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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Les organisations des Nations Unies et plusieurs gouvernements se rencontrent à Oslo à l’occasion d’un sommet visant à empêcher une propagation de la crise humanitaire

    24 février 2017, Rome - Alors que les conflits et l'instabilité perdurent, la situation de la sécurité alimentaire au Nigéria et dans le bassin du Lac Tchad est en nette détérioration, a averti aujourd'hui la FAO. L'Organisation appelle la communauté internationale à agir rapidement et de manière déterminée afin de protéger les moyens d'existence de millions de foyers dépendants de l'agriculture, du bétail et de la pêche pour leur survie.

    Alors que la prochaine campagne de semis devrait débuter en mai et sachant que le fourrage pour animaux, ainsi que les points d'eaux se feront rares au cours de la saison maigre, il est essentiel que les semences, les outils et une aide au bétail parviennent jusqu'à ces familles de manière urgente afin de limiter l'ampleur de la crise qui concerne maintenant quatre pays : le Cameroun, le Tchad, le Niger et le Nigéria.

    Près de 7,1 millions de personnes sont maintenant confrontées à une insécurité alimentaire grave dans les quatre pays. Parmi eux, 515 000 enfants souffrent de malnutrition aigüe sévère, une maladie qui, si non traitée, peut entraîner des dégâts irréparables lors du développement d'un enfant et peut même lui être fatal.

    La FAO fait partie des organisations de l'ONU et des gouvernements qui participent aujourd'hui à la Conférence humanitaire d'Oslo, organisée en vue de mobiliser des fonds internationaux pour la région en crise, où 80 à 90 pour cent des personnes dépendent de l'agriculture, de la pêche et de l'élevage pour leurs moyens d'existence.

    «Dans les zones les plus affectées, la menace de la famine continue de planer et des millions de personnes resteront aux prises avec une grave crise de la faim si nous ne permettons pas aux agriculteurs de cultiver maintenant», a déclaré M. Dominique Burgeon, Directeur de la Division des urgences et de la réhabilitation de la FAO, qui représente d'ailleurs la FAO lors de la conférence.

    «Nos efforts collectifs ne peuvent se limiter à éviter principalement une famine de masse, ils doivent également permettre aux gens de mener à nouveau une vie digne et soutenir l'agriculture est la solution pour atteindre ces deux objectifs», a-t-il indiqué.

    Selon M. Burgeon, en plus de réduire les souffrances liées a la faim et de renforcer la nutrition, investir dans les agriculteurs permet également de créer davantage d'opportunités d'emploi, ce qui contribuera à réduire les migrations et les risques de radicalisation chez les jeunes au chômage.

    La crise s'étend au-delà des frontières

    Les violences liées au groupe armé Boko Haram dans le Nord-Est du Nigéria se sont étendues à certaines régions des pays voisins situés dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, à savoir l'extrême Nord du Cameroun, l'Ouest du Tchad et le Sud-Est du Niger, avec des répercussions dévastatrices sur la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens d'existence.

    Alors que le bassin du Lac Tchad s'approche à grands pas d'une période cruciale au niveau du calendrier agricole, la FAO demande de manière urgente 30 millions de dollars pour apporter une aide immédiate et permettre aux familles agricoles des quatre pays de se préparer à semer lors de la prochaine campagne de semis, qui aura lieu en mai, et pour les empêcher de devenir dépendants de l'aide alimentaire à long terme.

    Au total, ces trois prochaines années, 232 millions de dollars seront nécessaires afin de sécuriser la production alimentaire et l'accès à l'alimentation de trois millions de personnes dans les zones les plus durement touchées. La plupart des fonds demandés (soit près de 191 millions) seront utilisés à destination du Nigéria, qui paie le plus lourd tribut de la crise.

    Les violences et les déplacements de population accentuent la gravité de la crise alimentaire

    Les violences ont déplacé des millions de personnes dans les quatre pays et ont entravé l'accès aux terres et aux actifs, provoquant des besoins humanitaires immenses dans une région déjà confrontée à l'insécurité alimentaire, à la pauvreté et à la dégradation environnementale. Les communautés hôtes, en particulier, s'efforcent, depuis plusieurs années maintenant, de se nourrir et de nourrir les déplacés.

    Alors que l'accès humanitaire s'améliore, révélant par ailleurs l'ampleur des répercussions du conflit, le temps est venu de soutenir les personnes qui sont restées sur leurs terres et celles qui ont décidé de reconstruire leurs moyens d'existence.

    Dans l'Etat de Borno, le nombre de personnes confrontées à une insécurité alimentaire de crise, d'urgence, puis de catastrophe ( de la phase 3 à la phase 5 sur l'échelle utilisée par les organisations humanitaires) est passé de 2 millions en août 2016 à 3,3 millions en octobre-décembre 2016. Les personnes les plus affectées dans ce groupe ne sont pas en mesure de se nourrir et ont épuisé toutes leurs ressources en vendant leurs affaires, dont leurs semences, leurs outils et leurs animaux. Sans intervention, ce chiffre devrait augmenter pour atteindre les 3,6 millions à son pic lors de la saison creuse en août 2017.

    Selon l'ONU, près de 120 000 personnes seront confrontées à la famine au Nigéria. Parmi eux, la plupart (96 pour cent) devraient se trouver dans l'Etat de Borno.

    Cibler les personnes les plus vulnérables

    Une aide agricole d'urgence doit être associée à une aide alimentaire pour s'avérer fructueuse pendant la prochaine saison creuse. A cet effet, la FAO collabore avec le Programme alimentaire mondial afin de s'assurer que les familles vulnérables (principalement les déplacés internes et les communautés hôtes) bénéficient d'une aide alimentaire, ainsi que d'une aide aux moyens d'existence agricoles, par le biais de la fourniture de semences, d'outils et d'engrais. De cette façon, ces derniers seront en mesure de restaurer et de protéger leurs moyens d'existence et leurs actifs agricoles pour la production alimentaire en cours.

    La stratégie à long-terme de la FAO pour la région du Lac Tchad met l'accent sur le soutien aux réfugiés, aux déplacés internes et aux communautés hôtes, car ils représentent les groupes les plus vulnérables dans cette crise. Ces interventions visent à améliorer leur sécurité alimentaire, leur nutrition et à renforcer leur résilience de manière à ce qu'ils soient mieux préparés à faire face aux futurs chocs. En outre, rétablir les moyens d'existence agricoles permettra d'ouvrir la voie vers le rétablissement et le processus de paix dans les zones affectées.

    Cette stratégie comprend la fourniture d'intrants pour le bétail et l'agriculture, mais également l'organisation de formations techniques, des transferts d'argent, des conseils en matière de gestion des ressources naturelles et une aide en vue de mettre en place des fonds communautaires visant à réduire leur vulnérabilité face aux chocs.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    UN Agencies and governments to meet at Oslo summit to tackle expanding humanitarian emergency

    24 February 2017, Rome - As conflict and instability continue, the food security situation in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin is drastically deteriorating, FAO warned today, as it called for swift and decisive action from the international community to protect the livelihoods of millions of families dependent on farming, livestock and fishing for their food and livelihoods.

    With the next planting season starting in May, and with scarcity of animal fodder and water points during the lean season, it is crucial that crop seeds, tools and livestock support reach families urgently to limit the scope of the deepening crisis that now involves four countries: Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.

    Some 7.1 million people are now severely food insecure across the four countries. Among them are 515 000 children who are suffering from severe acute malnutrition - a condition which, if untreated, can lead to permanent damage to a child's development and even death.

    FAO is among the UN agencies and governments attending the Oslo Humanitarian Conference today, organized to mobilize international funding for the crisis-struck region, where 80 to 90 percent of people rely on farming, fishing and herding for their livelihoods.

    "In the worst-affected areas, famine continues to loom -- and millions will remain trapped in cycles of severe hunger if we don't enable farmers to start cropping now," said Dominique Burgeon, Director of FAO's Emergency and Rehabilitation Division, who is representing FAO at the conference. "Our collective efforts cannot be limited to merely avoiding massive famine - they need to allow people to return to a dignified life. And supporting agriculture is the key to both," he said.

    Besides reducing hunger and boosting nutrition, investing in farmers also provides much needed job opportunities that reduce migration and limit the potential for radicalization of unemployed youth, according to Burgeon.

    Crisis spilling across borders

    Violence related to the armed group Boko Haram in northeastern Nigeria has spilled over to parts of neighboring countries in the Lake Chad Basin - specifically, Cameroon's Far North, western Chad and southeastern Niger - with devastating effects on food security and livelihoods.

    With the Lake Chad Basin approaching a critical period in the agricultural calendar, FAO is urgently calling for $30 million in immediate emergency support to help farming families in the four countries get ready to plant in the upcoming May planting season and prevent them from slipping into long-term dependency on food aid.

    A total of $232 million will be needed to secure food production and access to food for three million people in the worst-hit areas over the next three years. The vast majority of the requested funds - some $191 million - is designated for Nigeria, which is bearing the brunt of the crisis.

    Violence and displacement drive severe hunger

    Violence has driven millions across the four countries from their homes and hampered access to agricultural lands and assets, creating massive humanitarian needs in an area already struggling with food insecurity, poverty and environmental degradation. Host communities, in particular, have been struggling for several years now to feed the displaced as well as their own.

    As humanitarian access improves, revealing the magnitude of impact of the conflict, time has come to support both people who remained on their land and those who decide to return to their original livelihoods.

    In Borno State alone, the population in crisis, emergency and catastrophe phases of food insecurity (Phases 3 to 5 on the five-tiered scale used by humanitarian agencies) increased from 2 million in August 2016 to 3.3 million in October-December 2016. The worst-affected in this group are not able to feed themselves and have exhausted all resources by selling off their belongings, including seeds, tools and animals. Without intervention, that number is expected to climb to 3.6 million at the height of the lean season in August 2017.

    The UN foresees around 120 000 people facing famine conditions in Nigeria. Of this number, the vast majority - some 96 percent -- are expected to be in Borno.

    Targeting the most vulnerable

    Emergency farming assistance must go hand in hand with food assistance for it to be successful throughout the upcoming lean season. To this end, FAO is collaborating with the World Food Programme to ensure vulnerable families -- mainly IDPs and host communities -- receive food assistance, and at the same time agriculture-based livelihood support in the form of provision of seeds, tools and fertilizer. This way, they will able to restore and protect their livelihoods and farming assets for ongoing food production.

    FAO's long-term strategy for the Lake Chad region puts a special emphasis on supporting refugees, internally displaced families and host communities, as these are the most vulnerable groups in this crisis. Interventions are geared to improving their food security and nutrition and building their resilience so they are better equipped to handle future shocks. In addition, restoring agriculture-based livelihoods will offer a unique opportunity to pave the way to recovery and peace in the affected areas.

    The strategy incorporates not only provision of farming and livestock inputs but also technical training, cash transfers, instruction in natural resource management, and support in setting up community-managed funds that can reduce vulnerability to shocks.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: South Sudan

    South Sudan - IOM is providing emergency health care and shelter assistance to South Sudanese forced to flee their homes due to violence in volatile areas of the country, including Unity and Central Equatoria.

