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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: South Sudan

    4 March 2017 – Hundreds of thousands of people in South Sudan will starve unless relief workers gain access to needy populations and more funding is raised, the United Nations Emergency Relief Coordinator today warned after meeting malnourished children who fled the raging conflict in the country.

    Stephen O'Brien, who is also the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, travelled to Ganyiel, Southern Unity state, considered one of the most violent areas in the fight for political control of the country.

    Among the people he met was a starving boy whose grandmother carried him through waist-high swamp to get away from the fighting. His parents are apparently missing.

    "1000s similar. Horrendous,” Mr. O'Brien wrote on social media, posting a number of photos of people who had fled the fighting and sexual violence.

    Humanitarian partners, such as the International Red Cross, are setting up clinics directly in the swamps to reach more people, he noted. Some people with nothing to eat survived by chewing on water lilies.

    “Millions of people prevented from receiving aid by parties to conflict. Immoral, unlawful and unacceptable. We need access now,” Mr. O'Brien has said.

    He is in South Sudan to see first-hand the critical humanitarian situation and the response which his agency, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is assisting.

    RELATED: Famine declared in region of South Sudan – UN

    The UN declared a famine in parts of South Sudan on 20 February, increasingly blaming the lack of food and the collapsing economy on the rival forces of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) loyal to President Salva Kiir and the SPLA in Opposition backing Riek Machar.

    A formal declaration of famine means that people have already started dying of hunger.

    About 100,000 people are facing starvation, and an additional one million are on the brink of a famine, according to the UN. The total number of food insecure people is expected to rise to 5.5 million at the height of the lean season in July if nothing is done to curb the severity and spread of the food crisis.

    The situation is worsened for the 3.4 million Sudanese, some of whom Mr. O'Brien met today, who have been displaced and separated from their families.

    Humanitarian organizations have appealed for $1.6 billion to provide life-saving assistance and protection to some 5.8 million people across South Sudan in 2017.

    Mr. O'Brien came to South Sudan from Kenya and previously, from Yemen. He is next scheduled to visit Somalia.

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    Source: Government of the Republic of South Sudan
    Country: South Sudan

    On 20th February, 2017 the Government declared famine in two Counties of South Sudan — Leer and Mayiandit More than 100,000 people in the two Counties of Unity state are confirmed to be experiencing famine and there are fears that the situation will spread as an additional 1 million South Sudanese may be affected in other areas. The calamity is the result of prolonged civil war and rising economic hardship that almost affected the entire country. The classification of famine in parts of country highlights the human suffering and widespread humanitarian crisis caused by the three-year-old civil war.

    Today, an estimated 5.5 million people in South Sudan are severely food insecure of which 250.000 children are confirmed to be malnourished. Traditionally, the country's breadbasket such as Equatoria and Upper Nile regions have been hit hard by insecurity that displaced million of people: Consequently, this has disrupted agricultural production and livelihoods activities in these areas. Also, the food insecurity in South Sudan has been compounded by erratic rains fall in 2016.

    In response to the famine in Leer and Myandit and to prevent further escalation of food insecurity, H.E. President Salva Kiir Mayardit spelled out the TGoNU's key priorities to address humanitarian crisis include; unhindered access to areas hit by the famine affected by food insecurity in Greater Bahr el Gahazal and Greater Equatoria areas; revival of the struggling economy; and the implementation of national dialogue initiative.

    Humanitarian organizations on the other hand are vigorously appealing for funding to respond to the escalating crisis, with US$1.6 billion required to provide life-saving assistance and protection to some 5.8 million people across South Sudan in 2017. The South Sudan's Country Humanitarian Coordinator Dr. Eugene Owusu has noted that "to avert further catastrophe, it is imperative that humanitarians are able to act swiftly and robustly."

    Given the increasing severity of the humanitarian crisis across Country, The Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management (MHADM) and RRC, plans to collaborate with humanitarian agencies and other government institutions responsible for humanitarian intervention in the country to coordinate responses to deliver timely and effective assistance to affected population and to prevent further escalation of the crisis.

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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    4 mars 2017 – Lors d'une visite au Tchad dans le cadre d'une tournée dans quatre pays du bassin du lac Tchad, une délégation du Conseil de sécurité a salué samedi les efforts pour combattre le groupe terroriste Boko Haram et a plaidé pour une plus grande coopération régionale en la matière.

    La délégation, qui a entamé sa tournée régionale jeudi au Cameroun, est co-dirigée par le Royaume-Uni, qui occupe la Présidence du Conseil pour le mois de mars, et le Sénégal pour l'ensemble de cette tournée qui se rendra après le Tchad au Niger et se terminera le 7 mars au Nigéria. La France co-dirige la délégation pour les étapes au Cameroun, au Tchad et au Niger.

    “Les Ambassadeurs du Conseil de sécurité ont exprimé leur solidarité aux autorités tchadiennes dans la lutte contre Boko Haram”, a déclaré la Mission permanente française auprès des Nations Unies sur son compte Twitter. Elle a précisé que la France et la Banque mondiale réuniront les bailleurs de fonds à Paris au printemps prochain pour relever les défis sécuritaires et humanitaires.

