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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    MAIN TARGETS FOR 2017

    • Conflict-affected people in the Diffa region, including IDPs and refugees, improve their diet and living conditions with six-month food rations and household items from the Red Cross Society of Niger and the ICRC.

    • Vulnerable communities hosting displaced people strengthen their economic security with agricultural supplies and equipment, donations of animal feed, and livestock health services from the ICRC.

    • Wounded and sick people, including migrants, obtain medical services at facilities receiving various forms of ICRC support, such as funding, supplies and the deployment of medical teams at a regional hospital and a clinic in Diffa.

    • Inmates, particularly security and other vulnerable detainees, benefit from better treatment and living conditions, including access to health care, owing to steps taken by the authorities with support from the ICRC.

    • The authorities, weapon bearers and civil society leaders support the ICRC’s work and facilitate its access to violence-affected communities, as a result of dialogue with the ICRC, related briefings and other communication efforts.

    • Members of families dispersed by conflict, migration or detention stay in touch through the Movement’s family-links services. First responders, aided by the ICRC, boost their skills in managing human remains.

    CONTEXT

    Niger continues to be adversely affected by the ongoing conflict between State forces in the Lake Chad region (see also Chad, Nigeria and Yaoundé) and the armed group that calls itself Islamic State’s West Africa Province (ISWAP, also known as Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad or Boko Haram). The government contributes troops to the Multinational Joint Task Force, which conducts operations against the group.

    In Diffa, clashes between ISWAP and government forces result in casualties, arrests and repeated displacement among civilians. Communities there struggle with the additional strain on their limited resources, as they host IDPs and the thousands of refugees who have fled Nigeria. Amidst restrictions on economic activities, food production remains insufficient for a growing population that is still recovering from past droughts and conflict. State and humanitarian agencies have limited access to these people, owing to the prevailing insecurity, and have inadequate resources for assisting them.

    Communal clashes and cross-border security issues in Agadez, Tahoua and Tillabéry persist, often arising from the situation in Mali (see Mali) or from disputes over resources. Local elections will be held in January 2017.


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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan

    MAIN TARGETS FOR 2017

    • In the Lac region, vulnerable IDPs and residents hosting them increase their food production with ICRC-supplied seed and tools – and food rations to get them through the lean season – or the vaccination and deworming of their livestock.

    • IDPs, refugees and returnees separated from their families owing to armed conflict or other situations of violence reconnect with their relatives through the Movement’s family-links services.

    • Detainees in selected prisons have enough food, and access to health care and clean water, through direct assistance from the ICRC or through its support for the authorities, such as the sharing of best practices in prison management.

    • IHL focal points, guided by the ICRC, strengthen their ability to disseminate IHL among military personnel. Regular contact with armed and security forces broadens respect for IHL and relevant international standards.

    • The Red Cross of Chad bolsters its capacity to respond safely to emergencies, aided by financial, material and technical support, and training, from the ICRC.

    CONTEXT

    The conflict in the Lake Chad region continues. Chadian troops and those of its neighbours – Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria – remain engaged in military operations against the armed group that calls itself Islamic State’s West Africa Province, also known as Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad or Boko Haram (see African Union). Humanitarian needs persist as the spillover of insecurity into Chadian territory continues to displace people; this spillover also exacerbates the underlying economic difficulties in the Lake Chad region and the Sahel.

    Instability in the Central African Republic (hereafter CAR), and in Sudan’s Darfur region, leaves the situation of returnees and refugees in various parts of Chad unchanged. Resources, limited to begin with, are overstretched; and already-weakened infrastructure and services are under considerable strain.

    Chad’s capital, N’Djamena, continues to host the headquarters of the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF), which responds to the conflict in the Lake Chad region; it is also the base for Barkhane, a French military operation against armed groups in the Sahel. Chad has peacekeeping troops in Mali. The joint Chadian-Sudanese force and the tripartite CAR-Chadian-Sudanese force are stationed along the countries’ common borders.

    Political tensions, occasional communal violence, banditry, and episodic unrest over economic frustrations persist.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: South Sudan

    It’s 5 o’clock in the afternoon as the smouldering heat of the day begins to ease, and a determined, active woman named Abung Koch is bustling back and forth in the community garden in the centre of Aweil. There is no time to waste, as this is the perfect time of day to get things done in the garden – first watering, followed by some weeding and finally the preparation of a new garden bed.

    “I first planted cabbage over there,”Abung Koch says, pointing. “Before, I used to just put the seed in the ground, but now I’ve learned how to make a raised bed, which protects the seeds from the rain. I got a lot of knowledge from my facilitator, and when they gave me the tools and seeds, I planted tomato in the same way there. I now have three places, and this will be my fourth. “Having the water close to this garden is good – before there was no water here and we had to rely on rain,” she adds “We eat most of the vegetables at home, but I also sell my tomatoes in the market.”

    When asked about her future plans, she says, “My husband is old and cannot work, so in this way I can get some money and feed my six children. The people gave me some money to work here before, but now I am doing it myself. Before I did not know how to do this but after we got some help, I started. I would like to learn more – especially about pests, since some animals are attacking my things.”

