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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Chad, Sudan

    N’Djamena, 11 janvier 2017– Une importante délégation dirigée conjointement par les Représentants de l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, le HCR, et de la Banque Mondiale, a entamé mercredi une mission d’évaluation à Goz Beida, dans l’est du Tchad. Cette visite dans les régions et localités abritant les camps de réfugiés se rendra également dans le sud et l’ouest (le Lac) du Tchad.

    Cette mission marque une étape importante dans l’adoption d’un projet pilote de brassage socioéconomique et de protection sociale des réfugiés et des communautés d’accueil dans le département de la Nya-Pende dans le sud du Tchad. Le projet vise quelque 65.000 personnes dont environ 20.000 réfugiés des camps d’Amboko et Gondje. Une expansion de ce projet a toutes les zones affectées par la présence des réfugiés dans le pays est envisagée.

    Ce projet, première du genre au Tchad, associera les préoccupations des réfugiés des populations tchadiennes dans les zones affectées par la présence de ces réfugiés, conciliant ainsi les besoins humanitaires et les défis de développements.

    Le HCR se félicite de la collaboration avec la Banque Mondiale dans cette initiative, laquelle bénéficie aussi du soutien de l’ensemble du système des Nations Unies à travers son coordinateur, Monsieur Stephen Tull, qui participera également à cette mission pour évaluer les modalités de sa mise en œuvre et s’imprégner des besoins des bénéficiaires. Pour le Système des Nations Unies au Tchad, il s’agit aussi d’intégrer fermement les réfugiés dans l’UNDAF et dans l’esprit « Unis dans l’Action ».

    Selon les deux institutions, cette stratégie conduira à une approche intégrée et inclusive qui préserve la responsabilité et le mandat du HCR et corrigera aussi l’accès inéquitable des populations tchadiennes aux services de base par rapport aux réfugiés. La qualité de ces services est souvent meilleure dans les camps de réfugiés que dans les villages environnants, selon toutes les observations.

    Pour le Représentant du HCR au Tchad, Jose Antonio Canhandula, « le succès de ce projet devrait marquer un tournant dans les approches par rapport à la situation prolongée de déplacement forcé des réfugiés au Tchad. Il devra aussi renforcer le contrat social entre le HCR et l’état Tchadien ».

    Plus de 400.000 réfugiés vivent dans des camps au Tchad dont 80% sont des Soudanais, installés dans l’est du pays depuis plus d’une décennie. Il y a également des réfugiés centrafricains et nigérians. Ceci fait du Tchad un des 10 plus importants pays d’accueil de réfugiés dans le monde, et le quatrième en Afrique après l’Ethiopie, le Kenya et l’Ouganda, selon le classement annuel du HCR. Au taux moyen d’un réfugié pour 33 Tchadiens, le pays accueille le plus de réfugiés comparativement à sa population. Si globalement les réfugiés représentent 3% de la démographie nationale, par endroits, comme c’est le cas dans la Région du Sila, ils représentent 8%. « Ce qui nous interpelle tous à valoriser cette population », explique M. Canhandula. La coopération que le HCR cherche à nouer avec la Banque Mondiale et les autres agences développementales du système des Nations Unies représente un effort dans ce sens.

    La mission conjointe HCR/BM, démarrée ce mercredi 11 janvier à Goz Beida, se rendra ensuite à Gore à partir du 13 janvier puis à Baga Sola, dans la région du Lac, du 15 au 16 janvier. La délégation comprendra également le Représentant de la Banque Africaine de Développement.

    Pour plus d’informations, veuillez contacter

    Ibrahima Diane, Mob. +235 65 27 47 75 – Email : dianei@unhcr.org

    Suivez-nous :

    @UNHCRTchad

    @Afrikibou


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Mali

    Key facts

    • Location: District of Nioro, region of Kayes, Mali

    • Target group: 750 vulnerable households, approximately 5 300 individuals

    • Gender: Women are the direct recipients of the transfers in 99% of the households

    • Nutrition: Training on good nutritional practices are provided to beneficiaries, along with an health insurance scheme

    In Mali, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is currently experimenting the “productive transfers” approach (CASH+), implemented successfully in 2014 in other countries – including countries from West Africa. The 18-month programme combines unconditional cash transfers with the provision of in-kind livestock inputs (goats and animal feed) to benefit 750 vulnerable households, approximately 5 300 individuals, in 36 villages of the Kayes region. The most vulnerable households were targeted using the HEA (Household Economy Analysis) approach1. Women are the direct recipients of transfers in 99 percent of the cases.

    In order to better cope with, recover from and adapt to the multiple shocks and recurrent crises affecting the Sahel region (drought, desertification, floods, conflicts, economic shocks, diseases, etc.), the poorest households need to protect their livelihoods, diversify their sources of income and accumulate productive assets. Turning the vicious circle of poverty and dependence (that repeated humanitarian interventions often fail to sustainably stop) into a virtuous circle of production and investments requires innovative approaches.

