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    Source: Theirworld
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, World, Yemen

    Drought and conflict are causing massive hunger emergencies - against a backdrop of one in four children in developing countries already suffering chronic malnutrition that could affect their development.

    The world is watching in horror as yet another humanitarian catastrophe is unfolding.

    Twenty million people will die unless urgent action is taken to tackle hunger crises in four war-torn countries. Immediate funds are needed for Yemen, South Sudan, Somalia and northeast Nigeria or "people will simply starve to death" warned United Nations humanitarian chief Stephen O’Brien last week.

    And millions more are facing starvation in Kenya and Ethiopia because of drought and conflict.

    "Hunger on a massive scale is looming across East Africa," said Disasters Emergency Committee Chief Executive Saleh Saeed, launching an appeal today.

    "More than 800,000 children under five are severely malnourished and without urgent treatment are at risk of starving to death."

    That devastating news comes against a backdrop of 159 million children in developing countries - that's one in four - already suffering chronic malnutrition.

    Two million children die every year simply because they don’t have enough to eat or have no access to clean water or proper sanitation.

    While famine is at the forefront of the UN's focus in terms of saving people’s lives right now, the undercurrent of a malnourished population has drastic, long-term implications.

    That's why early interventions are vital if very young children are to get the best start in life. If a child is malnourished from the start - if carried by an under-nourished mother - the baby’s brain will not develop to its full potential and the child could suffer serious health problems later on in life.

    During infancy, brain development uses 50% to 75% of the energy a baby consumes.

    Theirworld has been campaigning for countries to invest in early childhood development - including nutrition, health, learning, play and protection. These are even more vital in humanitarian emergencies like the current hunger crises.

    "In a crisis the youngest children are exceptionally vulnerable, not only to physical dangers but also to psychological trauma, toxic stress and poor development," said Ben Hewitt, Theirworld's Campaigns and Communications Director.

    "The evidence of the crucial importance of focusing on the early years is widely known so every humanitarian response should include targets which explicit address babies and children aged zero to five.

    "We know that 90% of our brain develops by the time we are five years old so the emergency response must go beyond physical support and include childcare, psychological support and early learning programmes."

    Chronic malnutrition in the womb and during the first 1000 days of life can permanently harm the growth of a child’s body and brain, according to non-profit organisation 1,000 Days, which champions the quality of a child’s life in the first three years.

    “In addition to causing stunted growth (too short for age), chronic malnutrition can hamper brain development, weaken the immune system and increase the risk for serious health problems later in life, such as diabetes and heart disease,” say experts from the Global Nutrition Report in the book From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030.

    The UN children's agency UNICEF revealed last year that 20 million babies are born with low birth weight - around a fifth of all births.

    “Low birth weight is a major predictor of infant illness and death and puts babies at greater risk for long-term health problems," says UNICEF's report Building Better Brains: New Frontiers in Early Childhood Development.

    Children, especially infants and toddlers, need access to the right foods because their bodies and brains need good nutrition for healthy growth.

    A child’s brain is 90% developed by the time they are five years old. If there is not enough proper nutrition in a child’s diet by this time, not only will their body suffer but their brain will never be able to reach its potential.

    An under-developed growing generation will ultimately affect how that generation looks after its country and the next generation. It’s a crisis spiralling out of control.

    Leading childhood nutrition expert Charlotte Stirling-Reed, who specialises in infant and toddler nutrition, said: “The moment of conception, as well as before this, right up until a child’s second birthday marks a period of rapid development. Research shows that this is when the foundations for life are laid.

    “Poor nutrition can affect not just an individual child and family but it can also have knock-on effects to future generations too.

    "Poor growth and development can occur if children are malnourished and the risk of developing serious infections and diseases are also higher.

    “Again research has taught us that good nutrition has been shown during this time to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, improve learning and performance, reduce infection risks and improve income and education attainment within families and even countries.”

    The UN is warning that thousands of children are suffering and dying every day as a result of acute malnutrition or "wasting". This occurs when a child loses weight quickly and becomes too thin for their height due to food shortages or as a side-effect of disease or poor water and sanitation.

    “Wasting puts children at immediate risk of death and increases risk of chronic malnutrition and illness. Acute malnutrition often occurs in emergency situations,” according to UNICEF.

    “Currently, 50 million children - one in 13 - are acutely malnourished and two million children die from acute malnutrition each year.”

    So it's not just the famine crisis and other emergencies that are to blame - long-term poverty plays a part.

    More than 19% of children in developing countries are in families surviving on less than $2 a day, which is affecting their health and ability to fulfil their potential.

    Worldwide almost 385 million children are living in extreme poverty.

    “The effects of poverty are most damaging to children," said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake. "They are the ‘worst off' of the worst off - and the youngest children are the worst off of all, because the deprivations they suffer affect the development of their bodies and their minds.”

    Ana Revenga, Senior Director, Poverty and Equity at the World Bank Group, said: “The sheer number of children in extreme poverty points to a real need to invest specifically in the early years - in services such as pre-natal care for pregnant mothers, early childhood development programmes, quality schooling, clean water, good sanitation, and universal health care."

    Some key interventions for young children

    Access to clean water and proper sanitation.

    Foods like wheat, rice, and salt can be fortified with vitamins and minerals such as iron and iodine to provide increased nutrients without requiring consumers to buy different foods.

    Vitamin and mineral supplements for adolescent girls, pregnant women, mothers, and children can ensure access to essential nutrients if they are not available through diet alone.

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life (no other food or water). Breast milk is the best source of nutrition and health in these early months, supplying not only the right balance of protein, fat, and nutrients but also providing children antibodies to fight off illness. At six months, the WHO recommends adding solid foods to a child’s diet in addition to breast milk.

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    Source: Government of Nigeria
    Country: Nigeria

    1. Introduction

    The Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) is developed to facilitate joint referral pathway for women, men, boys and girls at risk in the humanitarian operation, including Reception Centers, camps and host communities where the IDPs live. Gender Based Violence (GBV) is a life threatening protection, health, and human rights issue that can have devastating impact on women and children in particular, as well as families and communities.

    Standard Operating Procedures are developed to facilitate joint action by all actors to respond to GBV in a humanitarian crisis setting. It describes clear procedures, roles, and responsibilities for all actors. Furthermore all organizations listed above agree to the same procedures, guiding principles and working together for the best interest of women, men, boys and girls in the humanitarian setting in BORNO state.

    These SOPs, initially elaborated in November 2015, are updated and expanded to reflect more comprehensive prevention and response interventions. The members agreed to review the SOPs annually.

    2. Setting and Persons of Concern

    These SOPs have been developed for use in the following settings: IDPs camps and Host communities in BORNO State.