    “I hope we can continue this project so that we plant all this land,” she says, gesturing toward the open space behind her. “But first we need to build a fence, since the animals are coming in and eating our vegetables.”

    Giving farmers opportunities

    Koch’s story is not uncommon. Many people struggle to meet their food needs, but then, when given the opportunity, quickly learn the skills and see the benefits of having their own garden.

    With funding from the United Kingdom, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) are implementing a joint programme which has supported 77,820 farmers in the Bahr el-Gazal region of South Sudan by providing them financial compensation for their work in building and rehabilitating community-level productive assets, such as the well Koch worked on and the fence she is hoping to get. Offering people compensation for their work on common assets provides positive incentives and adds to the sustainability of the activities, as the community has a sense of ownership over the things they create.

    This programme emphasizes the synergy of creating high-quality, relevant assets and the importance of the farmer field school approach, through which farmers who have received seed and tools participate in a series of hands-on training sessions that encourage the use of modern farming techniques. Farmers learn through demonstration plots and weekly supervision of their progress by technical experts, enhancing their opportunities to produce more food.

    Building production capacity is critical

    The Bahr el-Gazal area has been facing a long-term severe food crisis, as a structural deficit in production has resulted in many households relying on markets to meet their food needs. According to experts, the main drivers of this food crisis are mono-cropping of sorghum and poor agricultural practices, especially those linked to the ever increasing climate variability and extremes.

    In addition, food prices have been rising astronomically, pushing food purchases out of reach for the poor and raising new vulnerabilities. This increase is due to the escalation of the national economic crisis, continued insecurity along the prominent trade routes, halted trade due to the border closure with Sudan, and fighting in certain areas of the state.

    To help mitigate the impact of the food crisis in this area, it will be vital to increase farmers’ ability to cultivate a wider variety of crops, expand land size through communal farming and increase farmers’ knowledge of pests and diseases. “We are working here together, and by helping each other we get stronger and better,” Koch concludes. “This year we are learning and want to keep learning so that we can produce more, because it is good for us and our families.”


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria

    Key messages for decision makers

    • Due to the inability of households to engage in farming during the past two years, Dikwa and its environs have been transformed from being one of the breadbaskets of Borno State to an area of large food production deficit.

    • A large portion of households (89%) have poor and borderline food consumption (39% and 50% respectively) while the mean reduced coping strategy index remains high (22).

    • Prevailing security restrictions have impacted negatively on the functioning of the livestock market, thus constraining the purchasing power of agro-pastoral households.

    • Though the market for staple food is functioning, the food production deficit in the area has contributed to a reduced availability of food commodities and high prices. The situation could further deteriorate in the coming months, leading to skyrocketing prices.

    • Sustained food assistance to the most vulnerable households will be crucial during the lean season to prevent widespread incidents of food insecurity and malnutrition.

    Introduction

    From 9th to 13th January 2017, WFP conducted a rapid food security assessment as part of the rapid response mechanism (RRM) to Dikwa. Following the recapture of Dikwa by Nigerian Armed Forces in July 2015, the residents began returning home. With the military operations launched by the Nigerian Forces to liberate the remaining settlements under Boko Ha-ram control, the affected population continue to seek refuge in main cities.

    Thus, in addition to the IDPs returning to their places of origin, humanitarian actors have had to respond to the needs of new IDPs who are fleeing military opera-tions or have been advised to come into safe areas.

    Dikwa symbolizes not only the complexity of the main challenges faced by humanitarian community in responding to rapidly changing needs in hard to reach areas, but also how effective coordination amongst food security sectors and partners could prevent further deterioration in the food security and nutrition situation.

    The International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) has been the main humanitarian organization which pro-vided food assistance to the people of Dikwa until December 2016. In January 2017, ICRC handed over all their beneficiaries in Dikwa to WFP to ensure con-tinued provision of food assistance to this population.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zimbabwe

    Concerted action needed to stop diseases and pests from ravaging the food chain

    FAO toolbox shows how prevention, early warning, preparedness can save lives and livelihoods

    1 February 2017, Rome - Food availability and food hygiene are compromised every day by diseases and pests that plague plants and animals as well as various types of contaminants. This happens on farms, in factories, at home, in fresh or sea water, in the open air and in the midst of dense forests.

    Whether in the form of pathogen, insect or contaminant, threats are now traveling faster and further, making effective and timely responses more difficult and putting people's food supplies, their health and livelihoods, and often their lives at greater risk.

    Every year 1 person in 10 falls ill from eating contaminated food, and it is estimated that around 420 000 people die as a result. Over 70 percent of new diseases of humans have animal origin, with the potential of becoming major public health threats. A third of global crop production is lost annually due to insects and plant diseases that can spread to multiple countries and through continents.

    A number of trends are contributing to this, including certain types of intensive farming, deforestation, overgrazing and climate change. In addition, conflicts, civil unrest and globalized trade are all also increasing the likelihood of threats emerging, passing to other countries and becoming devastating in these newly infected countries. Food can be contaminated in the processing and marketing phases - processes that often take place in different countries making it more difficult to identify the point of contamination.