    “Lors de la rencontre avec le Premier ministre du Tchad, le Conseil de sécurité a salué les efforts pour combattre Boko Haram et encouragé à davantage de coopération régionale”, a déclaré pour sa part la Mission permanente britannique auprès des Nations Unies sur son compte Twitter.

    La délégation du Conseil de sécurité a rencontré également dans la capitale tchadienne N'Djamena le commandant de la Force multinationale conjointe (MNJTF) chargée de lutter contre Boko Haram. Cette force régionale comprend des troupes du Cameroun, du Tchad, du Niger, du Nigéria et du Bénin.

    Outre la grave menace sécuritaire posée par Boko Haram, la région du bassin du lac Tchad est confrontée à l'une des plus grandes crises humanitaire au monde avec 17 millions de personnes vivant dans les zones les plus touchées. Environ 11 millions d'entre elles ont besoin d'une assistance humanitaire d'urgence.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: South Sudan

    (Juba, 5 March 2017): Concluding a two-day visit to South Sudan – two weeks after localized famine was declared in Mayendit and Leer counties – the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Stephen O’Brien, called for immediate and unhindered access to people in need of aid and urgent funding for the humanitarian appeal. “Yesterday, I visited Ganyiel, where I met with people who had fled fighting, fear and famine in Leer and Mayendit, as well as hunger and insecurity in Lakes,” said the Emergency Relief Coordinator. “An elderly woman walked for days through swamps from Leer, with her ten-month-old grandson on her back, after they were separated from the rest of their family during fighting. Her grandson is now receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. We urgently need additional funding to scale up, sustain and expand lifesaving assistance and protection across all of South Sudan.” The humanitarian crisis in South Sudan is rapidly escalating, and hunger and malnutrition have reached new disturbing levels. Fighting, insecurity and lack of access to aid have left some 100,000 people facing starvation and a further 1 million are on the brink of famine. More than 3.4 million people have been displaced since the conflict began in December 2013, including 1.9 million internally displaced and more than 1.5 million who have fled to neighbouring countries as refugees.

    By July 2017, the humanitarian community estimates that 5.5 million will be severely food insecure. “This is only the beginning of the lean season and, sadly, things could get much, much worse in the months ahead,” said Mr. O’Brien. “We desperately need the fighting to stop. We need calm to prevail now so that we can consistently reach people in dire need, and prevent further catastrophe.” In addition to an already massive humanitarian operation, in response to the declaration of famine, humanitarian organizations have scaled up the provision of food and emergency livelihoods assistance, nutritional supplements, health services, and water, sanitation and hygiene. Already, more than 338,000 people in Leer, Mayendit, Koch and Panyijiar have received humanitarian assistance.

    Aid workers continue to face multiple obstacles to the delivery of humanitarian assistance across South Sudan, including active hostilities, access denials and bureaucratic impediments. Frequently, they have to be relocated due to insecurity, escalating tensions or directives from authorities, including recently from Mayendit. Humanitarian compounds and supplies have been repeatedly looted, most recently during clashes in Mayendit, Jonglei and Kajo-Keji town.

    During his two-day visit, Mr. O’Brien also met with humanitarian partners and Government officials. “The root cause of this suffering is conflict,” he said, reflecting what he stressed in his meetings. “People have been displaced, brutalised and raped. They have been attacked when they sought out assistance. This must stop, and it must stop now.” The Emergency Relief Coordinator demanded immediate full and unimpeded humanitarian access and reminded parties to the conflict that International Humanitarian Law must be respected and civilians protected.

    Before leaving the country, the Emergency Relief Coordinator said: "We have a plan. We are already responding. We are ready to scale up. Now we need the access and the funds to save even more lives." The 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan calls for $1.6 billion to reach some 5.8 million people in need.

    For further information, please contact:
    Frank Nyakairu, 922 4060 12 - Guiomar Pau Sole, / +211 920100411
    OCHA press releases are available at or

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    (Niamey, 5 mars 2017) – Une mission du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies, conduite par le Représentant du Royaume Uni aux Nations Unies, Président du Conseil de sécurité et les représentants du Sénégal et de la France aux Nations Unies, a achevé ce dimanche une visite de deux jours au Niger. Cette mission avait pour objectif d’apporter le soutien du Conseil au Niger dont la région de Diffa, au sud-est du pays, fait partie des zones touchées par l’instabilité sécuritaire liée aux activités de Boko Haram dans le bassin du Lac Tchad.

    Les membres de la délégation ont eu une rencontre de travail avec Son Excellence M. Issoufou Mahamadou, Président de la République, Chef de l’Etat, en présence du Premier Ministre et de membres du Gouvernement sur la situation sécuritaire et ses conséquences humanitaires d’une part et les réponses post crises, le relèvement et le développement des zones affectées d’autre part. La délégation a également eu des échanges, portant sur les mêmes sujets, avec le corps diplomatique, les donateurs et les représentants de l’équipe humanitaire, des agences des Nations Unies et des ONG. Le Premier Ministre a offert un dîner élargi aux membres du gouvernement, du corps diplomatique et des organisations internationales. La mission a tenu aussi une conférence de presse à la fin de sa visite au Niger.

