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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Guatemala
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    Maize is the main source of calories and protein in the Guatemalan diet. White maize is more heavily consumed than yellow maize, but the latter is preferred in some regions and used as poultry feed. Every Guatemalan household consumes black beans: as a protein source it is a particularly valuable complement to cereals in regions where households have limited access to animal products. Consumption habits are strongly linked to tradition and culture. Rice is mainly consumed in urban and peri-urban, but some rural households consume it as well. Guatemala is highly dependent on imported rice. The market in Guatemala City is the largest in the country and feeds the highest concentration of the population.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Senegal
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    Rice, millet, sorghum, and maize are the primary staple foods in Senegal. Groundnuts are both an important source of protein and a commonly grown cash crop. Imported rice is consumed daily by the vast majority of households in Senegal particularly in Dakar and Touba urban centers. Local rice is produced and consumed in the Senegal River Valley. St. Louis is a major market for the Senegal River Valley. Millet is consumed in central regions where Kaolack is the most important regional market. Maize is produced and consumed in areas around Kaolack, Tambacounda, and the Senegal River Valley. Some maize is also imported mainly from the international market. High demand for all commodities exists in and around Touba and Dakar. They are also important centers for stocking and storage during the lean season. The harvests of grains and groundnuts begin at the end of the marketing year in October; and stocks of locally produced grains are drawn down throughout the marketing year. Senegal depends more on imports from the international market for rice than from cross border trade which mainly includes cattle from Mali and Mauritania that supply Dakar and surrounding markets.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Malawi
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    Maize, rice, and cassava are the most important food commodities. Markets selected represent the entire geographic length of the country: two markets in each of the north, center, and south. In the north, Karonga is one of the most active markets in maize and rice and is influenced by informal cross-border trade with Tanzania. Mzimba is a major maize producing area in the northern region. Salima, in the center along the lake, is an important market where some of the fishing populations are almost entirely dependent on the market for staple cereals. Mitundu is a very busy peri-urban market in Lilongwe. In the south, the Lunzu market is the main supplier of food commodities such as maize and rice for Blantyre. The Bangula market in Nsanje district was chosen to represent the Lower Shire area, covering Chikwawa and Nsanje districts.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger
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    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Millet, maize, cowpea, and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is consumed by both rural and poor urban households throughout the country. Maize and imported rice are most important for urban households, while cowpea is mainly consumed by poor households in rural and urban areas as a protein source. Niamey is the most important national market and an international trade center, and also supplies urban households. Tillaberi is also an urban center that supplies the surrounding area. Gaya market represents a main urban market for maize with cross-border connections. Maradi, Tounfafi, and Diffa are regional assembly and cross-border markets for Niger and other countries in the region. These are markets where households and herders coming from the northern cereal deficit areas regularly buy their food. Agadez and Zinder are also important national and regional markets. Nguigmi and Abalak are located in pastoral areas, where people are heavily dependent on cereal markets for their food supply. They are particularly important during the rainy season, when herders are confined to the pastoral zone.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso
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    Millet, maize, and sorghum are the most important food commodities for household consumption. Millet is the staple of the most vulnerable households, while maize and sorghum also contribute to the food basket of a majority of all households. Sankaryare market is the largest and most important market in Ouagadougou and supplies other markets within the country and region. Koudougou is located in one of the most populated areas in the country, where a majority of households depend on the market for their food needs. Djibo is in the highly vulnerable Sahelian zone.

    Pouytenga is an assembly market for products from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Togo. Solenzo is a rural market located in the middle of a surplus production zone. Bobo Dioulasso is important center for both consumption and production – it functions as both the economic capital of Burkina Faso and is located in an important cereal production zone.


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Somalia, World

    08/31/2014 07:34 GMT - KENYA-SÉCURITÉ-AFRIQUE-DIPLOMATIE-ARMÉE-TERRORISME - Monde (EUA) - AFP

    Par Peter MARTELL

    NAIROBI, 31 août 2014 (AFP) - Contre les groupes jihadistes qui, de l'ouest à l'est de l'Afrique, prospèrent sur la pauvreté et la corruption, les Etats ont un besoin vital de partager ressources et informations, estiment des experts.

    Cette menace, qui fait écho à celle de l'EI en Irak et en Syrie - possible inspiration pour des mouvements radicaux en Afrique, même sans liens avérés - sera l'objet d'une première réunion organisée mardi à Nairobi par l'Union africaine (UA).