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    Source: Danish Refugee Council
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Yemen

    The Danish Refugee Council is present in some of the worst hit areas and helps people, who are affected by the escalating ‘four famines’ in Africa and Yemen.

    More than 20 million people are facing famine in the crisis currently escalating several places in African and Yemen. This has caused the UN to issue its largest appeal in the organizations history. The Danish Refugee Council is present in many of the worst affected areas and is working extensively to help.

    It is almost impossible to fathom how comprehensive this crisis is. Right now many, many millions of people are facing famine. A massive effort to counter this is needed both today and in the many months to come, says Secretary General of the Danish Refugee Council, Andreas Kamm.

    Right now the worst affected areas are North-Eastern Nigeria, South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen, which has caused the UN to name the crisis ‘the four famines’. In all four places a combination of drought and conflict has led to the current catastrophic situation. But also areas in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are in risk of being affected by the hunger catastrophe. Both in terms of food insecurity because of drought and because hunger can force people to leave their homes in search of food.

    The Danish Refugee Council has launched massive efforts in all the affected countries to help in the fight against hunger. This includes, among other things, food distribution, water transport and rehabilitating boreholes.

    • We are focused on helping the people who are at risk and who face malnutrition and starvation. It is not just about saving lives today, it is also about mitigating some of the horrible long term consequences of famine, Andreas Kamm says.

    • We have a very good relationship with our international donors, who understand that this crisis is escalating quickly. A fast response and additional funds are needed and we have therefore begun a dialogue with Ole Kirk’s Foundation in order to activate funds from the newly created ‘global emergency fund’ which the foundation has generously helped us create, Andreas Kamm says.

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    Source: Plan
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

    Twenty-million people, including millions of children, across South Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia are in urgent need of food as the East Africa food crisis worsens.

    We are calling on the international community to take immediate and urgent action to help the millions of girls and boys at risk of starvation in East Africa in the world’s worst humanitarian crisis since 1945.

    In South Sudan alone, almost 1.4 million children are at imminent risk of death from severe acute malnutrition this year. We are particularly concerned about the impact of the emergency on girls who often suffer the worst consequences during disaster situations.


    Roland Angerer, Plan International’s Regional Director for Eastern and Southern Africa, said: “We know from experience that girls are the ones who suffer most in these situations: in addition to the lack of food and water, the levels of child trafficking, sexual violence and early marriages tend to rise significantly during times of distress. In previous emergencies when families struggled to survive, many underage girls were sold into child marriage in exchange for livestock – there is no doubt this will happen again.”

    In total, 4.9 million people – more than 40% of South Sudan's population – are still in need of urgent food, agriculture and nutrition assistance. This figure is likely to rise to 5.5 million at the height of the lean season in July if nothing is done to curb the severity and spread of the food crisis.

    Daniel Muchena, Plan International’s Country Director in South Sudan said: “We are facing the horrible spectre of children dying in huge numbers if we do not take immediate action. The capacities of local populations have been stretched to their limits due to ongoing conflict and the food crisis is now pushing them to a tipping point. The international community must act now before it is too late.”


    Other countries in East Africa are also grappling with the food crisis. More than 20 million people, including millions of children across South Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia are in urgent need of food.

    Plan International is working in Kenya providing urgent food supplies and lifesaving humanitarian support to children and families. In Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan, our programmes are addressing the needs of the South Sudanese refugees as they arrive.

    We are deploying specialists to scale up the humanitarian response in the region. These specialists have extensive experience of working in disaster situations, particularly addressing the needs of children.


    We need support to reach out to more children.

    Please donate to our East Africa Food Crisis Appeal.

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    Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan

    More than 16 million people do not know where their next meal will come from and children risk dying from starvation.

    by Daniel Wesangula

    NAIROBI, March 15 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - British Olympic champion Mo Farah is supporting a charity appeal, launched on Wednesday, for more than 16 million people facing starvation in East Africa, including Somalia where he was born.

    The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an alliance of 13 leading British aid agencies, are raising funds for South Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia, which have been hit by drought.

    The United Nations has warned the world faces the largest humanitarian crisis since the end of the second world war with millions in four countries facing starvation and famine.

    Here are some the facts about the East African crisis:

    • More than 16 million people do not know where their next meal will come from and children risk dying from starvation.

    • Forecasts for upcoming spring rains are poor, which means people will need water, food and emergency aid throughout 2017.


    • South Sudan is causing Africa's biggest refugee crisis with three million fleeing their homes due to civil war in the world's youngest country.

    • More than 100,000 South Sudanese are experiencing famine, with a further one million on the brink of starvation.

    • Almost five million people - more than four in 10 of the population - are short of food and water.

    • Aid workers have been unable to reach tens of thousands in need due to clashes, denial of access at checkpoints and looting of humanitarian compounds.


    • In war-torn Somalia, more than six million people have no reliable access to food and there are 360,000 acutely malnourished children.

    • Experts are warning of an impending famine like the one in 2011, which killed 260,000 people.


    • In Ethiopia, 5.6 million people need emergency food aid due to a series of back-to-back droughts and this figure is likely to rise.

    • Some 3 million children and pregnant women are projected to be acutely malnourished by May.


    • In Kenya, some 2.7 million people need food aid due to drought, mostly in the arid north.

    • Kenya's government declared a national disaster in February

    Sources: Reuters, Britain's Department for International Development, United Nations.

    (Reporting by Daniel Wesangula; Editing by Katy Migiro and Belinda Goldsmith; Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, women's rights, trafficking, property rights and climate change. Visit to see more stories.).

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    Source: Reuters - Thomson Reuters Foundation
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    The "hostages freed consisted mostly of women, children and elderly people"

    By Sylvain Andzongo

    YAOUNDE, March 15 (Reuters) - Regional West African forces freed 5,000 captives from a Boko Haram base in a more than week-long operation that also completely destroyed the militants' hideout in mountains along the Nigeria-Cameroon border, Cameroon said Wednesday.

    Read more on the Thomson Reuters Foundation

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    Source: Reuters - Thomson Reuters Foundation
    Country: Nigeria

    by Reuters
    Wednesday, 15 March 2017 20:59 GMT

    The attack by four female teenage suicide bombers injured 16 others in a residential area in the northeast Nigerian city.

    (Adds Magumeri attack, Cameroon freed hostages)

    By Kolawole Adewale and Lanre Ola

    MAIDUGURI, Nigeria, March 15 (Reuters) - Four female teenage suicide bombers killed two people and injured 16 others in a residential area in the northeast Nigerian city of Maiduguri, a disaster agency spokesman said on Wednesday.