    To address the rising number of transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases, FAO has published "Averting risks to the food chain", a set of proven emergency prevention methods and tools. They show how prevention, early warning, preparedness, good food chain crisis management and good practices can improve food security and safety, save lives and livelihoods.

    "Keeping the food chain safe is becoming increasingly complicated in an interconnected and more complex world. That's why we believe it's important for sectors involved in food production, processing and marketing to watch out for current and potential threats and respond to them in a concerted manner," said FAO Assistant Director-General Ren Wang.

    New communication technologies help avert risks to the food chain

    FAO's toolbox showcases how a multidisciplinary approach can enable a timely response including, how the use of new communication technologies can help to prevent and control transboundary threats by facilitating information exchange.

    In Mali, Uganda and Tanzania, livestock farmers are using the EMA - i app to collect animal disease information from the field on their smartphones. The data is sent in real-time to the Global Animal Disease Information System (EMPRES-i) at FAO, where it is shared at national, regional and global levels, facilitating analysis in a timely manner in order to provide a very rapid response to attack the disease at the very early stage of birth.

    In Uganda, this surveillance system more than doubled the number of livestock disease reports given to the National Animal Disease Diagnostics and Epidemiology Center in recent years, giving farmers the early warning they need to better respond to disease outbreaks.

    Mobile tools have also been developed to monitor wheat rust - a fungal disease that destroys healthy wheat crops - enabling extension workers and research institutions to regularly exchange information on occurrences of the disease.

    Desert locusts, the most dangerous of migratory pests, often threaten food supplies in Africa and Asia - a swarm of 40 million locusts can eat the same amount of food as about 35 000 people. Thanks to the eLocust3 system, locust monitoring has been improved and is now used in the 19 countries most vulnerable to infestations.

    Every month the FAO Food Chain Crisis Management Framework makes available a new information sheet to support member countries and institutions in the global governance of transboundary threats to the food chain. Every quarter early warning bulletins on current threats are issued.

    Key facts

    • Over the past decade, more than 70 percent of emerging diseases affecting humans originated from livestock and wildlife.
    • More than 200 diseases are spread through food, killing 420 000 people annually.
    • More than US$3 billion are lost due to shrimp diseases globally.
    • Plant pests and diseases account for an estimated 30 percent of global crop production losses across the world.
    • Insect pests affect more than 85 million hectares of forests worldwide.

    Contact

    FAO Media Relations Office
    (+39) 06 570 53625
    FAO-Newsroom@fao.org


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Sudan, United States of America

    Highlights

    • WFP Chad has purchased 13,000 mt of sorghum, worth USD 4 million, on local markets - a ten-fold increase compared to 2014. Local purchase is time and cost-efficient for food-assistance in landlocked Chad and has positive effects on the Chadian economy via support to the local agricultural production and markets.

    • The US Government confirmed a generous contribution worth over USD 26 million to support the provision of food and nutrition assistance in Chad in 2017.

    • UNHAS is the main transportation mode for numerous actors involved in development projects and for all humanitarian actors (97 percent of passengers come from organisations involved in implementing the Humanitarian Response Plan). The criticality of this service has led to the extension of UNHAS for 2017.

    Operational Updates

    Country-wide
    UNHAS has been extended for provision of essential humanitarian air services in 2017 through Special Operation 201044. Due to considerable cost-saving efforts, the annual budget has been brought down to USD 15.3 million (3 million less than in 2016). Pledges are urgently needed to ensure continuity of the service.

    According to the results of a National Food Security Assessment conducted by the Government with support from WFP, FAO and FEWSNET in October 2016, global food insecurity has decreased from 25 to 18.5 percent. This overall improvement hides major regional disparities: 2.1 million people are food insecure, out of which 1.5 million live in the Sahelian belt. The sharp decline of livestock prices (exceeds 50 percent at the country level) has led to a deterioration of terms of trade between farmers and pastoralists.

    PRRO 200713:

    The budget revision to Chad PRRO 200713 was approved by Executive Board in November. The extension provides for a continuation of programmes through 2017, during which time WFP Chad will develop an interim strategic plan for 2018 and a strategic plan for the period 2019-2023. A joint assessment published by UNHCR and WFP revealed that 43 percent of refugees who have been living in Chad for more than 10 years continue to face a precarious food security situation and to require basic food and nutrition assistance.

    EMOP 200777 (Lake Chad crisis):

    Despite assistance provided by WFP and other partners, food insecurity rate among internally displaced persons rose from 15 percent in March (Emergency Food Security Assessment) 2016 to 35 percent in October 2016 (Enquête Nationale de la Sécurité Alimentaire), mainly due to the erosion of their livelihoods caused by massive displacement. To provide affected communities with more durable solutions, WFP is starting to provide conditional food assistance for assets. Through the Instrument for Peace and Stability, the European Union increased its contribution by EUR 1 million. With EUR 4.5 million, WFP will be able to assist 12,500 families (or 62,500 very vulnerable people) in the Lake Chad region. Assistance will be provided through cash-based transfers conditioned to the participation in creation or rehabilitation of community assets which have the potential to reinforce autonomy and provide income-generating activities. Assisted communities are directly involved in identifying their priorities. WFP finalized SCOPE biometric registration of displaced persons in the Lake Chad Region.

