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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Mercy Corps
    Country: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Yemen

    WASHINGTON, DC– Adoption of President Trump’s proposed cuts to the FY2017 and FY2018 budgets could lead to tragedy and crisis for millions of vulnerable people across the Horn of Africa and beyond, the global organization Mercy Corps testifies today at a House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee hearing on “East Africa’s Quiet Famine.”

    With famine already declared in parts of South Sudan and looming across Nigeria, Yemen and Somalia, 1.4 million children are currently at risk of imminent death, warns Michael Bowers, Mercy Corps’ Vice President for Humanitarian Leadership and Response. In light of this need, the proposed budget cuts are “not only irresponsible, but undercut America’s humanitarian leadership role in the world,” Bowers says in written testimony.

    With the United Nations warning that 20 million people are at risk of starvation, any cuts to lifesaving humanitarian assistance means lives lost. Specifically, Mercy Corps calls on Congress to reject proposed cuts and simultaneously provide more than $60 billion for the International Affairs Budget – in addition to working to remove obstacles to humanitarians working to deliver lifesaving aid.

    The current food insecurity across the region is exacerbated by a deadly mix of man-made causes including conflict, violent extremism and climate change.

    In South Sudan, for example, years of conflict have produced devastating consequences with tens of thousands killed and ongoing civil war forcing more than 3 million people to flee their homes. Bowers warns that the famine there is “threatening to engulf more than one million people.” Long-term programs, he says, are the only way to address the root causes that lead to this crisis.

    In addition to addressing the immediate emergencies, Bowers says long-term food security programs – also in jeopardy in the proposed budget – are critical to build the resilience of communities to prepare for, withstand and recover from these types of crises.

    Across the region, Mercy Corps is currently working with local partners to meet the needs of an estimated 350,000 people in all four countries and to deliver food, water, sanitation supplies, hygiene promotion and education.

    “Twenty years from now, we want to be able to conclude that we did everything to save lives,” says Bowers.

    Read Bowers’ testimony, and support Mercy Corps’ work around the world.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Joint rapid response teams reach more than 30,000 children under-five

    JUBA, South Sudan, 28 March 2017 – More than one month since famine was declared in parts of South Sudan, UNICEF - together with the World Food Programme and other partners - has delivered life-saving assistance to 145,000 thousand people, including 33,000 children under the age of five.

    Thirteen mobile emergency teams, known as the Integrated Rapid Response Mechanism (IRRM), have been deployed to areas of Unity State where more than 100,000 people are living in two famine-affected counties.

    “With more than a quarter of a million children estimated to be severely malnourished in South Sudan, the scale of this crisis requires us to respond as quickly and as robustly as possible if we are to prevent children from dying,” said Jeremy Hopkins, acting UNICEF Representative in South Sudan. “Through these missions, we are able to provide critical assistance to large numbers of children who we would not otherwise be able to reach.”

    Through the rapid response missions UNICEF teams have screened more than 5,700 children under 5 years of age for malnutrition; vaccinated more than 25,000 children against polio and measles; provided 11,500 households with access to safe water, and a further 15,800 with hygiene supplies. More than 40 separated or unaccompanied children have also been registered so as to begin the family reunification process.

    With nearly 1.9 million people – half of them children - having been displaced by violence in South Sudan to often inaccessible areas, UNICEF and WFP designed the Integrated Rapid Response Mechanism in early 2014 to bring urgent assistance by air and river to desperate families. Since then, rapid response teams have provided aid to more than one million people.

    These missions go deep into South Sudan, another reminder of the need for full, unimpeded and safe access for all humanitarian workers in the country.

    ###

    For photo, b-roll and other multimedia assets, please visit: https://weshare.unicef.org/mediaresources

    For more information please contact:
    Tim Irwin, UNICEF Communication Chief, South Sudan +211 912 162 888 tjirwin@unicef.org
    Mercy Kolok UNICEF South Sudan +211 955 639 658 mkolok@unicef.org
    James Elder, UNICEF Regional Chief of Communication: +254 715 581 222, jelder@unicef.org
    Najwa Mekki, UNICEF New York, +1917 209 1804, nmekki@unicef.org

    About UNICEF
    UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.

    For more information about UNICEF and its work for children, visit www.unicef.org.

    Follow UNICEF on Twitter and Facebook


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: Disasters Emergency Committee
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan

    The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) appeal for East Africa has raised more than £40m to date. Since the appeal was opened two weeks ago by British figures - including Bill Nighy, Sir Mo Farrah, Eddie Redmayne and Brenda Blethyn - a steady stream of donations has been flowing in from the public at a rate of over £2,000 per minute.

    Donations have been received from The Queen and Prince Charles as well as companies, and faith groups. Across the UK, the general public have been busking, holding bake sales, running marathons, shaking collection buckets and raising awareness for the 16 million people across East Africa who are on the brink of starvation and in urgent need of food, water and medical treatment.

    Employers have been matching employee donations, trusts and foundations have rallied to the call and children as young as four-year-old Henry, have even been donating their pocket money.

    DEC Chief Executive Saleh Saeed said: “It’s been so inspiring to see how the British Public has responded to this desperate need and to hear the passion and creativity they have put into fundraising. I cannot thank everyone enough for their support.

    “Our 13 member charities are already on the ground delivering vital life-saving assistance to some of the worst affected people. We are now getting reports of how food aid is getting through. For example, in Kenya, children like Cecilia and 300 families are receiving food at the Kambi Ya Juu food distribution centre.

    “All the money raised by the DEC appeal will provide millions of people in desperate need with vital food, water and medical treatment. Every donation makes a huge difference, so if you haven’t had a chance to support please don’t delay, donate today.”

    What your money could buy:

    £25 could provide a month’s supply of life-saving peanut paste to a malnourished child.
    £60 could provide clean drinking water for two families for a month
    £100 could provide supplies to a clinic treating severely malnourished children for a week.