    « Nous sommes venus manifester notre engagement à soutenir davantage le Niger dans ses efforts remarquables à rétablir la stabilité sécuritaire des localités du pays situées dans le bassin du Lac Tchad mais également à apporter la protection et l’assistance nécessaires aux populations affectées par la crise, » a déclaré M. Matthew Rycroft, Ambassadeur du Royaume Uni au Conseil de Sécurité et Président de cette instance.

    La crise dans le bassin du Lac Tchad découle, entre autres, des opportunités socio-économiques limitées par les effets du changement climatique et du niveau élevé de pauvreté aggravé par l’insécurité résultant des attaques terroristes de Boko Haram ayant entraîné un déplacement massif de populations et des conséquences humanitaires d’une grande magnitude, notamment dans la région de Diffa. En effet, celle-ci était déjà confrontée à l’insécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle, au faible accès aux services sociaux de base, aux épidémies et aux inondations saisonnières. Cette crise met aussi en exergue la question centrale de la protection et des droits de l’homme.

    « L’effort sécuritaire dans le bassin du Lac Tchad ne servira que s’il est couplé avec, à la fois, une action humanitaire urgente et un effort pour des actions politiques durables, » a souligné M. François Delattre Ambassadeur de la France au Conseil de Sécurité.

    Aujourd’hui, plus de 340 000 personnes vivant dans cette région, soit près d’une personne sur deux, ont besoin d’assistance humanitaire. Plus de 241 000 personnes déplacées internes, nigériens retournés et réfugiés nigérians ont été obligés de se déplacer dans la région pour fuir les violences liées aux activités de Boko Haram. Ces personnes incluent la moitié des nigérians réfugiés au Niger, au Tchad et au Cameroun.

    « Les échanges avec les autorités nigériennes et la communauté humanitaire nous ont permis de mesurer la sévérité de la souffrance des populations civiles à Diffa. Cette situation nous interpelle tous et requiert une attention sérieuse de la part des Etats et des bailleurs de fonds. La solidarité et la générosité dont le Niger et ses partenaires font montre méritent d’être soutenues pour une meilleure réponse aux besoins humanitaires actuels et un meilleur avenir aux générations futures, » a vivement plaidé M. Fodé Seck, Ambassadeur du Sénégal au Conseil de Sécurité.

    Cette visite de haut niveau intervient une semaine après la conférence d’Oslo durant laquelle les donateurs ont promis d’allouer 458 millions de dollars pour 2017 aux quatre pays du bassin du Lac Tchad touchés par les violences causées par Boko Haram à savoir : le Cameroun, le Tchad, le Nigéria et le Niger.

    « Le Niger, pays qui lutte pour relever les défis liés au changement climatique, à la pauvreté et à un faible indice de développement humain, doit figurer parmi les priorités de la communauté internationale d’autant que ce pays fait face en plus, à des mouvements forcés de populations et à des défis sécuritaires énormes ayant un impact négatif sur ses finances publiques et son développement.

    Malgré tout, les communautés hôtes déjà vulnérables montrent une grande solidarité envers les populations déplacées », a déclaré M. Fodé Ndiaye Coordonnateur Résident du Système des Nations Unies, Coordonnateur Humanitaire pour le Niger.

    Cette année, 140 millions de dollars -soit 50 pour cent des fonds recherchés pour l’ensemble du pays- sont requis pour répondre aux besoins humanitaires les plus pressants de plus de 326 000 personnes ciblées dans la région de Diffa.

    « Il est important et urgent d’agir ici et maintenant pour non seulement soutenir les opérations humanitaires mais aussi et surtout bâtir la résilience des populations, renforcer le développement économique et social, notamment des femmes et des jeunes, afin de restaurer l’espoir et construire un avenir meilleur pour Diffa, le Niger et le Bassin du Lac Tchad. Les moyens énormes nécessaires doivent être dégagés. La stabilité de cette région avec ses incidences régionales voire mondiales est à ce prix ! Nous pouvons et devons le faire, » a conclu M. Ndiaye, Coordonnateur Résident du Système des Nations Unies, Coordonnateur Humanitaire pour le Niger.

    Pour plus d’informations, veuillez contacter :
    Katy Thiam, Chargée de l’Information et du Plaidoyer, Système des Nations Unies au Niger, (+227) 99 71 71 39
    Amadou Issoufou, Chargé de Communication, Système des Nations Unies au Niger,, (+227) 91 20 83 40

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    Source: Department for International Development
    Country: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, World, Yemen

    UK leads the charge by stepping up support and urges others to do the same before it is too late.

    The International Development Secretary has set out a five point plan to deliver a more effective global response to the unprecedented number of crises the world currently faces.

    Before last month, there had been only one certified famine globally since 2000. Parts of South Sudan are now in famine and in 2017 there is a credible risk of another three famines in Yemen, North East Nigeria and Somalia.

    Drought and conflict in these countries are pushing families to the brink of starvation and there is also no end in sight to the six-year conflict which has ripped Syria apart.

    Ms Patel is leading the charge to improve the global aid system, challenging international organisations and donor countries to be more efficient and effective in how they respond to crises, both in terms of meeting immediate needs, but also preparing for the longer term.