    Challenges

    In order to reach vulnerable populations in the islands of the Lake Chad region WFP is assessing the possibility of getting to these remote areas by canoes. In December schools remained closed due to an ongoing strike of public servants. The strike has been suspended early January. The school meals programme on hold since September will resume in all areas for which funding has been received as soon as schools open.

    Partnerships

    In Chad, WFP implements all its operations through partners; the network includes close to 30 international and local NGOs. WFP works closely with the Government through REACH on nutrition, and the Ministry of Agriculture on food security information and analysis. Refugee assistance is implemented in collaboration with UNHCR and the national authorities. The Food Security Cluster is held regularly at national and regional levels and WFP Country Director is the Chair of the UN SUN Network. WFP participates in the humanitarian coordination forums and the UN Country Team which is currently finalizing the UNDAF to start in 2017.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    This bulletin examines trends in staple food and fuel prices, the cost of the basic food basket and consumer price indices for 71 countries in the fourth quarter of 2016 (October to December).1 The maps on pages 6–7 disaggregate the impact analysis to sub-national level.

    Global Highlights

    • In Q4-2016, FAO’s global cereal price index fell a further 8 percent year-on-year as favourable growing conditions boosted global cereal production and global stocks. However, the FAO global food price index has risen 11 percent since 2015 because of large increases in international prices for sugar, dairy products and vegetable oils.

    • The real price2 of wheat continued falling and was 26 percent below last year’s level. Global wheat production increased beyond projections for 2016 and endof-season inventories estimated record-level closing stocks in most producing areas.

    • The real price of maize was down 11 percent from the same period in 2015 and is still at 2006 levels. Abundant and record global stocks have resulted from production outpacing consumption.

    • In Q4-2016, the real price of rice fell by 11 percent from Q3 down to levels last seen at the end of 2015. This is thanks to improved crop supplies and reduced buying interest.

    • The real price of crude oil increased by nearly 10 percent from the previous quarter and by 13 percent from 2015 in reaction to the forecast shrinking of global oil production and trade in 2017.

    • The cost of the basic food basket increased severely (>10%) in Q4-2016 in seven countries: Algeria, Bangladesh, Burundi, Egypt, Ethiopia, Myanmar and Rwanda. High increases (5–10%) were seen in Bolivia, north Nigeria, Peru, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda and Yemen. In the other monitored countries, the change was moderate or low (<5%).

    • Price spikes, as monitored by ALPS, were detected in 25 countries, particularly in Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania and Zambia (see the map below).3 These spikes indicate crisis levels for the two most important staples in each country, which could be beans, cassava, maize, milk, millet, oil, rice, sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar or wheat.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Chad, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Key Messages

    • In West Africa, regional staple food production during the 2016/17 marketing year was similar to 2015/16 and well above average. International rice and wheat imports continue to support regional market supplies. Markets remained disrupted throughout the Lake Chad Basin. The depreciation of the Naira has led to price increases across Nigeria. A recent ban on Nigerian grain exports has had uneven impacts on trade flows along Nigeria’s long and porous borders.

    • In East Africa, staple food prices seasonally decreased or remained stable in Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, and Ethiopia with increased supplies from the ongoing harvests. Prices increased atypically and sharply in many areas of Somalia due to expectations of a second, consecutive below-average harvest January-to-February. Prices seasonally decreased in Yemen from ongoing harvests but markets remain significantly disrupted by insecurity.

    • In Southern Africa, regional maize availability is currently adequate, despite consecutive years of well-below average regional production. Maize prices are above their respective 2015 and five-year average levels region wide. As of December 2016, imports by South Africa and Zimbabwe from well-supplied international grain markets have offset nearly half of the regional deficit; maize export restrictions in Zambia remain in place. Price increases have been contained in Malawi by large volumes of humanitarian assistance and an increased role of ADMARC on market activities.

    • In Central America, maize and bean availability is at its peak with supplies reaching markets from both the Primera and Postrera harvests. Maize prices seasonally declined while bean prices were mixed. Hurricane Matthew destroyed crops and market infrastructure across much of southwestern Haiti. Market activities resumed in the major markets of Les Cayes and Jeremie. Imported commodity prices remain stable despite the depreciation of the Gourde.

    • In Central Asia, average regional harvests and above-average stocks sustained adequate supplies. Prices were below 2015 levels in Kazakhstan, above-average in Tajikistan, and near average in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    • International staple food markets remain well supplied. Maize and rice prices increased, while wheat and soybean prices fell in December. Crude oil prices increased but remained well below average.


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    Source: Oxfam
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    The devastation caused by Boko Haram and the military forces fighting them has plunged the people of far eastern Niger into a serious food crisis and has slashed their incomes to a tenth of what they were before, Oxfam warned today.