    IOM, in coordination with Mercy Corps, is conducting an emergency shelter and non-food item (NFI) kit distribution from 22 February – 3 March for over 9,400 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nyal, Unity. The kits will include blankets, nylon and rubber rope, plastic sheeting, a kanga (cloth) and a large carrying bag.

    Nyal, in Unity’s Panyijiar county, has been hosting IDPs from surrounding counties since a military offensive in the area in early 2015. The resurgence of conflict in July 2016 prompted additional displacement in central and southern Unity, with many IDPs either fleeing north toward the Bentiu Protection of Civilians (PoC) site or toward Nyal, which has remained relatively stable.

    IDPs in Nyal are living in very difficult circumstances, having fled with little-to-no belongings. They are largely relying on support from local host communities, where already limited resources are rapidly becoming exhausted.

    Panyijiar is located in one of the most food insecure areas of South Sudan. The county is classified as facing emergency level food insecurity, meaning that without humanitarian assistance, some families could be facing famine conditions today.

    IOM is currently collaborating with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) to biometrically register the population in Nyal to inform humanitarian response planning and distributions for the area. The exercise is expected to be complete by April.

    In Central Equatoria, which continues to experience episodes of fighting, an IOM rapid response team completed a five-week mission on 23 February to provide emergency health care to over 30,000 IDPs sheltering in volatile Kajo Keji County, west of Kajo Keji town, at IDP sites in Ajio, Kerwa and Logo. IDPs in the area fled fighting in nearby counties, and the majority of reported multiple displacements.

    “Families ran from their homes with next to nothing, leaving behind their farms and livelihoods,” explained IOM Health Rapid Response Team Coordinator Derebe Kintamo. “Within three weeks of displacement, our clinics began seeing increasing numbers of cases of malnutrition among children under five. We coordinated with a nearby medical centre to ensure cases of acute malnutrition received prompt treatment.”

    The team conducted over 7,700 health consultations, providing general health care, vaccinations against common diseases, nutrition screening and maternal health care.

    On completion of the mission, IOM handed over responsibility for the three clinics to the American Refugee Committee and the County Health Department.

    In South Sudan, one in every four people has been forced from his or her home due to the crisis that broke out in December 2013. IOM emergency aid operations aim to reach vulnerable populations both in displacement sites and remote areas, many affected by multiple waves of conflict and displacement. In 2017, relief agencies are trying to reach 5.8 million of 7.5 million people currently in need of humanitarian assistance.

    For further information, please contact Ashley McLaughlin at IOM South Sudan, Tel: +211 922 405 716, Email: amclaughlin@iom.int.


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    Source: Oxfam
    Country: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Yemen

    Oxfam calls for immediate humanitarian and political action

    The world stands on the brink of an unprecedented four famines in 2017 due to a catastrophic failure of the global community to uphold its obligations to the most vulnerable of people.

    Oxfam today calls on donors to take immediate action to help as many as 20 million people now at risk of starvation.

    Famine was declared this week in parts of South Sudan. In northern Nigeria it is likely that some 400,000 people living in areas cut off from aid are already suffering famine. Both Yemen and Somalia stand on the brink. The primary driver of these crises is conflict, though in Somalia it is drought.

    Donor countries have failed to adequately support efforts to resolve these conflicts and, in Yemen, are actually fuelling the conflict through arms sales. They now have a moral obligation to meet the $4.4 billion needed for a humanitarian response at the required scale. They need to find political answers to the causes of the collapse of these countries into such catastrophic levels of suffering.

    Mark Goldring, Chief Executive of Oxfam GB said: “Famine does not arrive suddenly or unexpectedly. It comes after months of procrastination and ignored warnings. It is a slow agonising process, driven by callous national politics and international indifference. It is the ultimate betrayal of our common humanity.

    “Half-hearted responses to UN appeals have short-changed the aid effort to save people’s lives. This must not continue. Governments need to act now to fully fund the aid effort.

    "The famine already gripping parts of South Sudan will spread across the country if not more is done. Famine may be imminent in Somalia, Yemen and Nigeria but it is not yet inevitable If we act now with a massive injection of aid, backed with diplomatic clout and driven by the imperative to save lives, we can prevent a catastrophic loss of life. Without an urgent injection of cash, the humanitarian system will not be able to cope and many more people will die.”

    Money is needed now because a hunger crisis can rapidly deteriorate. As a crisis unfolds malnutrition and mortality rates rise exponentially, rather than steadily. After a certain tipping point, further rapid deterioration becomes likely. Assistance must be given now before people become dangerously hungry and have exhausted the last of their efforts to feed their families.

    Responding to severe malnutrition requires significant humanitarian infrastructure, such as feeding and health centres. They cannot be spirited out of nowhere. People at the sharp end of these crises cannot wait.

    Oxfam is calling for immediate humanitarian and political action including:

    • More food and life-saving support

    • Opening the areas that people can move safely to reach aid – and for humanitarian agencies to reach them in turn – including suspending all military operations that block this kind of access and safe movement

    • Protection of civilians in all military action.

    • Committing to respond earlier to warning signs of future crises before they escalate - Building people’s ability to cope better with future crises. Even without conflict, these countries will remain vulnerable to future food crises

    In Somalia, 2.9 million people face acute food security ‘crisis’ and ‘emergency’ levels. This could tip into famine if the April-June rains fail, their ability to buy food declines and people do not receive humanitarian support.

    In Nigeria, over 5 million people are in food crisis, and this is projected to reach 5.7 million by June 2017. There is a strong likelihood that at least 400,000 people could already be experiencing famine-like conditions and that this could rise to up to 800,000 over the course of 2017 if humanitarian assistance cannot be delivered. .

    In South Sudan, 100,000 people are facing starvation now and a further 1 million people are classified as being on the brink of famine in Unity State.

    In Yemen, 2 million people are just one step away from famine, and 7-10 million people are severely hungry. This is largest hunger emergency in the world. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation is reporting that wheat stocks for the country will run out in April.

    Oxfam is already helping over a million people in Yemen, more than 600,000 in South Sudan, over 200,000 in Nigeria and an assessment mission has just returned from northern Somalia where it plans to begin a response to the drought.


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    Source: Government of Norway
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Norway

    Minister of Foreign Affairs Børge Brende announced today that Norway will provide NOK 729 million in aid to north-eastern Nigeria and the Lake Chad region in 2017. This area has been hard hit by Boko Haram's campaign of terror, poverty, lack of development and climate change.

    Today Mr Brende opened an international donor conference in Oslo for Nigeria and the Lake Chad region, where 11 million people are in acute need of emergency aid.

    'We urgently need to put an end to this crisis. It is affecting an area with a population of 26 million, and is threatening the whole region. Unless we make a concerted effort now, the situation will get even worse, with inevitable consequences. This is why the Government has proposed a three-year commitment to provide up to NOK 1.6 billion in humanitarian and development aid for the period 2017-2019,' said Mr Brende.

    NOK 150 million of Norway's funding for the crisis for 2017 will be used for food, to protect people who have fled their homes, and for other emergency aid. This humanitarian funding will be channelled through the UN, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and various Norwegian NGOs in north-eastern Nigeria and the other countries around Lake Chad – Niger, Cameroon and Chad.

    'In addition to emergency aid, it is important to provide long-term support for development efforts. There are areas where basic infrastructure, for example in health and education, is almost non-existent. In our long-term efforts, Norway will build on the development cooperation we have already established with Nigeria and Niger. In Chad and Cameroon, we will focus on supporting the education and health sectors through global funding mechanisms and civil society organisations,' said Mr Brende.

    'Here in Oslo today, the international community has made an important promise to the people in these crisis-affected areas. This is a question of saving lives, of safeguarding the future for millions of people. The UN will track the humanitarian pledges and disbursed funds, which will contribute to better transparency and accountability for all. In the time ahead, more support will be needed to provide enough food, adequate healthcare, and shelter for all who are in need, as well as for long-term development efforts, especially in the areas of food security and education,' said Mr Brende.

    Mr Brende underlined that it is the affected countries themselves that are responsible for ensuring security and protection, and providing basic services to their populations, and he raised this issue in his meetings with the countries' foreign ministers. The conference was arranged together with Nigeria, Germany and the UN. Around 170 people from 40 countries, UN and civil society organisations took part.

    For more information, see the conference website.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    We have a humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Region which is truly massive: a staggering 10.7 million people need immediate humanitarian assistance – that is twice the population of Norway as a whole – and who urgently need life-saving relief and protection tonight. And 8.5 million of that 10.7 million are in north-eastern Nigeria around the epicenter of Maiduguri.

    With our international community’s increased support, beginning today, affected families and communities - and that includes these very important first responders and host communities who often have very little for themselves but are the ones who step up first and support people who have had to flee through no fault of their own - if we don’t step up, they will all face a life of hunger, even famine in some areas of north-east Nigeria, as announced on Tuesday at the United Nations – so disease, gender-based violence and continued displacement accompany all that. Children will face a bleak future of illiteracy, malnutrition, risk of forced recruitment into armed groups and premature death.

    Today, I have launched the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund to support life-saving operations in the North-East. This fund will enable donors to pool their contributions to deliver a more effective, collective and immediate response and I have encouraged all donors to support this initiative. I am deeply grateful to those who have already so committed. What lies behind this is that catastrophes such as a famine can be averted now if we step up in a timely, sufficiently advanced manner.

    We are sending a very clear message today: as the international community is stepping up, and is supporting a scale-up, supporting the governments of the region, we can stop and reverse a further descent into an ever-deepening crisis with unimaginable consequences for millions of people and an entire generation of children and youth.

    With [the affected] governments, in concert with those governments, and the leadership in-country – and local governments – we, the international community representing all the people behind the governments of those who donate, the UN agencies, the ICRC, the local and international NGOs, we can bring hope.

    The UN and our partners in Nigeria have already been reaching 2.1 million people with food assistance, over four million with emergency care and over 1.7 million with water and sanitation, despite the high-risk environment of reaching people with access. We already have a track record of success behind which the donors can generously get behind and back us as we now see the compound factors leading to the need for scale-up.

    Particular for this region, the humanitarian appeal is for US$1.5 billion for the Lake Chad Basin region in 2017. And in one morning, we have raised a third of that. That is genuine success for 2017. We have other [donors] who will be able to come in in the course of the coming months as their transition of budgetary cycles allow, and that will help us aim for our target which will help the neighbours meet all the needs as we have seen them. So I am deeply grateful for the support. We have the ability therefore to deliver on a plan, and to step up. We are ready, we need the finance, and I am delighted that as finances are coming in, we can save lives.


