats dans la programmation humanitaire et de développement.

    2. Soutenir les populations vulnérables à mieux faire face aux chocs en répondant aux signaux d’alerte de manière anticipée, réduisant la durée du relèvement post-crise et renforçant les capacités des acteurs nationaux.

    3. Fournir aux personnes en situation d’urgence une assistance coordonnée et intégrée, nécessaire à leur survie.

    Mesures prioritaires

    L’orientation des sites / zones d’intervention prioritaires a été définie à la page 11 du document HNO (régions affectées par l’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition, les inondations et celle abritant les réfugiés), à travers l’analyse intersectorielle des vulnérabilités. Toutes les interventions dans le cadre de ce Plan de Réponse Stratégique seront orientées vers les régions suivantes : Hodh el Chargui, Nouakchott, Guidimakha, Gorgol, Brakna, Assaba, Tagant, Hodh el Gharbi. Le choix des zones d’intervention dépend du niveau d’incidence d’au moins l’un des quatre critères de vulnérabilité à savoir le taux élevé d’insécurité alimentaire et de malnutrition, les inondations en zones rurales et urbaines et la présence des réfugiés maliens.

    Paramètres de l'intervention

    Les interventions se font sur la base des évaluations disponibles dont l’enquête sur la sécurité alimentaire des ménages (FSMS) ainsi que celle (SMART), toutes les deux ont été conduites en juillet 2013, et auxquelles les partenaires humanitaires ont convenu de se référer. Les vulnérabilités identifiées dans ces enquêtes, et qui sont prises en compte dans le plan de réponse sont : (1) les personnes en situation de malnutrition aiguë sévère, (2) celles en situation d’insécurité alimentaire sévère, (y compris les personnes affectées par les inondations) et, enfin (3) les réfugiés maliens.


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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Mali

    STORY HIGHLIGHTS

    • In Mali, more than 175,000 farmers were able to increase their productivity by on average 30% and boost their revenues by 34%
    • With support from the West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP), Mali is strengthening its seed systems as well as its research and technology transfer systems in order to make farming and pastoral communities more resilient
    • The second phase of the program will provide input kits, nucleus breeding programs, motor-pumps, and grafted jujube trees and date palm plants to communities in northern Mali who have been greatly affected by the crisis

    The Sahara’s mighty sands and fierce temperatures may extend over half of the territory of Mali, however these unforgiving desert conditions are not slowing down the country when it comes to agricultural production. In a country where even the slightest fluctuations in climate could lead to acute food insecurity, mastering the art of agriculture under harsh conditions remains essential.

    That is why these days, Malians are farming smarter and adopting new technologies to boost crop yields and revenues. With the help of the West African Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP), over 175,000 Malian farmers have been able to revitalize their productivity through the planting of higher yielding rice varieties and more pest resistant tomatoes, the use of an adapted seed drill to economize seeds, and the production of siloed corn to feed livestock thus increasing their milk production.

    "In light of the outcomes obtained through the commitment of researchers, agricultural extension workers, and agricultural producers, I am confident that the large-scale dissemination of these technologies will allow our agricultural sector to achieve the 6% growth target."
    Moussa Mara
    Prime Minister of Mali

    “The completion report for the first phase of the WAAPP revealed that these farmers have been able to enhance their productivity by on average 30% and their revenues by 34%. The period between two harvests has also been shortened, a result which is already having a significant impact,” explains Abdoulaye Touré, the World Bank WAAPP Task Team Leader in charge of the program.

    With the support of the project, Mali is strengthening its seed systems as well as its research and technology transfer systems in order to provide comprehensive support for the implementation of the National Agricultural Investment Program and to boost the resilience of farming and pastoral communities. The integrated subregional aspect of the program, which constitutes one of the program’s biggest strengths, also enables Mali to benefit from innovative technologies and techniques developed in the other WAAPP beneficiary countries.

    One of these innovative techniques is the introduction of new more resilient varieties of tomatoes. According to Ibrahima Diakite, President of the Regional Commission for Users of Agricultural Research Findings in Mali, “these new varieties allow us to maintain our production yields during the rainy season, when tomatoes are in short supply in the markets and command a higher price.” The possibility of producing crops year round has proved to be a real advantage for Malian farmers.

    Farmers also benefit from training, study tours, knowledge exchanges between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) stakeholders, and equipment prototypes during exchange visits, all of which help strengthen of their technical capacities.

    Initially launched with a pilot phase in three countries (Mali, Senegal, and Ghana), the WAAPP is now being implemented in 13 of the 15 countries of the ECOWAS. As the first phase of the project in Mali concluded satisfactorily, the World Bank approved financing for a second phase totaling $60 million.

    The additional WAAPP financing will be used to scale up the production, dissemination, and adoption of improved technologies with respect to the priority agricultural products in the participant countries. For Mali in particular, this second phase will also help restore the productive capacities of communities in northern Mali who have been greatly affected by the crisis. Targeted subsidies will be used to provide these communities with input kits, nucleus breeding programs, motor-pumps, and grafted jujube trees and date palm plants.

    Despite having been approved by the World Bank Board of Executive Directors in June 2013, this new phase was not able to launch before July 11, 2014 given the political and institutional situation in the country.