    -Ends-

    Notes to editors:

    Media enquiries please call 020 7387 0200 or 07930 999 014 (out of hours)

    The DEC brings 13 leading UK aid charities together in times of crisis: ActionAid, Age International, British Red Cross, CAFOD, CARE International, Christian Aid, Concern Worldwide, Islamic Relief, Oxfam, Plan International UK, Save the Children, Tearfund and World Vision; all collectively raising money to reach those in need quickly.

    Keira Knightley Matt Baker, Brenda Blethyn, Tamsin Greig, Bill Nighy and Eddie Redmayne have backed the DEC’s East Africa Crisis Appeal by recording calls for support from the public. The UK Government has matched pound for pound £10 million donated by the public to the DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal through its Aid Match Fund.

    Donations can be made at any high street bank and at Post Office counters. To make a postal donation make cheques payable to ‘DEC’ and mail to ‘PO Box 999, London, EC3A 3AA’.

    To donate £5 by text send the word SUPPORT to 70000. The full £5 will go to the DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal. Donors must be 16 years or over and have bill payers’ permission. Texts are free and donations will be added to the bill.

    DEC will be hosting Facebook live sessions during the week, featuring aid workers and journalists, who will be discussing their experiences from recent visits to East Africa.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

    Highlights

    • According to the latest Cadre Harmonisé (CH) report released in March, more than 50,000 people could experience famine-like conditions across the three most affected states of the North-East region from June to August;

    • While humanitarian partners have scaled up emergency response in all sectors, gaps remain and new needs continue to emerge in outlying areas due to population movements and returns;

    • Humanitarian access remains a great challenge, and humanitarian partners are also gearing up for the upcoming rainy season to mitigate risks for response delivery;

    • Given these challenges there is an urgent need to preposition non-food-items stocks to cover new potentially vulnerable areas;

    • From 5 to 7 March, the UN Security Council visited Nigeria as part of a tour of the four countries of the Lake Chad Basin;

    • Following donor pledges made in February, disbursement of urgent financial support is needed to continue to scale up the response to the humanitarian crisis in the North-East.


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    Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
    Country: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

    South Sudan

    From February to July 2017, Leer and Mayendit are classified in Famine, while Koch county has an elevated risk of famine.

    Fews-net, TWG (South Sudan IPC Technical Working Group), ERC (IPC’s Emergency Review Committee)

    Sudan

    Parts of South Kordofan and Darfur’s Jebel Marra are expected to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) between February and September and will likely deteriorate to Emergency (IPC Phase 4) as newly displaced people missed the cultivation season, insecurity has disrupted trade, and staple food prices remain higher than normal. Additionally, in several locations (parts of South Kordofan and North Darfur states) there is limited production due to erratic rainfall resulting in dry spells. Without ongoing assistance to protracted and new displaced populations, the situation is likely to get worst.

    Fews-net

    Ethiopia

    Many poor households in south-eastern Ethiopia will face food consumption gaps and Crisis (IPC Phase 3) with acute food insecurity between February and September 2017, in the absence of humanitarian assistance.
    Some worst-affected households in Warder and Korahe zones in Somali Region are expected to be in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and face increased acute malnutrition between June and September 2017, in the absence of assistance.

    Fews-net

    Somalia

    The food security situation is deteriorating and there is a risk of Famine (IPC Phase 5) in a worst-case scenario in which the April to June 2017 Gu season performs very poorly, purchasing power declines to levels seen in 2010/11, and humanitarian assistance is struggling to reach populations in need.

    Fews-net, FSNAU (Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit – Somalia)

    Uganda

    During the lean season (February to June), very poor households in Moroto and Napak are expected to face food consumption gaps and be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3).

    Fews-net

    Kenya

    Large areas of Kenya are facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food security outcomes and atypical high food assistance needs, mainly in the pastoral and marginal agricultural areas, following the poor October–December 2016 rainy season.

    Fews-net, KFSSG (Kenya Food Security Steering Group)

    Djibouti

    The majority of poor households are expected to remain Stressed (IPC Phase 2) through May 2017, ahead of the lean season.

    Fews-net


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    Source: Islamic Relief
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan

    Islamic Relief is stepping up its emergency relief operations in East Africa where more than 20 million people are on the brink of starvation. Severe drought conditions and lack of rainfall is raising fears of famine, equal to or worse than the 2011 Horn of Africa famine that killed 260,000 people in 2011.

    “The international community has a moral obligation to rescue the lives of millions of people across East Africa, who are on the brink of starvation,” says Islamic Relief Worldwide’s (IRW) Head of East Africa, Yusuf Ahmed.

    His comments come after UNOCHA and the United Nation’s under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Stephen O’Brien, visited Somalia last week to assess the extent of the crisis.

    Islamic Relief field offices in Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan and Ethiopia are currently conducting needs assessments. Water, food and livestock feed have been identified as urgent needs. Ahmed, who returned recently from a field visit to Ethiopia, said conditions on the ground are particularly harrowing for women and children.

    “In Ethiopia, 5.6 million people are directly in need of emergency aid. During the field visit, we came across a mother and her four children who moved away from their pastoral home in search of water and food.”

    “After weeks of living on the side of the road, the mother said it was more than 10 hours since she and her young children had any water to drink. You can just imagine their suffering,” he added. Islamic Relief has a long history of working in the East Africa region. The humanitarian relief organisation first responded to the urgent needs of Sudanese families in 1984, who were caught in the grips of a devastating famine.

    Last year we delivered a project in Somalia, which saw the distribution of emergency food supplies, medicine and the provision and restocking of animals which the population rely on heavily for milk and meat.

    More recently, we implemented life-saving water trucking initiatives to more than 30,000 people in Ethiopia in response to climatic changes. In Kenya, we implemented a £1 million programme, which increased the resilience of households to drought.

    We are pushing for long-term solutions in Somalia to break the repetitive cycle of drought and floods, delivering a $5 million borehole project to provide 36 sustainable water supplies across the region and installing underground tanks to store rainwater that currently runs wasted into the Red Sea. Ahmed appealed to Islamic Relief donors and supporters to donate towards the East Africa crisis appeal.