    Read more on the Thomson Reuters Foundation

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


    $1,054 million funds required in the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP)

    5.5% 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan coverage

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: South Sudan

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Maize, sorghum, wheat, and groundnuts are the most important food commodities in South Sudan. Sorghum, maize, and groundnuts are the staple foods for the poor in most rural areas. Maize flour and wheat (as bread) are more important for middle income and rich households in urban areas. Sorghum and maize are generally substitutable for one another but preferences are shifting towards maize over time, especially in the southern half of South Sudan. Groundnuts are important for the rural poor in Northern Bahr El Ghazal, Warrap, and Lakes states. Short-term sorghum is harvested in July – August in Greater Equatoria states and in September – October in Greater Bahr el Ghazal, Greater Upper Nile states and Jonglei states, and long-term sorghum in December – January particularly in Lakes, Western Bahr El Ghazal, Warrap, and Upper Nile states. Maize grain and flour from Uganda are available throughout the year because of the bi-modal rainfall pattern and carryover stocks. The main retail markets are in the state capitals, namely, Juba, Aweil, Malakal, Wau, Torit, Kuajok, Bentiu, Bor, Rumbek, and Yambio, but historical price data sets (2006-2010) are only available for Juba, Aweil, Malakal, and Wau only. The most important local wholesale market is in Renk, a mechanized cereal producing area in Upper Nile state. Aweil, Wau, Kuajok, and Bentiu are mostly supplied in cereals from Khartoum and El Obeid, while Malakal is also normally supplied by Renk and Kosti (Sudan). Cereal supplies in Juba, Torit, Bor, and Rumbek are mostly sourced from Uganda.

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    Source: Disasters Emergency Committee
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan

    Matt Baker, Brenda Blethyn, Tamsin Greig, Bill Nighy and Eddie Redmayne have thrown their backing behind the DEC’s East Africa Crisis Appeal by recording calls for support from the public.

    Leading UK aid agencies yesterday announced a joint fundraising appeal to help millions of people facing hunger in the region.

    Oscar winning actor Eddie Redmayne called on people to remember the plight of the hundreds of thousands of children in the region bearing the brunt of the crisis. He said: “Hundreds have already died. Now 800,000 children under 5 are malnourished and at risk of starving to death.

    “In South Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia the plight and suffering is on a scale never seen before. Where there were rivers, not even a drop of water now. Where there was livestock, now just carcasses and bones. People can't wait any longer.

    “I’m proud to support the DEC because member charities are tackling this crisis together and they urgently need more support.”

    Oscar nominee Brenda Blethyn has also given her support to the appeal and said: “The people of East Africa are in urgent need. The rains have failed; people have no food. Children’s suffering is unimaginable. Mothers search for dead seeds and grass. There is nothing else to eat. We desperately need to deliver aid.”

    BBC The One Show presenter Matt Baker asked the public to show their support, urging people to give what they can to the appeal for South Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia, where drought and conflict have left millions of people in immediate need of help.

    DEC member charities are already reaching millions of people across the region with food, medical care and clean water, but they need more support to continue helping those in urgent need.

    DEC Chief Executive, Saleh Saeed, said: “The strong personal appeals made by British public figures highlight the desperate situations that families and children in East Africa are facing. Unless we act now the number of deaths will drastically increase. Don’t delay – please donate.”

    To make a donation to the DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal visit, call the 24-hour hotline on 0370 60 60 610, donate over the counter at any high street bank or post office, or send a cheque. You can also donate £5 by texting the word SUPPORT to 70000.

    Stay up to date with developments in East Africa, the emergency response and the fundraising efforts with the DEC on twitter:, on Facebook via or by searching #fightingfamine

    To watch Eddie Redmayne’s broadcast for the DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal visit:

    To watch Matt Baker’s broadcast for the Africa Crisis Appeal visit:


    Notes to editors:
    Media enquiries please call 020 7387 0200 or 07930 999 014 (out of hours).
    Bill Nighy is a Global Ambassador for DEC member charity Oxfam.
    Tamsin Greig is an Ambassador for DEC member charity Tearfund.
    The DEC brings 13 leading UK aid charities together in times of crisis: ActionAid, Age International, British Red Cross, CAFOD, CARE International, Christian Aid, Concern Worldwide, Islamic Relief Worldwide, Oxfam, Plan International UK, Save the Children, Tearfund and World Vision; all collectively raising money to reach those in need quickly.
    All DEC agencies will support the appeal and are responding in East Africa.
    To make a postal donation make cheques payable to ‘DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal’ and mail to ‘PO Box 999, London, EC3A 3AA’.
    Donations can be made at any high street bank and at Post Office counters.
    To donate £5 by text send the word SUPPORT to 70000. The full £5 will go to the DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal. Donors must be 16 years or over and have bill payers’ permission. Texts are free and donations will be added to the bill.

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    Source: INGO Forum in Nigeria
    Country: Nigeria

    In this issue

    • About the Nigeria INGO Forum
    • Nigeria INGO Forum and Norwegian CSOs drive advocacy for Oslo conference
    • In-Focus: Food Security and Livelihoods: NRC’s response to Nigeria’s Food crisis
    • Did You Know?
    • Forum Members’ Products

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    Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
    Country: South Sudan

    In recent weeks, fighting in the Greater Upper Nile region has left the town of Wau Shilluk deserted and thousands of vulnerable people who fled the violence are now in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was forced to evacuate the hospital it was running in Wau Shilluk. It has now launched an emergency medical operation to support the thousands of displaced people settled north of the town of Kodok, in Aburoch, and in the more sparsely populated areas south of the town.

    [Since late January, nearly 30,000 people have fled fighting around Wau Shilluk, in the Greater Upper Nile](, and moved to Aburoch town and the bush areas south of Kodok.

    “The humanitarian needs of those that fled are vast and are not being met,” says Abdalla Hussein Abdalla, MSF’s deputy head of mission for South Sudan.

    “Most of the people who fled left all their belongings behind. They walked for days to escape the violence, and now they are in dire need of water, food, shelter and medical attention.”

    MSF has responded to the urgent medical needs of this displaced population by opening a field hospital with inpatient, outpatient and emergency services in Aburoch, where up to 15,000 people have settled.

    Two mobile clinics are also operating south of Kodok where part of the displaced population has settled. Over the past two weeks, MSF has provided an average of 300 consultations a day – six times the number carried out in Wau Shilluk hospital before the evacuation.

    Community health suffering badly

    Those who have settled in these areas have very little to survive on. For weeks, they have only received an average of two litres of clean water each. Although this has improved slightly in recent days, the amount is still below guidelines for what is required to remain healthy in an emergency environment.

    Among the families MSF has visited, over 90 per cent were lacking basic supplies such as plastic sheeting to protect them against the sun or the cold at night, jerry cans to collect clean water, or cooking pots.

    “Our doctors see many cases of respiratory infection and of acute diarrhoea which is partly explained by the terrible living conditions. Children, pregnant women and the elderly are especially vulnerable in this situation,” says Abdalla. “If more latrines are not constructed soon, and access to water is not improved, the risk of communicable diseases spreading through the population will increase.”