    “In light of the outcomes obtained through the commitment of researchers, agricultural extension workers, and agricultural producers, I am confident that the large-scale dissemination of these technologies will allow our agricultural sector to achieve the 6% growth target,” enthused Moussa Mara, the Prime Minister of Mali, at the launch of the second phase of the program in Bamako.

    The WAAPP is key to the World Bank’s support strategy for Mali and in its support for increased regional integration in West Africa. In addition, “it is firmly anchored in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the ECOWAS agricultural policy,” added Paul Noumba Um, the World Bank Country Director for Mali.


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    Source: Viet Nam News
    Country: Viet Nam

    CA MAU (VNS) — Unusually high tides over the past few days have submerged the entire 252km long coastline Ca Mau Province in what officials say is stark evidence of climate change.

    Some of the coastline areas in the southernmost province are under 0.5m of water, local reports say.

    In Ca Mau, the high tide season happens from December to March, but it appears to have come a month earlier this year. The average water level is also 0.3m higher than in previous years, officials say.

    Le Van Su, director of the provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, said the earlier onset of high tides and the higher water levels are clear signs of climate change and rising sea water levels.

    This phenomenon has been seen over the past few years, he said.

    Some areas 50km deep inside the mainland have also affected by the tides, including Nam Can Town in Nam Can District.

    More than 2,000ha of aquaculture farms and 1,000ha of food crops and orchards have been damaged by the tides.

    Le Dung, Vice Chairman of the provincial People's Committee, said the Prime Minister has approved five climate change adaptation programmes in Ca Mau. To implement these, a total of VND5 trillion (US$238 million) is needed, he added.

    Dung also said that the province will give priority to building a sea dyke along its eastern coastline and upgrading the western dyke system with an investment of VND1.3 trillion ($61.9 million).

    The western sea dyke system of Ca Mau has been seriously damaged by landslides caused by heavy rains and strong winds.

    The 120km-long system runs through Phu Tan, U Minh and Tran Can Thoi districts in Ca Mau to reach Kien Giang province. It plays a significant role in transportation and prevention of saltwater intrusion. — VNS


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

    Siembras tardías podrían afectar rendimientos en Nicaragua y Honduras

    • Durante los últimos 30 días lluvias de promedio o arriba del mismo se observan en Centroamérica, exceptuando la región sur de Honduras y occidente de Guatemala con anomalías negativas del 20 al 50 por ciento  (Figura 1).

    • Debido a la falta de humedad durante agosto, agricultores de Nicaragua y Honduras realizaron siembras tardías de 10 – 20 días. Los cultivos sembrados a finales de septiembre podrían ser afectados en las fases finales del cultivo por falta de precipitación durante Noviembre y Diciembre.

    • Se espera una producción de frijol de Postrera normal en Guatemala y El Salvador, dada una adecuada distribución temporal y espacial de lluvia, que favorece las actividades agrícolas.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Guatemala

    El maíz es la fuente más importante de calorías y proteína en la dieta guatemalteca. El maíz blanco es mayormente consumido que el maíz amarillo, pero este último es preferido en algunas regiones y es utilizado como alimento para aves. Todos los hogares guatemaltecos consumen frijoles negros: como fuente proteica es especialmente valioso como un complemento a los cereales en regiones donde los hogares tienen acceso limitado a los productos animales. Los hábitos de consumo están fuertemente ligados a la tradición y la cultura. El arroz es principalmente consumido por hogares urbanos y peri-urbanos, pero algunos rurales también lo consumen. Guatemala es altamente dependiente de arroz importado. El mercado de la ciudad de Guatemala es el más grande en el país y es esta ciudad la de mayor concentración de población.


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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Afghanistan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Ukraine, World, Yemen

    Snapshot 5–11 November

    Central African Republic: About 20,000 displaced people are seeking refuge in isolated rural areas in Ouham province following the arrival of armed groups in Boguila, Kouki and Nana Bakassa on 25 October. Nearly 1,000 people have been displaced since July in Bambari following violence in Batobadja and Matchika, and 4,000 have been displaced since January to Berberati town in Mambere province.

    Ukraine: Over the night of 30-31 October, Ukraine claimed pro-Russian separatists violated the ceasefire 45 times. However, some IDPs area reportedly returning to opposition-held areas despite insecurity, due to exhausted coping mechanisms and inadequate assistance. Ukrainian authorities have imposed obligatory passport controls on movements in and out of opposition-held areas.

    The Gambia: Aggregate cereal production over 2014 is predicted to be 75% lower than in 2013, falling to about 57,000 metric tons. Groundnut, the main cash crop, is predicted to fall 80%. Growing conditions have been poor in several parts of the country, mostly in central and western regions, due to irregular rains at the beginning of the cropping season in May/June, which delayed planting, and subsequent erratic precipitation in July and August. The Ebola epidemic in neighbouring countries is further aggravating food insecurity, as the crisis has affected tourism, a significant source of income (Reuters, 01/10/2014).

    Updated: 11/11/2014. Next update: 18/11/2014

    Global Emergency Overview Web Interface


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

    Inicio de temporada de frentes fríos en Centroamérica

    MENSAJES CLAVE

    • Durante los últimos 30 días lluvias de promedio o arriba del mismo se observan en Centroamérica, (Figura 1). Estas, sin embargo, han producido inundaciones focalizadas en los países; en Petén, Alta Verapaz e Izabal en Guatemala; en áreas agrícolas de Cortez, Yoro, Copan, Ocotepeque y Santa Bárbara en Honduras, y en zonas de producción de la Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte en Nicaragua.

