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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Mauritania

    Highlights

    • WFP has a 6-month net funding requirement of USD 9.4 million for both the PRRO and CP. WFP will only be able to cover food and cash assistance during the periods of January-February, and May-July in 2017 with a reduced ration.
    • Urgent funding of USD 800,000 is required for UNHAS for the next 6 months.
    • Thanks to ECHO’s contribution at the end of 2016, WFP was able to programme cash-distribution assistance for Malian refugees for the months of January and February 2017.

    WFP Assistance

    Developed in consultation with the Government, United Nations agencies and NGOs, the Protracted Relief and Recovery Operations (PRRO) provides assistance to the most vulnerable and food-insecure people in Mauritania and protects their livelihoods. Due to funding constraints, the project was scaled down to cover the six most vulnerable regions instead of the eight originally planned. WFP plans to provide food and nutrition assistance to 430,000 people in rural areas with the highest food insecurity and malnutrition rates through (i) food distributions using cash and food transfers, (ii) nutritional assistance to malnourished and highly vulnerable children and pregnant and nursing women, (iii) food assistance for asset creation activities to help vulnerable communities and households build their resilience to withstand future shocks.

    As of January 2016, the programme includes assistance to Malian refugees in the Mberra camp where WFP provides food and nutritional assistance to 42,500 refugees through unconditional food and cash distributions, nutrition and school feeding activities. Host communities are also assisted.

    Under the CP and in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, WFP planned to provide school meals to 160,000 children enrolled in public primary schools in eight rural regions. Due to lack of funding, school meals could not be ensured since December 2015.

    The United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) was established in 2012, at the request of the Humanitarian Country Team, and provides regular air services to aid workers, reaching six destinations in Mauritania. The service is the indispensable mean to facilitate humanitarian access to the affected population in remote areas from the capital, Nouakchott.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Niger, Nigeria

    Highlights

    • The local purchases programme in Maradi region was officially launched on 7 December.
    • WFP prepares for the beginning of the new protracted relief and recovery project (PRRO), which will start in January 2017.
    • WFP met with the food security working group to plan food assistance within the emergency response in the Diffa region for 2017.
    • Over the next 6 months, with the beginning of the new resilience project, USD 55.3 million need to be found for the implementation of activities.

    WFP Assistance

    WFP supports the Government in implementing a multi-sectoral, integrated community-based approach to building household and community resilience, supporting the same vulnerable people through a flexible combination of unconditional and conditional food assistance over a pluri-annual programme. The approach aims to reduce the impact of seasonal stresses and prevent a peak in acute malnutrition and mortality. The innovative integrated response includes food assistance for asset (through food and cash), nutrition specific and - sensitive activities, school meals and related programmes (such as school gardens and local milling and processing initiatives), local purchases from smallholder farmers, as well as unconditional food assistance during the lean season. This integrated safety net package is geographically concentrated in the most vulnerable areas allowing it to strengthen the core capacities and skills of key institutions and communities and those left behind. A special attention is put on gender.

    Activities are implemented in the pre and post-harvest period to assist rural communities in revitalizing infrastructure, improving agricultural production and diversifying rural incomes. They are linked to the promotion of local production and purchases. The resilience programme relies on a participatory process amongst others through the three-pronged approach (national, subnational and community levels) relying on the seasonal livelihood programming and community-based participatory planning.

    The regional emergency operation catering to the needs of the Malian refugees ended in December 2015. The entire caseload was integrated under the existing PRRO. Unconditional food assistance along with nutritional supplementation for children 6-23 months is provided to Malian refugees in all camps and hosting sites.

    The Food Security Cluster has been active since 2010. WFP co-leads the Cluster with FAO and continues coordination activities with the Government and other humanitarian partners.

    The Regional Emergency Operation provides flexible assistance through unconditional and conditional food distributions, and nutritional supplementation for children aged 6-23 months as well as emergency school meals. The assistance is provided to an increasing number of refugees in and out of camps, returnees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and host populations affected by the insecurity in northern Nigeria.

    The United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) provides safe, efficient and effective air transport to UN agencies, NGOs and donors. This enables implementation and oversight of humanitarian activities in areas affected by insecurity and poor road infrastructure.

    In 2016, the operational fleet consisted of two 19-seater (Beechcraft 1900) operating out of Niamey with the ability to respond to air travel needs to the field. UNHAS remained the only key player in enabling up to 110 organizations to reach at least six destinations in Niger.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Senegal

    Highlights

    The country office participated with six other African countries in the Purchase from Africans for Africa (PAA) international workshop on monitoring and evaluation which took place in WFP Headquarters from 19 to 21 December. The workshop’s objectives were to take stock of the progress made by the PAA project, of the learning from the monitoring and evaluation and from the case studies across the countries.

    WFP Assistance

    WFP provides food and nutrition assistance in all 14 regions of Senegal. WFP increasingly aims to target the most vulnerable communities with an integrated assistance package for better results. WFP envisions a hunger free Senegal, in which food-insecure households have access to adequate nutritious food all year around; and vulnerable populations are resilient to shocks and are able to rely on integrated sustainable food systems.

    Through its PRRO and CP, WFP maintains a twin track response - responding to shocks and assisting populations in their early recovery, while continuing efforts to build resilience in anticipation of shocks. WFP adopts multi-annual planning for its resilience interventions (Rural Resilience Initiative-R4, Food assistance for Asset (FFA) and Village Security Stock) with a focus on the same vulnerable communities over two to three years.

    WFP continues to support the Government’s leadership in food security and nutrition. WFP partners with national counterparts on food and nutrition analysis, early warning and the expansion of rural development and social safety nets programmes. WFP also invests in communities’ ownership and strengthening of monitoring and evaluation activities to ensure the quality and performance of programmes. Overall, activities include targeted food assistance, supplementary feeding, school meals and FFA.

    WFP is also prioritising local procurement - through the PAA partnership with FAO and Brazil - and cash-based transfers (CBT). Jointly with Oxfam WFP is extending R4, a Rural Resilience Initiative, which mobilises rural communities to build agricultural assets with elements of insurance, credit and savings.

    Senegal’s gender indicators reveal the disadvantaged position of girls and women. WFP is mainstreaming gender sensitivity as an integral part of every project.

    WFP implements tailored interventions across the agriculture, education and nutrition sectors to contribute towards gender equality and women’s empowerment and access to food for people living with disability and the elderly. Moreover, efforts are made by WFP and local partners to facilitate "special distributions at home".


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    259,145 Central African refugees registered by UNHCR in rural areas in the East, Adamaoua and North regions, of which 158,418 arrived since December 2013.