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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda


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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Funding requirements

    Health sector funding requirements for 2017

    (health partners including WHO)
    • Cameroon: US$ 11 646 815
    • Chad: US$ 10 669 960
    • Niger: US$ 9 000 243
    • Nigeria US$ 93 827 598

    Total: US$ 125 144 616

    Beneficiaries targeted by health partners in 2017

    In the Lake Chad Basin, health partners will target more than 8.2 million people in 2017. These include:
    • Cameroon 767 000
    • Chad 233 000
    • Niger 325 000
    • Nigeria 6 900 000

    Background

    The Lake Chad Basin emergency affects some 17 million people across north-eastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, western Chad and south-east Niger. The effects of conflict, climate change, environmental degradation, poverty and underinvestment in social services have combined to bring about deepening insecurity, rapid population growth and severe vulnerability. This has translated into 11 million people needing humanitarian assistance. More than 2.3 million people have fled their homes. Vital infrastructure such as health centres, schools, water pipelines, bridges and roads have been destroyed and millions of people have limited or no access to basic services.

    Health sector situation

    Across the Lake Chad Basin, almost one third of the population is struck by food insecurity. Malnutrition and related mortality are critically high. In most conflict-affected areas, malnutrition rates have surpassed the emergency threshold. More than 500 000 children are severely acutely malnourished, of whom 75 000 could die without urgent assistance.

    Cameroon

    Cross-border raids, suicide bombings and heightened insecurity have caused massive displacements and deprivation of communities in the Far North region. The number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached around 200,000 by October 2016. This has resulted in a sharp increase of humanitarian needs for IDPs and host communities, who were already vulnerable before the crisis. Food insecurity remains alarmingly high. Access to basic services in the conflict-affected areas has been severed or severely diminished. Health centers, whose access and quality of services were already limited, are overwhelmed. Some 21 health centres have closed due to insecurity.

    Health sector objectives

    Objective 1: Ensure access to essential health care for 1.2 million people by supporting 70 health facilities with 140 additional staff, delivering 100 Interagency Emergency Health Kits and providing comprehensive immunization for 240 000 children under 5 and 6 000 pregnant women.

    Objective 2: Procure essential commodities for safe delivery and distribute 5000 dignity kits for 60 000 pregnant women.

    Objective 3: Implement a comprehensive package for HIV/AIDS services for 60 000 pregnant women and their children and 30 000 IDPs and host communities.

    Chad

    Insecurity persists along Chad’s western Lac region. The resulting population displacement has accentuated the vulnerability of both those forced to flee the violence and the communities hosting them, many of who already needed assistance. The influx of displaced people is exerting pressure on resources.

    Lac region has only 10 doctors. Global Acute Malnutrition in this region now stands at 12.2%, while severe acute malnutrition is 2.1%, which is above the emergency threshold.

    Health sector objectives

    To reduce the risk of disease, particularly cholera, measles and polio it is critical to:

    Objective 1: Strengthen epidemiological surveillance and outreach to 125 000 displaced persons.

    Objective 2: Improve access to primary health care for 187 000 people from both displaced and host communities through access to medicines (for malaria, yellow fever), mobile clinics and support to health centres.

    Niger

    Recurrent attacks by Boko Haram have resulted in the displacement of more than 300 000 people (IDPs, refugees and returnees) in south-east Niger. Some have been forced to flee multiple times. Already limited basic services and resources are overstretched in a region where communities have long grappled with food insecurity, malnutrition and cyclic droughts and floods.

    Insecurity and recurrent attacks regularly disrupt health, water and other essential services. In 2017, some 340 000 people face food insecurity, around 12 000 children will be severely malnourished and almost 45 000 will suffer from moderate malnutrition.

    Health sector objectives

    Objective 1: Increase access to health services through mobile clinics, free medical consultations and prepositioning of contingency medical supplies.

    Objective 2: Establish an early warning system to respond to potential disease outbreaks.

    Objective 3: Ensure vaccinations of at least 10 500 children not covered under routine immunization campaigns.

    Objective 4: Set up emergency response mechanisms to ensure response to sexual and gender-based violence as well as sexually transmitted diseases, and reinforce mental health services and psychological support to people affected by trauma.

    Nigeria

    The long-running Boko Haram-linked conflict has devastated communities of north-eastern Nigeria, compounding the poverty and underdevelopment in the area. More than 8 million people across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States require humanitarian assistance. Food insecurity in the three states has almost doubled and almost 2 million people have been displaced.

    Health sector objectives

    Objective 1: Provide assistance to 5.9 million people, including 1.7 million IDPs and 4.2 million people in host communities, through services for reproductive health, maternal and child health, gender-based violence and the management of malnutrition and non-communicable diseases.

    Objective 2: Establish, expand and strengthen communicable disease surveillance and outbreak prevention, control and response.

    Objective 3: Strengthen coordination and health system restoration to improve life-saving response for people in need.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

    Background

    During an emergency, the delivery of essential healthcare services is vital, not least for women and children. It is one of affected populations’ top priorities for humanitarian assistance.

    Health was highlighted as a critical area at the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul. It is included in a number of the identified areas of core responsibility, such as: putting health at the centre of humanitarian action; access and protection of medical missions; empowerment and protection of women and girls; access to sexual and reproductive health; and global health security.

    Challenges

    In Nigeria alone, 26 million people are living in areas affected by the crisis. The Humanitarian Response Plans have identified 10.7 million people in need of life-saving assistance in the most severely affected areas in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. Over 7 million people are struggling with food security, and the majority of those in need are children. The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) has tripled over the last two years and now totals 2.3 million.
    Children are among those with the greatest needs. Vital infrastructure, including health facilities, has been destroyed, and medical personnel have fled. According to WHO, more than 90 % of the IDPs who have fled their homes due to the conflict in Borno State, the area that is most affected in Nigeria, are living in host communities.

    By summer 2016, levels of severe acute malnutrition as high as 20 % were documented in some locations in Borno State, while vaccination coverage was often poor. Malnourished children are particularly vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases like measles and diphtheria, as well as malaria, respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases, which are exacerbated by poor living conditions. The combination of malnutrition, malaria and measles led to mortality rates among children that were four times higher than the international emergency threshold (eight deaths per 10 000 children aged under five years per day). These “three Ms” are the main killers, and the available health services have struggled to provide anywhere near adequate treatment or prevention efforts.

    More than half of the health facilities in Borno State are not functioning. Ensuring access to even basic health care for displaced populations, host communities and people living in hard-to-reach areas in a region where health services were already weak is a serious challenge. The capacity of health providers in Maiduguri, the Borno State capital, has admittedly been strained by the expansion of the population, most of whom cannot afford the state charges for medical consultations and treatment. Even in this major city, the most vulnerable, usually the IDPs, face major obstructions to accessing adequate healthcare.

    Outside the city, the health situation is even worse, due to the destruction of health facilities, the shortage of medical personnel, and the lack of even basic medical equipment.
    Hospitals in large towns such as Monguno, Bama and Dikwa are now standing empty or are being used for other purposes. The provision of even minimal standards of maternal and paediatric health services is almost non-existent. The situation is the same in many other locations around the region. If and when displaced populations return home, they will find little or no capacity to cater for their basic medical needs.

    As documented by UN OCHA, despite the gaps in health care services and the lack of basic supplies, there are very few international NGOs running health programmes in north-eastern Nigeria. Many areas are a high risk for humanitarian workers, with dangerous roads and difficult access. This means that interventions have to be limited to rapid responses to address major killers and reduce mortality. In addition, the NGOs that are operating in these areas often face significant challenges in importing drugs and medical supplies.

    Objective and expected outcome

    Health is a critical area to address in any humanitarian context, and the health situation in Nigeria and around the Lake Chad basin is precarious. The objective of the side meeting is to generate ideas for an effective health response in the area that responds to the immediate needs, while also enabling transition to long-term development. These ideas will feed into the thematic discussions the following day on food security, protection and access, and education.

    The meeting will be organised as a panel discussion, with three main speakers, country representatives to comment on the presentations, and a facilitator to lead the discussion with the audience.

    The aim is to highlight key health issues in the context of the humanitarian situation in the region, including potentials for joint action and interventions.

    The expected outcome is increased awareness among the conference participants of the importance of addressing the health situation, with particular focus on:

    • securing both short- and long-term access to health services, including family planning and reproductive health service, and the protection of health workers in emergencies.

    • facilitating a dialogue between political leaders, international organisation and civil society on health needs, challenges and opportunities in Nigeria and the Lake Chad region.

    • discussing sustainability, financing transition between short- and long-term interventions, including the Every Woman Every Child, Everywhere Strategy (EWEC).

    • identifying key issues for the following day’s discussions on the humanitarian situation, focusing on: food security and nutrition, protection and access, and education in emergencies.

    Panel speakers

    Setting the scene, the humanitarian response and challenges in protracted crises

    Dr Richard Brennan, Director Emergency Operations Setting the Scene, the humanitarian response and challenges in protracted crises

    Dr Natalie Roberts, Emergency Operations Manager, MSF Securing sustainability, financing transition between short- and long-term interventions

    Dr Mariam Claeson, Director GFF World Bank Access to sexual and reproductive health in emergencies

    Dr Babatunde Osotimehin, Executive Director, UNFPA

    Moderator Jon Lomøy, Director General, Norad


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

    Contexte général

    Dans les situations d’urgence, il est vital de dispenser certains services de santé essentiels, notamment à destination des femmes et des enfants. Il s’agit, pour les populations en détresse, de l’un des aspects les plus prioritaires de l’aide humanitaire attendue.

    Lors du Sommet mondial sur l’Action humanitaire d’Istanbul, l’effort en matière de santé a été estimé déterminant. Il apparaît hautement pertinent au regard de bon nombre des axes de travail identifiés comme relevant d’une responsabilité fondamentale, notamment :

    • Placer la santé au cœur de l’assistance humanitaire ;

    • Œuvrer à l’accessibilité et à la protection des missions à caractère médical ;

    • Protéger les femmes et les jeunes filles et promouvoir leur autonomie ;

    • Donner accès à la santé sexuelle et reproductive ;

    • Travailler à une sécurité sanitaire mondiale.

    Problématique spécifique

    Sur le territoire du seul Nigéria, 26 millions d’individus vivent dans des zones affectées par la crise. Les plans d’intervention ont dénombré, dans les régions les plus touchées du Cameroun, du Tchad, du Niger et du Nigéria, 10,7 millions personnes pour lesquelles l’assistance humanitaire est une question de survie. Plus de 7 millions d’entre elles ont du mal à s’alimenter, dont une majorité d’enfants. Le nombre des déplacés internes, évalué à 2,3 millions, a triplé au cours des deux dernières années. Les enfants font partie des catégories de population dont les besoins sont les plus alarmants. Des infrastructures capitales, entre autres à vocation sanitaire, ont été détruites, et les personnels médicaux ont dû fuir. Selon l’OMS, suite au conflit qui sévit dans l’État de Borno, partie du Nigéria la plus gravement atteinte, plus de 90 % des déplacés internes vivent dans des communautés d’accueil.