    In Diffa, the far eastern region of Niger, the Government has closed markets, banned fishing and restricted access to land, fertiliser and fuel needed for red pepper farming. Red peppers were previously known as ‘red gold’ because of the money that their export brought into Niger. Cross-border trade with Nigeria and Niger is almost at a standstill.

    The Government has also imposed restrictions on people’s freedom of movement and has forced families to move from their homes are farmland. An effect of the decision is that vast areas are now militarised and declared ‘no go’ zones for civilians. This includes Lake Chad.

    In an Oxfam survey, data showed a 96 percent decrease in the number of people who gained an income from red pepper since the conflict began. Those who continue to work as small pepper farmers only earn 64 percent of the revenue they used to earn before the onset of the Boko Haram crisis.

    Small producers and sharecroppers said they were only able to access approximately one-fifth of the land they previously either owned or worked on in some areas. Today fishermen who were making US$1,515 a year before the crisis are now making US$420 a year, which represents a 72 percent drop in their yearly revenue.

    The majority of fishermen have had stop but some continue. The fishermen Oxfam interviewed used to get an average of 89 percent of their total income from fishing. They said they feared getting killed by Boko Haram or caught by the military and detained for terrorism charges. The same with farmers, especially those who are forced into taking part in illegal trading or cross the border to Nigeria to buy fuel and fertiliser.

    Farah Karimi, Oxfam’s Executive Director in the Netherlands, said: “The emergency measures are destroying people’s lives, strangling economic activities, and limiting people’s access to food and markets. This makes the hunger that we see so much worse. Many are simply reliant on humanitarian aid. Many of them take great risks to continue fishing, farming and trading in order to ensure their families don’t go hungry. The huge number of people who have fled their homes is placing a huge strain on already scarce resources. Civilians are paying too high a price for these measures. The Government needs to relax the emergency measures to ensure people can fish and farm safely.”

    The fishing and red pepper trades combined contributed US$48 million to the Nigerien economy prior to the onset of the Boko Haram conflict.

    The Nigerien Government declared a state of emergency on 11 February 2015 for the entire Diffa region and introduced restrictions to cut off Boko Haram’s access, to food, money and supplies. About 340,000 people are affected in Niger by the Boko Haram crisis. It is one of the world’s poorest countries and Diffa the most deprived of its regions.

    Oxfam is rehabilitating and constructing boreholes to provide safe, clean water to people who have fled their homes and communities, and is delivering life-saving food assistance to families severely affected by the crisis.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Staple Food Markets in East Africa: White maize is the main staple grain consumed in Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia. In Uganda, white maize is grown mainly as a commercial crop for export in the region. Imported rice is a major staple for Djibouti and Somalia, which mainly consume belem—the imported red rice. Tanzania is also a major producer and source of rice in the region while Kenya and Uganda are minor producers. Both red and white sorghum are produced and consumed in the region. This is an important staple in Sudan, Djibouti and Somalia as well as in other marginal agricultural areas of the region. It is also a substitute cereal among the rural poor. Red sorghum is mainly grown in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia, and is the preferred type for households in Djibouti. Beans are an important source of protein and a complementary food crop grown in the high potential agricultural areas of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Ethiopia. It is consumed across household types. Maize and beans are the most heavily traded commodities in the region. The cooking banana–matoke is the primary staple in Uganda. Uganda is also a main source of cooking and other types of bananas traded in the region especially in Southern Sudan. However, bananas are not traded nearly as heavily as maize or beans.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zimbabwe

    Une boîte à outils de la FAO montre comment la prévention, les alertes rapides et la préparation peuvent sauver des vies ainsi que les moyens d’existence

    1er février 2017, Rome - Chaque jour qui passe compromet la disponibilité des aliments et l'hygiène alimentaire et ce, en raison des maladies et des ravageurs qui s'attaquent aux plantes et aux animaux, ainsi qu'à divers types de contaminants. Cela est notamment le cas dans les fermes, les usines, les maisons, dans l'eau douce et l'eau de mer, à l'air libre ou encore au beau milieu des forêts.

    Prenant la forme d'un agent pathogène, d'un insecte ou d'un contaminant, ces menaces voyagent maintenant plus vite et plus loin, compliquant ainsi la tâche aux interventions mais surtout constituant un danger pour l'alimentation des populations, tout en mettant en péril leur santé, leurs moyens d'existence et, a fortiori, leurs vies.

    Chaque année, 1 personne sur 10 tombe malade après avoir mangé de la nourriture contaminée. Pire, selon certaines estimations, près de 420 000 personnes en mourrait. Plus de 70 pour cent des nouvelles maladies affectant les êtres humains ont une origine animale et pourraient potentiellement devenir des menaces importantes pour la santé publique. Chaque année, un tiers de la production agricole mondiale est perdue à cause des maladies liées aux plantes et aux insectes qui peuvent se propager dans plusieurs pays et traverser les continents.