    For most people arriving from Wau Shilluk, this is not the first time that they have been displaced. Many had previously lived in Malakal town but were forced to leave because of fighting. Some have relatives in the Malakal Protection of Civilians site, the camp established by the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), but are unable to inform them of their present situation.

    Protection of civilians from further fighting

    MSF is worried by the insufficiency of humanitarian assistance available and reiterates its call for all those involved in the fighting to guarantee the safety of civilians.

    “Many people don’t know where to settle because they are afraid the fighting will force them to flee again. It is essential that they are spared from any more violence, and that assistance is provided to them where they choose to settle,” says Abdalla.

    MSF managed to visit Wau Shilluk at the end of February and again in early March, where the team assisted 47 mainly elderly and disabled people who had stayed in and around the town because they were unable to leave.

    Thirty-eight of them have since been taken to the Malakal Protection of Civilians site on their own request. The remaining civilians in the town are in clear need of assistance and protection. Humanitarian workers should be allowed to provide them with the help they require.

    MSF reiterates its call for respect of medical facilities and staff

    During this recent visit, MSF was able to return to its hospital in Wau Shilluk and survey the condition of facility.

    “Wau Shilluk was looted of all medicines, including life-saving drugs and essential supplies. We have called on those fighting to respect the protected status of medical facilities,” explains Abdalla.

    “Unfortunately, our hospital is in a terrible condition. Medication for the treatment of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and kala azar are now all gone. If medical facilities are not able to operate safely the whole community will suffer.”

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    Source: REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger


    La région de Diffa, au sud-est du Niger, fait face à une situation d’insécurité continue en conséquence des attaques menées par Boko-Haram de part et d’autre de la frontière avec le Nigéria au cours des dernières années, occasionnant d’importants mouvements de population dans la région. Par conséquent, en octobre 2016, la région accueillait un total de 221 790 personnes déplacées. Outre les risques liés directement aux attaques subies, les personnes présentes dans les zones affectées sont exposées à de nombreux risques de protection, tels que des arrestations arbitraires, le manque de pièce d’identité, une restriction des mouvements et notamment l’accès à certaines localités dans le cadre de l’état d’urgence en vigueur, ainsi qu’à des tensions intercommunautaires montantes, dans un contexte où l’accès aux ressources naturelles et aux services de base devient de plus en plus insuffisant.

    Face à un tel contexte de crise, le Cluster Protection au Niger avec l’appui du Groupe de Travail Sectoriel (GTS) protection à Diffa sous le leadership de la Direction Régionale pour la Promotion de la Femme et la Protection de l’Enfance (DRP/PF/PE) et sous la co-facilitation du Haut-Commissariat des Nations Unis pour les Réfugiés (HCR), agit dans la région dans l’objectif d’atténuer les souffrances des populations déplacées rendues vulnérables par les chocs et d’apporter une réponse en termes de protection. La stratégie de réponse est axée sur la problématique des capacités d’assistance et de protection à travers les structures communautaires. Mises en place par les acteurs humanitaires, ces structures sont constituées de groupes de personnes habitant dans une localité donnée. Ces groupes assistent dans l’identification des cas de protection pouvant affecter leur communauté, l’orientation des personnes affectées, le référencement des cas identifiés ainsi que dans la réponse apportée à ceux-ci, et composent ainsi un réseau communautaire pour la protection des populations déplacées. A Diffa, un certain nombre d’acteurs intervenant dans le domaine de la protection affirment avoir mis en place de telles structures communautaires depuis 2013. Cependant, suite aux mouvements successifs de population dans la région de Diffa, aucun état de lieux n’a été réalisé sur leur fonctionnement actuel et leur capacité de répondre aux besoins de l’ensemble de la population affectée dans ces localités.

    Dans le cadre de son projet de gestion de l’information afin d’améliorer les connaissances des acteurs humanitaires supporté par le HCR et en étroite collaboration avec le Groupe de Travail Protection à Diffa, REACH a réalisé dans la région de Diffa une évaluation sur les comités de protection, une des principales structures communautaires sur laquelle s’appuient les acteurs de protection dans la région. L’évaluation avait pour objectif de comprendre les caractéristiques générales des comités de protection et d’identifier les besoins en termes de renforcement de ces structures dans un contexte de planification de la réponse humanitaire. Cette évaluation a été conduite entre le 23 et 28 novembre 2016, auprès de 34 localités accueillant des personnes déplacées réparties sur huit communes de la région. Un total de 47 membres des comités de protection a été interviewé et 960 personnes habitant au sein de ces localités ont été enquêtées. Les principaux résultats de l’enquête sont décrits ci-dessous.

    Les comités de protection :

    • Les comités ont comme principales fonctions la sensibilisation, l’orientation et le référencement des cas de protection. Cela s’oriente le plus souvent sur les thématiques liées à la protection de l’enfant, l’accès à l’éducation et à la violence basée sur le genre (VBG). En revanche, la prévention de conflit est la thématique la moins couverte par les comités observés.

    • En général, les comités de protection fonctionnent avec des documents qui encadrent leurs actions et qui leur assurent un suivi des activités réalisées ou des cas référés (comme les termes de référence et les tenues de registre). Néanmoins, moins de la moitié des comités impliquent la population dans l’élaboration des documents qui définissent les objectifs du comité (40%).

    • Les comités ont en moyenne huit membres desquels environ un quart est inactif. Ils sont désignés dans 68% des cas par la population et dans 15% par nomination d’une organisation non-gouvernementale (ONG). Dans la grande majorité des comités observés, les membres de ces comités indiquent qu’il n’y a pas de pratique de renouvellement des membres au sein de leur comité (91%)

    • Concernant la rémunération des membres du comité, 25% des personnes enquêtées ont déclaré être payées pour leur participation aux activités du comité. Les principaux postes qui affirment bénéficier d’une rémunération sont les présidents et les animateurs.

    Les membres des comités:

    • Les personnes réfugiées sont les groupes qui, par statut, semblent être les moins représentés au sein des comités (uniquement 6% des membres des comités interviewés). Cependant, d’après le sondage réalisé auprès de la population, cette sous-représentation ne semble pas avoir un impact sur l’accès de cette population à ces structures. Au contraire, les personnes réfugiées, avec les déplacés internes, sont celles faisant le plus souvent appel à ces structures pour référer des cas de protection.

    • En ce qui concerne le genre, les résultats ont fait ressortir une sous-représentation des femmes au sein des comités : elles représentent seulement 25% des membres interviewés et 35% du total des membres lors de la décomposition. De même, presque deux tiers des comités interviewés sont composés majoritairement d’hommes, 21% ont une répartition égalitaire et seulement 15% sont composés majoritairement de femmes. Il est également important de signaler que les femmes sont plus souvent inactives dans les comités que les hommes (30% pour les femmes contre 23% pour les hommes).