    86,900 Nigerian refugees in the Far North region (of which 60,157 are registered at Minawao camp)

    198,889 Internally Displaced Persons in the Far North region (sources: DTM by IOM as of October 2016 and UNHCR protection monitoring Flash Updates)

    MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS

    • The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Mr Filippo Grandi, undertook a mission to Cameroon from 15-16 December. The purpose of the mission was within the wider context of the HC’s mission to countries in Lake Chad Basin region to take stock and assess the humanitarian situation of Nigerian refugees. On 15 December, in Minawao camp, the High Commissioner was able to see the various infrastructures and services put in place to assist the over 60,000 refugees; to meet with families seeking safety in Cameroon and with the Central Refugee Committee and community leaders. The High Commissioner expressed appreciation for the efforts made by UNHCR and its various partners to ensure the protection and assistance of refugees. He also stressed that additional efforts are being made by UNHCR and its partners to raise the quality and living conditions of the refugee population, and to facilitate voluntary repatriation, should they express this wish and should conditions prove conducive for return, in safety and dignity.
      On 16 December, in Yaoundé, the High Commissioner co-chaired, together with the Minister of Territorial Administration and Decentralization (MINATD) of Cameroon, the launch of the Regional Refugee Response Plan 2017 (RRRP) for Nigerian Refugees being hosted in Cameroon, Chad and Niger. The 2017 Nigeria RRRP, which involves 36 partners (UN agencies, national and international NGOs), appeals for approximately USD 241 million for a target population of over 450,000 people (refugees, host populations and displaced persons). The sectors concerned are protection, education, food security, health and nutrition, livelihoods and the environment, shelter and non-food products, water, hygiene and sanitation.
      The High Commissioner, in his remarks at the launch event, also noted that the situation of Central African refugees remains worrying and should not be forgotten. He mentioned the fact that the financial needs for Central African refugees are higher than those of Nigerian refugees in UNHCR's own funding forecasts.
      In Cameroon, the High Commissioner met with various governmental authorities including the Secretary General of the Presidency of the Republic, the Minister of MINATD and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. He also held a joint meeting with the United Nations Coordination Team (UNCT) and the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), before meeting with UNHCR staff.
    • The security situation in the Far North region is relatively calm; no major incidents were reported in December.
      However, insecurity remains a major concern as some 510 new Nigerian asylum seekers were registered at Gourounguel transit center coming from Maiduguri, the local government villages of Bama in Nigeria and from some localities in the Far North region where they had found refuge. They claim to be fleeing insecurity, terrorist threat, difficult living conditions and to be reunited with family members in Minawao camp. A total of 1,714 new asylum seekers also arrived in Kerawa and Kolofata during the week of 12 December, with 3,000 internally displaced persons settled in the village of Afade. Registration and emergency assistance for these populations are underway despite the major challenge of the difficult access to asylum due to the security measures in place in the region.
    • The Central African Republic continued to witness clashes between anti-Balaka and ex-Seleka, resulting in the arrival of some 53 new asylum seekers from Bangui, Boda and Yaloké to Garoua Boulaï in the East region. They were screened and provided with assistance.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali, Niger

    • De 2011 à 2016, plus de 1,6 milliard de dollars ont été mobilisés sur un total de 2 milliards de dollars requis à travers des projets des plans de réponse humanitaire pour le Niger.

    • Environ 485 millions de dollars ont été alloués à des projets humanitaires non inclus dans les plans de 2011 à 2016.

    • Pour les six années considérées, la moyenne des taux de financement tourne autour de 60 pour cent.

    • En 2016, seuls 54 pour cent des fonds recherchés ont été mobilisés.

    Tendance du financement des plans de réponse humanitaire

    De 2011 à 2016, les financements ont connu des variations selon les besoins des populations. La plus forte requête annuelle pour cette période s’élève à 490 millions de dollars et a été lancée en 2012. Cependant, le taux de financement le plus élevé, soit 81 pour cent, a été enregistré en 2013, année marquée, entre autres, par l’ampleur des besoins liés à la crise des réfugiés maliens et la gestion des conséquences des inondations de 2012 qui avaient touché plus de 500 000 personnes.

    Financement global : Plans de réponse et hors plans de réponse

    De 2011 à 2016, les organisations humanitaires ont pu mobiliser environ 2 milliards de dollars pour la réponse humanitaire au Niger. Ce total inclut 1,6 milliard de dollars pour les projets soumis à travers les plans de réponse Humanitaire et 485 millions de dollars pour d’autres projets humanitaires ne faisant pas partie de ces plans.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: South Sudan

    Famine (IPC Phase 5) possible in South Sudan during 2017

    Extreme levels of food insecurity persist across South Sudan and nearly one third of the population is in need of emergency food assistance. Further deterioration in food security is likely during an extended lean season (February-July), as widespread insecurity continues to limit livelihoods, disrupt trade, and block humanitarian access. In a worst-case scenario where conflict intensifies and humanitarian access is further limited, Famine (IPC Phase 5), marked by high levels of excess mortality, is possible. Unity State, where displaced households already face an extreme lack of food, is the area of greatest concern. Urgent action to end conflict and increase the size and scope of emergency assistance delivery is critical to save lives over the coming year.

    Since the resurgence of conflict in July 2016, violence has spread to Greater Equatoria, and now affects all regions of South Sudan. Over 450,000 people have fled the country since July, bringing the total number of refugees to 1.3 million. Nearly two million people are internally displaced. Across much of the country, household access to food and cash income has declined as conflict has disrupted planting, harvesting, and other livelihood activities. Ongoing crop assessments and key informant information indicate that 2016 staple food production is below average in many areas, including the typically surplus-producing areas of Western Equatoria.

    Meanwhile, macroeconomic factors continue to drive exorbitant staple food prices. A substantial decline in oil revenue since 2014 has contributed to a sharp drop in both foreign currency reserves and the value of the South Sudanese pound. These factors, along with insecurity along key trade routes, have restricted normal trade flows into South Sudan and from the capital to wider areas of the country. This is occurring at a time when import requirements are higher than usual given below-average harvests. The subsequent reduction in food availability on local markets has driven prices to record levels. As of November 2016, retail sorghum prices in Aweil, Wau, and Juba averaged 49 SSD/kg, four times higher than the previous year and 10 to 15 times higher than November 2013, the month before the initial outbreak of conflict. These high prices, along with declining incomes, have significantly eroded household purchasing power.

    All regions of South Sudan are in need of significant humanitarian response. Crisis (IPC Phase 3) is widespread and Emergency (IPC Phase 4) outcomes exist in parts of Unity, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Central Equatoria, and Western Equatoria (Figure 1). An estimated 675,000 people are currently in Emergency (IPC Phase 4) or worse, meaning that they face large gaps in their ability to meet basic food requirements. These populations, particularly children, face a significantly elevated risk of malnutrition and mortality. An additional 2.8 million people are in Crisis (IPC Phase 3). The prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM), recorded by SMART surveys conducted between September and November 2016, remained Serious or worse (10 percent or higher) throughout the country during the harvest period.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    Sécurité

    La situation sécuritaire dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord demeure volatile et incertaine. Les exactions de la secte Boko Haram se manifestent en pose d’engins explosifs et attentats kamikazes. De fait, le 02 Janvier, une patrouille du Bataillon d’Intervention Rapide a sauté sur une mine à Igawa dans le Mayo Sava. Un militaire a été tué et deux autres blessés. Par ailleurs, le 11 Janvier, deux attentats kamikazes ont été perpétrés à Doublé où elle a été maîtrisée et à Kolofata où deux kamikazes ont trouvé la mort et deux membres du comité de vigilance ont été blessés.