    “We urgently need humanitarian assistance in the form of emergency relief, cash transfers and medical assistance. Millions of people are in need across the region. Children are going hungry. Women and the elderly are ill and access to no medical assistance. You have a moral obligation to help these people at this very critical stage.”


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad


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    Source: Government of New Zealand
    Country: New Zealand, Nigeria, South Sudan, Yemen

    Foreign Minister Murray McCully has announced that New Zealand will provide $3 million to support emergency famine relief and prevention efforts in Africa and Yemen.

    “More than 20 million people are currently facing famine conditions or severe food shortages across the Greater Horn of Africa, Nigeria and Yemen,” Mr McCully says.

    “Droughts in some of these areas have been compounded by conflict and insecurity, giving rise to a very serious humanitarian situation.

    “Our relief package will make a total of $1 million available for New Zealand non-government organisations with partners working on the ground in the Greater Horn of Africa, and will focus on delivering assistance in the areas of food, water and health care,” Mr McCully says.

    “We will also provide $1 million to support the World Food Programme’s work in South Sudan and $1 million to the International Committee of the Red Cross for relief efforts in Yemen and Nigeria.”


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    Source: Council on Foreign Relations
    Country: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Yemen

    Interviewee: Arif Husain, Chief Economist, World Food Program
    Interviewer: Claire Felter, Assistant Copy Editor/Writer

    The United Nations has said that close to twenty million people in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Yemen are at risk of starving to death. The food crises in all four of these countries are due, at least in part, to ongoing conflicts there, says Arif Husain, chief economist at the World Food Program (WFP), a UN agency. Without an end to the fighting, international aid can do little more than provide “Band-Aids,” he says. “In most of these areas, if there is peace, and people have seeds, tools, and agricultural inputs, they can go back—they can restart.”

    Read the full article on CFR


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    Sécurité

    La situation sécuritaire dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord demeure volatile et imprévisible. Dans la nuit du 23 au 24 mars, les villages de Milimari et Naga situés dans le département du Logone et Chari ont été attaqués par les combattants de Boko-Haram qui ont emporté des vivres et non vivres avant de se replier vers le Nigéria après l’intervention des éléments du Bataillon d’Intervention Rapide basé à Fotokol. Aucune perte en vie humaine enregistrée.

    Cependant, une centaine de famille ont fui et se sont déplacées vers Fotokol. Les forces de défense et de sécurité camerounaises poursuivent les opérations de bouclage dans les localités frontalières avec le Nigeria.

    Développements majeurs

    S.E.M. Murat Ülkü, Ambassadeur de Turquie au Cameroun, qu’accompagnaient des responsables de l’Agence de Coopération Internationale de Turquie (TIKA), a procédé à la remise officielle d’un don de l’Etat turc aux réfugiés du camp de Minawao le 22 Mars. Ce don était constitué de 1 000 lampes solaires pour l’éclairage domestique des ménages et d’un générateur électrique de 60 KWA pour le centre de santé d’International Medical Corps qui viennent renforcer l’accès des réfugiés à l’énergie électrique dans le camp. L’ambassadeur s’est également entretenu avec le comité central des réfugiés et les humanitaires présents dans le camp.

    M. François Quenneville-Dumont, Conseiller du HautCommissariat du Canada au Cameroun, a effectué une mission à l’Extrême-Nord, accompagné du Premier Secrétaire du Haut-Commissariat du Canada au Nigéria. En visite à Zamaï, puis à Minawao le 22 mars, ils ont échangé avec les autorités administratives et traditionnelles, le président du comité mixte de protection, les forces de maintien de l’ordre du camp et les différents groupes des comités des réfugiés et des personnes déplacées internes. Au cours de ces échanges, ils ont évoqué des questions liées à la protection des réfugiés et des personnes déplacés internes, notamment la liberté de mouvement et les enjeux sécuritaires, la coexistence pacifique, la problématique des violences basées sur le genre, la situation dans le pays d’origine et celle des réfugiés hors camp.

    Région de l’Extrême-Nord

    Statistiques

    Le camp de Minawao compte un total de 62 565 individus (16 834 ménages) enregistrés au 24 Mars.
    Protection Un total de 26 nouveaux demandeurs d’asile est arrivé le 19 mars dans le village de Sale dans l’arrondissement de Waza en provenance de la localité nigériane de Maloum Kari où ils fuient les affrontements entre les combattants de Boko Haram et les forces armées nigérianes. La population hôte les assiste pour ce qui est de leurs besoins alimentaires.

    Environ 500 nouveaux demandeurs d’asile sont arrivés à Kolofata et 200 autres à Kerawa les 23, 24 et 25 mars en provenance des villages frontaliers nigérians relevant de l’Etat de Borno où ils fuient les opérations militaires menées par les forces armées camerounaises et nigérianes contre les combattants de Boko-Haram. Une mission de protection HCR, INTERSOS et Comite mixte de Protection du Mayo-Sava est en train d’évaluer leur situation dans ces deux localités.

    Comités mixtes de protection

    Un atelier d’évaluation et de planification des activités des Comités Mixtes de Protection des départements du Mayo Sava, du Mayo Tsanaga et du Logone et Chari s’est tenu à Maroua du 20 au 21 mars, en présence des représentants du bureau du Gouverneur de l’Extrême-Nord, du Ministère des Affaires Sociales, de la Cour d’Appel de Maroua, du Parquet General près de ladite cour, ainsi que des représentants des Agences des Nations Unies et des ONGs humanitaires membres du réseau de protection. Les comités mixtes ont fait l’état des lieux des questions de protection dans leurs départements respectifs, et ont évoqué les lacunes et défis auxquels ils font face. Les axes stratégiques du HCR en matière de protection internationale ont également été présentés. A l’issu de l’atelier, il a été recommandé entre autres de mettre en place des mécanismes de réponse plus rapide pour les interventions lors des mouvements de population, de renforcer les capacités des membres des Comités Mixtes de Protection et des autres membres du réseau de protection sur le processus de rapatriement volontaire, etc.