    Shebab en Somalie et au Kenya, Aqmi au Mali et dans le Sahel, Boko Haram au Nigeria: ces groupes, qui revendiquent souvent des liens avec la mouvance Al-Qaïda, sont déjà solidement implantés depuis des années et tiennent des territoires à travers le continent.

    "L'ampleur et la sophistication de leurs récentes attaques (...) requiert une réponse collective plus robuste au niveau régional et continental", a averti l'Institut d'étude sur la sécurité (ISS) dans un récent article.

    • 'Travailler ensemble' -

    "Il est important que les pays africains travaillent ensemble, regroupent leurs ressources, partagent leurs renseignements et leurs informations afin de relever le défi", a déclaré à la presse le directeur des renseignements extérieurs kényan, Chris Mburu, après une réunion à Nairobi qui rassemblait en fin de semaine les chefs des services de renseignements de pays africains.

    Ces responsables, réunis avec le Comité des services de renseignements et sécurité africains (Cissa) de l'UA, se sont inquiétés de l'éventuelle influence de l'EI sur les jihadistes du continent.

    Dans leur communiqué final, ils soulignent que, parmi les menaces et défis posés aux Etats, figurent "des alliances nouées dans le monde par les groupes terroristes, les sources sophistiquées de financement", ainsi que "les frontières poreuses" des pays africains.

    Sur le continent, certains jihadistes semblent suivre de près les récentes actions armées de l'EI. Mais il y a peu de preuves de liens directs, d'autant que l'EI concurrence directement Al-Qaïda dans la sphère islamiste.

    Boko Haram a en tout cas marqué les esprits il y a quelques jours en annonçant placer Gwoza, ville du nord-est du Nigeria conquise par ses combattants, sous le règne du "califat islamique", à l'instar de l'EI.

    Mais son chef Abubakar Shekau semble avoir surtout voulu faire parler de lui.

    "Je pense que Shekau a voulu imiter l'EI", déclare David Cook, professeur de religion à l'Université Rice de Houston et spécialiste de Boko Haram.

    Tous ces groupes jihadistes africains, qui ont chacun leur propre agenda, peuvent avoir une "sympathie idéologique" envers l'EI, estime Peter Pham, de l'Atlantic Council, un centre de recherche basé à Washington, qui doute touefois de "liens réels".

    Mais, à titre individuel, des Africains rejoignent déjà l'EI.

    "Beaucoup traversent le Sahel, entrent en Libye où ils reçoivent leurs premières formations, et ensuite vont en Syrie et en Irak", déclare M. Pham à l'AFP.

    • 'S'attaquer aux causes' -

    De fait, les solutions pour réduire la menace islamiste sont loin d'être évidentes.

    Le président Barack Obama a promis début août d'aider les armées africaines qui combattraient les islamistes où mèneraient de dangereuses missions de paix, après avoir réuni à Washington les dirigeants africains.

    "Pour contrer la menace, les Etats doivent partager leurs informations et renseignements", juge Macharia Munene, professeur de relations internationales à l'Université internationale américaine du Kenya.

    Mais la forte corruption, la mauvaise gouvernance, la désorganisation et l'inefficacité des forces de sécurité minent ce combat.

    "La réponse à l'extrémisme et au terrorisme en Afrique doit s'attaquer davantage aux racines du problème, plutôt que de soutenir militairement les hommes forts en Afrique", a averti dans un récent article David Shinn, ancien ambassadeur américain sur le continent et aujourd'hui professeur à l'Université George Washington.

    La seule augmentation des dépenses militaires ne résoudra rien.

    Par le passé, "des réponses exclusivement basées sur la sécurité" se sont révélées "inadaptées", relève l'ISS.

    Pour les jeunes désoeuvrés de ce continent toujours ravagé par une grande misère, une idéologie radicale et l'appartenance à un groupe armé apportent une activité, de l'argent et la "possibilité de faire autre chose que de tourner en rond", souligne M. Pham.

    "Il faut traiter les causes fondamentales qui mènent à l'extrémisme jihadiste: le sous-développement, et la marginalisation économique, sociale et politique".

    burs-pjm/jpc/tmo


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    08/31/2014 12:49 GMT

    by Serge Daniel

    BAMAKO, August 31, 2014 (AFP) - Malian government negotiators will sit down with separatist militias on Monday, hoping to end the conflicts that continue to rage in the country a year after it returned to democracy.