    • Se ha observado un desarrollo normal de los cultivos de la temporada de Postrera desde mediados de octubre en la región centroamericana.

    • Inicio de la temporada de frentes fríos podría afectar cultivos de zonas elevadas de Guatemala, así como la disminución progresiva de lluvias especialmente en el Pacífico de Guatemala y El Salvador.


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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Mali

    LES POINTS MARQUANTS

    • Au Mali, plus de 175 000 agriculteurs ont pu améliorer leur productivité de 30 % en moyenne et leur revenue de 34 %

    • Avec l’appui du Programme de productivité agricole en Afrique de l’Ouest (PPAAO), le Mali renforce ses systèmes semenciers ainsi que ses systèmes de recherche et de transfert de technologies afin d’appuyer la résilience des populations agricoles et pastorales

    • La deuxième phase du programme dotera les populations du nord du Mali, affectées par la crise, de kits d’intrants, de noyaux d’élevage, de motopompes et de plants de palmiers dattiers et de jujubiers greffés

    Le désert Sahara, avec ses vastes terrains de sable et ses températures extrêmes, occupent plus de la moitié du territoire malien. Pourtant, malgré ces conditions hostiles, le pays ne connaît pas de ralentissement quant à sa production agricole. Au Mali, où même les moindres variations climatiques peuvent engendrer de l’insécurité alimentaire, la maîtrise de l’agriculture dans des conditions désertiques demeure essentielle.

    C’est pourquoi depuis 2007, les agriculteurs Maliens travaillent plus efficacement, adoptant des nouvelles technologies afin d’augmenter les rendements de leurs cultures et d’accroitre leurs revenus. Avec l’appui du Programme de productivité agricole en Afrique de l’Ouest (PPAAO), plus de 175 000 producteurs maliens ont revitalisé leur productivité à travers l’utilisation de nouvelles variétés de riz irrigué d’un potentiel de production de 8 à 10 tonnes à l’hectare, de nouvelles variétés de tomates résistantes aux nuisibles, d’un semoir adapté qui permet de réduire de 50 % les besoins en semences et de l’ensilage de maïs qui permet, quand consommé par le bétail, d’augmenter leur rendement de lait.

    "Au regard de ces résultats obtenus grâce à l’engagement des chercheurs, des vulgarisateurs et des producteurs et productrices agricoles, je suis convaincu que la diffusion à grande échelle de ces technologies permettra à notre agriculture d’atteindre les 6 % de croissance souhaités."
    Moussa Mara
    Premier ministre du Mali

    « Le rapport d’achèvement de la première phase du PPAAO a montré que ces agriculteurs ont pu améliorer leur productivité de 30 % en moyenne et leur revenue de 34 %. La période de soudure, le temps entre deux récoltes, a été également raccourcie, ce qui est déjà un impact significatif », explique Abdoulaye Touré, responsable du projet PPAAO à la Banque mondiale.

    Grâce au projet, le Mali renforce ses systèmes semenciers ainsi que ses systèmes de recherche et de transfert de technologies afin d’appuyer de manière globale la mise en œuvre du Programme national d’investissement agricole et de renforcer la résilience des populations agricoles et pastorales. Le Mali bénéficie également de technologies et d’approches novatrices développées dans les autres pays bénéficiaires du PPAAO, grâce à l’intégration et aux échanges sous régionaux qui constituent l’un des points forts du programme.

    L’une de ces approches innovantes est l’introduction de nouvelles variétés de tomates d’hivernage. Selon Ibrahima Diakite, président de la Commission régionale des utilisateurs des résultats de la recherche agricole au Mali, « ces nouvelles variétés nous ont permis de maintenir notre rendement de production durant l’hivernage, alors que sur les marchés la tomate se raréfie et se vend à un prix très élevé ». La possibilité de produire toute l’année constitue ainsi un véritable avantage pour les agriculteurs maliens.

    Les producteurs profitent également de formations, de voyages d’études, d’échanges d’expériences entres acteurs de l’espace CEDEAO, de la fourniture de prototypes de matériels lors de voyages d’échanges ainsi que du renforcement de leurs capacités techniques.

    Démarré avec une phase pilote dans 3 pays (Mali, Sénégal et Ghana), le PPAAO est aujourd’hui mis en œuvre dans 13 des 15 pays de la Communauté des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO). Etant donné que la première phase du projet au Mali s’est achevée de manière satisfaisante, la Banque mondiale a approuvé le financement d’une deuxième phase qui s’élève à 60 millions de dollars.

    L'objectif du financement additionnel du PPAAO est de mettre à une échelle supérieure la production, la diffusion et l'adoption de technologies améliorées dans les domaines des produits agricoles prioritaires des pays participants. Pour le Mali en particulier, cette deuxième phase aidera à restaurer les capacités de production des populations du nord du Mali à travers des subventions ciblées, qui permettront de doter les populations affectées par la crise de kits d’intrants, de noyaux d’élevage, de motopompes et de plants de palmiers dattiers et de jujubiers greffés.

    Approuvée par le Conseil d’administration de la Banque mondiale en juin 2013, cette nouvelle phase n’a pas pu être lancée avant le 11 juillet 2014, compte tenu de la situation politico-institutionnelle que le pays a connue et ses effets.