    De nombreux facteurs contribuent à cette situation dont certains types d'agriculture intensive, la déforestation, le surpâturage et le changement climatique. De plus, les conflits, les troubles civils et le commerce mondial accroissent également la probabilité de menaces, passant d'un pays à un autre, avec des conséquences dévastatrices dans ces pays fraîchement contaminés. La contamination de la nourriture peut arriver au niveau des étapes de transformation et de commercialisation, des processus qui se déroulent souvent dans des pays différents, ce qui a pour effet de compliquer les recherches sur l'origine de la contamination.

    Afin de lutter contre le nombre croissant de maladies transfrontières des animaux et des plantes, la FAO a publié «Prévenir les risques pour la filière alimentaire», un document qui regroupe un ensemble de méthodes et d'outils déjà validés et destinés à prévenir les situations d'urgences. Ces méthodes montrent comment la prévention, les alertes précoces, la préparation, une bonne gestion des crises pour la filière alimentaire et de bonnes pratiques peuvent améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et sauver des vies, ainsi que les moyens d'existence.

    «Sécuriser la chaîne alimentaire devient de plus en plus compliqué dans un monde toujours plus complexe et interconnecté. C'est pourquoi, nous croyons qu'il est important pour les secteurs impliqués dans la production agricole, la transformation et la commercialisation de faire attention aux menaces potentielles et d'y faire face de manière concertée», a déclaré M. Ren Wang, Sous-Directeur général de la FAO.

    Les nouvelles technologies de la communication contribuent à prévenir les risques pour la chaîne alimentaire

    La boîte à outils de la FAO montre comment une approche multidisciplinaire permet de mettre en place une intervention rapide et comment les nouvelles technologies, de la communication en facilitant le partage d'informations, peuvent contribuer à contrôler et empêcher les menaces transfrontières de progresser.

    Au Mali, en Ouganda et en Tanzanie, les éleveurs de bétail utilisent l'EMA, une application mobile qui leur permet de collecter des informations relatives aux maladies animales. Les données sont envoyées en temps réel au Système mondial d'information sur les maladies animales (EMPRES-i) basé à la FAO, qui les partage ensuite au niveau national, régional et mondial, facilitant ainsi les analyses et contribuant de la sorte à la mise en place d'une intervention rapide qui permettra à son tour de combattre la maladie à un stade très précoce.

    En Ouganda, ces dernières années, ce système de surveillance a contribué à doubler la production de rapports sur les maladies liées au bétail. Ces rapports ont ensuite été communiqués au Centre national d'épidémiologie et de diagnostic des maladies animales, permettant ainsi aux agriculteurs d'être alertés en avance et de mieux se préparer à faire face aux épidémies de maladies.

    Des outils mobiles ont également été développés en vue de surveiller la rouille du blé (une maladie fongique qui détruit les cultures de blé) et contribuent ainsi au partage d'informations entre conseillers agricoles et instituts de recherche sur les apparitions de la maladie.

    En Afrique et en Asie, les criquets pèlerins, les ravageurs migrateurs les plus dangereux, représentent souvent une véritable menace pour les produits alimentaires. En effet, un essaim de 40 millions de criquets peut engloutir autant de nourriture que 35 000 personnes. Grace au système eLocust3, la surveillance des criquets a été améliorée et le système est maintenant utilisé dans les 19 pays les plus vulnérables aux invasions.

    Chaque mois, le Cadre de gestion des crises pour la filière alimentaire de la FAO publie une nouvelle fiche d'information afin d'aider les pays membres et les institutions en matière de gouvernance mondiale, notamment au niveau des menaces transfrontières pesant sur la chaîne alimentaire. Chaque trimestre, des bulletins d'alerte rapide sont également publiés.

    Faits importants

    • Plus de 70 pour cent des nouvelles maladies apparues ces 10 dernières années et affectant les êtres humains trouvent leurs origines dans le bétail et dans la faune.

    • Plus de 200 maladies trouvent leurs origines dans la nourriture, tuant chaque année 420 000 personnes.

    • D'un point de vue mondial, plus de 3 milliards de dollars sont dépensés pour soigner les maladies liées aux crevettes.

    • Selon certaines estimations, 30 pour cent des pertes de la production agricole mondiale sont dues aux maladies des plantes et des ravageurs.

    • Les maladies des insectes affectent plus de 85 millions d'hectares de forêts à travers le monde.

    Contact

    Bureau des relations presse, FAO
    (+39) 06 570 53625
    FAO-Newsroom@fao.org


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen

    Urgent humanitarian assistance and access needed in Yemen, South Sudan, and Somalia

    Key Messages

    • Conflict in Yemen is the primary driver of the largest food security emergency in the world, with 7 to 10 million people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), or worse, and in need of urgent humanitarian assistance. Of this total, at least two million people are in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and face an increased risk of mortality. In addition to the impact of conflict on household livelihoods, market functioning, and humanitarian access, the deteriorating macroeconomic situation is affecting the private sector’s ability to import food. In a worst-case scenario, where food imports drop substantially for a sustained period of time or where conflict persistently prevents the flow of food to local markets, Famine (IPC Phase 5) is possible.