    Approach

    The CASH+ approach flexibly combines unconditional cash transfers with transfers of inkind productive assets, accompanied by technical training, to benefit highly vulnerable, poor and food insecure households, with the aim of boosting their livelihoods and productive capacities.

    The cash transfer component, a highly efficient assistance modality, can meet basic household needs and protect assets from depletion and losses. The productive assistance can help kick start a virtuous cycle of income generation, leading to economic empowerment, increased asset ownership, improved food security and dietary diversity.

    FAO’s expertise is critical in identifying the right mix of complementary interventions (the “plus”), defining the best timing according to agricultural and pastoral seasons, accompanying the transfers with appropriate technical training and rigorously assessing the impact of this approach.

    In Mali, two different transfers, of a similar total value, are being distributed and compared:

    • A combination of cash transfer of 20 000 FCFA + small ruminants (one male goat and two female goats) + 50 kg of animal feed. This combination is distributed to 375 beneficiary households, or approximately 2 650 individuals;

    • A cash transfer alone, in two tranches of 50 000 FCFA each, also distributed to 375 beneficiaries.

    Each transfer modality is being analysed in detail, which will allow for the comparison between the respective impacts on food security, nutrition, income and assets ownership, as well as the respective cost-effectiveness of cash transfers alone versus cash associated with productive assets.


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    Source: Government of Niger
    Country: Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: Government of Niger
    Country: Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • UNHCR provides assistance in Maban after inter-community conflict: in the aftermath of conflict which broke out between 25 and 28 December in Doro refugee camp between refugees and host community, UNHCR and its partners have now been able to undertake assessments in all four camps of Maban, home to over 137,000 refugees from Sudan’s Blue Nile State. Initial findings suggest over 8,000 local community members have been displaced locally. Approximately 10,000 refugees in Doro, one fifth of the camp, have relocated themselves to alternative nearby locations. Partners have already begun distribution of food and aid packages to IDPs, with assistance to displaced refugees and overall General Food Distribution for January scheduled to take place over the course of the next week. Provision of additional water supply, sanitation facilities and shelter are currently being assessed and scaled up.

    • Access hinders assistance to displaced refugees around Yei: UNHCR and its partner UMCOR continue to remotely monitor the situation of refugees living in five locations in the bushes of Lasu payam as a result of the outbreak violence in July and ongoing conflict that continues to prevent refugees from returning to the settlement. Lack of humanitarian services in the five locations remains a major concern among the refugee population in the Lasu area, as UNHCR has no access to the Lasu refugee settlement and its environs due to insecurity. UNHCR was able to relocate 61 Nuba refugees to Ajuong Thok refugee camp. These refugees were displaced into urban Yei as a result of the renewed violence in July.

    • UNHCR participates in an Inter-Agency Rapid Assessment in Kajo Keji: During the reporting period, UNHCR participated in the OCHA-led Inter- Agency Rapid Needs Assessment (IRNA) to Kajo Keji County. The team met with IDPs, Church leaders and county commissioners. The team also visited three IDP locations of Ajio, Kerwa and logo. Approximately 30,000 IDPs were reported in the county and the assessment’s findings have been shared with the respective clusters for review and humanitarian response.

    • UNHCR equips refugee students with computers and internet in Juba: UNHCR partner Humanitarian Development Consortium (HDC) established a space at HDC’s premises with six computers fully equipped with the internet for the 27 refugee students being supported by DAFI scholarships. These computers will facilitate their coursework and easy access to reading materials online and enhance their academic performance.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Angola, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey, Uganda

    Contexte actuel

    La planification humanitaire pour 2016 prévoit 4,3 millions de personnes dans le besoin dont 1,5 million ciblées pour une assistance humanitaire, reflétant des niveaux élevés de vulnérabilité dans tout le pays.
    Le Tchad continue à ressentir l'impact de la crise nigériane dans la région du Lac ainsi que des conflits dans les pays voisins (Libye, Soudan et RCA). Le pays accueille 391 745 réfugiés dont 311 470 réfugiés soudanais depuis plus de 10 ans, 70 310 réfugiés centrafricains et 8 598 réfugiés nigérians. La région du Lac touchée par la crise nigériane accueille actuellement 121 720 personnes déplacées dont 108 476 déplacés internes, 12 920 retournés tchadiens et 324 ressortissants de pays tiers. En outre le pays accueille plus de 101 724 retournés tchadiens de la RCA, installés principalement dans les régions du sud et à N'djamena dans des sites ou villages d'accueil.

    L'insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition restent un problème chronique dans le pays, notamment dans la bande sahélienne. L'insécurité alimentaire touche environ 2,9 millions de personnes (soit 21% de la population totale) parmi lesquelles environ 500 000 sont en insécurité alimentaire sévère (source: cadre harmonisé nov 2016, période oct-déc 2016), auxquels s'ajoutent également les réfugiés et les retournés (non inclus dans le cadre harmonisé). La situation nutritionnelle est également préoccupante, avec des taux de malnutrition aigüe globale supérieurs à 15% (seuil d’urgence) dans 6 régions sur 23, et des taux de malnutrition aigüe sévère supérieurs à 2% (seuil d’urgence) dans 11 régions.