    « Au regard de ces résultats obtenus grâce à l’engagement des chercheurs, des vulgarisateurs et des producteurs et productrices agricoles, je suis convaincu que la diffusion à grande échelle de ces technologies permettra à notre agriculture d’atteindre les 6 % de croissance souhaités », s’est réjoui le Premier ministre du Mali, Moussa Mara, à l’occasion du lancement de la deuxième phase du programme à Bamako.

    Le PPAAO constitue un programme majeur dans la stratégie d’appui de la Banque mondiale au Mali et dans sa stratégie d’appui à l’intégration régionale en Afrique de l’Ouest. De plus, « Il est parfaitement ancré dans le Nouveau partenariat pour le développement de l’Afrique (NEPAD) et dans la politique agricole de la CEDEAO », a, pour sa part, dit le Directeur des opérations de la Banque mondiale pour le Mali, Paul Noumba Um.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Mali, Mauritania

    FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT

    •Preliminary forecast for 2014 harvest points to a significant decline in cereal production

    •Pastures have been affected by irregular rains in parts

    •Humanitarian assistance continues to be needed, including for Malian refugees


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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Des milliers de personnes déplacées par le conflit dans le nord-est du Nigéria ont trouvé refuge à Maiduguri.

    Le 3 novembre, le CICR et la Croix-Rouge du Nigéria ont achevé la distribution de vivres et d’articles ménagers essentiels à plus de 50 000 personnes vivant dans des conditions extrêmement précaires. « En plus de devoir fuir de chez eux, ces gens originaires de Kodunga, Kaga, Gwoza et Damboa ont perdu tous leurs biens et leurs sources de revenus. Ils manquaient de nourriture et de produits de première nécessité », explique Karl Mattli, chef de la délégation du CICR au Nigéria. « Les communautés d’accueil n’arrivaient plus à assumer la charge supplémentaire que les personnes déplacées faisaient peser sur elles. »

    Après avoir évalué la situation, le CICR et la Croix-Rouge du Nigéria ont lancé une opération d’urgence afin de répondre aux besoins les plus pressants. Des collaborateurs de l’institution et une centaine de volontaires de la Société nationale ont ainsi distribué 960 tonnes de vivres et d’autres articles de secours à 51 000 bénéficiaires.

    Distribution de vivres et de secours dans le nord-est

    La plupart des personnes déplacées qui sont arrivées à Maiduguri ces derniers mois se sont installées dans des bâtiments publics, des écoles ou des camps de déplacés. Certaines ont été hébergées par des parents ou des familles d’accueil, dont elles partageaient les maigres ressources, tandis que d’autres se sont réfugiées dans des campements de fortune. Dans tous les cas, les déplacés internes n’avaient pas les moyens d’acheter de la nourriture et dépendaient donc de l’aide de l’État ou de la générosité d’autrui pour survivre.

    « À court terme, les secours que nous venons de distribuer vont améliorer considérablement le bien-être des populations déplacées », déclare Janet Angelei, collaboratrice du CICR spécialisée dans la sécurité économique en poste au Nigéria. « Nous leur avons fourni des ustensiles de cuisine, des couvertures, du savon, des nattes, des articles d’hygiène et des bâches pour couvrir certains de leurs besoins immédiats et alléger leur fardeau des familles d’accueil. »

    Le CICR a par ailleurs distribué des rations de riz, de haricots, d’huile et de sel pour environ un mois. « C’est la première fois depuis que nous avons fui que nous recevons une aide substantielle », raconte Abdullahi Abuya, originaire de Konduga. « Certains d’entre nous n’ont presque rien eu à manger pendant des semaines, mais les choses vont mieux maintenant. »

    Soins de santé

    En coopération avec le ministère de la Santé, le CICR a entrepris de remettre en état le centre de soins de santé primaires Mala Kachalla à Maiduguri et de former son personnel. Les équipes du CICR ont construit un château d’eau équipé d’un réservoir de 4 000 litres et installé un système d’approvisionnement fonctionnant à l’énergie solaire. Elles ont aussi entièrement rénové les sols, plafonds, portes et fenêtres du centre. Selon Bernadette Gleeson, qui dirige les programmes chirurgicaux et de premiers secours du CICR au Nigéria, « le centre est aujourd’hui pleinement opérationnel. Il propose des services ambulatoires généraux, en se concentrant plus particulièrement sur les enfants de moins de cinq ans, les soins prénatals, obstétricaux et postnatals et la stabilisation des patients avant leur transfert vers d’autres structures pour y recevoir des soins secondaires ». En raison de l’afflux de déplacés internes à Maiduguri, on estime que le centre doit maintenant desservir 100 000 personnes supplémentaires.

    Aide d’urgence pour des Nigérians qui ont fui au Niger

    Des civils ayant fui les combats entre l’armée nigériane et divers groupes armés sont récemment arrivés dans la région de Diffa, dans l’est du Niger. Ces personnes déplacées, surtout des femmes et des enfants, proviennent de la zone d’Abadam et de villages nigérians proches du lac Tchad. Elles n’ont plus rien et dépendent entièrement des communautés qui les accueillent ainsi que de l’aide des organisations humanitaires. Au début du mois d’octobre, le CICR et la Croix-Rouge nigérienne ont distribué des vivres à quelque 2 000 personnes à Diffa et à plus de 3 500 autres qui se sont réfugiées sur des îles du lac Tchad.