    Facteurs qui contribuent à l’accès :

    • La taille de la population et l’emplacement géographique des personnes vivant dans les sites plus grands ont un impact sur leur accès aux comités. Les populations les mieux informées vivent dans les localités de moins de 1 000 habitants. Dans le cas des localités comptant plus de 10 000 habitants, les personnes situées dans des zones excentrées ont moins facilement accès aux activités du comité de protection et sont moins inclinées à référer des cas.

    • Selon les résultats du rapport, plus le comité réalise d’activités, plus les populations déclarent connaître le comité et y ont recours. En effet, dans les localités où plus de 90% des personnes affirmaient avoir connaissance des comités et référer des cas de protection, le nombre moyen de fois que le comité réalisait des activités est plus élevé que la moyenne observée dans les localités où entre 51 et 89% ou moins de 50% de la population connaissait le comité (21 contre 10 et deux respectivement).

    • Les résultats nous mènent à croire que la présence de femmes parmi les membres du comité semble améliorer la disposition des populations à aller vers ces structures. En effet, le pourcentage de personnes qui se réfèrent au comité est plus important dans le cas des comités composés majoritairement de femmes (85% contre 75% pour les comités composés majoritairement d’hommes et 43% pour les comités à composition égalitaire)

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    Source: Disasters Emergency Committee
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan

    The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) appeal for the crisis in East Africa has raised £12 million in less than 24 hours, with money continuing to pour in from the public.

    Drought and conflict have left 16 million people on the brink of starvation and in urgent need of food, water and medical treatment.

    People are already dying in South Sudan and Somalia. In Kenya, the government has declared a national emergency and Ethiopia is battling a new wave of drought following the strongest El Niño on record.

    DEC member charities are already reaching millions of people across the four countries with lifesaving aid, such as food, treatment for malnutrition and cash, but much more needs to be done to reach those in desperate need.

    DEC Chief Executive Saleh Saeed said:

    “People in the UK have, once again, shown their huge generosity and we’re very grateful for their response to the devastating humanitarian crisis in East Africa.

    “The powerful TV appeals highlighted the desperate situation of families, children and older people. This has really struck a chord with the public, who have recognised the urgency of the crisis.

    “The needs are huge. We would urge people to continue demonstrating compassion and generosity so that DEC member charities can continue to save lives and reduce the suffering of people in East Africa. Please don’t delay, donate.”

    The £12 million funds raised is made up of £7 million given by the UK public by text, phone and online, and £5 million from the UK Government through the Aid Match Fund.

    What your money could buy:

    • £25 could provide a month’s supply of life-saving peanut paste to a malnourished child
    • £60 could provide clean drinking water for two families for a month
    • £100 could provide supplies to a clinic treating severely malnourished children for a week.

    To make a donation to the DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal visit:, call the 24-hour hotline on 0370 60 60 610, donate over the counter at any high street bank or post office, or send a cheque. You can also donate £5 by texting the word SUPPORT to 70000.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: South Sudan, Uganda


    Daily arrival figures from July 2016 are based on manual emergency registration or head-counts/wrist-banding. Confirmed figures will be available as the new arrivals undergo biometric registration.
    Figures prior to July are from the Government’s Refugee Information Management System (RIMS).

    41,378 Number of new arrivals between 1st and 14th March 2017

    2,956 Daily average of new arrivals between 1st and 14th March 2017

    805,704 Total number of South Sudanese refugees in Uganda


    • Ensure basic services for new arrivals as well support to persons with specific needs  Accelerate biometric registration - Identify new sites for refugee settlement - Community outreach and protection monitoring in the settlements - Expedite rehabilitation and construction of school structures to ensure access to education - Ensure a sustainable and predictable supply of water - Engage refugees/refugee leaders and host community members in coexistence and peace-building activities - Promote and engage partners in livelihood interventions. Strengthen engagement of all partners, local authorities and members of the host community regarding interventions in Bidibidi.


    • The rate of new arrivals in to Uganda has increased, with a total of 41,378 South Sudanese refugees received in Uganda in the two weeks between thest and 14th of March, compared to 18,854 in the previous two weeks. An average of 2,956 refugees crossed the border from South Sudan into Uganda each day, with 5,116 recorded in a single day on 9th March.
    • Refugees arriving in Uganda, the majority of whom are women and children, continue to report general insecurity, limited access to food and basic services, violence, rape and abuse of women and girls, arbitrary detention and indiscriminate killing and destruction of property by armed forces as reasons for fleeing their homes in South Sudan.
    • New arrivals continue to be relocated to Imvepi settlement in Arua district, which is now home to 19,721 South Sudanese refugees.
    • In Lamwo district, the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) obtained a written agreement from the landowners of Ogili Sub-County in Palabek for the use of their land for refugee settlement. The land has capacity to host approximately 30,000 persons, and talks are ongoing with landowners in neighbouring subcounties to expand the site in order to increase capacity. Site planning and assessment of the proposed site are ongoing.
    • Pending full scale readiness of a new settlement in Lamwo district, Palorinya Reception Centre continues to receive refugees from Elegu, Afogi and Lefori border points, mostly persons with special needs and refugees seeking reunification with their family members in Palorinya settlement.
    • International Women’s Day was celebrated across the settlements on the 8 th of March. Under the theme of ‘Be Bold for Change: Women in the Changing World of Work’ refugee women and girls led celebratory activities including radio talk shows, music, dance, drama and cultural performances and speeches by refugees, local government and humanitarian actors.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan


    • In February, the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) update highlighted a deteriorating food security situation in South Sudan, with two counties reportedly facing famine conditions.

    • In Leer and Mayendit counties, WFP teams provided life-saving food assistance to 164,000 people facing famine conditions.

    • WFP and World Vision began the first cycle of payments to 7,000 households as part of the Juba urban response pilot.

    Operational Updates

    • The latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) update highlights a worsening humanitarian situation in South Sudan as a result of over three years of conflict amidst economic deterioration. Food and nutrition security is expected to deteriorate even further during the lean season (May to July 2017), with around 5.5 million people likely to face crisis, emergency and catastrophic levels of food insecurity. Famine was declared in two counties, Leer and Mayendit, and Koch County remains at an elevated risk for famine.

    • WFP Integrated Rapid Response Mechanism (IRRM) teams completed distribution of life-saving food assistance for 50,000 people in Leer County and 114,000 people in Mayendit County (Unity State) where famine conditions were declared. In Koch County, WFP teams also completed distribution of food assistance to 26,000 people where populations are facing emergency levels of food insecurity and are at an elevated risk for famine. Subsequent deployment of IRRM teams to these locations have been prioritized with regular deliveries planned for the coming months.