    Santé

    Une évaluation des formations en santé mentale a été effectuée au cours de la période sous revue dans la zone de couverture du bureau HCR de Maroua. Il a été recommandé de renforcer le soutien psychosocial dans la communauté (sensibilisation, visite à domicile, recherche de cas et référence vers les structures sanitaires), de mettre en place un système d’approvisionnement en médicaments dédiés à la santé mentale et de continuer avec la formation des relais communautaires et du personnel de santé en général, afin de les rendre davantage conscients des questions relatives à la santé mentale et au soutien psychosocial.

    Régions de l’Est, de l’Adamaoua et du Nord

    Protection

    Dans le but d’améliorer l’environnement de protection des réfugiés, un atelier de renforcement des capacités des relais communautaires s’est tenu du 22 au 23 mars à Meiganga. Un total de 62 relais communautaires du secteur santé des sites de Ngam et Borgop ont été entretenus sur la définition du réfugié, les principes fondamentaux de la protection internationale des réfugiés, ainsi que sur leur rôle dans le respect et la mise en œuvre de ces principes.

    Protection de l’enfance

    Dans le but d’améliorer l’environnement de protection des enfants, un atelier de renforcement des capacités des travailleurs sociaux des sites Gado, Lolo, Mbile et hors sites de Touboro, Kentzou et Mandjou au eu lieu à Batouri du 23 au 24 mars. Un total de 19 travailleurs sociaux a été édifié sur la protection de l’enfance, le soutien psychosocial et la prise en charge des enfants à risque, l’harmonisation des approches de travail sur le terrain, le recadrage des activités basées sur les leçons apprises et les échanges de bonnes pratiques.

    Un total de 3390 personnes (918 hommes, 1430 femmes, 568 filles et 474 garçons) a été sensibilisé au cours de la période sous revue le long des axes de Garoua Boulai, Djohong et Touboro sur la cohabitation pacifique, l’enregistrement des naissances et l’accouchement assisté, la sécurité des enfants, la sous scolarisation des enfants, la prise en charge des enfants vulnérables, les conséquences de l’exploitation des enfants, l’hygiène de l’enfant et la différence entre déclaration de naissance et acte de naissance.

    Un total de 165 adolescents (135 filles et 30) a bénéficié des activités de développement des capacités en broderie, couture, tricot, pâtisserie et fabrication de souliers sur les axes de Garoua Boulai et Djohong. Par ailleurs, 200 adolescents (134 filles et 66 garçons) ont participé à des focus group sur la place de la jeune fille au sein de la communauté, les méfaits des substances illicites, comment se protéger du harcèlement sexuel et du viol, le mariage précoce et forcé, les grossesses précoces et sur comment penser à son avenir, visualiser ses objectifs et élaborer son plan d’action.

    Biométrie

    L’opération de vérification/enrôlement des réfugiés à la biométrie dans les régions de l’Est, de l’Adamaoua et du Nord se poursuit. Un total de 11 062 individus (5 929 femmes et 5 133 hommes) a été enrôlé au cours de la semaine sous rubrique dans les centres de Ndokayo et Gbiti dans la région de l’Est. Ceci porte à 163 303 individus (86 397 femmes et 76 906 hommes) le nombre de personnes vérifiées depuis le début de l’opération en Février 2016. L’opération se poursuivra dans les localités de Tocktoyo et Kentzou dans la région de l’Est.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Ethiopia, South Sudan

    Key Issues

    • Government providing over 250,000 bales of grass for livestock support in Somali region

    • The Ethiopia Humanitarian Fund (EHF) allocates US$21 million to critical emergency needs

    • The European Union allocates an additional $179,750,175 (€165million) in response to the Horn of Africa Drought

    Back-to-back seasons of poor or non-existent rainfall in 2015, exacerbated by the strongest El Niño phenomenon on record in the same year, led to the worst drought in decades in Ethiopia in 2016. While the country continues to respond to residual needs from the past drought, below average rains in the southern and eastern parts of the country caused by the negative Indian Ocean Dipole have left 5.6 million people in need of humanitarian assistance in 2017. Some US$948 million is urgently required to respond to the new humanitarian needs.

    Government providing over 250,000 bales of grass for livestock support in Somali region

    The worsening drought continues to deteriorate livestock situation in Somali region. Reports indicate that livestock productivity has been declining and livestock death is increasing in all southern zones of the region. The Government of Ethiopia-federal and regional- are providing livestock feed support in affected areas. Accordingly, some 200,000 bales– of a total of 250,000 bales stored in Jijiga - have been delivered to the most affected zones. In response to the Somali Regional Government’s request for partner support to transport the remaining 50, 000 bales, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) agreed to cover the transport cost. FAO has already identified transport service providers and expects the fodder to reach beneficiaries in the respective zones during the coming week.

    The Somali Regional Government is supporting livestock interventions at an estimated cost of US$7.5 million and an additional $1,313,571 (ETB30 million) loan from the federal Government.
    Partners have also allocated close to $7.2 million for livestock emergency response, leaving a gap of $65 million to address all identified needs in the regional Government response plan. The rising fodder price over the last few months is also another challenge to the response. Implementing partners applied for projects using a 2 to 3 birr per kilo cost estimate but the current market prices ranges from 7 to 8 birr per kilo, which will affect the overall project cost and beneficiary numbers.

    The Ethiopia Humanitarian Fund (EHF) allocates US$21 million to critical emergency needs

    The OCHA-managed Ethiopia Humanitarian Fund (EHF) allocates $21million to provide immediate response to prioritized needs in Nutrition, WaSH, Agriculture, Education, Health and Protection. The allocation strategy priorities are based on the 2017 Ethiopia Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD) released in January 2017 and the Inter-Cluster prioritization exercise conducted in early March 2017. From the total $21 million allocation, $5million is for NGO support to Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) in woredas most affected by drought, $4.5 million for WaSH, and $2.5 million for Agriculture. The purchase of supplemental food (CSB++) for the moderately malnourished and the Education Cluster will receive $2million each, while $1.5 million goes for health. Purchase of Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF), Protection and Emergency Shelter and Non- Food Items(ES/NFIs) receive $1miliioon each, while $0.5 million is allocated for Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM).