    Développements majeurs

    Dans le cadre du projet d’autonomisation des réfugiés urbains, le Représentant du HCR a procédé le 11 janvier, avec le Ministère de la Promotion de la Femme et de la Famille, le Fonds National de l’Emploi et PLAN International, à la remise des attestations de fin de formations à 91 apprenants réfugiés urbains de Yaoundé formés en fumage de poisson, fabrication des produits d'entretien, fabrication des jus de fruits et produits dérivés de soja, en blanchisserie et en techniques de recherche d’emploi et de recherche d’emploi indépendant. Le projet a été lancé à Douala dans sa composante « insertion socio-économique de la femme réfugiée urbaine de Douala ».

    Une mission d’évaluation et de concertation du donateur DFID a séjourné à Maroua la semaine du 09 janvier. Elle a visité quelques infrastructures du camp de Minawao, échangé avec le comité central des réfugiés et les leaders communautaires. La mission a apprécié les efforts déployés par le HCR et ses différents partenaires et a relevé les gaps et défis auxquels sont confrontés les réfugiés dans le camp.

    Région de l’Extrême-Nord

    Statistiques

    Le camp de Minawao compte une population totale de 60 539 individus (16 303 ménages) au 13 Janvier. Les femmes représentent 54% de la population et les hommes 46%.

    Protection

    Un total de 328 individus (139 ménages) est arrivé spontanément au centre de transit de Gourounguel en provenance de Maiduguri, des villages de l’Etat de Borno au Nigéria et de quelques localités dans l’Extrême-Nord où ils y avaient trouvé refuge à leur arrivée au Cameroun. Ils fuient pour la plus part l’insécurité, la menace terroriste les conditions de vie difficiles dans leurs lieux de provenance et un grand nombre arrive en vue d’un regroupement familial.
    En vue d’améliorer l’environnement de protection de l’enfance, un total de 3 672 réfugiés a été sensibilisé sur l’importance de l’école, le respect des droits des enfants, les risques liés à l’envoi des enfants à la recherche du bois de chauffe en brousse, l’importance de l’harmonie dans la famille, l’importance de l’acte de naissance et les dangers du travail des enfants au marché.

    SGBV

    Dans le cadre de la prévention des violences basées sur le genre, un total de 1 132 personnes a été sensibilisé sur les dangers et les conséquences des mariages précoces et forcés, du viol et sur l’importance de la scolarisation de la jeune fille.

    Sécurité alimentaire

    La distribution générale des vivres du mois s’est déroulée du 10 au 13 janvier avec un total de 60 364 personnes récipiendaires. Le panier alimentaire est constitué des céréales, légumineuses, CSB, huile et sel pour une valeur nutritive de 1532 Kcal par personne et par jour, soit un apport énergétique en deçà du standard de 1900 Kcal par personne et par jour. Cette baisse de la valeur nutritive est due au manque de ressources financières. Le HCR et le PAM continuent de travailler sur une stratégie commune et globale (pour les réfugiés nigérians et centrafricains) de mobilisation de ressources afin de les différents gaps.

    Education

    La rentrée scolaire pour le compte du deuxième trimestre a eu lieu le 09 Janvier dans toutes les écoles du camp de Minawao. Bien que timide les premiers jours, une hausse du taux de fréquentation a été observée au courant de la période sous revue. En outre, le Gouvernement fédéral du Nigéria a fait un don en manuels et fournitures scolaires au camp. A l’issue d’une réunion de concertation entre les différentes parties prenantes du secteur éducation, il a été décidé que 20% de ces manuels scolaires seront destinés à la bibliothèque du camp et 80% distribués équitablement aux six écoles primaires du camp. Les fournitures scolaires quant à elles seront remises aux élèves méritants des six écoles du primaire et des deux écoles maternelles du camp à l’occasion d’une cérémonie solennelle.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration, Government of the Republic of Mali, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Cluster
    Country: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger

    Le contexte de déplacement au Mali reste complexe et fluide. Des mouvements de personnes déplacées résidant actuellement dans les régions du sud vers les régions du nord continuent d'être signalés. Alors que certains ont indiqué être retournés définitivement, d'autres déplacés expliquent faire des allers-retours entre le lieu de déplacement et le lieu d'origine.

    Afin de répondre aux besoins des populations déplacées internes, rapatriées et retournées, la Commission Mouvement de Populations (CMP) recueille et analyse les informations sur les mouvements de populations à l’intérieur du Mali, afin de fournir un état complet des mouvements de populations et à la demande de ses partenaires. Les membres de la Commission sont : la Direction Générale de la Protection Civile (Ministère de la sécurité intérieur), UNHCR, OCHA, PAM, UNICEF, ACTED, NRC, DRC, Handicap International, Solidarités International, CRS, OIM, et DNDS. Plusieurs autres entités participent régulièrement aux rencontres de la Commission.

    Résumé: A la date du 31 Décembre 2016, les partenaires de la CMP ont comptabilisé 56 594 rapatriés, ce qui correspond à une augmentation de 1055 personnes par rapport aux données du mois d’octobre 2016 (55 539 Rapatriés1). Par ailleurs, aucun mouvement de personnes déplacées internes ni de retournés n’a été enregistré durant la période2. La CMP comptabilise donc 36 690 PDIs et 474 231 personnes retournées.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Belgium, Haiti, Iraq, Mali

    Une volonté réaffirmée de protéger les moyens d’existence basés sur l’agriculture en situations d’urgence

    17 janvier 2017, Rome - La Belgique, partenaire de longue date de la FAO dans le cadre de ses interventions d'urgence, a réaffirmé son engagement à protéger l'agriculture des pays frappés par une catastrophe par le biais d'une contribution de 14 millions d'euros. Ceci permettra notamment d'améliorer la capacité de la FAO et de ses pays membres à intervenir immédiatement en cas de catastrophe ou encore de crise et de renforcer la résilience des agriculteurs et des éleveurs vulnérables sur le long terme.

    La majeure partie de cette contribution servira à renforcer la capacité des agriculteurs à résister aux chocs et ce, à travers la mise en œuvre de programmes sur plusieurs années, ce qui constitue en soi une approche innovante dont l'objectif est de financer des interventions humanitaires. De manière générale, les projets humanitaires sont financés pour des périodes de 6 mois à un an, laissant peu de marge aux initiatives visant à restaurer la production agricole et à celles visant à améliorer les pratiques considérées comme risquées.

    Ces projets sur le long terme sont très importants pour l'agriculture car ils permettent d'apporter un soutien sur plusieurs saisons et récoltes. Cela fait d'ailleurs partie des recommandations du Sommet mondial sur l'action humanitaire 2016, qui portait sur les différents moyens de réduire la souffrance humaine et de mieux dispenser l'aide aux populations confrontées aux crises à travers le monde.