    La forte prévalence des maladies à potentiel épidémique telles que le choléra et la rougeole, ainsi que celle du paludisme, combinée à une faiblesse du système sanitaire, sont des causes de morbidité et de mortalité accentuées parmi la population, en particulier chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Le Tchad occupe le 185e rang selon l'Indice de Développement Humain (IDH 2015), avec quelques-uns des indicateurs sociaux les plus alarmants (espérance de vie de 51 ans, taux de mortalité maternelle de 860 décès pour 100 000 naissances, rapport EDS-MICS 2014-2015).


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    Source: Government of Chad, UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Sudan


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    CURBING THE TREND IN AFRICA’S MOST ACUTE CRISIS

    The Lake Chad Basin is grappling with a complex humanitarian emergency affecting some 17 million people across north-eastern Nigeria, Cameroon’s Far North, western Chad and south-east Niger. The combined impact of deepening insecurity, rapid population growth and severe vulnerability resulting from the effects of climate change, environmental degradation, poverty and underinvestment in social services is translating into record numbers of people in need of emergency relief. More than 2.3 million people have fled their homes. Protection concerns highlighted by the Governments of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger in the Abuja Action Statement of June 2016 remain an ongoing challenge. Violence and insecurity have disrupted trade and markets. Vital infrastructure such as health centres, schools, water pipelines, bridges and roads have been destroyed. Famers are unable to attend to their fields, having missed harvests for three consecutive seasons. Eleven million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Across the region almost a third of the population is struck by food insecurity. Malnutrition rates and related mortality are critically high. Millions of people have limited or no access to basic services such as water, healthcare or education. Humanitarian actors have significantly increased their response capacity in 2016. But with constantly growing needs, especially in northeastern Nigeria, further operational scale-up and financial resources are urgently required to ensure adequate response. In 2017, UN agencies and NGOs aim to reach 8.2 million with assistance in the four countries.

    Ongoing and multiple displacements

    Boko Haram’s attacks and military counter-offensives have displaced 2.3 million people. Many of them have had to flee several times. The majority of the displaced are sheltered by communities who themselves count among the world’s most vulnerable. In north-eastern Nigeria alone, 1.8 million people are internally displaced, more than half of them are children. Some 200,000 people have fled across borders and live as refugees in the neighbouring countries. While some security has been restored in Nigeria’s Adamawa, Yobe, and parts of Borno states in the course of 2016, recent months have seen a new upsurge in attacks by Boko Haram across the four countries.

    Civilian victims of violence

    Persistent violence against civilians and insecurity continue to cause serious protection risks and rights violations. Women and girls kidnapped by Boko Haram have been subjected to physical and psychological abuse, forced marriage, sexual slavery or forced labour. Boys have been forcibly enrolled as combatants and young girls used as suicide bombers. Boko Haram has targeted IDP and refugee hosting areas, health facilities and schools, forcing health care workers and teachers to flee from where they are most needed. The increasing number of attacks and arrival of displaced children have placed an additional burden on already weak health and education systems. Safe spaces for women and children, access to essential services and psychological support must be central to the humanitarian response.

    Food and nutrition emergency

    Across the Lake Chad Basin, some 7 million people struggling with food insecurity need assistance. In north-east Nigeria alone, more than 1.8 million are food insecure at emergency levels. In Borno state, 55,000 people are facing famine-like conditions, and the figure is likely to double in the coming months. In all the four conflict-hit Lake Chad Basin countries, food security is expected to deteriorate until at least mid-2017. This will particularly affect vulnerable displaced populations and host communities. Malnutrition and related mortality are also critically high. In most of the conflict-affected areas, malnutrition rates have surpassed the emergency threshold. Throughout the region, more than half a million children are severely acutely malnourished, of whom 75,000 could die if not urgently assisted.

    Saving lives, rebuild livelihoods

    While the humanitarian strategy focuses on addressing immediate needs through life-saving assistance, humanitarian actors call for concerted engagement of political, development and security actors to help stabilize the region and create conditions for people to survive and prosper.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Regional Highlights

    • Assessment missions in December identify severe needs in several LGAs in Borno State. Large numbers of IDPs who have recently arrived at sites in Monguno, Banki, Baga and Rann are in dire conditions and urgently need assistance.

    • In Magumeri LGA, 5 per cent of children are suffering from severe acute malnutrition, and a further 25 per cent from moderate acute malnutrition.

    • Partners in December deliver food or cash assistance to more than one million people in north-east Nigeria.

    • Global acute malnutrition rates have decreased from 10.2 to 2.76 per cent over the last six months in Minawao refugee camp in Cameroon.

    • The Regional Refugee Response Plan requests US$241 million to assist 460,000 people in Cameroon, Chad and Niger.

    • The four country Humanitarian Response Plans (HRPs) appeal for a total US$1.5 billion to assist 8.2 million people across the Lake Chad Basin.