    Au cours de l’été 2016, les niveaux de malnutrition aiguë relevés atteignaient jusqu’à 20 % dans certaines localités de l’État de Borno, et la couverture vaccinale s’avérait fréquemment insuffisante. Or les enfants malnutris sont particulièrement vulnérables aux maladies que l’on peut prévenir par la vaccination, comme la rougeole et la diphtérie, mais aussi face au paludisme, aux infections respiratoires et diarrhéiques dont les mauvaises conditions de vie viennent exacerber la prégnance. La triade que constituent la malnutrition, le paludisme et la rougeole a conduit à des taux de mortalité infantile quatre fois supérieurs au niveau considéré comme le seuil d’urgence international (huit décès par jour pour 10 000 enfants de moins de cinq ans). Ces trois fléaux (dits 3 « M » pour « malnutrition, malaria, measles » – malnutrition, paludisme, rougeole) sont responsables du plus grand nombre des décès, et les services de santé disponibles luttent pour fournir, au plus proche des populations, des traitements adéquats ou des mesures de prévention.

    Plus de la moitié des établissements sanitaires de l’État de Borno ont cessé de fonctionner.
    Fournir les services de santé de base aux réfugiés, aux communautés d’accueil et aux personnes vivant dans des zones difficiles d’accès, dans une région où ces services étaient déjà faiblement présents avant la crise, constitue un véritable défi. À Maiduguri, capitale de l’État de Borno, la capacité des prestataires de santé est de toute évidence sous tension, en raison de l’augmentation d’une population dont la majeure partie n’a pas les moyens de payer les frais encourus par l’État pour les consultations et traitements médicaux. Même dans cette grande ville, les plus vulnérables – c’est-à-dire, d’ordinaire les déplacés internes – se heurtent à des obstacles majeurs lorsqu’il s’agit d’avoir accès à des services de santé appropriés. La situation est encore pire hors de la zone urbaine, étant donné le nombre très réduit des centres médicaux restés en service, le manque de personnels et d’équipements sanitaires, y compris de matériels de base. Les hôpitaux de grandes villes telles que Monguno, Bama et Dikwa sont désormais vides ou servent à d’autres usages. Même les services de santé maternelle et infantile répondant aux normes les plus élémentaires sont quasiment inexistants. Cette constatation vaut pour de nombreuses autres villes de la région. Lorsque les populations déplacées rentreront chez elles, à condition qu’elles en aient à terme la possibilité, peu de structures seront en mesure de répondre à leurs besoins médicaux, voire aucune.

    Ainsi qu’en atteste le Bureau de la Coordination des Affaires Humanitaires (BCAH) des Nations Unies, le nombre des ONG internationales présentes au nord-est du Nigéria avec des programmes sanitaires est très faible, malgré la pénurie des services et des matériels de base. Le travail humanitaire reste encore très risqué dans de nombreuses zones. En raison des routes dangereuses et autres difficultés d’accès, les interventions doivent être limitées à des actions rapides, visant à faire reculer les affections les plus ravageuses et à réduire la mortalité. En outre, les quelques ONG opérant dans la région sont souvent confrontées à des problèmes significatifs lorsqu’il s’agit d’importer des médicaments et des fournitures médicales.

    Objectif et résultats attendus

    La santé est un domaine d’action essentiel dans tout contexte humanitaire. La situation en la matière s’avère particulièrement précaire au Nigéria et dans le bassin du Lac Tchad. L’objectif de cette réunion annexe est de dégager des idées pour améliorer l’efficacité de la réponse sanitaire dans cette zone et satisfaire aux besoins immédiats, tout en permettant la transition vers un développement à long terme. Ces échanges viendront enrichir les discussions du jour suivant sur les thèmes « sécurité alimentaire », « protection et accès », et « éducation ».

    La réunion se déroulera sous la forme d’un débat d’experts, avec trois intervenants principaux, ainsi que des représentants des différents pays chargés de commenter les présentations, et qu’un facilitateur qui dirigera le dialogue entre les intervenants et l’auditoire.
    L’objectif est de mettre en lumière les questions-clefs en matière de santé qui se posent dans la situation humanitaire de la région, y compris le potentiel d’actions et d’interventions conjointes.
    Il s’agit de parvenir à une meilleure prise de conscience de la part des participants à la conférence quant à la nécessité de remédier à la crise sanitaire dans ce secteur, l’accent étant mis sur les points suivants :

    • Sécuriser l’accès aux services de santé à court et long terme, y compris en matière de planning familial et de santé reproductive, et de protéger les travailleurs de santé affectés aux missions d’urgence ;

    • Faciliter le dialogue entre les dirigeants politiques, les organisations internationales et la société civile à propos des besoins, défis et possibilités en termes de santé au Nigéria et dans la région du Lac Tchad ;

    • Discuter de la durabilité de l’action, et du financement de la transition entre les interventions à court et long terme, notamment la Stratégie mondiale pour la santé de la femme et de l’enfant (EWEC : Every Woman Every Child, Everywhere Strategy) ;

    • Cerner les thématiques majeures en vue des discussions du jour suivant sur la situation humanitaire, en mettant en exergue les questions de sécurité alimentaire, de protection et d’accessibilité de l’aide fournie, ainsi que le problème de l’éducation dans les situations d’urgences.

    Intervenants, membres du panel d’experts

    Dr Richard Brennan, Directeur du Département OMS Gestion des risques associés aux urgences et interventions humanitaires Préparer le terrain, l’action et les défis humanitaires dans un contexte de crise prolongé

    Dr Natalie Roberts, Directrice des Opérations d’urgence de Médecins sans Frontières Assurer la durabilité des interventions, financer la transition entre les interventions à court et long terme

    Dr Mariam Claeson, Directrice de la GFF de la Banque mondiale L’accès à la santé sexuelle et reproductive dans les situations d’urgence humanitaire

    Dr Babatunde Osotimehin, Directeur exécutif du FNUAP

    Modérateur M. Jon Lomøy, Directeur général de Norad (Agence norvégienne pour le développement international)


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    Source: Government of Switzerland
    Country: Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Switzerland, Yemen

    Switzerland has pledged to take direct action to help populations facing starvation, especially in South Sudan. The decision follows a call issued by the United Nations Secretary-General on 22 February 2017. Swiss Humanitarian Aid, a department of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), is to release CHF 15 million from its fund for humanitarian emergencies for countries hit by famine in the beginning of this year.

    “Switzerland is calling for the rapid mobilisation of aid. Some 100,000 people are already facing starvation in South Sudan, and famine looms in other countries in the region,” declared Didier Burkhalter, head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. The funds released by Switzerland are earmarked for humanitarian efforts in South Sudan, where the situation is most critical, and in Somalia, Nigeria and Yemen, which are also on the brink of famine. The funds will be divided among a range of programmes and humanitarian organisations working on the ground in these regions, where the lack of food security could affect more than 20 million people by summer 2017 if nothing is done.

    South Sudan not only suffered a drought in 2016 but it also has also been in the grip of civil war for the last three years, which has driven 3.5 million people from their homes. The country is now facing a food crisis on an unprecedented scale. Switzerland has been working in this region for several years. “The threat of famine has been looming over this country for quite some time now. Swiss Humanitarian Aid has regularly stepped up its efforts in response to growing needs on the ground,” explains André Huber, head of the Africa Division of Swiss Humanitarian Aid. Work on the ground, which is coordinated by the Swiss Humanitarian Aid office in the capital Juba, aims to offer long-term support and assistance to communities affected by conflict and adverse climate conditions.

    The CHF 15 million released from the emergency aid fund is on top of the CHF 50 million in humanitarian aid which the SDC already provides in these four countries. The 2017 budget for South Sudan, which totals CHF 20 million, will fund efforts in the water and civilian protection sectors, as well as projects to improve food security and livelihoods. A share will also be allocated to the ICRC and to UN agencies, such as the World Food Programme and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, to support their operations on the ground. Swiss Humanitarian Aid itself runs a programme in Aweil, a city in the north of the country, which aims to provide the local population with access to drinking water and sanitation. Switzerland’s contribution will also support NGOs distributing food and providing medical care.

    The Secretary-General warned that urgent action is needed to prevent more people dying of hunger, adding that the timely delivery of sustained and adequate assistance could improve the situation within a few months and mitigate further suffering.

    Address for enquiries:

    Information FDFA Bundeshaus West CH-3003 Bern Tel.: +41 58 462 31 53 Fax: +41 58 464 90 47 E-Mail: info@eda.admin.ch


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    Source: Government of Denmark
    Country: Denmark, Niger, Nigeria

    The Danish government is donating DKK 20 million towards Unicef’s efforts to help children and former child soldiers who have fled the terrorist movement Boko Haram in Nigeria and neighbouring countries. Boko Haram has forced 2.2 million people from their homes. The 20 million Danish Kroner donation to Unicef will be announced today at a donor conference in Oslo on the humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and the region around Lake Chad.

    The Minister for Development Cooperation Ulla Tørnæs says:

    “On my trip to Niger in January this year, I witnessed the poverty and instability that prevails in large parts of the region. It affects innocent children and their families. The countries do not have the resources to deal with the large amounts of people who have been displaced and have fled because of the conflict with Boko Haram. This is why we are donating a further DKK 20 million in humanitarian aid to Nigeria and its neighbouring countries.”

    Ulla Tørnæs notes that the scope of the humanitarian crisis is extremely serious, not least for the many internally displaced persons in Nigeria. The Danish aid to Unicef will include treatment of malnourished children, access to drinking water and education as well as the reintegration of child soldiers.

    “This is a humanitarian tragedy, which must not be forgotten by the international community. In addition, Denmark will continue its efforts to strengthen the countries’ ability to resist radicalisation and instability,” emphasises the Minister for Development Cooperation.

    Over 10 million people are estimated to be in need of help, not least due to the serious food shortage and instability that has been exacerbated by the terrorist movement Boko Haram.

    At the Oslo conference, Denmark will also highlight the need to ensure that international humanitarian aid goes hand in hand with development cooperation and stabilisation efforts.

    In 2016, Denmark contributed DKK 31.6 million in humanitarian aid to the victims of Boko Haram. The crisis around Lake Chad is closely linked with developments in the Sahel region, where Denmark has a well-integrated, broad-spectrum commitment that includes humanitarian aid, stabilisation efforts and long-term development cooperation with countries including Niger.

    For further press information:

    Poul Kjar, +45 41865975


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    A number of overlapping factors have led to the complex humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and the Lake Chad basin region: conflict, poverty and climate change. Further compounding these burdens is the pervasive menace of Boko Haram. This armed movement, which specifically opposes education, has a track record of attacking and destroying schools in an already challenging environment for education.
    The Nigeria and Lake Chad Region Thematic Session on Education in Emergencies will support the objectives of the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region. It will guide discussions on key strategic investments and partnerships to ensure an effective emergency response while enabling the rehabilitation and strengthening of education systems in line with Agenda 2030. The global community will not be able to fulfil its commitment to the SDG Agenda without including children and youth affected by conflict and displacement.