    «Nous apprécions vivement les efforts de la Belgique «pour passer de la parole aux actes» lors du Sommet mondial sur l'action humanitaire en apportant un financement humanitaire flexible et pluriannuel», a déclaré M. Dominique Burgeon, Directeur de la Division des urgences et de la réhabilitation de la FAO et Chef du programme stratégique sur la résilience. Et d'ajouter que «le don de la Belgique reconnaît le rôle essentiel joué par l'agriculture dans la vie de millions de personnes à travers le monde».

    «Sauver les moyens d'existence agricoles contribue à aider les populations affectées par les crises de manière durable et leur permet de rester sur leurs terres, s'ils s'y sentent suffisamment en sécurité», a indiqué M. Bruno van der Pluijm, Directeur général de la Coopération au développement et aide humanitaire.

    Parmi les zones en crise bénéficiaires du financement belge figurent le Sahel (4 millions d'euros), le Mali (2 millions d'euros), Haïti (3 millions d'euros) et l'Irak (2 millions d'euros). 3 autres millions d'euros ont été versés au Fonds spécial de la FAO pour les activités d'urgence et de relèvement (SFERA). Ce Fonds permet notamment à la FAO de débloquer de l'argent rapidement pour la mise en œuvre d'interventions rapides sur le terrain et ce, même avant le lancement d'un appel d'urgence, lorsque des catastrophes naturelles ou des conflits menacent les moyens d'existence, la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition des familles agricoles.

    L'aide apportée par la Belgique au SFERA est essentielle afin de mettre en œuvre rapidement des distributions de céréales et de semences potagères à cycle court, des intrants souvent fournis lors des interventions d'urgences de la FAO.

    Cela permet de garantir que ces communautés touchées par des crises ne ratent pas la prochaine campagne de semis et soient en mesure de cultiver et de rétablir leurs moyens d'existence.

    Protéger leur bétail en leur apportant une aide alimentaire d'urgence et en organisant des campagnes de vaccination figure également parmi les actions précoces prises en période de crises, de sorte que les animaux soient toujours en mesure de fournir des protéines, du lait et donc des revenus aux communautés d'éleveurs. Dans les zones de conflit, encourager les jardins potagers avec des volailles et de petites cultures, ainsi que les activités de pêche est également primordial pour les familles qui ont dû, malgré elles, abandonner leurs terres ou encore qui jouissent d'un accès restreint aux marchés opérationnels.

    Une nouvelle publication de la FAO, intitulée «Partenariat humanitaire FAO-Belgique », donne à voir les plus importantes interventions d'urgences consacrées au secteur agricole, qui ont été mises en œuvre à travers le monde.

    A noter que cette nouvelle contribution place la Belgique parmi les 10 plus importants donateurs humanitaires de la FAO.

    La FAO, le Bureau de la coordination des affaires humanitaires des Nations Unies (OCHA) et le Conseil norvégien pour les réfugiés ont entrepris de faire une étude sur les effets du financement pluriannuel et prendront la Belgique comme exemple de bonne pratique dans le cadre de l'aide internationale.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • WFP’s latest food security estimates indicate that 3.6 million people are facing severe food insecurity, with this number expected to grow to 4.6 million people in the first quarter of 2017.
    • Successful test road convoys indicate improving road conditions with the onset of the dry season.
    • WFP and World Vision launched the Juba urban poor cash response pilot project to provide cash based assistance and skills training to vulnerable households.

    WFP Assistance

    EMOP 200859: WFP’s emergency operation (EMOP) aims to provide life-saving assistance to 3 million people displaced and affected by conflict through food distributions and blanket and targeted supplementary feeding.

    PRRO 200572: WFP’s protracted relief and recovery operation (PRRO) aims to assist 1.1 million people through food distributions, blanket and targeted supplementary feeding, institutional feeding, food assistance for assets, food for education, Cash Based Transfers (CBT) and Purchase for Progress (P4P).

    SO 200775: The Food Security and Livelihoods Cluster, which WFP co-leads with FAO, is dedicated to coordinating the food security sector nationally to ensure the most efficient response to food availability and access issues.

    From January, the cluster activities will be incorporated under EMOP 200859. More information: http://fscluster.org/south-sudan-rep

    SO 200778: Through the Logistics Cluster, WFP supports the humanitarian community by providing logistical expertise, coordination and transportation of humanitarian cargo. More information: http://www.logcluster.org/ops/ssd11a.

    SO 200931: The Emergency Telecommunications Cluster (ETC) provides telecommunication services where basic infrastructure is limited. The ETC was deactivated on 31 December.

    SO 200786: WFP operates the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) on behalf of the humanitarian community, providing safe and reliable air transport to thousands of humanitarian personnel. UNHAS operations will continue under SO 201029 from January 2017.

    SO 200379: The feeder roads operation is dedicated to linking farmers and communities to markets and basic services as well as to reducing transportation costs and improving delivery efficiency for humanitarian partners.


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    Source: European Union
    Country: Nigeria

    The bombing by the Nigerian Air Force of a camp of displaced people in Rann, north-eastern Nigeria, has caused a high number of victims among displaced people and of humanitarian aid workers there to help them.

    The European Union conveys its most sincere condolences to the victims and their families.

    A full investigation needs to be launched in order to clarify the circumstances of this tragedy and hold to account those responsible.The European Union stands in full solidarity with the displaced population affected by Boko Haram violence in Northeast Nigeria, providing humanitarian aid to the most vulnerable, as well as development assistance.

    The European Union has also been working closely with the relevant stakeholders in the Lake Chad basin to bring an end to the cycle of violence which seriously affects the region.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan

    Highlights

    • 6,544 refugees relocated from Yida to Pamir camp as of 31 December 2016
    • 16,791 refugees and IDPs received non-food items assistance from UNHCR across South Sudan in December
    • 1,792 asylum seekers hosted in South Sudan as of 31 December 2016
    • 3,164 refugee ID cards including renewals issued in 2016 across South Sudan

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    Source: Institute for Security Studies
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria

    With its mandate up for renewal, there’s work to be done to ensure the MNJTF stays relevant.

    13 Jan 2017 / by Wendyam Aristide Sawadogo

    Boko Haram’s latest incursions in Cameroon and Nigeria, specifically in the towns of Mora, Madagali and Maiduguri, claimed many victims – both military and civilian. The resurgence of attacks around the Lake Chad Basin and the controversy after the capture of the Sambisa Forest confirm Boko Haram’s capacity to destabilise the region, and question the effectiveness of current counter-terrorism strategies.

    The severity of the crisis presented by Boko Haram motivated Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria and Chad, later joined by Benin, to collaborate on a joint military response. These efforts boosted the Multinational Joint Security Force created by the Lake Chad Basin Commission in March 1994; and the widening of its mandate to the fight against Boko Haram in April 2012. In October 2014, the force was renamed the Multinational Joint Task Force against Boko Haram (MNJTF).

    In January 2016, the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council renewed the MNJTF’s mandate for 12 months. That mandate is nearly up, so the time is right to assess the force’s actions and its relevance as a means to defeat Boko Haram.

    During its first year of deployment (in 2015), the focus was on setting up the force and defining how it would operate – no small task considering the diplomatic cooperation required between its four member states. In 2016, the MNJTF took to the field proper, and despite some setbacks, recorded consecutive victories against Boko Haram.