    Humanitarian Needs

    Population movement

    • IOM’s December displacement tracking notes considerable movements among IDP populations in north-east Nigeria. There are significant increases in Ngala (up by 24,333), Dikwa (14,282), Monguno (8,960) and Chibok (7,694). The total number of IDPs in the three most affected Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states decreases by 50,000 to 1.63 million people.

    • More than 90 per cent of IDPs in north-east Nigeria wish to return to their places of origin, according to a recently issued IOM intention survey. However, most will not return without security guarantees. Safety and conditions in their places of origin are the key information needs indicated by IDPs.

    • Some 26,000 Nigerian refugees in Cameroon’s Far North have not yet been registered and reside within the local communities. These refugees are often unable to receive assistance and are increasing pressure on weak public services and community resources.

    Food Insecurity

    • In December 2016, more than one million people in conflict-affected zones in north-east Nigeria received food or cash assistance. In all of 2016, the food security sector in Nigeria has provided food assistance, agricultural inputs and livelihood support to some 2.3 million people. Assistance has thus reached 50 per cent more people than initially targeted in the 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan.

    • Results of community screenings carried out in November in Minawao refugee camp in Cameroon’s Far North indicate global acute malnutrition rates of 2.76 per cent amongst children aged 6 - 23 months. This is a significant improvement from results from June when GAM rates were at 10.2 per cent.

    Protection

    • In Chad, people reportedly continue to surrender from Boko Haram. More than 700 children and women – among some 1,100 people who fled the armed group and are held in Baga-Sola

    • have been transferred to their villages of origin. 300 people are still being held without determination of their status. Humanitarian partners are directing advocacy efforts towards the Government to uphold its responsibilities in accordance with human rights and the Geneva Conventions.

    • As a survival strategy by their families, young displaced children in Diffa are increasingly at risk of being exploited in forced labour. Several displaced and koranic school children aged 5 - 10 years are reportedly employed in a quarry. Protection actors will launch awareness-raising activities


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Background

    Population movement and violent incidents in the most affected areas Around 17 million people live in the affected areas across the four Lake Chad basin countries. The number of displaced people has tripled over the last two years. Most of the displaced families are sheltered by communities that count among the world's poorest and most vulnerable. Food insecurity and malnutrition have reached critical levels.

    Recent developments

    The total number of IDPs in north-east Nigeria's most affected Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states now stands at 1.63 million internally displaced people after a decrease by 50,000, noted in IOM's December displacement tracking. Assessments and missions to newly-accessible areas identified severe needs in several LGAs in Borno state. Large numbers of IDPs who have recently moved to sites in Monguno, Banki, Baga and Rann are in urgent need of assistance. In Rann, hosting some 43,000 IDPs, rates of severe acute malnutrition and mortality are critically high. In December, partners delivered food or cash assistance to more than one million people in in north-east Nigeria alone. On 16 December, the Nigeria Regional Refugee Response Plan was launched requesting US$241 million to help some 460,000 people in 2017 in Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. The Humanitarian Response Plans (H RPs) appeal for a total US$1.5 billion to assist 8.2 million people across the Lake Chad Basin. At the end of the year, the US$739 million requirement of he 2016 response plans was funded at 53 per cent.


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    Source: International Fund for Agricultural Development
    Country: Mauritania

    A total of 285,600 farmers, particularly women and young people in six regions in southern Mauritania will benefit from a financial agreement signed today between the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Mauritania to improve their incomes, nutrition and food security.

    The agreement for the Inclusive Value Chain Development Project (PRODEFI) was signed in Rome by Michel Mordasini, Vice-President of IFAD and Mariem Aouffa, Ambassador of Mauritania to Italy and Permanent Representative to Rome-based United Nations agencies.

    The total cost of the project is US$45.2 million of which IFAD is providing a US$21 million grant including $6 million grant from the Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP) Trust Fund. It is co-financed by the national private sector ($2 million), the Government of Mauritania ($5 million) and by the beneficiaries themselves ($2.2 million). The remaining $15 million will be covered by other financing sources or by the next IFAD financing cycle for Mauritania (2019-2021).

    “PRODEFI will build upon and replicate IFAD’s experience in Mauritania and elsewhere in the sub-region by adopting a poverty reduction approach based on supporting inclusive production, transformation and marketing systems,” said Philippe Rémy, IFAD Country Programme Manager for Mauritania. “In addition, it will reduce the country’s dependence on food imports, create jobs and increase the incomes of rural households, especially women and youth,” he added.

    Mauritania imports 60 per cent of the staple food consumed in the country. Only red meat and fish are covered by domestic production while two thirds of the cereals are imported. In addition, the food and nutritional situation of the population of Mauritania is of concern. According to the 2015 food security survey conducted by the National Food Security Commission supported by the World Food Programme, 23.8 per cent of households in southern Mauritania are food insecure.

    The first phase of PRODEFI will focus on horticulture, poultry farming, goat milk and non-timber forest products. Inland fishing will be tested around Lake Foum Gleita at the beginning of the project. Following market studies, new income generating crops or activities will be defined for the second phase of the project. In addition, the project will support the competitive production systems to respond to market demand. The farmers will receive training and advisory services associated with the production models.  