    • In South Sudan, food insecurity has remained atypically severe during the harvest. As a result of civil insecurity, the fall in oil revenues, record high food prices, and limited humanitarian access, nearly one-third of the population requires emergency food assistance. In a worst-case scenario where conflict intensifies and humanitarian access is further limited, Famine (IPC Phase 5), marked by high levels of excess mortality, is possible. Unity State, where displaced households already face an extreme lack of food, is the area of greatest concern.

    • In much of Somalia, southeastern Ethiopia, and parts of northeastern Kenya, well below-average cereal production, coupled with deteriorating livestock productivity in pastoral areas, is expected to significantly increase the number of people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4). In a worst-case scenario in Somalia, where the 2017 Gu season performs very poorly, purchasing power declines to levels seen in 2010/11, and humanitarian assistance is unable to reach populations in need, Famine (IPC Phase 5) would be expected.

    • Consecutive below-average seasons in 2016 in bi-modal areas of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania are likely to lead to a deterioration of food security through the next harvests in July. Limited harvests, deteriorating livestock body conditions, constrained access to agricultural labor, and above-average food prices have eroded household purchasing capacity. Increased populations are expected to move from Stressed (IPC Phase 2) to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) in Kenya and Burundi, in the absence of humanitarian assistance. The refugee population in Rwanda is expected to remain in Crisis (IPC Phase 3), and those in Tanzania will likely move to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) by March, due to funding shortfalls.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    Les rendements de contresaison sont compromis par les températures atypiques

    Key Messages

    • La situation alimentaire des ménages du Lac continue à se détériorer à cause de la pression des déplacés sur les stocks alimentaires des populations hôtes. Cette détérioration s’explique par la limitation des sources de revenus, la baisse du coût de la main d’œuvre agricole et la hausse du prix de maïs. A cet effet, cette zone se trouve actuellement en Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) mais se détériora en Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) de février à mai 2017.

    • La situation alimentaire dans les zones de BEG et Wadi Fira qui ont connu de baisses de production modérées (-6 à -11%) commence à se détériorer à cause de niveau de stocks alimentaires des ménages qui est en deçà des besoins. Par conséquent, cette situation conduirait à une insécurité alimentaire de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) à partir de février 2017.

    • Les flux commerciaux avec la Libye continuent à se contracter à cause de la fermeture de la frontière par les autorités depuis le 5 janvier 2017 pour mesure de sécurité. Les exportations des camelins, bovins et ovins sont à un niveau très bas et y resteront jusqu’à mai 2017 au moins. Par conséquent, les prix des denrées alimentaires importés dans la bande sahélienne pourraient augmenter.

    • La production de contresaison dans la région du Guera, une partie du Salamat et le Batha Est, a subi des assèchements dus aux températures très hautes en période d’épiaison/formation des grains. Cela a eu un impact négatif sur le rendement et par conséquent la production. Les rendements sont ramenés en baisse autour de 750 kg/ha maximum au lieu de 1100 kg en période de campagne moyenne. Ceci conduira à un épuisement des stocks plus précoce que normal.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • Humanitarian access remains highly restricted in Greater Equatoria and southern areas of Unity, affecting the delivery of life-saving humanitarian assistance. There has been an escalation of violence in the last two weeks and heavy fighting has been recorded in the Greater Equatoria region and Upper Nile state, severely affecting civilians.

    • The food insecurity situation in the country is at critical levels. A recent assessment mission to Mayendit, southern Unity found that families are mainly surviving on water lilies, lalok and palm tree seeds. UNICEF continues to implement a nutrition scale-up plan in collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP) to respond to the situation.

    • Seasonal dry weather is having a negative impact on water availability. In parts of Eastern Equatoria, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity and Jonglei, water resources are now severely strained, aggravating the already fragile food security situation in the country.

    Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs

    The humanitarian space in South Sudan continues to shrink, with humanitarian actors facing severe access restrictions in several areas, notably in Greater Equatoria and Unity. There has been an escalation of violence in the last two weeks and heavy fighting has been recorded in the Greater Equatoria region and Upper Nile state. Clashes are expected to continue through the dry season as accessibility of roads allows for easy movement of armed forces and groups.

    In Greater Equatoria, the security situation continues to restrict humanitarian access, particularly in areas surrounding the towns of Yambio in Western Equatoria, Yei in Central Equatoria and Torit in Eastern Equatoria. Tens of thousands of displaced persons are seeking shelter in the towns, with many more hiding in bushes and swamps in remote areas. Since July 2016, more than 250,000 people are believed to have been displaced in the Greater Equatoria region. In the past two weeks there has also been an increase the number of people fleeing across the border to neighbouring countries, mainly Uganda and Kenya.

    There have been two criminal ambushes against civilian vehicles in Bentiu, Unity state in last three days, raising concerns about the safety of humanitarian convoys that take advantage of the dry season to preposition stocks in remote regions. The continued deterioration of the security situation is likely to further impede access across the country and affect the delivery of lifesaving humanitarian assistance.