    En 2014, le CICR a par ailleurs :

    ● visité des détenus dans une vingtaine d’établissements pour évaluer leurs conditions de détention. Les collaborateurs du CICR ont transmis leurs constatations aux autorités en toute confidentialité. Ils ont en outre fourni des couvertures, des moustiquaires et des articles de nettoyage et d’hygiène aux détenus, amélioré les conditions d’hygiène et facilité l’accès à l’eau potable ;
    ● rétabli l’accès à l’eau potable de plus de 80 000 personnes dans les États de Kaduna et du Plateau ;
    ● distribué des rations alimentaires pour un mois à 880 femmes qui ont perdu leur mari dans le conflit en cours, à Maiduguri ;
    ● distribué des vivres et d’autres secours à plus de 37 000 personnes déplacées par les violences intercommunautaires qui secouent les États de Kaduna et du Plateau ;
    ● participé à une campagne lancée fin octobre visant à vacciner 150 000 têtes de bétail et 50 000 moutons et chèvres, en partenariat avec le ministère de l’Agriculture et du Développement rural du Plateau ;
    ● fourni à près de 2 000 familles du Plateau des engrais et des semences de maïs qui leur permettront de reprendre leurs activités agricoles ;
    ● dépêché une équipe chirurgicale mobile pour aider à soigner plus de 70 personnes blessées par l’explosion de bombes à Jos (en mai) et à Kaduna (en juillet) ;
    ● formé 1 850 personnes aux premiers secours en coopération avec la Croix-Rouge du Nigéria ;
    ● enseigné à un millier de personnes, principalement des membres de l’armée nigériane et de la Croix Rouge du Nigéria, comment gérer les dépouilles mortelles de façon adéquate.

    Informations complémentaires : Denes Benczedi, CICR Abuja, tél. : +234 706 418 90 02 ou +234 703 595 41 68
    Thomas Glass, CICR Genève, tél. : +41 22 730 31 49 ou +41 79 244 64 05


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  • 11/12/14--08:57: Mali: Mali’s Elusive Peace
  • Source: International Peace Institute
    Country: Mali

    It has been nearly 20 months since the sound of French fighter jets filled the skies of Mali’s desert north where, on the ground below, Islamist militants had seized control of a land mass comparable to the size of France. The cacophony of fighter jet engines and their explosive arsenal marked the advent of France’s military intervention in northern Mali. Coined Operation Serval, the mandate of the counterinsurgency was to nullify the threat posed by Islamist extremists who were seeking to expand their operational footprint outside of Mali’s insurgent-battled north. An associated goal of the French military operation was to support the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) in achieving its mandate—the restoration of Mali’s constitutional order and territorial integrity.

    By mid-2013, it seemed that the French military had made good on its promise. Al-Qaeda-linked groups such as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Ansar Dine, and the Movement for Oneness and Jihad (MOJWA), were driven out of major urban centers that had fallen under their brutal control. The French-led operation also led to the deaths of a number of prominent jihadists, most notably Hacene Ould Khalil and Omar Ould Hamaha, who had long been sought by regional and international security agencies. In addition to ousting and neutralizing jihadist fighters, Operation Serval also curtailed militant operational capabilities. Key militant logistical and operational bases were destroyed in ground and air operations, while drug-trafficking networks, considered a significant revenue-generating industry for Sahel- and Maghreb-based terrorist groups, were similarly dismantled.

    Today, however, it appears as though much of Operation Serval’s accomplishments may have been short-lived. Islamist fighters, who were thought to have been pushed to the periphery of Mali’s vast desert expanse, have announced their bloody return in a spate of attacks which have taken the form of suicide bombings, ambushes, and rocket barrages. The pre-eminence of the jihadist groups has taken a particularly heavy toll on MINUSMA peacekeepers who have since assumed the lead in securing Mali’s internal security following the partial withdrawal of their French counterparts. Indeed, since the beginning of 2014, at least 30 UN peacekeepers have been killed by suspected Islamist militants across the northern Kidal, Timbuktu, and Gao administrative regions. In one of the deadliest attacks targeting MINUSMA forces to date, nine Nigerien peacekeepers were killed after their convoy was ambushed in the Menaka-Asongo corridor on October 3. Less than a week later, a Senegalese peacekeeper was also killed after a volley of rocket-propelled grenades was fired at a UN base in the city of Kidal.

    But what are the factors driving the renewed violence in northern Mali, and what can be done to address the insecurity? In answering the first question, it’s worth noting that foreign interventions in Mali were designed to combat insecurity in the country but not address the root causes. The achievement of the latter was always going to be contingent on the actions of a popularly elected government mandated with mending the country’s many socio-political and economic fractures. In this regard, the newly-elected government of President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita has simply not come to the party. On the contrary, the incumbent Malian regime may be succumbing to the same bad habits of its predecessors.

    Over a year into its tenure, the Keita regime has already been accused of engaging in corrupt practices and nepotism, and is lacking accountability and transparency. A stark example of this was Keita’s recent acquisition of a private jet costing an estimated 40 million USD. The aircraft was purchased at a time when the beleaguered Malian military itself had no aircraft at its disposal and an estimated 1.4 million Malians were said by the UN to be in need of food assistance.