    To address the issue of climate change, the project will facilitate, through the ASAP grant, the use of solar energy -- from production to storage and processing – and promote sustainable management techniques for natural resources such as water, pasturelands and plant resources.

    PRODEFI will also promote a better match between supply and demand. It will develop the public-private-producers partnerships in the interest of smallholder farmers and facilitate their access to markets.

    Since 1980, IFAD has financed 14 rural development programmes and projects in Mauritania for a total cost of $342.3 million, with an IFAD investment of $136.2 million directly benefiting 190,470 rural households.

    Press release No.:IFAD/01/2017

    IFAD invests in rural people, empowering them to reduce poverty, increase food security, improve nutrition and strengthen resilience. Since 1978, we have provided about US$18 billion in grants and low-interest loans to projects that have reached some 462 million people. IFAD is an international financial institution and a specialized United Nations agency based in Rome – the UN’s food and agriculture hub.


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    Source: International Fund for Agricultural Development
    Country: Mauritania

    Rome, 12 janvier 2017– Au total, 285 600 petits producteurs, en particulier des femmes et des jeunes de six régions du sud de la Mauritanie, bénéficieront d'un accord de financement signé aujourd'hui entre le Fonds international de développement agricole (FIDA) et la Mauritanie pour améliorer leurs revenus, leur nutrition et leur sécurité alimentaire.

    L'accord pour la mise en œuvre du Projet de développement de filières inclusives (PRODEFI) a été signé à Rome par Michel Mordasini, Vice-Président du FIDA et Mariem Aouffa, Ambassadeur de la Mauritanie en Italie et Représentant Permanent auprès des agences des Nations Unies basées à Rome.

    Le montant total de l’investissement du projet s’élève à 45,2 millions d’USD, comprenant un don du FIDA de 21 millions d’USD y compris un don de 6 millions d’USD du Programme d'adaptation de l’agriculture paysanne (ASAP). Le projet est cofinancé par le secteur privé national (2 millions d’USD), le gouvernement mauritanien (5 millions d’USD) et les bénéficiaires eux-mêmes (2,2 millions d’USD). Les 15 millions d’USD restants seront couverts par d'autres sources de financement ou par le prochain cycle de financement du FIDA pour la Mauritanie (2019-2021).

    "PRODEFI s'appuiera sur l'expérience du FIDA en République de Mauritanie et ailleurs dans la sous-région et la mettra à l’échelle en adoptant une approche de réduction de la pauvreté basée sur l’appui aux systèmes inclusifs de production, de transformation et de commercialisation", a déclaré Philippe Rémy, Chargé de programme de la Mauritanie au FIDA. “En outre, il réduira la dépendance du pays à l'égard des importations des denrées alimentaires par la promotion des produits locaux, créera des emplois et augmentera les revenus des ménages ruraux, en particulier des femmes et des jeunes”, a-t-il ajouté.

    La Mauritanie importe 60% des produits alimentaires de base consommés dans le pays. Seule la demande de viande rouge et de poisson est satisfaite par la production nationale tandis que les deux tiers des céréales consommées et des légumes sont importées. En outre, la situation alimentaire et nutritionnelle de la population de la Mauritanie est préoccupante. D’après l'enquête sur la sécurité alimentaire menée en 2015 par le Commissariat national à la sécurité alimentaire, avec l’appui du Programme alimentaire mondial, 23,8% des ménages du sud de la Mauritanie sont en en situation d'insécurité alimentaire.

    La première phase du PRODEFI se concentrera sur le maraîchage, l’aviculture, le lait de chèvre et les produits forestiers non ligneux. La pêche continentale sera testée dans le lac de Foum Gleita. En fonction des études de marché menées lors de la première phase, de nouvelles cultures ou activités génératrices de revenus seront définies pour la deuxième phase du projet. En outre, le projet appuiera les systèmes de production compétitifs pour répondre à la demande du marché. Les agriculteurs recevront Des services de formation et d’appui-conseil associés à ces modèles de production seront mis à la disposition des producteurs.

    Pour faire face à la question du changement climatique, le projet facilitera l'utilisation de l'énergie solaire - de la production au stockage et à la transformation des produits – grâce au don octroyé au titre du programme d’adaptation de l’agriculture paysanne (ASAP). Il favorisera aussi la gestion durable des ressources naturelles comme l'eau, les pâturages et les ressources végétales. PRODEFI favorisera une meilleure adéquation entre l'offre et la demande. Il développera les partenariats public-privé-producteurs dans l'intérêt des petits producteurs et facilitera l’accès aux marchés.

    Depuis 1980, le FIDA a financé 14 projets et programmes en Mauritanie d’un montant total de de 342,3 millions d’USD dont 136,2 millions d’USD proviennent de ses propres ressources, ayant bénéficié directement à 190 470 ménages ruraux.