    Riven by ethnic rivalries, a Tuareg rebellion and an Islamist insurgency in its vast desert north, the west African nation has struggled for stability and peace since a military coup in 2012.

    The second round of talks in the capital of neighbouring Algeria will bring together various warring factions who signed an interim agreement in June last year to pave the way for nationwide elections.

    Since President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita came to power negotiations have stalled, however, and northern Mali has seen a spike in violence by Islamist and separatist militants.

    Skirmishes in May between the Malian army and a coalition of rebels from the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and the High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA) saw at least 50 soldiers lose their lives in the Tuareg region of Kidal.

    A ceasefire obtained by Mauritanian leader and African Union (AU) chief Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz has been in place since but the Malian government has expressed alarm at the "concentrations of armed groups" in the desert.

    "This time in Algiers, participants will get to the bottom of their problems and, it is to be hoped, come to an agreement," said former prime minister Modibo Keita, the president's envoy at the talks.

    • Hawks and doves -

    The talks will be based on a "roadmap" agreed by the different sides in July and overseen by a "college of mediators" including Algeria, the AU and the 15-member regional bloc ECOWAS.

    A "college of facilitators" will be made up of delegates from the European Union, France, Niger and Nigeria.

    Malian Prime Minister Moussa Mara has suggested that the government will make concessions but has set a "red line", saying that Mali's territorial integrity and secular status are not up for discussion.

    Ahead of the talks, rival factions of "hawks" and "doves" among the rebels met in Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, to sign a broad policy agreement ensuring they would speak with one voice in Algiers.

    The signatories of the document, seen by AFP, are asking for "special legal status" for their homeland in northern Mali.

    They want official recognition of the "legitimacy of the struggle of Azawad/northern Mali for 50 years to enjoy a special status in line with the geographical, economic, social, cultural and security realities".

    The MNLA and HCUA -- backed by a wing of the Arab Movement of Azawad (MAA) -- are seen as the "hawks" at the negotiations.

    The "doves" include a rival wing of the MAA, the Coalition of the People of Azawad, which is a sub-division of the MNLA, and a vigilante movement in the region.

    • Unity among rebels -

    "What we are seeing is that all the armed groups in northern Mali, who once fought each other on the ground, are increasingly uniting to deal with the Malian state. This is a new phenomenon," said political scientist Mamadou Samake.

    Observers expect the negotiations to last for "weeks" with the claim for special legal status expected to be the main sticking point.

    "The devil is in the detail, and the armed groups could require it to be in black and white, a precise record of the commitments made by each side," an African diplomat in Bamako told AFP.

    The talks take place with a new defence agreement in place between Mali and its former colonial power France.

    Paris recently wound up Operation Serval, its military offensive launched in January 2013 to oust Al-Qaeda-linked Islamists who had occupied northern Mali.

    Serval has been replaced by a wider counter-terrorism operation, codenamed Barkhane, to be implemented in partnership with Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad.

    French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian has said around 3,000 French soldiers will be part of the operation, 1,000 of whom will stay in northern Mali.

    Drones, helicopters, fighter jets, armoured vehicles and transport planes will also take part in Operation Barkhane -- the name of a crescent-shaped sand dune in the desert -- which will have its headquarters in the Chadian capital N'Djamena.

    sd/ft/er


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tajikistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Sudan
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    KEY MESSAGES

    • In West Africa, staple food markets were well-supplied in July, despite the slight delay in the start of the rainy season in some areas of the Sahel. Markets are generally functioning as they normally do during the lean season. Staple food prices were stable or declining, except in deficit areas of Niger and Chad. Record-high rice and wheat imports from international markets reinforced food availability in Senegal and Mauritania (Pages 3-6).

    • In East Africa, civil conflict, insecurity and seasonal deterioration of road conditions continued to disrupt both domestic and cross-border trade flows in northern and eastern South Sudan, southern Somalia, and in the Darfur and South Kordofan States in Sudan. Despite below-average local production earlier in 2014, staple food availability and prices have remained stable in Kenya due to the availability of ample imports from regional markets (Pages 6-9).

    • In Southern Africa, regional staple food availability is higher than in previous years. Harvests from the 2013/14 production year were well-above average in the region’s surplus producing countries. Staple food prices declined or remained stable during the post-harvest period and maize prices were generally below their respective 2013 levels (Pages 9-12).