    ‎Ms Patel has also issued a call to action to the international community to step up its support for the humanitarian crises in South Sudan, Somalia, Yemen and North East Nigeria before it is too late.‎ The UK recently announced new packages of lifesaving support.

    International Development Secretary Priti Patel said:

    The world faces an unprecedented humanitarian challenge and the warnings are growing louder each day. More than 20 million men, women and children face the very real risk of dying from starvation in the next six months because of relentless war and drought.

    British people can be proud that their support is saving lives by providing food, water, healthcare, protection and shelter.

    The world looks to Britain in times of crises to lead the response and while we have stepped up our support, we alone cannot avert these crises. Other countries and international bodies must act now to stop innocent people dying of hunger.

    The International Development Secretary’s five point plan to deliver a more effective global response to the unprecedented number of humanitarian crises includes:

    1. Pressing the UN, World Bank and wider humanitarian system to work smarter and harder to ensure that every dollar goes to those who need it most and ensuring the international community lives up to commitments they made at the World Humanitarian Summit last year.

    Priti Patel has written to the UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres (21 February) and the World Bank President Jim Kim (1 March). She continually stresses that these big international organisations need to better respond to crises by managing the risk of disasters and boosting resilience of countries vulnerable to crises, ensuring the poorest people are better prepared to meet their own urgent needs. The humanitarian system needs to develop better longer-term responses to ongoing crises by investing in job creation, livelihoods, healthcare and education, and trading opportunities. This will enable people affected or displaced by crises for long periods of time to better look after themselves.

    She is also calling for greater transparency on where funding is being spent, improving collaboration between humanitarian and development agencies and increasing humanitarian multi-year planning and funding so that partners can better meet both the immediate and longer-term needs of those affected by crises.

    The UK’s ongoing discussions with the World Bank has led to the Bank prioritising its entire support in Yemen on meeting people’s basis needs such as distributing essential medical supplies and providing short-term employment to the most vulnerable. The Bank is also developing plans for new support in other affected countries.

    The UN Secretary General has since written a letter to all UN member states to act on the famine. While noting the UN’s call for funds, the International Development Secretary is clear the UN needs to ensure that every dollar has maximum impact. This will take increased coordination, robustly assessing and prioritising need, the deployment of quality staff and strong and effective leadership.

    1. Building coalitions with donor countries to create effective emergency response plans for crises The International Development Secretary has brought together a group of major donors to work together on driving forward much needed reform in the global aid system – including key development donors such as the US, Germany, France and others to ensure every country is meeting urgent humanitarian need as well as providing longer term economic development and resilience support.

    The UK and UN OCHA also co-hosted a technical planning meeting on Somalia on (23 February). This brought together key partner countries, UN agencies and the major NGOs to identify gaps in the international response to the Somalia drought and potential famine, and develop prioritised plans for addressing these.

    This includes making sure international agencies are working together and coordinating humanitarian responses effectively and urging other donors to step up and agreeing that immediate support should focus on food, water, sanitation and hygiene, nutrition and health to help save lives. Since this meeting, Australia has pledged AUS$20 million towards helping people in South Sudan and Somalia suffering from critical food shortages caused by conflict and severe drought.

    The International Development Secretary will be meeting key NGOs this week (6 March) to urge them to raise awareness of these crises to help encourage more support from international donors.

    1. Playing a leading role in international conferences and forums to encourage other donors and governments to pledge more support.

    The UK is working with others, including through the UN, G7 and G20, to highlight the urgent humanitarian needs, mobilise much needed resources and keep momentum for humanitarian reform created last year by the London Syria Conference, the World Humanitarian Summit and the Leaders’ Summit on refugees.

    The UK also used the Oslo Conference on Nigeria (24 February) to press for greater international involvement and increased funding for humanitarian efforts – where over $450 million was pledged for 2017.

    The Nigerian government pledged to step up its efforts at the Oslo Conference, pledging $1bn of support to the North East of the country in 2017. Their leadership and resources will be crucial to the response, and we are urging them to quickly turn that pledge into funding on the ground.

    1. Urging governments to uphold International Humanitarian Law, stop wars that are killing people and allow aid to get to those who need it.

    International Development Minister for Africa James Wharton met South Sudanese Government Ministers and officials where he emphasised that it is first and foremost the responsibility of the country’s leaders to alleviate the pressure on its people, and to work with the UN, as well as NGOs, who are delivering vital, lifesaving aid to the South Sudanese people, and ultimately create lasting peace and stability.

    A lack of respect for International Humanitarian Law exacerbates suffering and disrupts the international community’s ability to respond.

    The UK will do its utmost to respect and promote respect for International Humanitarian Law, and calls on parties to these conflicts to allow for access by humanitarian agencies to all areas of greatest need.

    1. Ensure that UK missions and representatives around the world are echoing the Secretary of State’s call to action throughout the humanitarian system to guarantee a truly global response.

    At the UN in New York, the UK’s Ambassador Matthew Rycroft met both the UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres and UN Under-Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs Stephen O’Brien (21 February) to relay key UK messages. The UN Secretary-General has set up a steering committee calling for immediate action to ensure a coordinated long-term approach, in line with the UK’s reform priorities for the UN.