    Early in the year, the EHF allocated $17 million to address the immediate needs in WaSH, Health,
    Nutrition and Agriculture sectors in the new drought belt. The allocation served as a bridging response between the last two months of the 2016 and the first quarter of 2017.

    The European Union allocates an additional $179,750,175 (€165million) in response to the Horn of Africa Drought

    On 17 March 2017, the Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, announced a support package of $179,750,175 (€165million) to address the multiple crises in the Horn of Africa region. According to the press release, the new allocation is in response to the needs arising from the severe famine in South Sudan and the dire droughts in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. From the total $179,750,175 ((€165million), $108,939,500 (€100 million) is allocated to South Sudan of which $32,681,850 (€30 million) goes to immediate live-saving activities, while $76,257,650 (€70 million) will go for the continued provision of protection and other basic support for South Sudanese refugees in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. The remaining $70,810,675 (€65 million) is in response to the serious droughts in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. From this package, Ethiopia receives $31,295,349.25 (€29million) of which $15,108,099.64 (€14million) is for refugee response and $16,187,249.61 (€15million) goes for the drought response.
    For further information contact: ocha-eth@un.org


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    Source: World Food Programme, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Mali

    Méthodologie

    • La tendance des prix est stable par rapport à janvier 2017. Comparé à février 2016, les prix sont en hausse pour toutes les céréales: +6% pour le mil, et le sorgho, + 3% pour le riz local (principalement les cercles de la région de Gao où la campagne été mauvaise) et le riz importé +1%.

    • Le coût du panier alimentaire reste stable dans l’ensemble par rapport à janvier 2017 mais en hausse de 5% comparé à février 2016. Le coût du panier alimentaire pour le mois de février est élevé dans tous les cercles de la région de Gao ainsi que dans les cercles de Gourma Rharous et de Tenenkou.

    • Les termes de l’échange sont en forte détérioration par rapport à février 2016 dans les cercles de Gourma Rharous, Gao, Ménaka, Ansongo en raison de la forte chute du prix de bétail et de la hausse du prix de certaines céréales.

    • L’offre globale sur les marchés arrive à satisfaire la demande à travers le pays. Les disponibilités en céréales sont globalement moyennes à bonnes, excepté dans certaines zones où la production agricole a été affectée par des épisodes de sécheresse ou d’inondations ainsi que l’insécurité.

    Points saillants:

    Les données ont été collectées sur l’ensemble du territoire du 1er au 28 Février 2017. Les marchés des régions du sud sont suivis par L’OMA (Observatoire du Marchés Agricole) et la DNCC (Direction Nationale du Commerce et de la Concurrence pour certains produits): les données sont collectées chaque semaine auprès de commerçants par des enquêteurs. Les données des marchés des régions du nord sont collectées par le PAM et ses partenaires deux fois par mois. Ce bulletin présente les tendances des prix des céréales sèches, du coût du panier alimentaire et des termes de l’échange par cercle. Le prix moyen a été calculé sur la base des prix collectés sur les différents marchés au niveau cercle.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone

    Malgré les disponibilités alimentaires globalement bonnes, l’insécurité civile dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad et le Nord du Mali continue d’affecter négativement les conditions de vie des ménages dans la sous-région entrainant une situation alimentaire et nutritionnelle critique par endroits au Burkina Faso, au nord du Mali, en Mauritanie, au Niger, au nord du Nigeria, au Sénégal et au Tchad.

    À la suite des travaux de la réunion des experts du dispositif régional de prévention et de gestion des crises alimentaires au Sahel et en Afrique de l’Ouest (PREGEC), tenue à Dakar au Sénégal, du 22 au 24 mars 2017, les participants font la déclaration suivante :

    1. Les tendances de bonnes productions agricoles annoncées en novembre 2016 à Cotonou au titre de la campagne agricole 2016-2017 se confirment. Ainsi, les productions céréalières sont établies à 67,2 millions de tonnes, soit des hausses de 10 et 17% comparées respectivement à celles de la campagne 2015-2016 et à la moyenne des cinq dernières années. Toutefois, de légères baisses sont enregistrées en Gambie (-12,4%), au Libéria (-7,5%) et en Mauritanie (-11,2%, résultats provisoires) comparées à la moyenne quinquennale. Les productions de tubercules établies à 166,7 millions de tonnes, sont en hausse de 2,4% par rapport à la campagne 2015-16 et de 10% par rapport à la moyenne des cinq dernières années. Les productions des cultures de rente sont estimées à 8,3 millions de tonnes pour l’arachide, 7, 4 millions pour le niébé, 1,5 millions pour le soja et 865 milles pour le sésame. Ces productions sont en hausse comparées à la moyenne des cinq dernières années, sauf le sésame qui présente une baisse de 5,6% comparée à la campagne 2015-16.

    2. Sur le plan pastoral, la situation est caractérisée par l’épuisement des ressources fourragères et le tarissement des points d’eau de surface. Ceci annonce une soudure pastorale difficile dans l’Oudalan au Burkina Faso, dans les régions de Gao, Bourem, Gourma, Rharous et Menaka au Mali, dans les zones pastorales et agro-pastorales du Niger, à Kassine, Kobe Nord-Est, Kobe Sud, Gos-Mimi, Arada et environ au Tchad.

    3. Globalement, les marchés sont bien approvisionnés en denrées alimentaires à la faveur des bonnes récoltes enregistrées, du maintien des flux et du bon niveau des stocks commerciaux sur le marché international. Cependant, dans les zones affectées par l’insécurité civile, ces approvisionnements demeurent inferieurs à une situation normale. Sur les marchés agricoles, les prix des céréales sont en légère hausse comparés à la moyenne des cinq dernières années, en raison des perturbations enregistrées au niveau de certaines devises dans la région notamment au Nigeria, au Ghana, en Sierra Léone, en Guinée et au Libéria. Cette hausse est également observée sur les prix des tubercules malgré la bonne production enregistrée.