    • In Haiti, staple food prices were stable due to adequate food availability from the local ongoing harvests and imports. In Central America, red bean prices increased atypically from December through July in Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador due to a below-average Primera harvest in some countries and increased regional demand. Local black bean and maize stock levels were likewise below average in many places. Local and imported rice prices remained stable throughout the region (Pages 13-14).

    • In Central Asia, wheat grain and flour availability was good region-wide in July. Prices were stable, but above their respective five-year average levels (Pages 15-16).

    • International rice prices remained were stable in July 2014 (Figure 2).
      Maize and wheat prices declined due to positive supply outlooks for 2014/15. The probability of an El Nino occurring in 2014 continues to rise, and could affect global staple food production in late 2014 and early 2015. Crude oil prices were stable (Pages 2-3).


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, World, South Sudan
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    Rainfall expected to alleviate some dryness in Central America and Haiti

    Africa Weather Hazards

    1. Below-average rains during the Belg season and a late onset of the Kiremt rains have led to persistent moisture deficits, which have delayed planting and hurt the development of already-planted crops over the Arsi and West Arsi areas of central Ethiopia.

    2. Despite an increase in rainfall over the past few weeks, moisture deficits have persisted in northwestern Senegal. The delayed onset of the season since July has already affected crops.

    3. Heavy rains during the past few weeks have destroyed houses and flooded producing areas in many parts of Darfur in Sudan. The moderate to heavy rains forecast during the next week are likely to cause additional flooding.

    4. Heavy downpours during the past few weeks have caused flooding, infrastructure damage, injuries, and displacements of people across the Khartoum, River Nile, and Al Gazeira States of Sudan. Potential for flooding remains high as heavy rains are forecast to continue upstream over the Ethiopian highland.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger
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    End to extended pasture and water deficits in pastoral areas

    Key Messages

    • The growing season has been marked by delays in crop planting activities. However, in general, crops are in normal stages of growth and development following an improvement in rainfall conditions and there is cause to expect average to good levels of crop production, particularly with continued steady, heavy rainfall activity through the end of September, as forecasted in the seasonal outlook.

    • In pastoral areas, grazing and watering conditions for livestock having experienced effects of an extended lean season are increasingly good. Pastoral households facing Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity in August/September will experience Minimal (IPC Phase 1) food insecurity between the end of September and December with the sharp improvement in pasture availability beginning the end of July. However, Crisis (IPC Phase 3) in northern Nguigmi, the worst-affected area, will continue through October.

    • In general, food security conditions in farming and agropastoral areas will be Stressed (IPC Phase 2) in August/September but, with the encouraging progress of the growing season, should give way to Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity between October and December. However, due to the late start-of-season in certain areas, production deficits are expected in localized areas if the remainder of the season does not continue as forecasted.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso
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    The agropastoral north of the country remains Stressed through October

    Key Messages

    • In spite of the improvement in grazing and watering conditions for livestock and the availability of milk, poor households in the northern part of the country are still facing Stressed levels of acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 2) due to the continued erosion in their income from livestock sales and their increasingly limited staple food access.

    • Continuing rainfall activity through the end of September in the north and the end of October in the south, with near-average cumulative rainfall totals, should help promote normal crop growth and development and ensure average harvests across the country in spite of the mixed progress of crops up until this point.

    • Continuing normal levels rainfall and the outlook for a generally good agropastoral season should translate into good market supplies, stable prices through the end of September, and a seasonal decline in prices beginning in October.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Guatemala
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    MENSAJES CLAVE

    • La canícula prolongada ocurrida desde finales de junio afectó a la mayoría de departamentos del país, con un efecto especialmente fuerte en los municipios ubicados en el corredor seco oriental. Según la visita de campo realizada por FEWS NET, del 5 al 8 de agosto, a municipios del corredor seco en los departamentos de El Progreso, Santa Rosa, Zacapa, Chiquimula, Jalapa y Jutiapa, se constató que la falta de lluvias redujo en 80 a 100 por ciento las cosechas de maíz y frijol de los agricultores de subsistencia.