    Challenges in delivering education in the Lake Chad Basin Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger account for 14 million primary school age children who are out of school across the four countries, and 10.5 million of these out-of-school children are to be found in Nigeria. In the region surrounding Lake Chad a total of 3.36 million school aged children and youth (aged 3-17 years) are affected by the conflict and are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Of these children, 75 000 are refugees (UNHCR). Various crises, scant resources, socio-economic inequalities, insecurity, severe shortage of classrooms, chronic displacements, and overstretched institutional and human capacities have exacerbated the already low quality of and access to education. Inadequate access to education has greatly increased the vulnerability of children and youth, and made them even more susceptible to recruitment by armed groups (NGA HNO 2017).

    Before the crisis, the Diffa region in Niger had the lowest enrolment rates in the country. In the most remote areas of Chad and Cameroon, the task of providing quality education to all girls and boys entailed considerable challenges. In the extreme north of Cameroon and in Adamawa in Nigeria, the out-of-school figures were as high as 35%. And in Borno in Nigeria even as high as 44.6%. Underlying factors for children being out of school are gender, ethnicity, geography and disability. A girl from the poorest household in north-eastern Nigeria is unlikely to go to school.

    Teachers and students have been detained and intimidated, injured and sometimes killed.
    In northeast Nigeria, at least 611 teachers have been deliberately killed and a further 19 000 have been forced to flee since 2009. More than 2 000 people, many of them female, have been abducted by Boko Haram, in many cases from their schools. Thousands more students and teachers have been injured, some in deadly suicide bombs. In Niger three attacks on schools were reported in the Diffa region between June and November 2016.

    Many schools can no longer be used because they have been damaged, destroyed, are sheltering displaced families, or are occupied by armed groups or security forces. In northeastern Nigeria, more than 1 500 schools have been destroyed since 2015. Today, in Borno alone, 1073 schools (56%) remain closed and four schools in the north east of the country are being used for military purposes by the Nigerian security forces. In the extreme north of Cameroon, 10 primary and secondary schools remain occupied and are being used for military purposes and 144 schools have closed down due to insecurity.
    Even where there is access to national schools, the language of instruction is a challenge, and this prevents Nigerian children from continuing their education.

    Inadequate regulatory frameworks linking formal and non-formal education are limiting the opportunities for children and youth to transition to formal education. Designing, resourcing and implementing accelerated learning programmes is a major challenge for the education sector across the four countries. Yet, investments in education have the potential to help children re-enter formal education, gain a basic education and life skills, and contribute to broader efforts to stabilise and rebuild the affected regions.
    Ministries of education in the four countries are coordinating and implementing the education response. Education authorities are working with UN agencies and NGO partners to provide access to quality education. In particular, they are working to facilitate the peaceful integration of displaced girls and boys into host community schools, to provide education services for refugee children and youth in the camps (Chad and Cameroon), and to offer accelerated and distance learning programmes to children who are out of school. The authorities are also working to improve security in schools.

    The education sector remains one of the most underfunded sectors. Out of the total of USD 33.7 million requested in the 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan for education, only a small percentage went to the funding of education: 26.1% in Nigeria; 73% (including GPE accelerated funding) in Chad; 7.7% in Cameroon; and 13% in Niger. This year the funding needed for education in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin crisis is USD 84 million.

    Violence and insecurity have repercussions for years to come. When a child is displaced for more than six months, there is a high probability that he or she will remain displaced for up to three years or longer – and may never have the chance to get back into school.

    Opportunities and key asks:

    The following asks are crucial in order to avoid another ‘lost generation’:

    1. Prioritise funding for education in Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. Increased, longterm predictable and flexible financing is necessary to meet the education needs of children and youth affected by the displacement crises. Host governments and affected children need donors to make three- to five-year commitments. This is essential in order to keep children and youth in school and ensure sustainable education-system expansion. The aim in 2017 is to reach 2 million girls and boys, (including 75 000 refugees) across the region (HRP).

    2. Protect children through education. Sustain and systematise existing efforts to create protective learning environments, day-to-day provision of psychosocial support in the classroom, preparation and implementation of school-based emergency plans and other programmes linking education and child protection efforts in communities. Investments are also needed in education infrastructure, in the recruitment, training and deployment of qualified teachers, and in adequate learning and teaching materials.

    3. Leave no one behind. Rapidly establish/expand quality, flexible learning programmes that can also reach the most vulnerable children and youth, and those who are most affected by the consequences of the conflict. This includes accelerated and distance education programmes and non-formal education programmes.

    4. Protect education. Step up advocacy to stop attacks on schools, education facilities and personnel. Encourage governments to endorse and implement the Safe Schools Declaration and Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict.

    5. Support governments and partners in rebuilding and strengthening national education systems in line with the global commitments set out in Agenda 2030.

    6. Strengthen collaboration between governments, and humanitarian and development actors to facilitate effective emergency response. Prepare regional strategies to facilitate sustainable long-term planning and programming, including for the return of refugee children and youth to quality education, and for protective learning environments.

    7. Strengthen data and information management systems and communication to enable an effective response, an in-depth conflict- and gender-sensitive sector analysis in preparation for transitional and development planning activities.


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    Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
    Country: Nigeria

    Facts & Figures

    • Most populous African country with over 188 million inhabitants
    • 1.9 million people displaced in Nigeria (IOM)
    • 169 000 refugees in Niger, Chad and Cameroon (UNHCR)
    • Registered returnees: over 136.000 (UNHCR)
    • 5.1 million people facing a food security crisis in northern Nigeria (OCHA, Humanitarian Response)
    • European Commission humanitarian aid: Over €124 million since 2014

    Key messages

    • In seven years of conflict in north-eastern Nigeria, over 20 000 people have been killed and 1.8 million displaced. Many live in dire conditions in informal settlements and have not been able to farm. Trade is stalled and prices have soared, all of which has worsened the difficult food and nutrition situation.

    • The most urgent priority remains to address the significant food insecurity which is affecting thousands of internally displaced people (IDPs) in accessible and newly accessible areas as well as the alarming nutrition levels. Many health facilities have shut down and acutely malnourished children cannot access vital treatment.

    • The European Commission is providing immediate assistance to cover the basic needs of displaced, refugee and host families. Funds go to food distributions, to clinics providing lifesaving nutrition medical care, as well as to ensure access to water and sanitation, shelter and protection. They also contribute to increased access, through the Humanitarian Air Service, and to the coordination of humanitarian organisations.

    • More than €124 million of humanitarian aid has been allocated since 2014, complementing the assistance provided by the authorities. Given the immense need, much more humanitarian support is required quickly.

    • Access to newly accessible areas remains a major challenge due to their remoteness and the prevailing volatile security situation. The European Commission advocates for safe humanitarian access and an increased operational presence of humanitarian organisations on the ground so that more people in need can be reached.

    Humanitarian situation and needs Nigeria is Africa's leading oil producer. Despite its large oil revenues, it has one of the highest levels of income disparity worldwide. The majority of the population is very poor and has no access to health care, education nor safe drinking water or other basic goods and services. 6.2 million people depend on external assistance (Nigeria 2016 UNOCHA Humanitarian Response Plan).

    Since 2009, Nigeria has faced the insurgency of the militant group Boko Haram. The ongoing violence in north-eastern Nigeria has claimed the lives of thousands of civilians in the past year alone. Attacks on villages, massacres, suicide bombings and mass abductions have become daily threats across the region. Boko Haram violence and the military operations in response have prompted a massive displacement: 1.9 million Nigerians have been forcibly displaced within the country. 169 000 have fled to neighbouring Niger, Cameroon and Chad (UNHCR).

    While some displaced families have found shelter with relatives, hundreds of thousands of people still live in precarious conditions in informal settlements, schools, courtyards and open fields in and around towns where they mostly rely on the charity of local communities. Increased attention has to be paid to growing food insecurity in the northeast. The current food crisis, driven by insecurity and the almost halt of sub-regional cross border trade, already has massive consequences. Over 15 million people are food insecure, out of whom over 5.1 million are severely food insecure and in need of immediate food assistance. Severe acute malnutrition was already responsible for more than a third of all child deaths in Nigeria before the crisis, but rates of malnutrition in under five year old that are being reported by humanitarian organisations are well beyond the emergency threshold defined by the World Health Organisation. Therefore, an immediate scale up of emergency assistance to the affected population is required.

    The re-taking of many towns and villages by Nigerian security forces in Borno and Yobe States has further highlighted the need for an increased emergency humanitarian response as access slightly improves. Massive needs have been identified in newly accessible areas and should be met quickly, taking account of the prevailing volatile situation. There are still whole areas beyond the reach of humanitarian organisations; where there is access, security constraints hamper the assessment of needs and the adequate provision of aid. In parallel to humanitarian aid, solid investment in resilience building is required to help improve the situation of the most vulnerable in the medium and longer term. Nigeria is also regularly affected by epidemics such as cholera, polio and measles.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    La conjonction de plusieurs facteurs a conduit à la crise humanitaire complexe que connaissent actuellement le Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad : un conflit, la pauvreté et le changement climatique, fléaux auxquels vient s’ajouter la menace omniprésente de Boko Haram. Ce mouvement armé qui cible expressément l’instruction s’est déjà distingué en attaquant et détruisant des écoles dans un environnement où le travail éducatif était déjà éminemment difficile.

    La session de réflexion thématique sur le Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad sur l’éducation en situation d’urgence humanitaire s’inscrira dans la perspective de la Conférence Humanitaire d’Oslo consacrée à cette même région, dont elle viendra soutenir les objectifs. Les discussions seront aiguillées vers les investissements et partenariats stratégiques susceptibles d’assurer une action d’urgence efficace, tout en permettant de restaurer et renforcer les systèmes éducatifs, selon les lignes définies dans l’Agenda 2030. L’engagement de la communauté internationale en faveur des objectifs de développement durable ne pourra déboucher sur des résultats sans inclure dans cet effort les questions relatives aux enfants et aux jeunes affectés par des conflits et des déplacements de populations.

    Les difficultés rencontrées par l’action éducative dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad.
    Le Nigéria, le Tchad, le Cameroun et le Niger comptent au total 14 millions d’enfants en âge de fréquenter l’école primaire et qui se trouvent déscolarisés, dont 10,5 millions pour le seul Nigéria.
    Dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, 3,36 millions d’enfants et d’adolescents en âge scolaire (de 3 à 17 ans) sont touchés par le conflit et ont besoin d’une aide humanitaire d’urgence. 75 000 d’entre eux sont des réfugiés (HCR). Les différentes crises, l’insuffisance des ressources, les inégalités socio-économiques, l’insécurité, la sévère pénurie de locaux, le phénomène chronique des déplacements de populations, la surexploitation des capacités institutionnelles et humaines ont exacerbé les faiblesses des structures éducatives, en termes d’accessibilité comme de qualité de l’enseignement dispensé. Or la déficience scolaire a beaucoup aggravé la vulnérabilité des enfants et des adolescents, et accru les risques qu’ils ne soient recrutés par des groupes armés (NGA HNO 2017).