    S’agissant des cultures de rente, les prix sont relativement stables en comparaison à la moyenne quinquennale à l’image de l’arachide et du niébé. La demande globale est stable, mais elle connaitra une croissance habituelle du fait de la reconstitution des stocks ménages et institutionnels.

    1. Sur les marchés à bétail, les prix des bovins et des petits ruminants sont en hausse par rapport à la moyenne quinquennale dans le bassin Ouest et au Mali. Par contre, dans les bassins Centre et Est, Ils sont en nette baisse à cause de la réduction de la demande du Nigeria suite aux perturbations des flux liées à l’insécurité civile notamment dans les pays du Bassin du Lac Tchad.

    2. Les termes de l’échange bétail/céréales et produits rentres/céréales sont en détérioration dans les pays du bassin Est sauf au Tchad où il est noté une amélioration due à la baisse des prix des céréales. Par ailleurs, dans les pays du bassin Ouest et au Mali, les termes de l’échange sont favorables pour les consommateurs de céréales à cause du bon niveau des prix du bétail, de l’arachide et de la noix de cajou.

    3. La situation nutritionnelle demeure préoccupante voire critique dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, au Nord du Mali, au Niger et dans plusieurs Etats du Nord du Nigéria du fait de la détérioration des conditions de sécurité alimentaire et la persistance de l’insécurité civile notamment dans les zones abritant des populations de réfugiés et des déplacés internes. Ainsi, le nombre d’enfants malnutris sévères pourrait atteindre la barre de 3.500.000 en fin 2017 si les interventions de lutte contre la malnutrition en cours ne sont pas renforcées.

    4. Les analyses du Cadre Harmonisé conduites dans les dix-sept pays de l’espace CILSS,
      CEDEAO et UEMOA, indiquent qu’en période courante (mars, avril et mai 2017), 9,6 millions de personnes sont en situation de crise et au-delà contre 10,4 millions annoncés en novembre 2016. Cette situation est en partie liée à l’amélioration progressive de la situation sécuritaire et aux actions d’assistance humanitaires en cours notamment dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad en général et au nord Est du Nigeria en particulier. Si les interventions en cours ne sont pas renforcées et celles envisagées, pas mises en œuvre notamment au Burkina Faso, au nord du Mali, en Mauritanie, au Niger, au nord du Nigeria, au Sénégal et au Tchad, ces populations pourraient atteindre d’ici la période de soudure (juin- août), 13,8 millions dont 1,6 millions en urgence et au Nigeria 50 milles en état de famine. Parmi ces populations vulnérables, il faut compter près de 4,9 millions de personnes déplacées et refugiées en raison de l’insécurité civile dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad et le Nord du Mali, du banditisme et les conflits intercommunautaires qui sévissent dans la région.


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    Source: Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Analyse régionale de la situation de l’insécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle aiguë

    L’essentiel

    La consommation alimentaire :
    globalement satisfaisante sauf dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, dans certaines poches au Niger, au Mali et au Sénégal.

    l’évolution des moyens d’existence :
    ils sont durables et protégées, toutefois ils demeurent érodés dans les zones en conflit dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, au Nord Mali et les zones frontalières du Liptako Gourma (Burkina Faso-Mali-Niger).

    la situation nutritionnelle :
    reste préoccupante dans l’ensemble eu égard aux prévalences de la Malnutrition aigüe globale (MAG) au-dessus du seuil d’alerte dans plusieurs régions au Mali, au Niger, au Nigéria, au Tchad et au Burkina Faso et au-dessus du seuil d’urgence au Tchad et au Nord-Est Nigéria.

    Mortalité
    La situation de mortalité des enfants de moins de 5 ans dans les 3 Etats du Nord-Est Nigéria est préoccupante et appelle à une réponse immédiate

    Les résultats

    • Analyse courante (mars-mai) : environs 9,6 millions de personnes nécessitent une assistance humanitaire, dont 8,2 millions en phase 3 (Crise), 1,4 millions de personnes en Phase 4 (urgence) et 44 mille personnes en phase 5 (Famine).

    • Analyse Projetée (juin-août) : environs 13,8 millions de personnes nécessitent une assistance humanitaire, dont 12,1 millions en phase 3 (Crise), 1,6 millions de personnes en Phase 4 (urgence) et 50 mille personnes en phase 5 (Famine).


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Yemen

    Unsafe water as deadly to severely malnourished children as lack of food

    Download photos and videos from: http://weshare.unicef.org/Package/2AMZIFDD22Q

    NEW YORK/DAKAR/NAIROBI/AMMAN, 29 March 2017 – Water shortages, inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene practices and disease outbreaks are posing an additional threat to severely malnourished children in northeast Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen, UNICEF said today.

    Across the four famine-threatened countries, nearly 27 million people are reliant on unsafe water which, for malnourished children, can lead to fatal diarrheal diseases.

    “The combination of malnutrition, dirty water and poor sanitation sets off a vicious cycle from which many children never recover,” said Manuel Fontaine, UNICEF Director of Emergency Programmes. “Because unsafe water can cause malnutrition or make it worse, no matter how much food a malnourished child eats, he or she will not get better if the water they are drinking is not safe.”

    In northeast Nigeria, 75 per cent of water and sanitation infrastructure in conflict-affected areas has been damaged or destroyed, leaving 3.8 million people with no access to safe water. Displaced families are putting enormous pressure on already strained health and water systems in host communities. One third of the 700 health facilities in the hardest-hit state of Borno have been completely destroyed and a similar number are non-functional.