    The UK’s Presidency of the UN Security Council in March is focused on preventing conflict in Africa which is driving the humanitarian crises in South Sudan and North East Nigeria. This UK Ambassador is currently leading a Security Council visit to NE Nigeria and the neighbouring countries.

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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    5 March 2017 – The Security Council– which is in the Lake Chad Basin to draw attention to the humanitarian and development needs of a region grappling with Boko Haram's terror – visited for the first time Niger, one of the poorest countries in the world.

    Addressing media in Niamey, Ambassador Matthew Rycroft of the United Kingdom, who is leading the Council visit as president of the Security Council for the month of March, pledged solidarity with the people who the Council had met.

    “We have demonstrated our commitment to further support Niger in its remarkable efforts to restore the security stability of the localities in the Lake Chad basin but also to provide the necessary protection and assistance to the populations affected by the crisis,” Mr. Rycroft told journalists.

    Earlier, the Council members had met with President Mahamadou Issoufou.

    They also heard from UN agencies and partners about the “dire situation” in the region of Diffa along Niger's border with Nigeria. Last summer, tens of thousands of people fled Diffa as Boko Haram flooded the desert town from Nigeria.

    In addition to insecurity, Niger is plagued by drought, desertification and a lack of jobs and schools for its young people, who make up two-thirds of the population. The country ranks 188th out of 188 countries on the 2015 UN Development Programme's Human Development Index.

    Speaking to the Council during its visit, the UNDP Resident Representative and Resident Coordinator, Fodé Ndiaye, said survivors of Boko Haram violence are being hosted by other poor and vulnerable communities.

    “But they are showing humanity,” Mr. Ndiaye stressed.

    One of the main observations from the visit, according to Mr. Rycroft, was the importance of Sustainable Development Goal 16. That Goal aims to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

    “You can't come to a place like the Lake Chad Basin without seeing the value of Goal 16,” Mr. Rycroft said.

    The Security Council next heads to Maiduguri, Borno, in north-eastern Nigeria, known since 2009 as the epicentre of the Boko Haram insurgency. The Council members are meeting with local officials and civil society organisations before they are scheduled to visit a camp for internally displaced persons.

    The Council members will also visit Abuja, where they will meet with acting President Yemi Osinbajo.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria


    • The 2017 Humanitarian Needs and Requirements Overview for the Lake Chad Basin was released on 12 January, aiming at catering for the needs of 8.2 million affected people in Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad.

    • Resources are urgently required to cater for the needs of 2.4 million people across the Lake Chad Basin ahead of the annual lean season. In some areas of the region, the lean season is expected to start earlier than expected (May instead of July) and given the limited purchasing power and the depletion of household stocks, millions of people are likely to remain severely food insecure until October 2017.

    Situation Update

    • The 2017 Humanitarian Needs and Requirements Overview for the Lake Chad Basin was released on 12 January underlining that in 2017, UN agencies and NGOs aim at assisting 8.2 million affected people in Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad.

    • In Nigeria, the security situation deteriorated further in January– despite Government reports of gains against Boko Haram– with several incidents including the Nigerian armed forces accidental bombing on Rann which caused casualties amongst civilians and humanitarian workers. The UN Security Council condemned the incident and urged members States participating in the Multinational Joint Task Force to further enhance regional military cooperation and coordination and secure the conditions to enable humanitarian access and facilitate the restoration of civilian security and the rule of law in areas liberated from the Boko Haram group.

    • A return taskforce has been constituted by the Government and the humanitarian community in northern Nigeria to guide and support voluntary and safe return.

    • WFP and FAO are partnering further to ensure joint emergency food assistance, agriculture and livelihoods support to IDPs, returnees and host communities in northeast Nigeria (Borno and Yobe States). The joint response intends to reduce food consumption gaps and needs, treat and prevent acute malnutrition and rebuild livelihoods of vulnerable affected populations during the lean season by combining WFP in-kind food assistance and cash-based transfers with FAO provision of seeds, tools and fertilizers as well as small scale livelihoods starter kits. Missing the upcoming season staring in May is likely to result in a serious protracted livelihoods crisis with consequences stretching into 2018.

    • In Chad, rapid assessment rapid assessment rapid assessment rapid assessment rapid assessment rapid assessment rapid assessment rapid assessment missions in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands in eight islands of the Lake Chad revealed that 116 households – mainly composed of vulnerable women and children have recently returned to their communities without any means and are already resorting to negative coping strategies such as the reduction of the number of meals.

    • In Niger, The number of food insecure people that require assistance on a monthly basis due to both insecurity and the agro-pastoral deficit is estimated at around 330,000 (vulnerable refugees, returnees, IDPs and host populations, in and out of camps). After a lull observed over the previous month in Diffa region, multiple security incidents were recorded in January, particularly along the southern belt of the region, putting continuous strain on access to vulnerable population in remote areas.

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    Source: UN Mission in South Sudan
    Country: South Sudan

    by Birungi Machrine

    04 March 2017, South Sudan (UNMISS) -- "We are happy because the United Nations has arrived here to bring us food” said Martha Nyordit, a mother of five in Padeah county of Leer in Unity, one of the areas that has been worst affected by the latest wave of famine.