    The incident came just months after the International Monetary Fund (IMF) questioned Keita’s award of a no-bid defense contract, worth an estimated USD 136 million, to his friend and personally appointed adviser, Sidi Mohammed Kagnassi. While the deal itself did not contravene legislation governing defense-related purchases, subsequent IMF investigations into the matter would indicate that the majority of the contract would foot the bill for non-military items. While such malfeasance may not directly translate into insecurity, it will only serve to foster popular resentment against state authority, which many non-state groups benefit from.

    Concerns have also been raised about Keita reverting to a clientelist approach in addressing insecurity in the north. During the country’s November 2013 legislative elections, Keita’s ruling Rally for Mali party conspicuously backed several northern candidates who formed part of, or who were linked to, a number of active Arab and Tuareg armed groups. Keita’s provision of political support to these individuals could translate into placating these armed groups opposed to his government. Such a strategy has habitually been employed as a means of attaining short-term stability in Mali’s volatile north. However, it has often been done so at the expense of long-term cohesion and inclusiveness intrinsic to the consolidation of a binding peace. As recently argued by the International Crisis Group in a publication entitled “Mali: Reform or Relapse,” the adoption of a clientelist approach as the panacea to the insecurity in northern Mali will only deepen tensions between non-state groups, thereby increasing the risk of new splinter groups taking up arms.

    But while state reform (or perhaps the lack thereof) serves as an explanation for the marked increase in violence in northern Mali, the international community can also not entirely be absolved from blame. For one, the decision by the French government to reduce the scope of its Malian counterinsurgency operations may have been premature. Although Operation Serval had dealt significant blows to the logistical and operational capabilities of several militant groups, it was evident that non-state factions targeted were not entirely defeated. Indeed, the fact that France on several occasions delayed its planned withdrawal was perhaps indicative of the tenuous security climate which was again prevailing across Mali’s desert north.

    The inevitable void which has accompanied the French withdrawal from northern Mali is simply not being filled by MINUSMA. While the peacekeeping mission has established a presence in several northern towns and settlements, a lack of human and logistical resources, particularly that of aerial capabilities, is severely hampering its effectiveness. Its deficiencies are also unlikely to be resolved in the interim. On October 14, incumbent MINUSMA head, Bert Koenders, confirmed his resignation from the mission. The loss of Koenders, who has been appointed the Netherlands’ Minister of Foreign Affairs, can only be described as a significant setback to the optimal functioning of the UN mission.

    Furthermore, MINUSMA’s multifaceted and complex mandate—perhaps a microcosm of the context in which the mission is operating—is also proving to be problematic. MINUSMA has been tasked with re-establishing government authority in a region of Mali where it has never existed. It also has to achieve this goal without being perceived as an extension of the Malian security apparatus and/or being partial to any of the armed stakeholders upon which the Bamako influence in the region has and continues to be dependent. In short, the achievement of some of MINUSMA’s short-term goals is proving to be incongruent with the attainment of others.

    Finally, insecurity in northern Mali can also be described as being rooted in regional as opposed to a solely domestic quagmire. Although the primary drivers of violence are groups who occupied the country’s north following the March 2012 coup, these entities remain transnational as opposed to intrinsically Mali-based actors. Consequently, counterinsurgency operations that have weakened these groups in Mali have failed to nullify their capabilities in neighboring countries where they continue to operate with limited restrictions.

    The recognition that Mali’s internal security is subject to prevailing geopolitical conditions perhaps explains why France chose to cease the Mali-centric Operation Serval for its wider-reaching successor, Operation Barkhane. Named after a crescent-shaped dune in the Sahara Desert, Operation Barkhane has seen the French government deploy a 3,000-strong counterterrorism force in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger. Still in its early stages, the counterterrorism operation has already highlighted the pivotal role it will play in shaping Mali’s security outlook; on October 10, French authorities confirmed that they had destroyed a multi-vehicle convoy in northern Niger which had originated from neighboring Libya. (The French government further stated that the convoy was transporting weaponry and other equipment to AQIM operatives in northern Mali).

    A degree of stability has returned to Mali, but it is becoming evident that the country faces myriad challenges. If not addressed adequately, these could compromise its recent progress. While efforts should undoubtedly focus on countering prevailing security threats, decisions and policies implemented should concomitantly respond to the causes of such insecurity and not just their symptoms. From a government perspective, the focus should be on nation-building, which can only be achieved by creating governance structures that are deemed to be accountable, transparent, and inclusive. The adoption of a clientelist approach, while pragmatic in securing short-term peace, may achieve this at the expense of long-term stability. Such a strategy should consequently be avoided.

    From an international perspective, it is simple: more has to be done to equip MINUSMA with the resources it needs to carry out its mandate. In light of a partial French withdrawal and a deficient Malian army, the UN peacekeeping mission has become the primary guarantor of Mali’s domestic security. If the mission is unable to achieve its goals, even a reformed government would face an uphill battle in building an inclusive and stable Malian state.

    Originally Published in the Global Observatory


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Senegal


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    Source: Department for International Development
    Country: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    Farmers in Western Africa will have the opportunity to grow and sell more crops on the open market following a new investment from the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID).