    In Somalia, the number of people needing access to water, sanitation and hygiene in the coming weeks is projected to increase from 3.3 million to 4.5 million – about a third of the population. Many water sources have dried up or are contaminated, toilet facilities are in short supply, and water-borne diseases are rampant. More than 13,000 cases of cholera and acute watery diarrhoea have been reported since the beginning of the year, nearly five times more than in the same period last year. Water prices have risen six-fold in the remotest areas – putting it out of reach of the poorest families.

    In South Sudan, 5.1 million people lack safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene. Half of the water points in the country have been damaged or destroyed. As a result of seasonal dry weather, low water tables are reinforcing competition for water among people and animals, with the result that scarce water sources are being over-used. Lack of adequate sanitation facilities and poor hygiene practices are spreading disease. A cholera outbreak in June 2016 produced more than 5,000 cholera cases and over 100 deaths.

    In Yemen, ongoing conflict and mass population displacement have left at least 14.5 million people without adequate drinking water, basic sanitation and hygiene, while causing damage to water infrastructure. An outbreak of cholera and acute watery diarrhoea in October 2016 continues to spread, with over 22,500 suspected cases and 106 deaths. Almost 2 million children are at risk of diarrheal diseases which, even before the conflict, were the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five. The primary health care system in the country is on the verge of collapse, putting the lives of millions of children at risk.

    UNICEF’s response, alongside its partners in the four affected countries, includes:

    • In northeast Nigeria, providing safe water to nearly 666,000 people and treating nearly 170,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition over the last 12 months;

    • In Somalia, providing 1.5 million people with access to 7.5 litres of water per day for 90 days, or until the next rains due in April, promoting lifesaving hygiene behaviours, rehabilitating boreholes, establishing new water sources and ensuring appropriate water, sanitation and hygiene services in cholera treatment centres. An oral cholera vaccination campaign – the first of its kind in the country – is also under way to vaccinate half a million people;

    • In South Sudan, working with the World Food Programme to fly in nutrition, health, water and sanitation services to children in remote areas; and accelerating hygiene promotion and water safety measures in epidemic prone locations;

    • In Yemen, working with partners to keep health facilities functional for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition among the most vulnerable children, and supporting water and sanitation services for 4.5 million people, many of them are displaced.

    “We are working around the clock to save as many lives as we can as fast as we can,” said Fontaine. “But without an end to the conflicts plaguing these countries, without sustainable and unimpeded access to the children in need of support and without more resources, even our best efforts will not be enough.”

    ###

    About UNICEF
    UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.

    For more information about UNICEF and its work for children, visit www.unicef.org.

    Follow UNICEF on Twitter and Facebook

    For more information, please contact:
    Najwa Mekki, UNICEF New York, +1917 209 1804, nmekki@unicef.org
    Patrick Rose, UNICEF Regional Office in Dakar, +221 786 380 250, prose@unicef.org
    James Elder, UNICEF Regional Office in Nairobi, +254 71558 1222, jelder@unicef.org
    Tamara Kummer, UNICEF Regional Office in Amman, +962 797 588 550, tkummer@unicef.org


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: South Sudan, Uganda

    KEY FIGURES

    Daily arrival figures from July 2016 are based on manual emergency registration or head-counts/wrist-banding. Confirmed figures will be available as the new arrivals undergo biometric registration. Figures prior to July are from the Government’s Refugee Information Management System (RIMS).

    12,407 Number of new arrivals between 15th and 28th March 2017 886 Daily average of new arrivals between 15th and 28th March 2017 818,111 Total number of South Sudanese refugees in Uganda

    PRIORITIES

    • Ensure basic services for new arrivals as well support to persons with specific needs

    • Accelerate biometric registration

    • Identify new sites for refugee settlement

    • Community outreach and protection monitoring in the settlements

    • Expedite rehabilitation and construction of school structures to ensure access to education

    • Ensure a sustainable and predictable supply of water

    • Engage refugees/refugee leaders and host community members in coexistence and peace-building activities

    • Promote and engage partners in livelihood interventions. Strengthen engagement of all partners, local authorities and members of the host community regarding interventions in Bidibidi.

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • The rate of new arrivals in to Uganda has decreased but remains high, with a total of 12,407 South Sudanese refugees received in Uganda between the 15th and 28th of March, compared to 41,378 in the previous two weeks. A daily average of 886 refugees crossed the border from South Sudan into Uganda.

    • In light of this mass influx, the planning figure for the number of South Sudanese refugees expected to arrive in Uganda this year has been revised upwards from 300,000 to 400,000.

    • Refugees arriving in Uganda report that they were forced to flee their homes in fear of the violence that has characterised the conflict in South Sudan, including indiscriminate and ethnically motivated killings, disappearances, rape, looting of property, arbitrary detention and torture. Those who have fled South Sudan also tell of the high cost of living, escalating inflation, food shortages and lack of access to basic services such as healthcare and education.

    • Roads near the border with Lamwo district are reportedly obstructed by armed groups, leading refugees to use uncharted routes and informal border crossings in order to reach safety in Uganda.

    • New arrivals continue to be relocated to Imvepi settlement in Arua district, which is now home to 46,286 South Sudanese refugees.

    • Site planning and assessment is underway for a new refugee settlement site in Lamwo district, which has the capacity to accommodate 30,000 new refugees.

    • Pending full scale readiness of a new settlement in Lamwo district, Palorinya Reception Centre continues to receive new arrivals from Elegu, Afogi and Lefori border points – particularly vulnerable refugees and those seeking reunification with their family members in Palorinya settlement. The settlement, which opened in December, has a refugee population of 146,752.


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    Source: Government of Chad, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Chad

    Résumé narratif des causes, du contexte et des principaux problèmes

    • La production céréalière définitive de la campagne agricole 2016/2017 est estimée 2 873 660 tonnes. Elle est en hausse de 17 % par rapport à l’année dernière (2 452 528 tonnes) et de 13,6% par rapport à la moyenne quinquennale (2 530 630 tonnes). Les productions du mil et du maïs enregistrées au niveau national sont en hausse respectivement de 20% et de 19,6% par rapport à la moyenne de cinq dernières années. Toutefois, certaines régions ont enregistré une baisse de la production céréalière, notamment la Tandjilé (-15%) et le Wadi Fira (-5 %).