    Martha is just one of the Tens of thousands of people, who  emerged from the riverbanks and swamps to receive food aid delivered by the United Nations food agency - the World Food Program and partners this week, just a week after South Sudan's government and the United Nations declared a famine in Leer and Mayendit counties, with an estimated 100,000 people on the verge of starvation.

    Martha said life has been quashed by the conflict, she has no home and her livelihood destroyed; “in this conflict we have suffered, we are running away hiding in the riverbank and the oldest women and men were killed,” said Martha reminding the world about the plight of the hungry, sick and scared populations in this part of the country.

    “We are suffering from hunger, we are eating fruit and water lilies, and from December received food from ICRC just 2kgs which was not enough, we come for food but rush back to the river banks to hide.”

    The population in Padhea has no access to medicines and health facilities. Martha spoke of the common sights of dead people many of whose lives have been taken due to lack of medicines.

    “I am here now, but you return home to find someone you left breathing has already died, because they are hungry and sick.”

    Martha’s children are all scattered throughout the UN Protection of Civilian sites and the riverbanks. she keeps hoping that peace returns soon so that she can reunite with her children and rebuild her life.

    “If peace return I will be very happy, she said “I will seat at home, cultivate my gardens and I will go bring all my children from the Protection of Civilian site and the river bank, return home and rebuild our lives.”

    As she received her sack of food supplies, Martha said she dreams of a day when peace will return, emphasizing that food deliveries without peace has little effect.

    “Peace and food go hand in hand,” said Martha, “so what is the basis of eating this food , when you are not sure whether you will be alive the next hour” she said, appealing to the United Nations to step in and help restore peace and stability in the country.

    Listen to Martha

    The Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General, who is also UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, Eugene Owusu, led a delegation to Padea in Unity to witness the distribution of food aid to the starving population there.

    Owusu, appealed to the donor community and international friends to support with the resources needed to scale up humanitarian response in South Sudan.

    Listen to Eugene Owusu

    Joyce Luma, the head of the UN’s World Food Program, said safety and security is essential to establish health centres and support livelihood activities. “While indeed we may come in and provide food assistance in this time when the situation is critical, we need to start really working with the communities so that they can rebuild their livelihoods.”

    Listen to Joyce Luma

    On Friday, the Special Representative of the Secretary General, who is also head of the UN mission in South Sudan, David Shearer, asked South Sudan’s political leadership to support its own citizens, who are in desperate need across the country and cease hostilities.

    “It is the most vulnerable in society who are most affected by this shocking situation,” said David Shearer. “They are the women and children who have fled their homes and livelihoods in terror and taken shelter outside of South Sudan or, in the case of many, in the swamps and forests, where their coping mechanisms are rapidly being exhausted.”

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    Source: Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium
    Country: South Sudan

    Key messages

    ■ Livelihoods were in a precarious state in South Sudan even before the outbreak of the current armed conflict in December 2013. The assumption was that conflict had been the factor driving vulnerability, and that after the civil war recovery would take off. But this recovery largely did not occur, especially in Jonglei, where localized conflict continued.

    ■ Localized conflict was driven more by politics, control of livestock, and cycles of retribution than competition over land and water resources. The limited attempts to link livelihoods to peacebuilding were based on an incomplete analysis.

    ■ Future livelihood reconstruction should be based on much more localised and deeper analysis of conflict, inter-communal grievances and inter-communal relations.

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    Source: Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium
    Country: South Sudan

    1 Introduction and research questions

    South Sudan emerged from nearly half a century of conflict in 2005 and became an independent state in 2011. Much of the first part of the armed struggle against Northern domination (1956–1972) took place in relative isolation, and direct international action was mostly limited to supporting the various peace negotiations during that period. There was some external engagement in the delivery of basic services and humanitarian assistance during this era, but not in state-building (Poggo 2001). The international community was very engaged in the response to the second phase of the civil war (1983– 2005), including a large-scale humanitarian operation, advocacy to the belligerents for a peace agreement, and active use of aid to legitimize non-state actors and to build the capacity of a post-war administration in the south that eventually became the national government of South Sudan.

    In the aftermath of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, optimism abounded that investment in ‘state-building’ would produce numerous benefits, including peace, stability, growth, and opportunity for investment and profit-making from natural resources and other business opportunities (South Sudan Development Plan 2011–2013). In 2011, the g7+, a consortium of conflict-affected countries including the newly independent South Sudan, and its international partners, launched the ‘New Deal for engagement in fragile states,’ the central objectives of which were five ‘peacebuilding and state-building goals’ (PSGs).1 To some degree, support for state-building by the international community has been framed, both in the New Deal and other policy forums such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank, in terms of social services and livelihoods support (International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and State-building 2011; OECD 2015). This narrative ran through the discourse of donors, international agencies, and the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) itself.2 Even profit-motivated foreign investors saw fit to pay lip service to service provision – for example through both the promise and – to a limited extent – the construction of schools and health facilities in areas of oil extraction (CordAid 2014).3