    Analysts are skeptical about the MNJTF’s ability to deal with an ever-changing threat

    A significant offensive was carried out from June to November 2016 around Lake Chad and in Borno state. Referred to as Operation Gama Aiki (‘finish the job’ in Hausa), it involved simultaneous and cooperative military action by all four of the force sectors: Baga in Nigeria, Baga-Sola in Chad, Diffa in Niger and Mora in Cameroon.

    No definitive evaluation of the operation is available, but it has been hailed as a notable success in the fight against Boko Haram. Sources point out, among other achievements, the release of hostages, the liberation of certain areas previously occupied by Boko Haram and the losses and defections from within the ranks of Boko Haram. In early November, an offensive by MNJTF Sector 2 headquartered in Baga-Sola in western Chad resulted in the surrender of at least 240 Boko Haram combatants.

    Between February and May 2016, the operations of MNJTF Sector 2 headquartered in Mora in Cameroon neutralised numerous Boko Haram combatants. The force secured the release of hostages, seized guns and thousands of rounds of ammunition, and destroyed some of the group’s training camps.

    Relations between the four principal MNJTF countries remain tense

    These interventions required strategic coordination from the MNJTF headquarters in Chad’s capital, N’Djamena, backed up by responses from the different sectors on the ground. Good communication encouraged the local population to collaborate with security forces in their attemps to recapture the areas that remain under Boko Haram control. Real success can only be measured in the medium to long term, but these actions nevertheless showcase the dynamism of Sector 2 and its efforts as far as the stabilisation of the area is concerned.

    Despite these notable achievements, several challenges still plague the MNJTF – especially when it comes to difficulties linked to its command and coordination. In 2014, the urgent need to respond to the worsening situation forced MNJTF member states to put aside their differences. Today, relations between the four principal contributing countries remain tense. Evidence of this includes the persistence of uncoordinated actions by states, and claims of victory against Boko Haram by individual countries during joint operations.

    Despite its weakening on many fronts, Boko Haram remains a threat. The group has demonstrated its resilience on the ground, with an increase in sporadic as well as suicide attacks by its members. This means the war against Boko Haram is far from over. In fact, many analysts are skeptical about the MNJTF’s ability to deal with an ever-changing threat.

    The MNJTF was configured in 2014 to tackle a more or less conventional security threat. Since then, Boko Haram has become a much looser organisation with two distinct factions that operate in secret while fighting asymmetrically against national security forces. If the MNJTF is to maintain its relevance, it must be flexible in its approach and able to adapt as the threat evolves. This was precisely what the Dakar Forum on Peace and Security in Africa recommended when it met on 5 and 6 December 2016, calling for defense and security forces to adapt to the current threats.

    The MNJTF has faced financial challenges which hinder its effectiveness

    The force also needs to become fully operational. Since its setup, the MNJTF has faced financial challenges which will no doubt hinder its effectiveness. The contributions of Nigeria, the United Kingdom, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) and the European Union are not enough to cover the initial budget, estimated at US$700 million. This situation is further complicated by the fact that Chad and Nigeria, the two biggest military contributors to the MNJTF, are currently facing an economic downturn as oil prices drop.

    The MNJTF is ready to work with whatever resources are at its disposal, but these challenges must surely impact its capability to fight Boko Haram.

    As the deadline for renewing its mandate approaches, there is little doubt that the MNJTF remains a relevant regional anti-terrorist mechanism. Its member states and strategic partners should boost the MNJTF’s operational capacity to stabilise and reclaim territory captured by Boko Haram. This will, in turn, create an environment in which much-needed humanitarian aid can be provided.

    Wendyam Aristide Sawadogo, Junior Fellow, ISS Dakar


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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Mali

    CS/12684

    CONSEIL DE SÉCURITÉ
    7864E SÉANCE – MATIN

    Dans le contexte de l’attentat-suicide commis ce matin contre le camp du Mécanisme opérationnel de coordination situé à Gao, dans le nord du Mali, le Conseil de sécurité a tenu une séance d’information en présence du Ministre des affaires étrangères, de l’intégration africaine et de la coopération internationale de ce pays qui a réaffirmé sa détermination à mettre en œuvre le processus de paix. Le Secrétaire général adjoint aux opérations de maintien de la paix, M. Hervé Ladsous, a transmis au Conseil de sécurité son sentiment d’urgence concernant l’état préoccupant de ce processus et annoncé l’organisation imminente d’une réunion de haut niveau de la médiation internationale.

    Condamnant l’attentat de ce matin, M. Ladsous a estimé que c’est une « atteinte directe au processus de paix ». Il a indiqué qu’un véhicule piégé avait explosé à l’intérieur du camp faisant, selon le premier bilan provisoire, une soixantaine de morts et plusieurs blessés. Le Ministre malien des affaires étrangères, M. Abdoulaye Diop, a indiqué que le Gouvernement décrétait un deuil national de trois jours.

    Cet incident, selon M. Ladsous, souligne qu’une accélération de la mise en œuvre de l’Accord pour la paix et la réconciliation au Mali est la seule voie possible pour stabiliser le pays et réussir le processus de paix. « Le temps joue contre nous », a-t-il prévenu, en estimant que le pays se trouvait à un moment charnière: depuis la signature de l’Accord de paix, plus de 18 mois de la période intérimaire se sont écoulés et, malgré quelques progrès, peu d’avancées significatives ont été enregistrées à ce jour. L’application de l’Accord demeure hypothéquée par des désaccords persistants, le manque de confiance entre les parties signataires et la fragmentation des groupes armés.

    Ces mêmes groupes ont soumis avec plus d’un an de retard les listes contenant leurs candidats pour le Mécanisme opérationnel de coordination, les autorités intérimaires ainsi que pour la Commission d’intégration et la Commission nationale pour le désarmement, la démobilisation et la réintégration (CNDDR). Depuis, chaque tentative de mettre en œuvre les patrouilles mixtes a échoué, principalement en raison des querelles entre les parties signataires sur les questions logistiques et financières, a-t-il précisé.

    Ce n’est qu’après d’intenses négociations et grâce aux bons offices de la Mission multidimensionnelle intégrée des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation au Mali (MINUSMA), de la médiation internationale et du Haut Représentant du Président pour la mise en œuvre de l’Accord de paix, a expliqué M. Ladsous, que les forces armées maliennes et les groupes armés sont enfin regroupés à Gao en vue de commencer les patrouilles mixtes si longtemps attendues. Il a également indiqué que la rivalité entre les groupes armés sur la présidence des autorités intérimaires à Kidal a jusqu’à présent empêché leur mise en place. En outre, les huit sites de cantonnement construits et équipés avec le soutien de la MINUSMA demeurent vides depuis octobre dernier.