    A £9.04 million investment, from DFID’s Impact Investment Fund managed by the UK’s Development Finance Institution CDC, will help farmers in countries including Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire and Mali improve their food security and income, helping lift them out of poverty.

    The investment, the second from DFID’s Impact Fund, will be made into Injaro, a West African agriculture-focused fund, which makes sustainable investments into small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.

    These investments help businesses grow, boosting their demand from farmers who supply them and in turn increasing farmers’ incomes. The investments will also provide better quality seeds and fertilizer for farmers to grow their produce.

    Justine Greening, UK International Development Secretary, said:

    Economic development is the only way countries can leave behind enduring and chronic poverty for good. This investment is a clear example of how the UK is using its development expertise to kick-start investment and help the poorest move out of poverty.

    The funding will enable farmers in West Africa to grow larger supplies of crops and help them to trade what they grow.

    This not only allows farmers to grow enough produce to feed their families but can also turn small-holder farmers into budding agricultural businesses, boosting their prosperity in the long-term.

    Jerry Parkes, CEO of Injaro, said:

    The Injaro team is proud to have secured investments simultaneously from 3 reputable institutions with a long track record of African investments. These new investments from the UK, FMO and Proparco give our fund scale and legitimacy in the impact investment space, helping to build a track record that will attract further private investment into this emerging asset class. With an increased fund size of US$49m we hope to positively impact over 1 million smallholder farmers and low income persons in West Africa.

    The investment into Injaro will:

    • Sustainably increase the supply and affordability of better quality seeds for smallholder farmers;
    • Supply essential products and services to growing local consumer markets; and
    • Help companies make the most of export opportunities.

    Alongside the investment from the DFID Impact Fund, investment has also been leveraged from the French Development Finance Institution Proparco (£4.2 million) and the Dutch Development Finance Institution FMO (£6 million).

    Injaro already has £10.2 million of private capital from Lundin Foundation, Soros Economic Development Fund and Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa. The new investments announced today will give the Fund scale and impact to build a track record to bring further private investment in the next round.

    The DFID Impact Fund is part of a wider DFID Programme to transform the market for impact investment in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia.

    As part of this Programme, DFID is supporting B Labs, a US-based not-for-profit company, to develop B Analytics. The £225,507 grant will help build a customisable platform for measuring, benchmarking, and reporting on a business’ social and environmental impact.

    Notes to Editors The DFID Impact Fund, managed by CDC was launched in 2012.

    Press office

    Email
    pressoffice@dfid.gov.uk

    Telephone
    020 7023 0600

    Follow the DFID Press office on Twitter - @DFID_Press


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    Source: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de I'Homme
    Country: Mali

    The signatories organisations filed a complaint with a plaintiff triggering criminal proceedings today, for submission to the most senior examining magistrate of the Bamako Commune III Court of First Instance, for crimes against humanity and war crimes on behalf of 80 women and girls, for rape and sexual violence committed during the period that armed groups occupied northern Mali in 2012 and 2013.

    Our organisations state that: “The Malian justice department needs to open a judicial investigation as soon as possible to investigate the crimes committed against women and girls during the conflict in the north of the country. This should be a priority for the Malian judicial and political authorities”.

    Although many judicial investigations have been opened before the Bamako Commune III Court of First Instance against persons suspected of serious violations of human rights perpetrated in the north of Mali during the armed conflict, our organisations continue to deplore that the charges up to the present have nearly all been related to terrorism or criminal association, thus excluding violations of human rights. Likewise, charges for rape and other sexual violence, which are crimes against humanity and war crimes, have, up to now, been totally omitted from the scope of the investigations.

    Since members of all the armed groups committed sexual crimes on a large scale, inquiries to establish the truth about what happened, to identify those responsible and to ensure justice for the victims should henceforth be a priority for the Malian judiciary.

    “Since Malian national legislation has incorporated the classifications of crimes against humanity and war crimes set out in the Statute of the International Criminal Court, it is essential for the Malian justice department to adopt these charges”, our organisations declared and added: “These classifications make it possible to identify the real scope of the crimes perpetrated by bringing out their systematic or widespread character.”

    It should be recalled that in January 2012, pro-independence and jihadist armed groups launched a major assault in the north of Mali. Since the Malian army was disorganised, poorly equipped, and destabilised by the military coup of 22 March 2012, in less than five months, the armed groups managed to take control of all the regions of northern Mali, in other words nearly two-thirds of the country, up to 50 km from the city of Mopti-Sévaré. Our organisations have evidence showing that during the offensive and the occupation of the conquered territories, members of all the armed groups, without exception, were guilty of mass sexual crimes, especially targeting women and girls of certain communities.

    On 7 January 2013, the armed groups, especially MUJAO, Ançar Dine and Aqmi launched a major offensive and headed for Mopti. This triggered a counterattack on 11 January by the Malian armed forces (FAMA), with support from Serval, the French army operation that intervened at the request of Dioncounda Traoré, President of the transition government.

    Signatories organisations:

    FIDH – International Federation for Human Rights
    AMDH – Malian Association for Human Rights
    WILDAF – Women in Law and Development in Africa
    DEME SO Association
    AJM – Association of Malian Female Jurists
    “Collectif Cri de Cœur”


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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Mali

    Promoting international humanitarian law

    The ICRC promotes IHL among the Malian armed forces, international armed forces in Mali and other weapon-bearers. It also supports the authorities' efforts to ratify IHL treaties and transpose them into domestic legislation.