    • In Juba, WFP and World Vision commenced distribution of the first cycle of cash based transfers to participants involved in urban poor response pilot, through which WFP seeks to provide training and cash based assistance to 7,000 households (42,000 people) to help them meet their basic food needs. Training sessions are ongoing, with participants covering topics related to nutrition, hygiene and urban gardening.

    • The Logistics Cluster continues to coordinate convoys on behalf of the humanitarian community, with a total of eight convoys coordinated since the beginning of 2017 along all delivery corridors in South Sudan.

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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: South Sudan

    Africa and Middle East / South Sudan

    Switzerland– IOM Director General, William Lacy Swing, today condemned an attack on a humanitarian convoy in South Sudan on 14 March, which resulted in the death of two people and left three others injured.

    “I unequivocally condemn the attack on IOM staff, health workers and civilians, who were assaulted during a lifesaving humanitarian mission in Yirol East County, South Sudan,” said Ambassador Swing.

    While a convoy was returning to Yirol from a field mission on 14 March, one of the vehicles was ambushed by unknown armed gunmen. Tragically, two people died of gunshot wounds. Among the injured was an IOM health officer who sustained a gunshot wound but is currently in a stable condition.

    “This tragic attack on aid workers and civilians is appalling. The assault took place in an area of South Sudan in dire need of assistance due to a deadly outbreak of cholera. In a country overwhelmed by the huge lack of basic necessities due to conflict, famine and health epidemics, these types of attacks undoubtedly harm the ability of humanitarian partners to provide assistance to millions in need of lifesaving aid,” Ambassador Swing added.

    The identity and motivation of the attackers remain unknown.

    A joint IOM health and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) team of 12 had deployed to Yirol East County, in central South Sudan, on 17 February to provide assistance to communities affected by a cholera outbreak that began in early February, with more than 300 cases and 10 deaths reported to date.

    IOM health staff were supporting four cholera treatment units in Yirol East County, working closely with health actors on the ground to ensure coordinated social mobilization activities. To mitigate the spread of cholera, IOM WASH staff also undertook borehole rehabilitation, hygiene promotion and distribution of hygiene supplies, including water purification tablets, reaching more than 25,000 people.

    Across South Sudan, IOM is responding to the emergency needs of millions affected by the crisis that erupted in December 2013. Over 7.5 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance this year, including nearly 5 million facing severe food insecurity and 1.8 million displaced internally.

    Amid an already difficult operating environment, insecurity and access constraints continually hinder the ability of IOM and other aid agencies to reach the most vulnerable in many parts of the country.

    For further information, please contact Ashley McLaughlin at IOM South Sudan, Tel: +211 922 405 716, Email:

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria

    Key messages

    Market availability and physical access

    • Hikes in prices of food commodities in the markets of Borno and Yobe States as well as other parts of the country have been compounded by the ongoing economic recession, depreciation in the value of the Naira, increased cost of transportation and rising inflationary trends.

    • Staple food commodities are widely available in the markets of Borno and Yobe States, with the exception of Gubio where traders reported limited availability of maize, yam, millet and fish.

    • Markets in these two states are accessible throughout the year with the exception of Gujba-Bumsa and Geidam markets (Yobe) as well as Gubio and Magumeri (Borno) due to insecurity.

    Characteristics of traders

    • More than 80 percent of traders in both Borno and Yobe States have employed people in their business and these are mostly men. More than half of traders in both states have more than 5 employees.

    • Only 1 out of the 126 traders interviewed in Borno State and 7 out of the 482 traders interviewed in Yobe State are female. Female traders are mostly engaged in both retail and wholesale/retail.

    • Some 87 percent of traders (419) in Yobe and 77 percent (97 traders) of those interviewed in Borno State belong to a trader association.

    • Whereas only 34 percent of traders (43) in Borno State have a valid food trading license, the proportion for Yobe State is 74 percent (357 traders).

    Traders’ business and response capacity

    • The largest stocks of maize, millet, local rice and imported rice are held in Bullunkutu, Kasua Shanu and Bolore Stores in Borno State and in Jacusko-Buduwa, Bade-Gashua and Potiskum market in Yobe State.

    • In the event of a 25 percentage point increase in demand, 78.6 percent of traders (99 traders) in Borno will be able to deliver adequate stocks within a week. Similarly, 80 percent of traders (385) in Yobe State have the capacity to respond to a 25 percentage point increase in demand within week.

    Constraints to trader

    • Lack of capital, insecurity and high cost of transport are the three main constraints affecting traders across the two north eastern states of Yobe and Borno. Among wholesale and wholesale/retailer tradersin Borno State, the top constraint to trade is high cost of transportation while retailers are more concerned with insecurity. In Yobe State on the other hand, lack of capital is the top concern among all categories of traders.

    Stock strategy

    • Some 12.4 percent traders(60) in Yobe and 12 percent (15 traders) in Borno stored products from the last agricultural season in order to resell in 2017. In Yobe State, these traders are mostly located in Bade-Gashua, Potiskum and Bumsa markets and to a lesser extent Yusufari while in Borno State, these traders are in Konduga, Bolore stores and Abba Gamaram.

    • As compared to the previous year, most traders in the markets of Borno State have observed a worsening access to storage facilities. In Yobe State on the other hand, an improvement in storage facilities has been observed by most traders.

    Capacity for voucher

    • Some 65.9 percent of traders (83) in Borno State have bank accounts. Of the traders with bank accounts, 36 percent (30) are retailers while 32.5 percent (27) are wholesale traders. Wholesale/retail traders constitute 31.3 percent (26). Similarly, 67.6 percent of traders (326) in Yobe have bank accounts of whom 43.2 percent are wholesale/retail traders while 35.5 percent retailers and 21.4 percent wholesalers.

    • Some 42.7 percent of traders (206) in Yobe and 38 percent of their counterparts (48) in Borno State are willing to accept Airtel mobile money payment from customers in exchange for food.

    • Some 3-4 weeks delay in payments for additional demand would be problematic for 60% traders (76) in Borno and 55.4 percent of traders (267) in Yobe.

    Key Actions:

    • Given the low proportion of traders who are willing to accept mobile money payment, it is recommended that sensitization is carried out to increase their knowledge and interest in such a modality.

    • As 79% of traders in Borno and 87 percent in Yobe States are members of trader associations, it is commended that such associations be used to channel messages on sensitization, procurement and training in the event that a voucher is implemented.

    • Traders who are willing to become mobile money agents need to be targeted by the Mobile Network Operator for training and sensitizing on the use mobile money and CTB.

    • As 34% of traders in Borno State and 74 percent of their counterparts in Yobe State have a valid food trading license,they have already satisfied an important criteria for participating in a voucher scheme and could be considered in the targeting of traders.