    Communiqué de presse no FIDA/01/2017

    Le Fonds international de développement agricole (FIDA) investit dans les populations rurales, en les autonomisant afin de réduire la pauvreté, d'accroître la sécurité alimentaire, d'améliorer la nutrition et de renforcer leur résilience. Depuis 1978, nous avons octroyé plus de 18 milliards d'USD sous la forme de dons et de prêts à faible taux d'intérêt en faveur de projets qui ont touché quelque 462 millions de personnes. Le FIDA est une institution financière internationale et un organisme spécialisé des Nations Unies dont le siège est à Rome – le centre névralgique des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    As delivered.

    Mr. President,

    Thank you for the opportunity to brief the Security Council on the humanitarian situation in the Lake Chad Basin.

    The humanitarian crisis across North-East Nigeria and parts of Cameroon, Chad and Niger, triggered by the horrendous, violent and inhuman campaign of Boko Haram, is deepening. Although Boko Haram has lost much of the territory that it once controlled – but by no means all – raids and suicide bombings targeting civilians continue to cause widespread death and destruction, fear, psychological and physical trauma, prevent people from accessing essential services, and wipe out livelihoods and vital infrastructure.

    In July 2016, when I last briefed this Council on the Lake Chad Basin, some nine million people were in need of humanitarian assistance. Since then, the crisis has grown further, and there are today 10.7 million people in need of assistance, including 8.5 million in North-East Nigeria and another 1.6 million in the Far North of Cameroon.

    Some 2.4 million people are currently displaced; the vast majority of them - over 1.5 million - are children. While many families would undoubtedly prefer to return to their areas of origin, continued severe insecurity, limited livelihood opportunities and lack of essential services still make this difficult, if not impossible, despite considerable encouragement, if not pressure, from local authorities. You will recall my last report when I evidenced how many internally displaced people like Mustafa – who I met at Konduga camp near Maiduguri – had been forced from their homes in Bama in Lake Chad Basin in mid-2015. When your home has been torched, there is no home to return to.

    As I witnessed during my last mission to Nigeria and Niger, about 80 per cent of the displaced are staying with host communities, who are themselves among the world's poorest. But they have nevertheless generously opened their homes to the displaced.

    The protection needs that I highlighted during my briefing in July remain dire. Civilians face violations of humanitarian and human rights law, every day, including death, injuries, sexual and gender-based violence, arbitrary detention, disappearances, forced displacement, and forced recruitment. In North-East Nigeria alone, over 7,000 women and girls have been subjected to Boko Haram-related sexual violence, including forced marriage, rape, abduction and slavery. Upon their release, many of the survivors continue to be treated by their own communities as suspected Boko Haram sympathizers, and face deep stigma preventing them from reintegrating effectively into society. In response, the United Nations and its partners have provided care and support to 5,900 women and children formerly associated with, or captured by Boko Haram who have been victims of sexual and gender-based violence. However, these and other protection activities must be scaled up to ensure that the survivors receive the necessary medical care, psychosocial support and livelihoods support. We also need to work even more closely with the government and the communities to prevent stigmatization of these women.

    Mr. President,

    What started as a protection crisis has become also a major food and nutrition crisis – today one of the largest humanitarian crises in the world. One year ago, there were three million severely food insecure people in need of assistance across the Lake Chad Basin; despite the UN’s and partners’ mobilizing response, today there are 7.1 million. As the Nigerian Government’s security offensive ratchetted up over the last 6 months, it has regained land and released people and communities trapped and captured at the tyrannous hands of Boko Haram, thus pealing back the visibility of the numbers of oppressed, hungry, abused people at a rapid pace, often more rapidly than the humanitarian response could accelerate, or for us to raise more funds from you, the international community, to keep up. Hence the staggering increase in these numbers of very vulnerable people. Equally the Multi-National Joint Task Force has driven many Boko Haram terrorists and agents back out of Cameroon, Chad and Niger, so concentrating more challenges and needs in Northeast Nigeria. For these reasons, food and nutritional insecurity have reached extreme levels especially in parts of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states in Nigeria, with 5.1 million people food insecure at crisis and emergency levels. In the worst affected and least accessible areas, severe forms of hunger have been reported. In spite of all the assistance going in today, it is clear from the range of forecasts that this situation may get even worse and the numbers in need still climb; these are the right planning assumptions. And this is all in addition to, and aside from, the chronic severe and moderate acute malnourishment across the wider Sahel region (to the West and North of the Lake Chad Basin) affecting millions of people, mainly children, women, elderly, the sick and those living with disabilities.

    Children, in North Eastern Nigeria and in the Lake Chad Basin are particularly vulnerable in this situation, and reports indicate under-five mortality rates in individual IDP locations up to four times the emergency threshold. In July last year, I briefed the Council that 244,000 children in Nigeria’s Borno State were severely acutely malnourished. Today, that number has grown to 300,000 children – and up to 450,000 children when include the two states of Adamawa and Yobe, as we must.