    Between January and August 2014, the ICRC organized IHL awareness-raising sessions attended by 3,000 soldiers from the Malian armed forces, 200 members of armed groups and 400 soldiers from the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

    Detainee welfare

    Between January and August 2014, the ICRC:

    • visited 3,000 detainees in 18 places of detention (including people detained by armed groups after the fighting in Kidal in May 2014) and assisted the authorities in the care of people suffering from malnutrition who were detained in Bamako, Kati and Koulikoro prisons (including 28 cases of severe malnutrition);
    • gave detainees the opportunity to restore or maintain contact with their families through 88 telephone calls and the exchange of 58 Red Cross messages;
    • strengthened the Mali Red Cross family links service, which organized 2,272 telephone calls and exchanged 703 Red Cross messages, traced 27 people, and reunited 17 children with their parents who had become separated from their families as a result of the fighting.

    Economic security

    In order to respond to the most urgent needs of people affected by the fighting in Kidal in May 2014, the ICRC and the Mali Red Cross distributed 105 tonnes of food to more than 11,000 people displaced in Gao and Kidal, and household items to 620 families, of which 320 were displaced in Kidal and 300 displaced from Kidal to Gao.

    Emergency aid for displaced people returning home

    Working with the Mali Red Cross, the ICRC also distributed basic necessities to 2,500 families who had returned to their homes from camps in neighbouring countries or elsewhere in Mali.

    It also distributed 610 tonnes of various cereal seeds to over 215,000 people in the Mopti, Gao and Timbuktu regions.

    Between January and August 2014, the ICRC:

    • vaccinated some 1,350,000 animals against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, small ruminants plague and pasteurella, and treated more than a third of those animals for parasitosis;
    • carried out 'de-stocking': buying livestock (cattle, sheep and goats) at a good price from 5,400 herders, thereby giving them an income to provide for their families, and slaughtering the animals and distributing the meat (about 120,000 kg) to 18,000 vulnerable people, including female heads of household, detainees and malnourished children;
    • paid 93,585,000 CFA francs to more than 12,500 people as wages for work in the community.

    Health

    The aim of the ICRC's health programme is to help people affected by conflict to access health care.

    Between January and August 2014, the ICRC:

    • continued to support three community health centres in the Timbuktu and Gao regions, and the Bourem health centre, thereby enabling 52,000 people to have 15,200 consultations (including over 1,700 prenatal consultations) and 17,000 children to receive their first dose of polio vaccine;
    • sent more medical staff to Gao hospital; the team now consists of a project head, a surgeon, a doctor, two anaesthetists, a theatre nurse, four nurses, a midwife, a physiotherapist, and a pharmacy manager.

    Gao Hospital in figures:

    • 295 births;
    • 750 outpatient consultations;
    • 3,000 admissions, of which 400 were gynaecological and 400 surgical;
    • over 600 operations;
    • treatment for 97 people wounded by weapons, of whom 70 had been injured during the May 2014 fighting in Kidal.

    Water and habitat

    The ICRC is working hard to give people affected by the fighting access to drinking water and is also involved in building sanitation infrastructure and shelters.

    Between January and August 2014, the ICRC:

    • restored three water supplies and three village waterworks in the Mopti, Timbuktu and Gao regions, serving almost 80,000 people;
    • repaired and restored the water supply network in Kidal;
    • supplied 24,000 litres of fuel to Gao hospital to run its generator (i.e. 3,000 litres per month).

    After the generators powering Kidal's water supply were damaged during the fighting in May 2014, the town's inhabitants were left without drinking water. The ICRC repaired the damaged generators and provided 23,000 litres of fuel to run them, thus providing some 300,000 litres of water per day.

    Thanks to ICRC support, Kidal's water supply network is now operating at 70% of full capacity. They system produces 265 cubic metres of water per day for an estimated population of 18,000, i.e. an average of 15 litres of water per person per day.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Angola, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Rainfall prospects are optimistic for the start of the 2014/15 agricultural season

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Most rural households across the region will maintain Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity outcomes between October 2014 and March 2015. However in localized parts of Angola, Lesotho, Malawi, Madagascar, and Tanzania, poor households are projected to face mainly Stressed (IPC Phase 2) and some Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes during this period due to high food prices, along with reduced incomes from labor and crop sales following the 2013/14 seasonal harvest.

    • Across the region, food prices are expected to be stable and to follow seasonal trends due to increased market supply and reduced demand. Due to above average harvests, households will start depending on the markets a little later than usual. Prices are expected to be lower or similar to their respective five-year averages but will generally be lower than 2013 prices because of above-average production during the 2013/14 agricultural year.

    • Intraregional formal and informal trade is stabilizing staple grain supplies. Regional markets are functioning and trade flows remain normal. Exports from surplus producing areas are expected to continue to play a key role in supplying deficit area markets across the region.

    • The SARCOF 2014/15 rainfall forecast was issued by the SADC Climate Services Center in August. The forecast suggests an enhanced probability of average to above-average rainfall in the majority of the region throughout the season. This generally positive forecast suggests good prospects for agriculture. The exception is in northern DRC and northern Madagascar during the October to December period, DRC and northern Angola during the November to January period, and most of DRC and northern Angola during the January to March period. These areas are likely to receive average to below-average rainfall.


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