    • Given that the price of imported rice is mostly determined by individual traders, price monitoring of contracted traders will be key in the implementation of vouchers to ensure that such traders do not exceed a certain price threshold which should be aligned with the prevailing market price average.

    • Considering that 3-4 weeks delay in payments for additional demand would be problematic for traders in the two states, WFP need to ensure that vouchers are regularly redeemed and payments made to traders if this modality is implemented.

    • The current high inflation trend, the ongoing economic recession and the sluggish market conditions in some insurgency-affected locations coupled with the lingering insecurity in many parts of Borno and Yobe calls for regular monitoring of market supply conditions in the even that a voucher program is being implemented.

    1. Introduction

    The Boko Haram conflict in north eastern Nigeria has negatively impacted on trade in food commodities for the past six years as heightened insecurity has constrained access to markets. Despite some success by the Nigerian security forces in liberating a number of Local Government Areas (LGAs) in 2016, several communities within the axis of the Sambisa forest and the northern parts of Borno and Yobe States remain hard to reach and sporadic attacks persist in many rural areas. Consequently, markets in the affected LGAs, including Gubio, Magumeri and Maguno in Borno along with Gujba, Gulani Geidam and Yunusari in Yobe State remain volatile and the availability of food commodities is unstable. High level of insecurity in conflict-affected areas has restricted agricultural production to a few kilometers radius of major settlements while security restrictions on the cultivation of tall crops has relegated farmers to the cultivation of groundnuts and cowpea, thus decimating local food production and causing large production deficit.

    The World Food Programme initiated a Cash-Based Transfer (CBT) program in 2016 to provide assistance to families affected by the crisis. A total of 173,000 beneficiaries in Borno and Yobe States were assisted through the use of cash with a transfer value of 23,550 per household. During the last quarter of 2016, the largest proportion of WFP's cash assistance to displaced and host households was in Borno State. As WFP scales up its operations in the northeast and explore ways of expanding its CBT/voucher initiative, a market assessment was initiated in some selected locations in Borno and Yobe as part of a multi-sectorial capacity assessment for CBT.

    The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the appropriateness of CTB in the selected locations and to provide information to support evidence-based programming in the ongoing WFP humanitarian response in the north eastern Nigeria. More specifically, the objective of the market assessment was to:

    • Conduct secondary data analysis on a variety of indicators which include market function, food availability, physical access, financial transfers and the security situation in general;

    • Evaluate food traders’ capacity to respond to increased household purchasing power (e.g. storage facilities, duration of stocks and stock replenishment lead-time);

    • Conduct competition analysis (e.g. hoarding and monopolies);

    • Evaluate macro risks e.g. inflation, supply shortage, food import problems, security problems or corruption; and

    • Evaluate traders’ capacity for the implementation of CBT as well as their constraints.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: South Sudan, Sudan


    • Over 25,000 people in Belle Elsereif in South Darfur’s East Jebel Marra locality are in need of humanitarian aid.

    • Aid organisations continue to respond to the needs of over 53,000 Jebel Marra IDPs in North Darfur.

    • National cereal production is estimated at 8 million MT—a 70% increase compared to the five-year average.

    • Over 11,000 people in Kurmuk locality, Blue Nile State are facing serious water shortages.

    FIGURES 2017 HRP

    # people in need in Sudan (2017 HNO) 4.8 million

    # people in need in Darfur (2017 HNO) 3 million

    GAM caseload (2017 HNO) 2.2 million

    South Sudanese refugee arrivals in Sudan - since 15 Dec 2013 (registered by UNHCR) - as of 8 March 2017 332,000

    Refugees of other nationalities (registered by UNHCR) - as of 31 Oct 2016 140,626


    564.8 million US$ received in 2016

    58.1% Reported funding (as of 5 March 2017)

    25,000 people in need of humanitarian assistance in East Jebel Marra locality, South Darfur

    An inter-agency mission to Belle Elsereif village in East Jebel Marra locality, South Darfur, took place from 19 to 21 February to assess humanitarian needs in the area. People in Belle Elsereif and surrounding villages were affected by conflict between government forces and the Sudan Liberation Movement–Abdul Wahid (SLA-AW) between 2014 and 2015.

    The mission estimated that about 25,000 people (14,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), 7,500 returnees and 3,500 nomads) in the area need access to clean water and sanitation, health care and nutrition services, emergency household supplies, as well as education and protection support. The area lacks basic services and infrastructure. The mission stated that any humanitarian intervention should consider the nomadic communities who currently share the resources with the IDPs and returnees. Registration and verification of needs should take place before the delivery of humanitarian assistance. However, immediate assistance will soon be provided to the most vulnerable.

    More water sources required to meet the needs of people in the area

    There are three hand pumps in Belle Elsereif, the main village in the area, which serve both Belle Elsereif and 10 surrounding villages. People often have to wait up to three hours to collect water. According to the mission, existing water sources are sufficient to serve 3,500 out of the 17,600 people in the area. Other water sources are located 2 to 3 kilometres away, which poses potential health hazards as the water points are also used by animals, and also means inhabitants may face potential protection risks while collecting water. As a result, the people in the area depend on inadequate, contaminated water sources in the immediate vicinity. There are no sanitation facilities in the area, but a few families were attempting to construct improvised latrines. Some of the mission recommendations include increasing the number of water sources for use by villagers and nomads; building latrines and carrying out sanitation awareness activities; and activating water user committees in Belle Elsereif.

    Urgent need for health and nutrition assistance

    There is no health facility in Belle Elsereif, however, there is a clinic made out of local materials 3km away in Dobo Al Madrassa village, which has one medical assistant and one nurse. This clinic serves people in Belle Elsereif and surrounding villages. Recommendations include providing a wider range of health services; stocking existing facilities with essential medicines; vaccinating children and women; and carrying out health education and hygiene promotion activities.

    A nutrition screening carried out in Belle Elsereif in September 2016 identified 43 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and four children with oedema—swelling caused by the accumulation of fluid in the body. High rates of oedema can lead to high mortality rates among malnourished populations. During the conflict, nutrition facilities in the area were destroyed or looted, and there are currently no nutrition facilities or staff in Belle Elsereif or the surrounding villages. If immediate interventions are not undertaken, the nutrition status of children will deteriorate, according to mission findings. Recommendations include starting outpatient therapeutic programmes (OTP) and therapeutic supplementary feeding programmes (TSFP) to tackle nutrition problems; and carrying out community awareness programmes to improve infant and young child feeding.

    Schools need furniture and learning materials

    There is one basic school in Belle Elsereif with 300 students and seven other schools in the surrounding villages accommodating 1,913 children. All schools lack teaching and learning materials and nearly all the teachers are volunteers. Recommendations include rehabilitating the schools in Belle Elsereif and surrounding villages; providing school furniture and learning materials; and bringing in teachers from the State Ministry of Education (SMoE).