    Thus, much of the content of, and rationale for, international engagement with South Sudan over time has been about service delivery as well as improving the capacity of the state (or what was effectively being treated as a state in certain areas during the civil war) and local actors to deliver basic services. These services included healthcare, education and access to water, social protection, and livelihoods support. There is also – particularly now – international engagement to provide services under a humanitarian mandate in a conflict situation, and to provide or build capacity for the provision of services in a post-conflict situation. It is unclear to what extent these different ‘modes’ of international engagement align with fluctuating dynamics on the ground in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. South Sudan’s statistics on social services are incomplete due to the extreme challenges of data collection in much of the country, given the lack of road, transport and communications networks. The available data reveal that access to, and impacts of, services remain among the lowest on record worldwide, though recent attempts to extend social services to the (mostly rural) population of South Sudan have had some (geographically uneven) success. At the time of the CPA, the infant mortality rate in Southern Sudan was 170 per 1,000 live births (Brenthurst Foundation 2010), though the latest estimates show this had dropped to 64 by 2013 (World Bank 2015). This figure still puts South Sudan close to the bottom of global rankings and does not account for probable increases in the rate during the 2014–15 conflict. Likewise, maternal mortality rates are shocking – reportedly the highest in the world, though statistics have not been updated since 2006 (Mugo et al. 2015). As of 2007, South Sudan had a literacy rate of 24 per cent—one of the lowest in the world, and a far lower rate for women than for men. Global databases have few updates to this estimate. South Sudan’s rate of enrollment in primary education is the second lowest out of 123 countries, again with tremendous unevenness between boys’ and girls’ enrollment and completion rates (UNESCO 2011). Access to safe water, sanitation, and other basic social services is equally minimal, although access did improve in the post-CPA era, albeit slowly (Bennett et al. 2010).

    Given these circumstances, and the intense push by donors for rapid development in the aftermath of the long armed struggle, it can well be understood that a 2008 report noted that ‘service delivery must be understood as a strategic as well as a practical contribution to peace’ (Pantuliano et al. 2008: 4). Adequate service delivery is also an incentive to prevent massive and rapid urbanization of the population. The GRSS, however, had many competing priorities, of which service provision was just one.

    The urgent need for security and the extension of law and order to rural areas often trumped other services.4 The extent to which intended populations did or did not receive services has varied in unexpected ways over time and location, as has the nature of international engagement to either provide these services directly or build the capacity of state and local actors to do so. The results suggest that significant donor investment in service delivery did not contribute unambiguously to statebuilding.

    With the resumption of large-scale violent conflict in December 2013, the service delivery/state-building relationship took yet another twist, as international actors ramped up direct delivery in the form of humanitarian assistance, and in many cases, pulled back from their direct engagement in state-building.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

    • As of 28 February, United Nations Coordinated Appeals and Refugee Response Plans within the Global Humanitarian Overview (GHO) require US$22.6 billion to meet the humanitarian needs of 95.3 million crisis-affected people in 33 countries. Needs and financial requirements have increased due to finalization of the Yemen Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requesting around $2.1 billion and together the appeals are funded at $1.6 billion, leaving a shortfall of $21.0 billion.

    • Immediate funding is required to respond to the needs of more than 20 million people in North-East Nigeria, South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen facing famine or a credible risk of famine over the coming six months. An estimated 1.4 million children are at imminent risk of death from severe acute malnutrition. With access to people in need and sufficient funding, the UN and partners will further scale up to respond to and avert famine. Humanitarian operations in the four countries require US$5.6 billion in 2017. Of this sum, $4.4 billion is urgently required by end March to strengthen famine response and prevention in four key sectors: food security, nutrition, health and WASH.

    • On 24 February, the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region -- co-hosted by Norway, Germany, Nigeria and the United Nations – highlighted the $1.5 billion needed for urgent humanitarian response in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. Fourteen donors announced a total of $672 million of which $458 million is for humanitarian action in 2017 and $214 million in multi-year funding for 2018 and beyond.

    • Urgent funding is required for the health sector in Libya. In Iraq, principled humanitarian assistance must be maintained after the retake of Mosul, Tal Afar, Hawija, and Ba’aj, with millions of Iraqis returning home or still living in areas they moved to during the conflict. In Ukraine, escalating hostilities and severe winter temperatures are exacerbating the humanitarian situation. In Afghanistan, displacement continues with some 22,000 people newly internally displaced in the first six weeks of 2017. Please see icon overleaf for information on other urgent funding needs.

    • In February, the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) approved $18.5 million to jumpstart time-critical assistance targeting 785,000 drought-affected people in Ethiopia, $3.5 million to address declining food security in Burundi, and $4.6 million for conflict-affected people in the Rakhine State of Myanmar. For 2017, 13 donors have contributed a total of $93.1 million to CERF, and approximately $245 million remain as pledges while a few key donors are undergoing internal budgetary processes before making any pledges. Due to an unusually low cash inflow in the first quarter of this year, CERF is actively reaching out to several donors to urgently request that pledges be converted into contributions to avoid delayed approval and disbursements due to lack of cash.