    Avant la crise, la région de Diffa, au Niger, enregistrait les taux d’enrôlement les plus faibles du pays. Dans les zones les plus périphériques du Tchad et du Cameroun, les difficultés sont considérables lorsqu’il s’agit de dispenser à tous les enfants, filles et garçons, un enseignement de qualité. Dans l’Extrême Nord camerounais et dans l’État d’Adamawa, au Nigéria, les chiffres de la non-scolarisation atteignaient 35 %, et même 44,6 % dans l’État de Borno. Les paramètres entrant ici en jeu sont le sexe, l’appartenance ethnique, la situation géographique et l’éventuel handicap. Ainsi une fille issue d’une famille très pauvre du nord-est nigérian a-t-elle très peu de chances d’être scolarisée.

    Les enseignants et les étudiants ont été retenus en captivité et intimidés, blessés, voire assassinés.
    Dans le nord-est du Nigéria, au moins 611 enseignants ont été délibérément tués depuis 2009, et 19 000 autres contraints à la fuite. Plus de 2 000 personnes, dont beaucoup de femmes, ont été enlevées par Boko Haram, souvent dans les locaux des écoles, tandis que des milliers d’étudiants et de professeurs étaient blessés, parfois au cours d’attentats-suicides. Au Niger, trois attaques sur des écoles ont été rapportées dans la région de Diffa entre juin et novembre 2016.

    De nombreux établissements sont hors d’usage en raison de dégâts ou de destructions totales, ou parce qu’ils abritent des familles déplacées, ou encore sont occupés par des groupes armés ou des forces de sécurité. Dans le nord-est du Nigéria, 1 500 écoles ont été détruites depuis 2015.

    Aujourd’hui, dans le seul État de Borno, 1 073 écoles (56 %) restent fermées, et quatre sont utilisées à des fins militaires par les forces de sécurité nigérianes. À l’heure actuelle, dans l’Extrême Nord camerounais, 10 établissements primaires et secondaires sont toujours occupés dans un but militaire et 144 autres ont fermé en raison de l’insécurité.

    Même si l’accès aux écoles publiques reste possible, la langue d’enseignement pose problème, ce qui empêche les enfants nigérians de poursuivre leur scolarité.

    Des cadres réglementaires inappropriés lorsqu’il s’agit de la relation entre apprentissage formel et non formel, limitent, pour les enfants et les adolescents, les possibilités d’une transition vers une scolarité formelle. Concevoir des programmes d’enseignement accéléré, y affecter des ressources et les mettre en œuvre, constitue un défi majeur pour le secteur éducatif des quatre pays concernés.
    Cependant, les investissements dans le domaine éducatif représentent un potentiel de réinsertion des enfants dans une scolarité formelle, avec la possibilité pour eux d’acquérir une instruction de base et des savoir-faire vitaux, et ils contribuent à de plus amples efforts pour stabiliser et reconstruire les régions touchées.

    Les ministères de l’Éducation des quatre pays coordonnent et mettent en œuvre leur action éducative. Les autorités responsables travaillent avec les agences de l’ONU et des ONG partenaires pour dispenser un enseignement de qualité. Elles s’efforcent en particulier de faciliter l’intégration pacifique des enfants déplacés des deux sexes dans les établissements scolaires des communautés qui les accueillent, de fournir des services éducatifs aux enfants et adolescents présents dans les camps de réfugiés (Tchad et Cameroun), et de proposer des programmes d’apprentissage accéléré et à distance aux enfants déscolarisés. Ces mêmes instances travaillent également à renforcer la sécurité dans les écoles.

    Le secteur éducatif reste l’un de ceux les moins financés. Sur les 33,7 millions de dollars US requis par le Plan d’action humanitaire pour l’Éducation de 2016, le système éducatif n’a effectivement reçu qu’un faible pourcentage au Nigéria (26,1 %), au Tchad (73 % y compris le financement accéléré du fonds GPE), au Cameroun (7,7 %) et au Niger (13 %). Cette année, la somme nécessaire à l’action éducative d’urgence pour le Nigéria et le bassin du Lac Tchad se monte à 84 millions de dollars.
    La violence et l’insécurité actuelles auront des répercussions dans les années à venir. Lorsqu’un enfant est déplacé durant plus de six mois, la probabilité est forte que cette situation se prolonge jusqu’à trois années ou davantage – avec le risque que l’enfant ne réintègre plus jamais l’école.

    Possibilités et exigences fondamentales :

    Pour éviter de voir émerger une nouvelle « génération perdue », il sera capital de satisfaire aux exigences suivantes :

    1. Donner la priorité au financement éducatif pour le Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad. Un financement accru, à la fois souple et prévisible à long terme, sera nécessaire pour répondre aux besoins éducatifs des enfants et adolescents concernés par les déplacements de populations. Les gouvernements des États d’accueil et les enfants eux-mêmes ont besoin que les donateurs s’engagent sur une durée de trois à cinq ans. C’est là un point essentiel pour faire en sorte que ces enfants et adolescents restent scolarisés et pour assurer le développement à long terme du système éducatif. Le but, pour l’année 2017, est d’inclure dans cette action 2 millions de filles et garçons (dont 75 000 réfugiés) répartis dans toute la région (HRP).

    2. Protéger les enfants à travers la scolarisation : soutenir et systématiser les efforts existants, en créant des environnements d’apprentissage protecteurs, un soutien psycho-social quotidien dans l’espace scolaire, la préparation et la mise en application de plans d’urgence fondés sur l’école, et autres programmes reliant les efforts éducatifs et la protection de l’enfance au sein des communautés. Les investissements sont aussi nécessaires dans les infrastructures scolaires et pour le recrutement, la formation et le déploiement sur le terrain d’enseignants qualifiés, ainsi que la fourniture de matériel d’apprentissage et d’enseignement adéquats.

    3. Ne laisser aucun enfant sur le bord de la route. Développer et/ou lancer rapidement des programmes d’apprentissage appropriés et d’application flexible, permettant d’inclure dans l’action éducative les enfants et adolescents vulnérables et ceux les plus affectés par les conséquences du conflit. Ceci suppose notamment des programmes d’enseignement accéléré ou à distance, ou visant un apprentissage non formel.

    4. Protéger l’école : renforcer le plaidoyer qui permettra de faire cesser les attaques perpétrées contre les établissements, les équipements et les personnels éducatifs.
      Encourager les gouvernements à souscrire à la Déclaration sur la sécurité dans les écoles et aux Lignes directrices pour la protection des écoles et des universités contre l'utilisation militaire durant les conflits armés, et à appliquer ces deux textes.

    5. Soutenir les gouvernements et leurs partenaires dans la reconstruction et le renforcement des systèmes éducatifs nationaux, dans l’esprit des engagements internationaux formulés dans l’Agenda 2030.

    6. Resserrer la collaboration entre les États et les acteurs du travail humanitaire et de développement, pour une meilleure efficacité de l’intervention d’urgence. Préparer des stratégies régionales, afin de faciliter une programmation durable à long terme, incluant le retour des enfants et adolescents réfugiés à une éducation de qualité, mais aussi la nécessité de disposer d’environnements scolaires protecteurs.

    7. Renforcer les systèmes de gestion des données et de l’information, et la communication, pour permettre une réponse efficace, une analyse en profondeur par secteur, tenant compte des facteurs liés au conflit et au sexe des enfants, en vue de préparer la transition, ainsi que des activités de planification du futur développement.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    “Humanitarian food assistance to save lives today and secure the future for tomorrow by empowering women, children and youth.”

    BACKGROUND

    Food and nutrition security in North East Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region

    Conflict fueled by socio-economic marginalization over time has caused immense human suffering across North Eastern Nigeria and parts of Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The prolonged humanitarian crisis in the wake of the Boko Haram insurgency has had a devastating impact on food and nutrition security in the region leading to famine-like conditions in some areas. The food system is under severe stress at several levels. Vital infrastructure is destroyed, commercial trade and markets are vastly disrupted and essential services including schools and hospitals are no longer functional. The region was already hard hit by climate-induced disasters like increased drought or desertification, as well as by an overuse of natural resources.

    Across North East Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, some seven million people are struggling with food insecurity and need urgent food assistance: 5.1 million in North East Nigeria, 1.5 million in Cameroon, 340,000 in Niger and close to 160,000 in Chad. Food security is expected to deteriorate until at least mid-2017.

    According to the multi-stakeholder Cadre Harmonisé Analysis 1 conducted in Nigeria in October 2016, about 5 million people are in crisis and emergency phases of food and nutrition insecurity (IPC phase 3-4), nearly twice as many as in March 2016. This figure is projected to rise to 5.8 million people by June 2017. In the worst affected and least accessible areas of Borno and Yobe States, 55,000 people are estimated to be experiencing famine-like conditions and the figure is projected to increase to 120,000 by June 2017 unless immediate assistance is provided.

    Food insecurity is one of the underlying causes of malnutrition and related mortality, which are also critically high. In most of the conflict-affected areas, malnutrition rates have surpassed the emergency threshold of 15 percent Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM). Throughout the region, more than half a million children are severely acutely malnourished (UNICEF). In Nigeria, up to 450,000 children are at risk of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and reduced immunity to basic illnesses such as malaria in the coming 12 months in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, 300,000 in Borno alone. Almost one in five children suffering severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are likely to die (about 75,000 children) if they do not receive specialized treatment. Many are likely to have died already. There is a lack of service delivery points for malnourished children with medical complications. These children need assistance now.

    The most affected three states in Nigeria are predominantly sustained by subsistence farming and small scale seasonal dependent agriculture. For a third consecutive year, these livelihoods have been disrupted as people cannot return to the land to cultivate due to threat of attack, risk of unexploded ordinance and improvised explosive devices, military restrictions for fear of Boko Haram infiltration and a lack of agricultural inputs. The IDPs, returnees and vulnerable host communities in these areas will continue to rely on humanitarian food assistance in 2017 and beyond if the security situation does not improve and parallel investment in sustainable livelihoods are not realized where possible.

    CHALLENGES

    Protection and Humanitarian access

    Significant improvements in the food security and nutritional situation are noted in accessible places where an integrated humanitarian response including nutrition, food security, WASH and Health was undertaken. Hence enhancing protection and access to humanitarian assistance is of utmost importance in order to reach all those in need of assistance. There are serious concerns about the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and children living in the inaccessible areas. Large numbers of people are still not receiving humanitarian assistance, due to access constraints. The security situation remains fragile and unpredictable and is likely the most significant impediment to humanitarian access, often requiring military escorts on roads where threats of attack remain high. Humanitarian operations remain a target of Boko Haram raids as sadly shown by recent incidences, the Anti-Tank Mine attack on a food convoy in Borno State and the suicide bombing inside an IDP camp in Maiduguri.

    Assisting the most vulnerable requires a clear and implementable operational strategy. The humanitarian community must deploy Rapid Response Teamsthat are well versed in program, logistics, communications, security and access negotiations. Co-ordinate closely with national and state institutions and advocate for guaranteed open and safe access to the affected population. There is clear evidence from elsewhere that RRTs are successful when there is an absolute and unquestionable need to reach those people facing extreme food insecurity.