    Il s’est inquiété que les principales réformes institutionnelles et politiques requises pour étayer le processus de paix n’aient toujours pas été finalisées. Il a souligné l’importance d’un dialogue inclusif et à long terme sur la restauration de l’autorité de l’État et les réformes institutionnelles. La Mission a soutenu le Gouvernement malien dans la préparation des élections locales du 20 novembre qui se sont tenues dans 92% des communes mais malheureusement cela n’a pu se faire dans les régions de Kidal, Ménaka et Taoudénit, ainsi que dans certaines localités de Gao, Mopti et Tombouctou en raison d’incidents sécuritaires et d’entraves au vote, a indiqué M. Ladsous.

    À la veille des élections régionales et d’un référendum constitutionnel au Mali cette année, il a insisté pour que toutes les parties prenantes trouvent un terrain d’entente et que le Gouvernement malien organise les scrutins dans un environnement ouvert et inclusif. Il s’est réjoui, à ce propos, de la récente élection de nombreuses femmes qui constituent ainsi près de 30% des conseillers municipaux élus dans les régions de Tombouctou, Gao et Bamako. Il s’est dit favorable à l’organisation de la Conférence d’entente nationale pour aborder les causes profondes de la crise.

    M. Ladsous a prévenu que le phénomène terroriste prend des proportions de plus en plus inquiétantes au nord et au centre du Mali, mais également dans la sous-région. Si le nombre d’attaques contre les Forces armées maliennes, la MINUSMA et les forces internationales a diminué au cours de ces trois derniers mois, il s’est toutefois inquiété de leur niveau de sophistication, notamment lors des attaques contre les capacités aériennes de la Mission et des forces internationales.

    Soulignant l’importance de l’engagement des partenaires régionaux dans le processus de paix au Mali, il a indiqué que la Mission avait commencé à se concerter avec les attachés de défense des pays membre du G5 Sahel pour préparer le déploiement d’officiers de liaison de la région auprès de la MINUSMA. Pour lui, seul le redéploiement des Forces de défense et de sécurité maliennes vers le nord et le centre est une solution viable pour lutter contre le terrorisme. Il a aussi jugé impératif de commencer un dialogue franc sur l’impact du trafic de drogue et d’autres crimes transnationaux sur la sécurité et le processus de paix.

    M. Ladsous a alerté le Conseil de sécurité sur d’importantes lacunes de la MINUSMA en matière de capacités, notamment en aéronefs, véhicules blindés, de soutien logistique et de protection de ses forces, avant de demander aux États Membres de continuer à soutenir la Mission.

    Pour le Secrétaire général adjoint, rétablir la confiance de la population malienne dans le processus de paix est primordial. Or, la MINUSMA continue de recevoir des informations faisant état de graves violations des droits de l’homme commises par les groupes armés et des acteurs de l’État. Notant aussi l’absence de services sociaux de base et l’insécurité alimentaire dont souffrent beaucoup de citoyens, il a regretté que la mise en œuvre de la stratégie de développement pour le Nord n’ait pas toujours pas commencé. Il a ainsi présenté les indicateurs de progrès élaborés par le Gouvernement malien avec l’appui de la MINUSMA, qui figurent en annexe au rapport du Secrétaire général de décembre 2016, tout en invitant les parties maliennes à les affiner davantage.

    Le Secrétaire général adjoint a, en outre, demandé aux membres de la médiation internationale de redoubler d’efforts pour revitaliser les mécanismes de suivi de l’Accord de paix. Il a indiqué avoir discuté avec le Ministre algérien des affaires étrangères de la nécessité d’une réunion de haut niveau de la médiation internationale, dont la tenue devrait avoir lieu dès que possible. De plus, les parties signataires, la médiation internationale et les États Membres doivent définir et mettre en œuvre une vision commune de la manière de traiter avec les groupes dissidents. Enfin, il a invité les membres du Conseil de sécurité à examiner la possibilité d’imposer des mesures ciblées contre tous ceux qui violent le cessez-le-feu et entravent délibérément le processus de paix.

    Le représentant de l’Uruguay, le seul membre du Conseil de sécurité à prendre la parole au cours de la séance d’information, a invité le Conseil à bien évaluer les conséquences que de telles sanctions auraient sur le terrain. Il a insisté sur la mise en œuvre de l’Accord de paix dont la tâche principale incombe aux parties, tandis que les acteurs internationaux n’apportent qu’un appui. Les signataires de l’Accord de paix, a-t-il souligné, doivent respecter ses dispositions et le calendrier qu’ils ont accepté. Le délégué a également mis l’accent sur la nécessité de renforcer l’autorité de l’État sur tout le territoire malien pour mieux faire face au terrorisme qui prend de l’ampleur dans la région.

    Tout en reconnaissant que le processus de paix est difficile et jalonné de beaucoup d’obstacles, le Ministre des affaires étrangères du Mali a réaffirmé l’engagement de son gouvernement à mettre en œuvre l’Accord de paix, une détermination qui ne peut, selon lui, faire aucun doute. Il a partagé l’analyse du Secrétaire général selon lequel la sécurité reste précaire au centre et dans le nord du pays, faisant état des initiatives prises par le Gouvernement malien pour lutter contre les groupes terroristes. Le Mali n’a ménagé aucun effort pour faire avancer le processus de paix, malgré un contexte très difficile, a-t-il assuré. Le processus de révision de la Constitution est bien avancé et un référendum sera organisé pour l’approuver, a-t-il précisé.

    Le Ministre a cité d’autres mesures prises en faveur du processus de paix, comme les élections communales tenues dans 644 communes, sur les 703 que compte le pays, avec un taux de participation de 52,51% en 2016, contre 51,39% en 2009 et 48,67% en 2004.

    La Commission justice et réconciliation est déjà opérationnelle, a-t-il aussi indiqué, avant d’assurer que les autorités maliennes appliqueront les nouveaux indicateurs et repères. En ce qui concerne la réforme de la sécurité, il a exprimé la détermination du Gouvernement de rendre opérationnelles les patrouilles mixtes, en regrettant les retards résultant de divers obstacles. Il a aussi mentionné la fragmentation des groupes armés, qui multiplie le nombre d’interlocuteurs et entraîne un retard par rapport aux échéances fixées.

    Le Gouvernement malien a poursuivi ses actions sur le terrain comme le Programme d’urgence pour le développement et le Programme de reconstruction et de relance économique, a-t-il ajouté, avant de citer la mise en place d’une stratégie de développement et d’un fonds pour la financer.

    Le Président du Mali a décidé de faire de 2017 une année charnière pour la mise en œuvre du processus de paix et de l’Accord d’Alger, en annonçant des mesures importantes en ce sens. Ainsi, les autorités intérimaires devraient être installées au cours du premier trimestre 2017 dans toutes les localités où elles ne l’ont pas encore été. Cela permettra notamment de réinstaurer la fourniture des services de base. En outre, une Conférence d’entente nationale se tiendra en mars 2017 pour créer les conditions d’un débat sur les causes profondes du conflit et pour établir une charte d’unité, de paix et de réconciliation nationale.