    Despite these worrying trends, there is hope that 2017 will yet prove to be a turning point for the people affected by this crisis. As the nature of the conflict is changing, and more and more areas are coming under government control, now is the time to act decisively to expand humanitarian assistance and protection as well as basic services, and thus lay the groundwork for early recovery and reconstruction, to prevent this from becoming a protracted crisis. Over the past six months, together with each of the governments of the Lake Chad Basin region, we have taken significant steps forward in scaling up the humanitarian response. For example, the United Nations, with new leadership in Abuja and in Maiduguri, and its partners in Nigeria are reaching over 2.1 million people with food assistance, over four million with emergency primary health care, and over 1.7 million with water and sanitation, despite a difficult and indeed high-risk environment for aid workers. Since the beginning of 2016, UNICEF has provided the following support to children in crisis-affected areas:

    · 160,000 children under five have been reached with life-saving treatment for Severe Acute Malnutrition;

    · More than 4 million people have had access to primary health care services through Government-run health centres and clinics set up in both IDP camps and host communities;

    · Nearly three quarters of a million people continue to have access to safe water, and more than a million people have access to sanitation facilities meeting international standards;

    · More than 100,000 children have access to safe temporary learning spaces; and,

    · Nearly 200,000 traumatised children have been provided with psychosocial support.

    In support of the scale-up, since July 2015, within a month of my taking up this post, I have released over $91 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund – the CERF – for life-saving humanitarian assistance to three million people affected by the crisis in the Lake Chad Basin. I would like to thank all those Member States that supported this vital work through their contributions to the CERF, and I would urge each and every one of you to join the three Security Council Members who have already made pledges for the CERF for 2017. Last December, during the CERF pledging conference for 2017, the President of Niger himself, H.E. Mr. Mahamadou Issoufou, described the CERF as a central and indispensable funding mechanism in support of humanitarian action to relieve the suffering of so many people across the Lake Chad Basin.

    Mr. President,

    I am pleased to report that we have a close cooperation with the governments of the affected countries, and that they are taking a fast increasing lead in the humanitarian response. The Nigerian Government, for example, appointed a Chief Humanitarian Coordinator in October 2016 and in the last few weeks has set up platforms both at the capital and the state level for close coordination between the Government and the humanitarian community. And just in the last week, Nigeria’s Presidential Committee on Northeast Initiatives has now adopted a three-phase reconstruction and rehabilitation plan, with an immediate focus on comprehensive relief efforts, social stabilization and early recovery to address the needs of seven million people over the next twelve months. I welcome this and other initiatives taken by the governments of the four affected countries to provide immediate assistance to the people in need.

    At the same time, several of the governments in the Lake Chad Basin are experiencing fiscal constraints as they face economic recession and are also involved in a costly military operation against Boko Haram. Their means to respond to the humanitarian crisis are thus limited and vastly surpassed by the scale of the needs. In September 2016, in the margins of the General Assembly, my office organized a high-level event where the Presidents of Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and a senior Minister from Cameroon all joined me in calling for humanitarian assistance for the Lake Chad Basin, which was followed by new pledges of $163 million by donors at the same event. Thank you – good result, but insufficient.

    Mr. President,

    The regional humanitarian crisis that has significantly deepened and broadened with the despicable actions of Boko Haram takes place in an extremely fragile and rapidly changing part of the world, and one that contains many of the elements – poverty, unemployment and the absence of prospects and opportunities for youth – conducive to both violent extremism and protracted humanitarian need. There is a clear need for continued action and attention from the international community and indeed this Security Council.

    In addition to the urgent provision of lifesaving assistance to those in need, we must also address the root causes of the crisis, particularly at the community level. Poverty, underdevelopment, and environmental degradation need to be addressed through longer-term assistance, supporting the sustained efforts of the governments of the affected countries. As humanitarians, we are ready to continue to scale up and to work closely with development partners, in line with the outcomes of the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit. I would like to call on Member States to ensure that development and political actors strengthen longer-term investments to address the root causes of the conflict.

    This is the time to stand in solidarity with the people of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger.

    This crisis is urgent. Without our action, our political engagement, and sustained humanitarian and development assistance, we will not be able to prevent this from becoming an even more protracted crisis. For example, supporting agriculture will be key to allowing people to re-establish their livelihoods, and to avoid creating dependency on aid. In North-East Nigeria, many farmers have missed three planting seasons in a row. It is vital to support them immediately, as doing so now would allow them to prepare their land and planting their crops ahead of the next rainy season in June.

    As you are aware, initially, 19 months ago, it was extremely difficult, despite repeated events and statements, to get the global community’s attention focused on the humanitarian issues of the people in Lake Chad Basin – it was even as though I was shouting into an empty room.

    Today, the situation is different, as there is growing global attention and focus on the Lake Chad Basin, and a clear recognition – including by the governments of the affected countries - that this is a major humanitarian crisis and not just a security situation. In Nigeria, the epicenter of the crisis, the UN has a new and strong leadership in place, and a close coordination with the Government, as I briefed you earlier, and mechanisms to iron out tensions as and when they arise. And I am very heartened to learn of this Council’s proposed visit to the area in the coming period, subject to arrangements being finalized.