    Markets disruptions and impact on women, youth and other vulnerable groups

    Over time, the conflict and natural disasters have exacerbated household and community vulnerability in North East Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region by destroying livelihoods and disrupting movement of goods and people. This hasled to extremely high prices of staple food crops2 further hampering people’s access to food and a healthy diet.

    More than 80 percent of the rural population in the North East depend on crops, livestock and fishing activities. Farming activities have been heavily disrupted by different factors. Over the past few years the involvement of Boko Haram in the looting of harvests, cattle and fish trade around Lake Chad has been widely reported. The restriction of movement, the destruction of infrastructure and the disruption of services have also contributed to the decrease in agricultural production throughout the affected areas. The perturbation of transhumance flows and livestock markets are also impacting the food security and livelihoods in the four countries, whose local economies are strongly integrated and interdependent around the Lake Chad.

    Border closures have also exerted pressure on trade, limiting supply and sale of goods and services. 3 These food system flaws, disruptions, and breakages have exacerbated the humanitarian crises and especially impacted women and youth significantly, further aggravating their precarious situation in an armed conflict that is characterized by genderbased violence and livelihoods destruction. Women and girls particularly are often the first to reduce their food intake, with negative repercussions for their nutrition and health— especially when women are pregnant or lactating, leading to increased nutritional needs for themselves and their children.

    When a humanitarian response enhances women and youth participation in food systems, there are both immediate and long-term benefits. Across the four countries women play an important role as traders, producers, processors and retailers, yet they are often poorly integrated in the value chain. While between 60 to 79 percent of the rural work force are women, men are five times more likely to own land. In a study in North East Nigeria and around the Lake Chad from 2015, 40 percent of women cited the physical lack of access to markets as the main barrier to participating in economic activities.

    OPPORTUNITIES

    The success of the humanitarian response will depend on (1) how quickly the humanitarian situation is tackled now to stabilize and improve food and nutrition security over the next 10-12 months; and (2) capitalize on opportunities for recovery and development with special emphasis on women, children and young adults.

    It is paramount that immediate food assistance and nutrition support is provided to the affected people. Where ever possible, concrete measures should be undertaken to ensure that affected people can revive their livelihood activities including agricultural production to contribute towards their short and the long-term food security and nutritional wellbeing.

    Women, children, and youth are the most affected requiring the greatest attention during the relief efforts. They also deserve attention as agents of vigorous, sustained, and inclusive future economic growth. Humanitarian assistance must address food and nutrition insecurities but can also contribute to strengthen local food systems, reviving trade and markets and increasing household resilience to future shocks, and contributing to overall community development by investing in human and social capital necessary for the advancement of the local communities.
    The following are only some of the opportunities that can be realized through humanitarian response:

    1. Strengthen Rapid Response mechanisms to assist people in hard to reach locations.
      Recognize that food security response is part of a broader lifesaving response including nutrition, WASH and health interventions.

    2. Deploy market based humanitarian response options like cash and voucher wherever feasible, specifically to reach and empower vulnerable women.

    3. Design the humanitarian response to enhance women’s participation in food markets to take advantage of multiplier effects that cash and voucher based transfers generate to specifically promote women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship.

    4. Within the food assistance response, use small-holder friendly procurement modalities by focusing on crops traditionally grown by women and youth to enhance their participation in market initiatives.

    5. Where possible, empower women and youth and their organization through the provision of technical and organizational skills, critical inputs, small-scale agro processing units, alternative source of energy, improved access to credit and services as well as by supporting their inclusion in local governance processes and private sector development.

    6. Strengthening information systems to assess and monitor the situation of women, children and youth for enhanced advocacy to address their specific needs 7. Invest further in innovative tools, fast tracked smallholder agriculture production and small scale livelihoods activities to boost production, strengthen market systems, and cross-border trade.

    KEY ASKS

    (1) Demand protection and humanitarian access to ensure that all vulnerable households in need of urgent humanitarian assistance are reached safely on a regular basis. This includes the strengthening of the Rapid Response Teams.

    (2) Put food security and nutrition at the heart of the humanitarian response with a special focus on women, children and youth. Increase advocacy for the needs of women and children.

    (3) Respond to the urgent need for coordinated support to food assistance and agriculture based livelihood to boost production and markets during the June 2017 rainy season with a special focus women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship.
    While providing humanitarian assistance, strengthen resilience of the affected people where feasible to help address the symptoms and structural consequences of food insecurity, malnutrition and unemployment in the region.

    1 In West Africa, the Cadre Harmonisé replaces the IPC. It follows similar processes and protocols.

    2 WFP, Lake Chad Basin Crisis, 2016.

    3 FEWSNET Assessment Nigeria, WFP VAM Regional Assessment.

    4 UN Women and IFORD Situation of Women and Girls Facing the Humanitarian Crisis Generated by Boko Haram in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, 2015


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    « Une aide alimentaire pour sauver des vies aujourd’hui et assurer l’avenir en œuvrant pour l’autonomie des femmes, des enfants et des adolescents. »

    CONTEXTE

    La sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans le nord-est nigérian et la région du Lac Tchad

    Un conflit alimenté par la marginalisation socio-économique à long terme est responsable d’immenses souffrances humaines dans le nord-est du Nigéria et certaines parties du Niger, du Tchad et du Cameroun. La crise humanitaire prolongée survenue dans le sillage de la guérilla menée par Boko Haram a eu un impact dévastateur dans la région du point de vue de la sécurité alimentaire, induisant dans certaines zones une situation proche de la famine. Le système de production et de distribution alimentaire est sous tension à plusieurs niveaux. Des infrastructures vitales ont été détruites, les échanges commerciaux et les marchés sont perturbés, et des services essentiels tels que les écoles et les hôpitaux ne fonctionnent plus. En outre, la région avait déjà été frappée par des désastres liés au changement climatique, notamment une aggravation de la sécheresse et de la désertification, ainsi que la surexploitation des ressources naturelles.

    Dans le nord-est du Nigéria et le bassin du Lac Tchad, quelque sept millions de personnes luttent contre l’insécurité alimentaire et ont besoin de toute urgence d’une assistance - 5,1 millions au nord-est nigérian, 1,5 au Cameroun, 340 000 au Niger et près de 160 000 au Tchad. Il est à prévoir que cette situation se détériore encore, au minimum jusqu’à la fin du premier semestre 2017.

    Selon l’analyse multipartite du Cadre Harmonisé1 réalisée au Nigéria en octobre 2016, près de 5 millions de personnes se trouvent dans les phases d’insécurité alimentaire dites de crise et d’urgence (phases 3 et 4 de la classification IPC), soit près de deux fois plus qu’en mars 2016. Ce chiffre devrait atteindre 5,8 millions en juin 2017. Dans les zones les plus touchées et les moins accessibles des États de Borno et de Yobe, on estime que 55 000 personnes subissent des conditions de vie assimilables à la famine. Sans une intervention immédiate, leur nombre pourrait augmenter à 120 000 en juin 2017.

    L’insécurité alimentaire est l’une des causes sous-jacentes de la malnutrition et de la mortalité qu’elle entraîne, qui atteignent l’une et l’autre des niveaux critiques. Dans la plupart des zones affectées par des conflits, les taux de prévalence de la malnutrition ont dépassé le seul d’urgence de 15 % de malnutrition aiguë globale (MAG). Dans toute la région, plus d’un demi-million d’enfants sont gravement malnutris (UNICEF). Au Nigéria, on dénombre jusqu’à 450 000 enfants qui, dans les 12 prochains mois, seront exposés au risque de malnutrition aiguë sévère (MAS) et d’un affaiblissement de leur immunité contre des maladies de base telles que le paludisme, dans les États de Borno, d’Adamawa et de Yobe, dont 300 000 dans le seul État de Borno. Sans traitement médical approprié, près d’un enfant sur cinq souffrant de malnutrition aiguë sévère (MAS) décédera probablement (ce qui représente près de 75 000 enfants). On estime qu’une part importante de ces enfants a probablement déjà perdu la vie. Les points d’intervention qui prennent en charge les enfants malnutris présentant des complications médicales sont trop peu nombreux. Or ces enfants ont besoin d’une assistance immédiate.

    Dans les trois États les plus touchés du Nigéria, la population vit essentiellement d’une agriculture de subsistance et d’activités agricoles saisonnières à petite échelle. Pour la troisième année consécutive, ces ressources ont été perdues par ceux qui les exploitaient, faute de pouvoir retourner sur les lieux de culture, par peur des attaques, du risque que représentent les engins et dispositifs explosifs improvisés, en raison de restrictions de circulation imposées par les militaires qui craignent l’infiltration de Boko Haram, et par manque d’intrants agricoles. Les déplacés internes, les rapatriés et les communautés d’accueil vulnérables continueront à dépendre de l’aide alimentaire en 2017 et au-delà si la situation en termes de sécurité ne s’améliore pas, et si des investissements dans des activités économiques durables ne sont pas réalisés en parallèle, là où cela s’avère possible.

    PROBLÉMATIQUE SPÉCIFIQUE

    La protection des points de délivrance de l’aide humanitaire

    Des améliorations significatives en matière nutritionnelle et de sécurité alimentaire sont observées dans les localités accessibles où a été entreprise une réponse humanitaire globale, regroupant les volets nutrition, sécurité alimentaire, EAH (eau, assainissement, hygiène) et santé. Il est donc d’une extrême importance de renforcer la protection et l’accessibilité des points d’intervention, de manière à pouvoir venir en aide à tous ceux qui en ont besoin. La protection des groupes vulnérables, notamment les femmes et les enfants vivant dans des zones inaccessibles, pose de sérieux problèmes. Une part importante des populations en détresse ne reçoit toujours pas d’aide humanitaire en raison des entraves à la circulation. La situation en termes de sécurité, qui reste instable et imprévisible, constitue sans doute l’obstacle principal. Il est souvent nécessaire de recourir à des escortes militaires, sur des routes où la menace des attaques demeure élevée. Les opérations humanitaires sont toujours une cible pour les raids de Boko Haram, ainsi que l’ont tristement montré de récents événements  une attaque aux mines antichars contre un convoi d’aide alimentaire dans l’État de Borno, et un attentat-suicide à l’intérieur d’un camp de déplacés à Maiduguri.

    Assister les plus vulnérables suppose une stratégie opérationnelle claire et applicable. La communauté humanitaire doit déployer des équipes d’intervention rapide (EIR) bien familiarisées avec le programme lui-même, la logistique, les techniques de communications et les négociations en matière de sécurité et d’accessibilité. Il est nécessaire de coordonner étroitement cette action et celle des instances institutionnelles nationales et locales, et de plaider pour un libre-accès garanti aux zones où se trouvent les populations affectées.
    L’expérience recueillie dans d’autres contextes a clairement démontré l’efficacité des EIR lorsqu’il s’avère absolument nécessaire d’atteindre des populations confrontées à une insécurité alimentaire extrême.