    Toutes ces mesures illustrent la détermination du Gouvernement malien de mettre en œuvre l’Accord d’Alger, a estimé le Ministre en appelant toutes les parties à faire preuve de bonne foi dans ce processus. Il a souhaité que la communauté internationale joue son rôle de garant de la mise en œuvre de l’Accord. Soulignant également que la résolution 2295 (2016) du Conseil de sécurité tarde à se matérialiser sur le terrain, il a demandé de doter la MINUSMA de moyens adéquats pour accompagner le Gouvernement du Mali dans le rétablissement progressif de son autorité sur la totalité du territoire national. Il faut renforcer la coopération avec la MINUSMA sur le terrain et accélérer le processus de cantonnement et de désarmement, démobilisation et réintégration (DDR), a-t-il ajouté.

    Sur la question des droits de l’homme, il a noté les 104 cas de violations dénombrés par le Secrétaire général dans son rapport et constaté une diminution de ces violations, ce qui se traduit par une amélioration sensible. La grande majorité de ces cas sont commis par des groupes armés ou des groupes terroristes, a-t-il fait remarquer. Sachant que, selon la MINUSMA, une dizaine de ces violations ont été imputées aux autorités maliennes, chaque cas a fait l’objet d’un examen approfondi pour qu’il n’y ait pas d’impunité. Il s’est en outre prévalu de l’adoption d’une loi de protection des défenseurs des droits de l’homme.

    Le Ministre a enfin mentionné plusieurs actions menées par le Gouvernement malien dans les régions affectées par la crise, et notamment la distribution d’une aide alimentaire aux populations ainsi qu’aux réfugiés maliens se trouvant au Burkina Faso, au Niger et en Mauritanie. En outre, il a signalé la reconstruction des services administratifs, centres de santé et services hydrauliques dans plusieurs régions, ainsi que l’ouverture des écoles à Kidal. Il s’est dit néanmoins inquiet de l’économie criminelle et de la présence de groupes armés et terroristes dans la région de Kidal, qui freinent l’acheminement de l’aide et des services de base.

    Le représentant de l’Algérie, M. Sabri Boukadoum, a constaté, pour sa part, que les autorités maliennes, ainsi que toutes les parties à l’Accord de paix, ont réaffirmé leur engagement sans équivoque en faveur de la pleine mise en œuvre dudit Accord. Il est de la plus haute importance, a-t-il souligné, que toutes les parties prenantes, y compris le Conseil de sécurité et le Secrétariat de l’ONU, continuent d’apporter leur soutien en toutes circonstances, en particulier en faveur du Comité de suivi de l’Accord. M. Boukadoum a précisé que l’Algérie, qui préside le Comité, ferait rapport devant le Conseil de toutes les actions jugées nécessaires.

    Il a exhorté la communauté internationale à continuer d’encourager les parties à honorer leurs engagements. « Il est également crucial que tout malentendu ou lacune susceptible de se faire jour dans la mise en œuvre de l’Accord, ce qui arrive naturellement dans une situation complexe, ne soit pas utilisé comme prétexte à renoncer ou à menacer le processus en son entier », a-t-il déclaré. Personne, a-t-il rappelé, n’a le droit de compromettre le processus par un « comportement injustifié » ou par « des remises en question sempiternelles » de ce qui a été auparavant pleinement agréé. Il a salué l’acceptation par les autorités maliennes de désigner un haut représentant du Président malien pour mettre en œuvre l’Accord de paix, ainsi que la tenue prochaine d’une Conférence d’entente nationale.

    La communauté internationale doit appuyer le processus de médiation, lequel pourrait servir de modèle pour d’autres situations de crise, a-t-il estimé.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

    Highlights

     On 19 January, 15 patients were airlifted from Rann to Maiduguri, bringing to 89 the total number of people evacuated following the military airstrike on Rann on 17 January.

     Surgical teams in four hospitals – two public and two military – in Maiduguri continue to perform operations and treat the injured.

     Medical assistance is also ongoing in Rann, a locality in the far-north of Nigeria bordering Cameroon and Chad.

    Situation overview

    Medical evacuations are ongoing since the 17 January aerial bombardment. The humanitarian community is working on ways to improve assistance to those wounded in Rann. Additional medical supplies and doctors have been deployed to Rann and hospitals in Maiduguri are providing treatments to the dozens of patients already evacuated.

    Rann is one of the localities in north-eastern Nigeria that have recently become accessible to humanitarian organizations. Tens of thousands of displaced people in Rann are struggling with severe food shortages and high levels of malnutrition.

    Aid organizations have expressed shock over the airstrike on Rann, where they are assisting families and communities left destitute by conflict. Humanitarian partners have been deploying gradually to areas of Nigeria’s north-east that were previously unreachable to provide assistance to civilians grappling with hunger, malnutrition, lack of medical assistance, water and other basic services owing to the protracted Boko Haram related violence.

    The long-running conflict has left some 8.5 million people in need of assistance in the north-eastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe. This year, humanitarian organizations plan to assist 6.9 million people in dire need of nutrition, food, shelter, health, education, protection and water and sanitation. A projected 5.1 million people will face serious food shortages as the conflict and risk of unexploded improvised devices have hampered farming for a third year in a row, causing a major food crisis.

    Further updates will be provided once more information becomes available


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • Insecurity in Greater Equatoria continues to aggravate the already fragile humanitarian situation, with recent military activity around Yambio causing mass population displacement. Humanitarian access in the region is severely restricted.

    • For the first time during the dry season there has been a resurgence of cholera cases. Between 1 and 12 January, 33 new cases were reported at the UN Protection of Civilians (PoC) site in Juba, but no deaths reported. UNICEF is re-engaging with partners to respond.

    • UNICEF, WHO and the national Ministry of Health (MoH) have planned a measles immunization campaign for February. However, an additional US$ 1 million is required for the campaign to commence.

    Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs

    Humanitarian space in South Sudan is shrinking, with humanitarian actors facing severe access restrictions in several areas, notably in Greater Equatoria and Unity. The continued deterioration of the security situation in the country is likely to further impede access. Military activity in the Greater Equatoria and Greater Upper Nile regions has also caused large population displacements, increasing the need for humanitarian assistance.

    In Greater Equatoria, violent clashes and general insecurity is causing severe access restrictions, while the humanitarian situation continues to worsen. Following military activity in villages surrounding Yambio, Western Equatoria in early January, there was a mass displacement of over 4,000 people, who took shelter in a primary school in Yambio town. Yei is also host to a high number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) – approximately 57,000 – and thousands others displaced in various locations across the three states. There is an urgent need for humanitarian support in the region, as continued displacements are putting strain on the available services. According to OCHA, more than 250,000 people have been displaced within Greater Equatoria since July 2016.

    Meanwhile, in central and southern Unity state, a combination of drought, lost opportunities for cultivation, combined with looting and insecurity is likely to lead to a deterioration in the already fragile humanitarian situation. This is coupled with access restrictions in many areas of southern Unity, limiting humanitarian assistance.

    The beginning of the New Year has seen a resurgence of cholera cases at the UN House PoC site in Juba, with 33 new suspected cases reported between 1 and 12 January. While a few cases were reported in November 2016, UN House did not see any new cholera cases in December. This is the first time such a resurgence has occurred during the dry season. Active transmission is also ongoing in the Bentiu PoC site, where 76% of those affected are children under 14 years of age.