    • Debido a la alta dependencia en la producción propia, las pérdidas agrícolas comprometerán la seguridad alimentaria de los hogares de subsistencia, clasificando a los municipios visitados en Crisis hasta octubre. A partir de este mes, los ingresos obtenidos por la venta de mano de obra mejorarán parcialmente la situación, ubicándolos en Estrés hasta diciembre, al salir la cosecha de Postrera. El pronóstico del servicio meteorológico sugiere una finalización temprana de la temporada lluviosa de 15-20 días antes, a mediados de octubre, en la cuenca del Pacífico centroamericano. Esto y la falta de humedad en los suelos podría afectar las siembras de Postrera en el corredor seco del país.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
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    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2)

    Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2)

    Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger
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    Le mil, le maïs, le niébé et le riz importé sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants consommés au Niger. Le mil est consommé aussi bien par les ménages ruraux que les ménages pauvres urbains dans l’ensemble du pays. Le maïs et le riz importé sont plus importants pour les ménages urbains, tandis que le niébé est principalement consommé par les ménages pauvres des régions rurales et urbaines en tant que source de protéine.

    Niamey est le marché national le plus important et un centre du commerce international ; elle approvisionne en outre les ménages urbains. Tillaberi est aussi un centre urbain approvisionnant les localités environnantes. Le marché de Gaya est le principal marché urbain pour le maïs avec des liens transfrontaliers. Maradi, Tounfafi et Diffa sont des marchés de regroupement régionaux et des marchés transfrontaliers pour le Niger et d’autres pays de la région. C'est dans ces marchés que vont régulièrement acheter leur nourriture les ménages et les éleveurs des régions déficitaires en céréales du nord. Agadez et Zinder sont également d’importants marchés nationaux et régionaux. Nguigmi et Abalak se trouvent dans des zones pastorales, où la population dépend largement des marchés céréaliers pour leur approvisionnement alimentaire. Ces deux marchés sont particulièrement importants pendant la saison des pluies, lorsque les éleveurs sont confinés dans la zone pastorale.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Senegal
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    Au Sénégal, le riz, le mil, le sorgho et le maïs constituent la base de l’alimentation des ménages. L’arachide représente aussi bien une source importante de protéine et communément une culture de rente. Le riz importé est consommé quotidiennement par la grande majorité des ménages, particulièrement dans les centres urbains de Dakar et Touba. Le riz produit localement dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal y est consommé. St. Louis est le principal marché dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Le mil est consommé dans les régions centrales où Kaolack représente le marché régional le plus important. Le maïs est produit et consommé dans les zones autour de Kaolack, Tambacounda et dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Du maïs est aussi importé, principalement du marché international. Il existe une forte demande pour tous les produits à Touba et à Dakar. La récolte des céréales et celle de l’arachide débutent en Octobre et les stocks de céréales locales baissent de niveau tout au long de l’année de commercialisation qui s’achève en Octobre.

    Le Sénégal dépend plus des importations à partir du marché international, surtout le riz, que du commerce transfrontalier qui concerne essentiellement le bétail provenant du Mali et de la Mauritanie pour approvisionner Dakar.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania
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    Le riz local et le sorgho sont les produits alimentaires les plus consommés par les ménages pauvres de la Mauritanie suivis par le blé importé qui est l'aliment de substitution auquel ces ménages recourent le plus.

    Le riz local est cultivé dans la vallée du fleuve (dans le sud des régions du Trarza, du Brakna, du Gorgol et du Guidimakha). Le sorgho est produit dans toutes les zones de production (sorgho pluvial) et dans les walo et barrages (sorgho de décrue). Toutefois, une importante partie est importée du Mali et du Sénégal. La Mauritanie vit beaucoup plus de ses importations (70 % en bonne année agricole et jusqu'à 85 % en mauvaise année) que de sa production interne. Nouakchott est le principal marché de collecte pour les produits venant de l'extérieur et également le marché de distribution où viennent s'approvisionner les animateurs des marchés de distribution secondaire que sont les autres marchés référenciés. L'huile de cuisson est essentiellement consommée dans les zones urbaines.

    La vente des animaux est une mode d’existence dans toutes les zones et une importante source de revenus et de nourriture.


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    Source: Oxfam
    Country: Burkina Faso, Malawi, United Republic of Tanzania, World
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    Large-scale partnerships with the private sector could undermine Africans’ land rights, drive inequality and damage the environment

    (Addis Ababa) Government policies and almost US$6 billion in aid money to support large partnerships with the private sector are risking Africans’ land rights, worsening inequality and damaging the environment. According to Oxfam’s latest report, ‘Moral Hazard? Mega public-private partnerships in African agriculture, so-called ‘mega’ public-private partnerships are unproven, risky and represent a dubious use of public funds to fight poverty and food insecurity.