    • As of end February, Country-Based Pooled Funds (CBPFs) have received a total of $119 million for 2017 (including $56 million in pledges), from eight donors. Some $16 million have been allocated in Ethiopia, Somalia and Yemen, with three quarters of that amount directed to NGOs. At the Oslo Conference for Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region the Emergency Relief Coordinator launched a new CBPF for Nigeria, bringing the number of active CBPFs to 18. The Nigeria Humanitarian Fund will make funds directly available to a wide range of partners, and aims to attract between $50 million and $80 million in support of the HRP in 2017.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan

    Overview of WFP in South Sudan

    Despite immense challenges, in 2016 WFP provided food and nutrition assistance to 4 million people across South Sudan—including lifesaving emergency assistance for 2.2 million people and non-emergency food assistance for a further 1.8 million people through our recovery operation. To do so, WFP dispatched more than 265,000mt of food commodities—56,000mt more than in 2015.

    In addition, WFP provided cash based transfers valued at US$13.8 million. In 2017, WFP aims to reach 4.1 million people with life saving and recovery food and nutrition assistance.
    The food security situation in South Sudan has progressively deteriorated throughout the country since the outbreak of conflict in 2013. With the rising number of people facing acute hunger, WFP continuously scaled up its operations in 2016. In Northern Bahr el Ghazal, where GAM rates were more than double the emergency threshold (33 percent) and 60 percent of the population faced emergency levels of food insecurity, WFP scaled up its emergency response to provide 870,000 people with food and nutrition assistance, alongside food assistance for assets (FFA) activities and school meals.

    Central to the operation is the deployment of the Integrated Rapid Response Mechanism (IRRM) which involves mobile teams deployed to more than 80 hard-to-reach areas. These teams include staff from WFP, UNICEF and other UN agencies as well as NGO partners to provide a full package of food, nutrition and livelihood assistance along with emergency health and protection services. Although South Sudan poses a restrictive and volatile environment, WFP and its partners have steadily increased the operational reach of IRRM teams, expanding their operations beyond the Greater Upper Nile region to assist the humanitarian response in hotspot locations like Yei (Central Equatoria), Wau (Western Bahr el Ghazal) and Northern Barh el Ghazal. Over the course of the year, IRRM teams deployed for 190 missions to provide assistance to 2 million people.

    While much of WFP’s work in South Sudan is to provide life saving assistance to populations affected by conflict and severe food insecurity, WFP also implements resilience building and recovery operations in more stable parts of the country.

    Through FFA programmes, WFP provided 405,000 people with food assistance in exchange for participation in community asset building activities, such as creation of 12,200 hectares of group crop farming, production of 780,000 seedlings, and construction of nearly 100km of flood control dykes and 372km of community access roads.

    Additionally, WFP provided livelihood development training for 17,400 people and infrastructure and environmental rehabilitation training for 7,500 people.

    Through the food for education (FFE) programme, WFP provided daily school meals to over 200,000 children alongside the provision of deworming tablets in collaboration with the Government of South Sudan. The school meals programme is implemented to encourage enrollment and retention as an important safety net for children from vulnerable households

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    Source: World Food Programme, Logistics Cluster
    Country: South Sudan

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    Source: REACH Initiative
    Country: South Sudan

    Following the declaration of famine in Leer and Mayendit Counties, Unity State, South Sudan, REACH calculated the areas more likely to have higher shelter needs basing the estimation on the data collected between December and January 2017 with the Area of Knowledge (AoK) approach, using the following methodology.

    A simple, composite shelter indicator was created by averaging the percentages of key informants (KIs) reporting on the following indicators for specific settlements:

    • Shelter destroyed or partially destroyed
    • Proportion of IDPs are living in improvised
    • shelters or community buildings
    • Proportion of the host community
    • are sharing shelters with IDPs

    0% indicates a reported absence of all 4 by all KIs, while 100% indicates all 4 were reported available by each KI. All indicators were considered to have the same impact on the composite measure.

    Value for different settlements have been averaged and represented with hexagons 10km wide

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    Source: International Organization for Migration, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, CCCM Cluster, Shelter Cluster
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Government of Nigeria, Government of Cameroon
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, CCCM Cluster, Shelter Cluster
    Country: Nigeria

    NFI kit contents were harmonized by the sector in June 2016. Kit contents were selected for a household of 7, based on:

    • Relevance to the sector’s life-saving, emergency mandate, and conformity with international standards;

    • Appropriateness across North-East Nigeria, in a wide variety of contexts;

    • Logistics and cost considerations, given the scale of need.

    Available post-distribution monitoring informed the selection.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, CCCM Cluster, Shelter Cluster
    Country: Nigeria

    The transitional shelter kit is still under consideration as a solution for

    • Rebuilding homes that have sustained major damage, or

    • Extending available shelter in host community settings.

    • It should provide sufficient materials for a substantial beginning, which can be built upon, including also a small cash grant to allow some flexibility for people to supplement according to their specific requirements.

    • The transitional shelter kit should be accompanied with strong community engagement, including technical support where required and monitoring to ensure adequate and safe shelter.

    • Close collaboration with the Protection Sector should ensure Housing, Land and Property support.

    • The kit has a cost band of USD 400 – 600.

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