    La désorganisation des marchés et son impact sur les femmes, les jeunes et autres groupes de population vulnérables

    Au fil des années, la conjonction du conflit et des catastrophes naturelles a augmenté à l’extrême la fragilité des ménages et des communautés humaines dans la partie nord-est du Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad, en détruisant leurs moyens de subsistance et en entravant la circulation des marchandises et des personnes. Il en résulte des prix exorbitants des produits vivriers de base2 , ce qui constitue un obstacle supplémentaire, du point de vue de l’accès à l’alimentation comme de la qualité nutritive des aliments consommés.

    Plus de 80 % de la population rurale du nord-est nigérian vit d’activités de culture, d’élevage et de pêche. L’agriculture a été gravement désorganisée par différents facteurs. Au cours des dernières années, la responsabilité de Boko Haram dans le saccage des récoltes, du bétail et du commerce des produits de la pêche a été fréquemment évoquée. Les restrictions en matière de circulation, les destructions d’infrastructures et la mise à l’arrêt de différents services ont également contribué à la diminution de la production agricole dans la totalité des zones touchées. La perturbation des voies de transhumance et des marchés au bétail impacte aussi la sécurité alimentaire et l’activité des quatre pays du pourtour du Lac Tchad, dont le fonctionnement économique local est fortement interdépendant.

    Par ailleurs, les fermetures de frontières ont exercé une pression sur les échanges, limitant les approvisionnements et les ventes de marchandises et de services.3 Ces perturbations et pénuries affectant le système de production et de distribution alimentaire ont exacerbé les crises humanitaires, frappant spécialement les femmes et les jeunes, dont la situation précaire s’est encore aggravée au cœur d’un conflit caractérisé par les violences sexistes et les destructions de moyens de subsistance. Les femmes et les jeunes-filles sont souvent les premières à réduire leurs rations alimentaires, avec les répercussions qui s’ensuivent pour leur nutrition et leur santé – en particulier chez les femmes enceintes et allaitantes, dont les besoins nutritionnels se trouvent accrus, tant pour elles-mêmes que pour leurs enfants.

    Lorsque la réponse humanitaire renforce la participation des femmes et des jeunes au système alimentaire, elle obtient des effets bénéfiques aussi bien dans l’immédiat qu’à long terme. Dans les quatre pays concernés, les femmes jouent un rôle important dans le commerce, la production, la transformation et la distribution de détail, mais n’en sont pas moins faiblement intégrées à la chaîne de création de valeur. Si 60 à 79 % de la main d’œuvre rurale sont constitués de femmes, les hommes ont cinq fois plus de chances d’être propriétaires d’une terre. Dans une étude menée dans le nord-est du Nigéria et autour du Lac Tchad à partir de 2015, 40 % des femmes citaient comme obstacle principal à une éventuelle participation à des activités économiques l’impossibilité où elles se trouvaient d’accéder physiquement aux marchés.4

    1 En Afrique de l’Ouest, le Cadre Harmonisé remplace IPC, en appliquant les mêmes processus et protocoles. 2 WFP, Lake Chad Basin Crisis, 2016. 3. FEWSNET Assessment Nigeria, WFP VAM Regional Assessment. 4 UN Women and IFORD Situation of Women and Girls Facing the Humanitarian Crisis Generated by Boko Haram in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, 2015


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Government of Nigeria
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Background

    Approximately 26 million people in the Lake Chad Region have been affected by the conflict, and over 2.6 million have been displaced. The humanitarian crisis has been exacerbated by conflict induced hunger and malnutrition which have escalated to critical levels. 14 million Nigerians in the six most affected states in Nigeria are in need of humanitarian assistance in 2017. The conflict and its spillover into neighboring Cameroon, Chad and Niger has resulted in a regional displacement crisis in the Lake Chad Region with over 1.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria, 87% of whom originate from Borno State, and nearly 200,000 refugees in Cameroon, Chad and Niger, along with the already sizeable internal displacement situations in these three main refugee hosting countries (Cameroon: 183,000; Chad: 89,000; and Niger: 121,000).

    There are numerous protection issues in areas of displacement and potential return which contribute directly to ongoing violence and create obstacles to durable solutions. These issues include restrictions on freedom of movement and humanitarian access due to insecurity, violations of international humanitarian law, sexual and gender-based violence, forced recruitment (including of children), disappearances, family separation, and violations of housing, land and property rights (particularly when individual civil documentation is missing). Addressing the complex protection needs of refugees, internally displaced persons and returnees as well as restoring their human rights are critical foundations for stability in affected areas and solutions for persons of concern in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region.

    The magnitude of the humanitarian crisis occurring in a conflict characterized by systematic violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, requires the response to be strategic, prioritised and focused if it is to be effective. In the immediate term the focus is on the following critical protection needs:

    • improving physical security, freedom of movement and humanitarian access;

    • enhancing protection of civilians, in particular with regard to prevention of and response to sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) as well as protection of children from violence, exploitation and abuse;

    • providing emergency education prioritising out of school children;

    • providing targeted psychosocial support to persons with specific needs;

    • availing specific livelihood and empowerment support and;

    • resolution of housing, land and property disputes.

    The Nigeria situation demands a comprehensive response by humanitarian and development actors, not just on protection, but with regard to addressing the challenges of exclusion, marginalization and abject poverty which, among other factors, are at the core of the root causes fuelling conflict and violence, creating protection risks and impeding realization of durable solutions. To this end, gender equality, inclusion, empowerment, community reconciliation and social cohesion are central to restoring rights, reducing violations and supporting solutions, especially as concerns the sustainability of voluntary returns and identification of viable alternatives.

    The ongoing counter-insurgency measures put in place by the Nigerian security forces and regional multi-national security partners have, over the past several months, led to improvements in security and humanitarian access to some areas which were previously insecure and inaccessible. IDPs and refugees have started to return, a fact that has been observed in areas accessible for assessments. It is critical that these returns remain voluntary, occur in safety and in dignity, and that additional opportunities for solutions are identified and seized upon. At the same time, due to the ongoing conflict, new displacement occurs regularly, including to unsafe or inaccessible areas.

    More needs to be done in terms of providing physical security and restoring rights. This is because the effective protection of civilians leads to opportunities for durable solutions to displacement. There is also an intrinsic linkage between protection and solutions. Protection is at the core of the fundamental requirements for the voluntary returns of refugees to occur in safety and dignity, in particular with regard to making informed decisions on solutions and adherence to the principle of non-refoulement. Similarly, the return of IDPs to their places of origin should be voluntary, in that they should be provided with the opportunity to access alternative solutions such as local integration or relocation to another place of residence in order to avoid situations of prolonged displacement.

    To address the complex protection dimension of the regional humanitarian crisis, the Governments of the Lake Chad Region – Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger – adopted the Abuja Action Statement on 8 June 2016 to galvanize a protection-focused approach to solutions for displaced persons.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Government of Nigeria
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Contexte

    Les hostilités qui sévissent dans la région du Lac Tchad ont affecté quelque 26 millions de personnes, dont 2,6 millions ont été chassées de chez elles. Dans le sillage du conflit, la crise humanitaire s’est trouvée aggravée par la pénurie alimentaire et la malnutrition, qui ont atteint des niveaux critiques. En 2017, 14 millions de Nigérians, répartis dans les six États les plus touchés du pays (1) , ont besoin d’une assistance. (2) Le conflit et ses retombées dans les pays limitrophes, Cameroun, Tchad et Niger, ont débouché sur une crise caractérisée par des déplacements de population sur tout le pourtour du Lac Tchad, avec 1,8 millions de PDI au Nigéria, originaires à 87 % de l’État de Borno, et près de 200 000 réfugiés au Cameroun, au Tchad et au Niger, venus s’ajouter au nombre déjà non négligeable des déplacés internes présents dans ces trois pays d’accueil principaux (Cameroun : 183 000 ; Tchad : 89 000 ; Niger : 121 000).

    Dans les zones de déplacement et de potentiel retour, la protection des populations concernées pose de nombreux problèmes qui contribuent directement à une situation de violence permanente, faisant obstacle à des solutions durables. Parmi ces problèmes figurent les restrictions à la liberté de circuler et la question de l’accès aux points d’intervention humanitaires dans un contexte d’insécurité, les violations du droit humanitaire international, les violences sexuelles et sexistes, les enrôlements forcés (y compris d’enfants), les disparitions de personnes, la séparation des familles, les violations des droits de propriété du logement, de la terre et des biens (notamment en l’absence d’état civil). Répondre aux besoins complexes en termes de protection qui sont ceux des réfugiés, des déplacés internes et des rapatriés, et rétablir les droits humains qui leur reviennent : de ces objectifs déterminants dépendent la stabilité des zones affectées et les solutions à apporter aux personnes en détresse au Nigéria et dans la région du Lac Tchad.

    L’ampleur de la crise humanitaire survenue au cœur d’un conflit caractérisé par des violations systématiques des droits de l’homme et du droit humanitaire international exige une réaction, qui, pour être efficace, devra s’appuyer sur une stratégie, des priorités et des cibles préétablies. Dans l’immédiat, l’accent doit être mis sur un certain nombre d’axes urgents en matière de protection :

    • Améliorer la sécurité physique, la liberté de circulation et l’accès aux points d’intervention humanitaire ;

    • Renforcer la protection des civils, en veillant spécialement à la prévention de la violence sexuelle et sexiste (VSS), et à la sécurité des enfants vis-à-vis des violences, de l’exploitation et des abus sexuels ;

    • Fournir une assistance d’urgence en matière éducative, en donnant la priorité aux enfants déscolarisés ;

    • Fournir un soutien psycho-social ciblé aux personnes présentant des besoins spécifiques à cet égard ;

    • Mettre à disposition des moyens de subsistance et d’autonomisation ;

    • Résoudre les litiges en matière de propriété des logements, des terres et des biens.

    La situation telle qu’elle se présente au Nigéria exige des acteurs humanitaires et de l’aide au développement une réponse globale, qui ne se limite pas à la seule protection, mais réponde aux problèmes d’exclusion, de marginalisation et de pauvreté extrême, qui, entre autres facteurs, alimentent le conflit et la violence, créant des risques en termes de sécurité des opérations et entravant la réalisation de solutions durables. Dans ce contexte, l’égalité entre les sexes, l’intégration des exclus, l’autonomisation des individus, la réconciliation des communautés et la cohésion sociale sont des volets essentiel d’une action visant à restaurer les droits, réduire le nombre des violations commises et soutenir des solutions, en particulier en ce qui concerne la durabilité des retours volontaires et la mise en œuvre d’alternatives viables.

    (1) Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba et Yobe
    (2) 17 millions d’habitants de la région du Lac Tchad sont concernés par le conflit, et 8,5 millions de Nigérians des États Borno, Adamawa et Yobe States auront besoin d’une assistance en 2017, selon le Plan d’action humanitaire pour la région du Lac Tchad.


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