    The nutrition situation in the country remains critical, and food insecurity is expected to worsen in coming months. Results from the December 2016 Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring System (FSNMS) report recorded the highest rates of global acute malnutrition (GAM) in Northern Bahr el Ghazal (14.2%), Warrap (13.9%) and Upper Nile (13.6%). However, recent screening data from southern Unity indicates GAM rates in the area ranging between 25% and 42%. The FSNMS also shows increasing levels of malnutrition in all three Equatoria states compared to the same period in previous years. Contributing factors to the ongoing nutrition crisis includes limited food availability due to reduced planting and harvesting, insecurity, the economic crisis and limited humanitarian access. In Juba, the price of staple commodities such as sorghum and maize has increased by 40 per cent and 61 per cent, respectively, in just the past month, and the overall cost of living has more than tripled in the past year. The high cost of living combined with high levels of inflation means many families are exhausting their coping mechanisms. A report from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network released on 25 January gives a very bleak outlook for South Sudan in 2017, with some areas at risk of reaching levels of food insecurity associated with famine.

    As a result of seasonal dry weather, low water tables have heightened competing demands for water among humans and animals, and the scarce water sources available are being over-used. In Eastern Equatoria the regional drought is causing additional strain; populations have started moving in search of water and pasture for animals, and pastoralist communities are crossing the border into Kenya and Uganda.

    In Wau, the measles outbreak is showing signs of decline. In the week of 16 to 22 January only 16 cases were reported, compared to 53 cases in the first week of the year. Active transmission of cholera is still ongoing in Bentiu, Leer and Panyijar in Unity as well as in the Juba Protection of Civilians (PoC) site, but the number of cholera cases reported is also declining.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Millet, maize, cowpea, and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is consumed by both rural and poor urban households throughout the country. Maize and imported rice are most important for urban households, while cowpea is mainly consumed by poor households in rural and urban areas as a protein source. Niamey is the most important national market and an international trade center, and also supplies urban households. Tillaberi is also an urban center that supplies the surrounding area. Gaya market represents a main urban market for maize with cross-border connections. Maradi, Tounfafi, and Diffa are regional assembly and cross-border markets for Niger and other countries in the region. These are markets where households and herders coming from the northern cereal deficit areas regularly buy their food. Agadez and Zinder are also important national and regional markets. Nguigmi and Abalak are located in pastoral areas, where people are heavily dependent on cereal markets for their food supply. They are particularly important during the rainy season, when herders are confined to the pastoral zone.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Local rice and sorghum are the most consumed food products by poor households in Mauritania followed by imported wheat which is a substitute that these households turn to the most. Local rice is grown in the river valley (in the southern regions of Trarza, Brakna, Gorgol and Guidimakha). Sorghum is produced in all areas of production (rainfed) and in flood-recession areas. However, a significant portion is imported from Mali and Senegal. Mauritania depends greatly on food imports (70% in a good agricultural year and 85% in a bad year) than on internal production. Nouakchott is the principal collection market for imported products and also the distribution market where traders acquire supplies for the secondary markets referenced below. Cooking oil is consumed mainly in urban areas. The sale of animals is a lifestyle in all areas and an important source of income and food.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Millet, rice, and sorghum constitute the basic staple foods for the majority of the Malian population. Millet has traditionally been the most widely consumed, but since 2005 rice has become a popular substitute in urban households. Sorghum is generally more important for rural than urban households. Markets included are indicative of local conditions within their respective regions. Ségou is one of the most important markets for both the country and region because it is located in a very large grain production area. Bamako, the capital and largest urban center in the country, functions as an assembly market. It receives cereals from Koulikoro, Ségou, and Sikasso for consumption and also acts as an assembly market for trade with the northern regions of the country (Kayes and Koulikoro) and Mauritania. Markets in the deficit areas of the country (Timbuktu and Gao) receive their supplies of millet and rice from Mopti, Ségou and Sikasso.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Sorghum, millet, white maize, and local and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is most heavily consumed in the eastern and northern regions of the country. Local rice is another basic food commodity, especially for poorer households. Imported rice and white maize are most commonly consumed in and around the capital. The Marché d'Atrone in N’Djamena, the capital city, is the largest market for cereals. Moundou is an important consumer center for sorghum and the second largest market after the capital. The Abéché market is located in a northern production area. The Sarh market is both a local retail market and a cross-border market.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Millet, maize, and sorghum are the most important food commodities for household consumption. Millet is the staple of the most vulnerable households, while maize and sorghum also contribute to the food basket of a majority of all households. Sankaryare market is the largest and most important market in Ouagadougou and supplies other markets within the country and region. Koudougou is located in one of the most populated areas in the country, where a majority of households depend on the market for their food needs. Djibo is in the highly vulnerable Sahelian zone. Pouytenga is an assembly market for products from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Togo. Solenzo is a rural market located in the middle of a surplus production zone. Bobo Dioulasso is important center for both consumption and production – it functions as both the economic capital of Burkina Faso and is located in an important cereal production zone.


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