    Food support will be required during the lean season People in Belle Elsereif have sufficient stocks of food to meet their current needs. However, their food security is likely to deteriorate during the May-August lean season due to the consumption of these food stocks. Recommendations from the mission include providing agricultural supplies to ensure sufficient food production and to improve livelihood options; and training farmers on using better water harvesting/irrigation techniques.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali, Mauritania


    Jusqu’à l’année 2016, l’action du Système des Nations Unies en Mauritanie a été basée sur deux processus de planification parallèles, notamment : l’UNDAF (Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l’Assistance au Développement), et le SRP/HRP (le Plan Stratégique de Réponse Humanitaire).

    L’UNDAF constitue la réponse du Système des Nations Unies (SNU) aux priorités nationales de développement et aux politiques et programmes sectoriels. Formulé en étroite collaboration entre les Agences du SNU et le gouvernement de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie, il est le fruit d’un processus participatif piloté par le Ministère de l’Économie et des Finances (MEF), conjointement avec le SNU.

    L’UNDAF a pour objectif de contribuer à la réalisation des priorités nationales de développement, à la promotion et à la protection des Droits humains et à la réalisation des valeurs et principes énoncés dans les déclarations globales : la Déclaration du Millénaire et les Objectives du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD) dans le cas de l’UNDAF en cours, et bien évidemment l’Agenda 2030 et les Objectives de Développement Durable (ODD) dans le cas du prochain cycle de l’UNDAF.

    L’UNDAF en cours avait été prévu initialement pour la période 2012-2016. Néanmoins, en concertation avec le Gouvernement, la décision a été prise de l’étendre jusqu’à fin 2017, pour permettre une meilleure prise en compte dans la formulation du prochain UNDAF de la nouvelle stratégie nationale de développement 2016-2030, la Stratégie de Croissance Accélérée et de Prospérité Partagée (SCAPP).

    Pour sa part, le Plan de Réponse Humanitaire (HRP), avec duration trisannuelle de 2014 à 2016, formulait des objectifs stratégiques pour la réponse aux besoins humanitaires des populations les plus vulnérables dans le pays. Il était articulé autour de la Coordination et de 8 secteurs (Eau, Hygiène et Assainissement, Nutrition, Protection, Relèvements Précoce, Santé, Sécurité Alimentaire et Multi-secteurs Refugiés), en concertation avec les institutions gouvernementales des différents secteurs, les Organisations Non Gouvernementales (ONG), le SNU et les bailleurs de fonds humanitaires.

    Le HRP était aussi lié à la planification humanitaire régionale, et coordonné dans le contexte des plans de réponse humanitaire de neuf pays Sahéliens très souvent confrontés à des problèmes humanitaires similaires.

    Pendant la période d’implémentation de l’UNDAF en cours et du HRP 2016, plusieurs réflexions d’importance capitale ont été menées au niveau global sur les thématiques du développement et des situations humanitaires.

    Entre autres, la formulation et l’adoption par l’Assemblée Générale des Nations Unies de l’Agenda 2030 et des Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD) en 2015, et les conclusions du Sommet Humanitaire Mondial (WHS – World Humanitarian Summit) tenu à Istanbul en 2016 s’avèrent très pertinentes pour le processus de planification en Mauritanie. Leur importance spécifique pour le pays a été bien soulignée par la participation de S.E.M. Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, Président de la République Islamique de Mauritanie, aux deux évènements.

    Dans l’esprit de l’Agenda 2030 et du Sommet Humanitaire Mondial, et en concertation avec le gouvernement mauritanien, le SNU en Mauritanie a engagé avec les ONGs et d’autres partenaires, un processus de planification intégrée pour 2017, qui constituera aussi une base indispensable d’apprentissage pour une intégration plus complète et structurée à partir de 2018. On notera ici que le Secrétaire général de l’ONU Antonio Guterres a remarqué luimême, lors de son discours d’investiture comme Secrétaire général, l’importance de rapprocher l’humanitaire et le développement (voir citation au début de ce document).

    Les raisons spécifiques de cette intégration en Mauritanie sont de deux types, basés sur des considérations liées aux indications du Sommet Humanitaire Mondial et de la décision de « travailler autrement » (« New Way of Working »), aussi bien que celles établies dans l’Agenda 2030. La première raison porte sur des considérations stratégiques, et la deuxième est liée à l’efficacité de gestion et d’utilisation des ressources disponibles (assez limités).

    La Mauritanie fait face à de nombreuses vulnérabilités de nature chronique et récurrente avec des besoins très aigus (en termes de malnutrition et d’insécurité alimentaire) et une nécessité cruciale de réponse humanitaire immédiate afin d’assister les populations les plus vulnérables. Néanmoins, une réponse humanitaire seule n’est pas suffisante pour faire évoluer le contexte et éliminer les besoins.

    Le Sommet Humanitaire Mondial (Agenda for Humanity et Grand Bargain) nous encourage très explicitement à « passer de l’assistance à l’élimination des besoins » : l’intégration d’une approche humanitaire/développement est donc dans ce cas fort nécessaire.

    La deuxième raison de fond pour soutenir l’impératif de l’intégration des deux processus de planification porte sur la nécessité d’améliorer l’efficience des systèmes. Surtout, en considérant les ressources humaines et financières disponibles assez limitées, il est impératif de réduire au maximum les duplications de processus de planification et les efforts menés à bien. Maximiser l’efficience et éviter les doublons est, aussi, l’une des indications clés du Sommet Humanitaire Mondial.

    Avec un contexte global où les besoins humanitaires sont en constante augmentation et où les crises sont de plus en plus prolongées, atteindre l’objectif souscrit dans l’Agenda 2030 de « ne laisser personne de côté » s’avère de plus en plus difficile. L’Agenda 2030 et les ODD fournissent une base cohérente pour une vision de travail intégrée constituant un élément fondamental pour mieux articuler les ODD et leur interopérabilité, et aussi et surtout, pour œuvrer à « ne laisser personne de côté » d’ici 2030.

    Concernant la Mauritanie, le Plan Intégré 2017 sera guidé par le concept de « travailler autrement 1 », basé sur les discussions du Sommet Humanitaire Mondial et l’Agenda 2030 / ODD. Ce concept est fondé sur trois principes :

    1) œuvrer pour des résultats communs en transcendant la séparation entre l’humanitaire et le développement,

    2) anticiper les besoins et non pas attendre qu’ils surgissent et réagir à posteriori, 3) renforcer les systèmes aux niveaux national et local et non pas les remplacer. Cette notion implique donc un travail conjoint vers des objectifs collectifs, une utilisation synergique de la valeur ajoutée par les différents acteurs, et une planification multi annuelle (que sera introduite de manière plus structurée à partir de 2018).

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