    • Les marchés des produits alimentaires, sont bien approvisionnés grâce à la production céréalière excédentaire de la campagne 2016/17. A l’exception du Lac, soumis à des restrictions sécuritaires limitatives, les flux se comportent comme en année normale. Les prix des céréales sont en baisse par rapport à ceux de la moyenne des cinq dernières années. La tendance baissière se maintient sur les prix du sorgho à Mongo au Guera (-17 pourcent), Kyabé dans le Lac Iro (-35 pourcent) et Moïssala au Bahr Sara (-45 pourcent) comparée à la moyenne quinquennale. Les commerçants profitent des prix favorables pour renforcer leurs stocks prévisionnels. Une timide reprise de la hausse de prix du maïs à Ngouri avec une légère augmentation de 6 pourcent a été enregistrée. Cette tendance est aussi observée pour le prix de bétail à cause de l’insécurité qui affecte la fluidification des échanges entre le Tchad et le Nigeria et la dépréciation de la monnaie nigériane (Naira).

    La crise économique qui persiste dans le pays continue de figer la demande saisonnière à de bas niveaux par rapport à une année normale sur la presque totalité des marchés céréaliers malgré leur fonctionnement normal. La fermeture de la frontière libyenne (entre le 5 janvier et le 28 février 2017) a davantage impacté négativement l’approvisionnement des marchés des régions du BET, Wadi Fira, Ouaddai , BEG et Kanem. Comparés à une année normale, ces marchés vivent une réelle hausse des prix des produits alimentaires manufacturés, malgré l’ouverture d’un couloir de passage.

    L’analyse de l’économie alimentaire des ménages montre que sur les seize (16) profils analysés qui couvrent vingt-huit (28) Départements, huit (8) connaissent des déficits de protection des moyens d’existence (Mangalmé, Batha Est, Mamdi, Wayi, Nord Kanem, Bahr El Ghazal Nord, Bahr El Ghazal Sud, Biltine) et un (1) a connu un déficit de survie (Tandjilé Est). Ces déficits sont dus principalement aux baisses importantes de prix de bétail, de revenus tirés de l’exode, de la main d’œuvre locale, de transfert monétaire ainsi que de la baisse de la production du riz dans la Tandjilé. Actuellement, la majorité des moyens d’existence connait une évolution stable suite aux conditions agropastorales acceptables et les bonnes perspectives des productions de contre saison, mais il existe un risque de dégradation, notamment dans les zones à déficit de protection de moyens d’existence.

    Nutrition : La situation nutritionnelle est toujours préoccupante dans la plupart des régions et plus particulièrement dans les régions de la bande sahélienne. La médiane de la série historique post récolte des 5 dernières enquêtes SMART (2012 à 2016), révèle une situation nutritionnelle urgente dans trois régions (Bahr El Ghazal, Batha, et Ouaddaï) sur l’ensemble des 11 régions de la bande Sahélienne. Par ailleurs, cette situation est jugée en crise (MAG :10-15%) pour 5 régions, notamment le Kanem, Wadi Fira , Lac , Guera, et le Chari-Baguirmi .
    Seules, les régions de Hadjer Lamis et du Salamat ont une situation nutritionnelle précaire (5 à 10%).


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon

    Ce document contient la liste des points focaux des groupes de travail présents dans l’Extrême Nord du Cameroun.


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    Source: Action Contre la Faim France
    Country: South Sudan, Uganda

    In Uganda’s Bidibidi settlement, community hygiene promoters teach their neighbors healthy habits

    by Radhika Shah

    A resurgence of violent conflict in South Sudan has forced a new wave of refugees to flee their homes to find safety in neighboring countries. Since July 2016, the United Nations estimates that more than 500,000 people have arrived in Uganda. In August, the Bidibidi refugee settlement opened in Yumbe–just over six months later, it’s one of the world’s largest and fastest growing refugee settlements.

    In Bidibidi, Action Against Hunger teams are helping to meet the urgent needs of refugee families by running programs to treat undernutrition and promote clean water, safe sanitation, and good hygiene. Community participation is critical to our success, and it’s led by people like Cecilia Kwaje and Isaac Mawa, refugees who now work as hygiene promoters, helping to create positive change.

    Cecilia and Isaac are both from Yai, a village in the southern Central Equatoria province, and fled with their families following the violence in July. Back home, as parts of South Sudan face famine, their village is experiencing a worsening food security crisis.

    Cecilia, her husband, and their four young children fled in early September, driving across the border with her brother. Her youngest child, six months old, became ill on the way to Uganda and had to be treated upon arrival in the settlement medical center. Today, Cecilia’s biggest worries are for the rest of her family, who remained behind in Yai. One day, she hopes for lasting peace and a safe return home back in South Sudan.

    As Isaac testifies, “I’ve witnessed with my eyes…there is no peace in my community. Where I come from, you can be arrested, you can be killed. It doesn’t matter who you are.” Isaac and his pregnant wife left Yai in September with his sister and niece. They traveled to Uganda on foot, his wife giving birth along the way.

    Both Cecilia and Isaac were elected by their community to be trained as hygiene promoters by Action Against Hunger. Cecilia is responsible for 42 households and Isaac for 35—both work to educate families on how good hygiene practices can prevent disease and to promote healthy habits like handwashing. Already, they’ve seen a big change in the community and appreciate the part they play in promoting healthier lifestyles among their neighbors.

    “I like working with ACF as a hygiene promotor,” Isaac says, “You see the rate of diarrhea reducing. People want their own household latrines now, and they all have their own clean jerry cans and TipTaps for hand washing.”

    Our teams in Yumbe are working to provide the tools and training necessary to meet the needs of refugees. With participation and engagement from the communities and leadership from people like Cecilia and Isaac, we can reach even more families with key messaging on good hygiene and health. 


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