    Recent nutrition assessments in areas of Unity and Eastern Equatoria are showing heightened levels of malnutrition, all above the World Health Organization (WHO) emergency threshold. This is occurring at a time when harvests would be expected to increase food security at the household level. Disruption to agricultural activities due to insecurity and displacement coupled with high inflation is likely intensify the already critical food security situation, with increased levels of food insecurity expected in the first half of 2017.

    Results from the national education assessment conducted by the Education cluster in November 2016 were recently released. Among the key findings, the assessment showed that 25% of schools that had been functional at any point since 2013 were non-functional at the time of the assessment, with insecurity reported as the main cause of school closures, followed by the delayed or non-payment of teacher salaries. There has also been a 10% decrease in the number of students enrolled at the start of 2016 compared to the start of 2013.The dropout rate since the beginning of the 2016 school year was 11% for girls and 10% for boys, with the lack of food being the main reason for children dropping out.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Nigeria

    Highlights

    • 5.1 million people face acute food insecurity in northeast Nigeria (Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States) during the next lean season (Cadre harmonisé analysis released on 28 October) – immediate intervention is required to assist these populations. A recent Special IPC Alert on Borno State (FEWS NET; 16 December) noted that a famine is likely ongoing and will continue in inaccessible areas of Borno State assuming conditions remain the same. The alert also noted that the current response is insufficient to meet needs.

    • In 2017, FAO is asking for USD 62 million under the Humanitarian Response Plan for Nigeria. Of this, USD 20 million is urgently required to reach 500 000 people during the upcoming main planting season starting in June 2017. Missing this season will mean food insecurity and, therefore, humanitarian costs will continue rising into 2018.

    • FAO’s dry season campaign is ongoing, with 174 400 people receiving vegetable seed, irrigation equipment and livestock support.

    • A combination of food assistance and food production support is the only way to address the scale of hunger facing the people of northeastern Nigeria.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

    A total of $781.8 million * requested for the period January ‐ December 2017, including:

    • $**9.8 million** for CAR
    • $**30.3 million** for the DRC
    • $**157.7 million** for Ethiopia
    • $**40.5 million** for Kenya
    • $**171.7 million** for South Sudan
    • $**68 million** for Sudan
    • $**283.8 million** for Uganda
    • $**476,251** for HQ & Regional Coordination

    * All dollar signs in this document denote United States dollars. This total includes support costs (7%)

    INTRODUCTION

    The South Sudan situation is Africa’s largest displacement crisis today. With the conflict in South Sudan now entering its fourth year, its people are facing dire humanitarian challenges. By the end of October 2016, more than 1.2 million South Sudanese had fled as refugees to CAR, DRC, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan and Uganda, while within the country almost 1.8 million people had become internally displaced and 6.1 million were estimated to be in need of urgent humanitarian assistance. Disease, protracted instability, the escalation of violence, and wide-spread destruction have triggered unprecedented levels of food insecurity. More than 4.8 million people, half the population, became severely food insecure due to simply being unable to bring in the harvest. The economic situation continues to worsen with hyper-inflation at record levels of more than 800%. With a paucity of national infrastructure such as roads or viable airfields, as well as the long rainy season of up to eight months per year, South Sudan is one of the most logistically challenging countries in the world in which to operate, and thus in which to bring assistance to those in need.

    An Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan was signed in August 2015 with, after months of delay, the formation in April 2016 of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU). Despite the Agreement, localized conflicts continued, and humanitarian access and delivery remained an enormous challenge in many locations. Less than three months after the formation of the TGoNU, the humanitarian situation deteriorated drastically when fresh fighting erupted in the capital, Juba, on 8 July 2016. Fighting, rampant looting and human rights abuses reportedly caused the deaths of over 300 people, led to the displacement of thousands of civilians, and to the incremental spread of the conflict across Greater Equatoria State and beyond.

    A ceasefire was called on 11 July, and United Nations Security Council Resolution 2304, adopted on 12 August 2016, authorized inter alia, the deployment of Regional Protection Forces in the country, as additional support to the existing United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). On 16 December 2016, UNMISS’s mandate was extended to 15 December 2017 under Security Council Resolution 2327. This included an authorisation to use “all necessary means” to protect civilians under threat of physical violence, bringing the number of peacekeepers to 17,000, including a 4,000 strong Regional Protection Force, and increasing the number of international police to 2,101.

    The escalation of the crises triggered an unanticipated surge in the refugee outflows. More than 360,000 people fled the country in the four months following July 2016, 70 per cent of whom have fled to Uganda. Large numbers have also fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sudan (where beneficiaries quickly exceeded 2016 planning figures) to Central African Republic (CAR), and later in September, to Ethiopia.

    With regional displacement figures from South Sudan in the first half of 2016 much higher than original projections even prior to the upheavals in July, both the 2016 Regional Refugee Response Plan (RRRP) and the UNHCR Supplementary Budget for the South Sudan Situation had to be revised in July 2016, including chapters for DRC and CAR for the first time. Less than a month after that initial revision, Uganda’s country chapter had to be revised again to meet further urgent requirements, such as the opening of a new settlement in Bidibidi, Yumbe District, with capacity for 100,000 people. This had become vital in order to decongest transit and reception centres and thereby reduce the risk of the spread of diseases.


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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, United States of America

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • GoN airstrike mistakenly hits IDP site, resulting in at least 70 civilian deaths in Borno

    • UN identifies critical humanitarian needs among more than 35,000 IDPs sheltering in Borno’s Rann town

    • WFP plans to reach 2 million beneficiaries in northeastern Nigeria per month by December 2017

    KEY DEVELOPMENTS

    • On January 17, a Government of Nigeria (GoN) military aircraft mistakenly conducted an airstrike on a site sheltering internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Borno State’s Rann town, resulting in at least 70 deaths and more than 120 injuries among civilians and relief personnel, international media reported. The GoN continues to coordinate medical evacuations of critically injured civilians, including providing helicopter support to transport critically injured people to hospitals in Borno’s Maiduguri city. UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator (RC/HC) Edward Kallon has pledged UN support to deliver emergency assistance to affected populations. The UN Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) is also conducting emergency airlifts of medical supplies and other air operations to assist people affected by the airstrike. USAID’s Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) in Nigeria is coordinating with USAID partners to respond.

    • An early January UN assessment in Rann identified critical humanitarian needs, including food, health, shelter, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) needs, among the more than 35,000 IDPs sheltering in the town. Food insecurity is in part the result of delays in assistance stemming from Boko Haram-related insecurity and logistical challenges. Relief organizations plan to conduct additional assessments in the coming months while continuing to deliver emergency food assistance to conflict-affected people in the town.

    • Relief actors continue to scale up assistance activities to reach more people in northeastern Nigeria, including expanding into newly accessible areas. In late 2016, UN agencies conducted rapid response mechanism (RRM) assessments to identify critical needs among populations in these hard-to-reach areas. By December 2017, the UN World Food Program (WFP) plans to reach approximately 2 million beneficiaries per month, many of whom previously resided in inaccessible locations.


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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria


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