    Nearly half of Africa’s population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Despite the proven impact of investments in agriculture on poverty reduction, spending from both African and donor governments has been low over the past two decades. Sub-Saharan African governments spend an average of only 5 per cent of their national budgets on the agriculture sector, despite their recently renewed Malabo commitment allocating over 10 per cent of their national budgets to the sector.

    With growing global demand for natural resources, donors and African governments are looking to capitalize on increasing interest from the private sector in African land. Mega-public-private partnerships (PPP) 'growth corridor’ projects in Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Malawi, Ghana and Mozambique illustrate this trend. The New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, supported by the rich, industrialized economies of the G8; and GROW Africa, a large-scale PPP initiative supported by the World Economic Forum, are two examples of donor-led global initiatives to support the mega-PPP agenda.

    “After decades of underinvestment, governments in Africa are turning to partnerships with donor aid agencies and large companies or investors to develop the agriculture sector. This offers the allure of capital, technology and foreign exchange, but the downside risks of this approach are huge – particularly for the land rights of local communities in the investment areas,” says Robin Willoughby, Oxfam’s Policy Adviser on Agriculture and Food Security.

    Risking land rights

    According to Oxfam, long-term development goals have been sacrificed in order to quickly establish mega public-private partnerships, as companies are offered land, tax and trade incentives to enter these schemes. Within just five countries hosting mega-PPPs, the combined amount of land in a target area for investment is larger than France or Ukraine.

    Governments have earmarked over 1.25 million hectares for transfer to investors and large agricultural companies, the entire amount of land in agricultural production in Zambia or Senegal. Due to weak land tenure found in many African countries, these land subsidies and transfers are likely to undermine local communities’ land rights.

    Worsening inequality

    This model also threatens to worsen inequality in African countries, which is already severe across the continent, and damage the environment through the introduction of plantation agriculture, according to Oxfam.

    Rather than prioritizing partnerships between governments and donors with large private sector players, Oxfam is calling for the tried and tested investment to deliver benefits for almost 600 million Africans working in agriculture. This involves public sector investment in smallholder farmers, local markets and regional markets, and strong regulation to ensure that private sector investment can ‘do no harm’ and benefit millions of smallholder producers living in rural areas.

    Notes to editors

    Oxfam’s report “Moral Hazard” is based on an extensive literature review, key informant interviews and three case studies in Burkina Faso, Malawi and Tanzania. Full and Summary reports: www.oxfam.org/en/grow/research/moral-hazard


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad
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    Le sorgho, le mil, le maïs blanc et le riz local et d’importation sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants. La consommation de mil est la plus forte dans les régions est et nord du pays. Le riz local est un autre produit alimentaire de base, en particulier pour les ménages plus pauvres. Le riz importé et le maïs blanc sont le plus couramment consommés dans la capitale et ses environs. Le marché d'Atrone à N’Djamena, la capitale, est le marché le plus important pour les céréales. Moundou est un important centre de consommation pour le sorgho et le deuxième marché en importance après la capitale. Le marché d’Abéché est situé dans une zone de production au nord. Le marché de Sarh est à la fois un marché de détail local et un marché transfrontalier.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali
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    Le mil, le riz et le sorgho constituent les aliments de base de la majorité de la population malienne. Le mil est l'aliment le plus consommé traditionnellement, mais depuis 2005 le riz est devenu un substitut populaire chez les ménages urbains. Le sorgho est généralement plus important pour les ménages ruraux que pour les ménages urbains. Les marchés inclus sont révélateurs des conditions locales dans leurs régions respectives. Ségou est l’un des marchés les plus importants tant pour le pays que pour la région, dans la mesure où il se trouve dans une très vaste zone de production de céréales. Bamako, la capitale et le centre urbain le plus étendu du pays, fonctionne comme un marché de regroupement. Elle reçoit des céréales de Koulikoro, Ségou et Sikasso destinées à la consommation et fait également office de marché de regroupement pour les échanges avec les régions nord du pays (Kayes et Koulikoro) et avec la Mauritanie. Les marchés des régions déficitaires du pays (Tombouctou et Gao) reçoivent leurs approvisionnements en mil et en riz de Mopti, Ségou et Sikasso.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali
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    FONDS REQUIS: $ 568.4

    FINANCEMENTS: $ 208.5

    NON COUVERT: $ 359.9


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