    Donors have demonstrated increasing commitment to the crisis in the Lake Chad Basin, contributing over $238 million for the humanitarian response in the Lake Chad Basin in the second half of 2016, thus tripling their contributions compared to the first six months of the year. This led the appeal for the Lake Chad Basin in 2016 to be 49 per cent funded. But it is that – 49% – so we can only do less than half of what we know is needed. Despite this acceleration of contributions, which I commend, we need donors to dig even deeper. We also need more donors to come on board. And, as you will appreciate from all that, I have just set out, the 2017 humanitarian response plan and appeal for the Lake Chad Basin has doubled relative to the one in 2016 and reflecting the deteriorating situation in the region, to $1.5 billion. Together, we simply must do more, and from here it is funding that is key.

    In addition, I call on this Council to maintain and enhance its:

    · Support to the national and regional action (that is security, political as well as humanitarian);

    · Support to the conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin being organized in Norway on 24 February;

    · Support to the development strategies to help sustain recovery and peace; and,

    · Support to the engagement of local organisations, NGOs as well as international NGOs.

    Mr. President,

    Over the past twelve months, this crisis has not only persisted, but grown in dramatic fashion. Serious protection concerns remain and the food security situation is critical. In the face of this reality, we have made progress in scaling up the response, but it is still not enough. We now need to redouble our collective efforts to meet the growing needs. During my many travels to the Lake Chad Basin over the decades, I have been struck by the tremendous resilience and generosity of the people. Their ability to cope with severe hardship and shocks is second to none. My hope is that today’s discussion will take us further – and further towards a collective response that is commensurate with the desperate plight, and the almost unique resilience, of the people in the Lake Chad Basin.

    Thank you.

    ENDS


    0 0

    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    SC/12679
    12 JANUARY 2017

    SECURITY COUNCIL
    7861ST MEETING (PM)

    Despite the gains made against Boko Haram by countries in the Lake Chad Basin region, the extremist group remained a threat, carrying out asymmetric attacks against civilians, senior United Nations officials told the Security Council today, stressing that only a concerted international approach would help repair the material and social damage inflicted on communities.

    Briefing the 15-member Council this afternoon, Tayé-Brook Zerihoun, Assistant-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, said that the region continued to suffer from the combined effects of violent extremism and a serious humanitarian crisis, as well as human rights abuses and violations by terrorist elements. Despite the counter-insurgency operations of the Multinational Joint Task Force, Boko Haram maintained the ability to carry out attacks and perpetrate violence against civilians through kidnappings, suicide bombings, improvised explosive devices and ambushes on towns and villages.

    “A military approach will not bring an end to Boko Haram,” he said, stressing that affected countries must simultaneously tackle the humanitarian consequences and root causes of the group’s emergence. Concerned authorities should bolster support to survivors, bring perpetrators to justice and provide targeted protection services in camps and host communities. Moreover, military operations should be followed with steps to bring about stability, restore State authority and address the social, economic and political grievances of marginalized communities plagued by entrenched poverty and social inequality.

    He said some of the Chibok girls kidnapped in 2014 from Nigeria had been freed thanks to negotiations facilitated by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the Government of Switzerland. Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for West Africa, continued his engagement with the Nigerian authorities and international partners to ensure the release of remaining abductees.

    For its part, the United Nations would continue to provide strategic counter-terrorism technical assistance and training, he said. In addition, high-level officials of the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) had met in December to consider approaches to prosecute and rehabilitate people associated with Boko Haram. Their consultations underscored the need for a comprehensive legal framework and a gender-sensitive rehabilitation and reintegration strategy.

    Also briefing the Council, Stephen O’Brien, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, said the humanitarian crisis across the Lake Chad Basin, comprising north-eastern Nigeria and parts of Cameroon, Chad and Niger, was deepening. While Boko Haram had lost much of the territory it once controlled, raids and suicide bombings targeting civilians continued to cause widespread death and destruction, fear, psychological and physical trauma.

    Drawing attention to the recent statistics, he said that 10.7 million people were in need of humanitarian assistance, and some 2.4 million people were currently displaced. What had started as a protection crisis had also become a major food and nutrition crisis, he stressed, noting that the number of severely food insecure people across the Lake Chad Basin had increased from 3 million one year ago to 7.1 million today. Although aid was entering the region, forecasts predicted that the situation could worsen further.

    Despite those worrying trends, there was hope that 2017 would prove to be a turning point for the people affected by the crisis. “Now is the time to act decisively to expand humanitarian assistance and protection as well as basic services, and thus lay the groundwork for early recovery and reconstruction,” he said, emphasizing that the nature of the conflict was changing and more and more areas were coming under Government control.

    The United Nations was closely cooperating with the Governments of affected countries and a September 2016 high-level event with the Presidents of Chad, Niger and Nigeria had resulted in new humanitarian aid pledges of over $163 million, he said. Still, Governments throughout the region were grappling with fiscal constraints due to economic recession and costly military operations waged against Boko Haram. “We can only do less than half of what we know is needed,” he said, calling upon donors to dig even deeper.

    Joining him, Fatima Yerima Askira of the Borno Women Development Initiative, and Youth Programmes Coordinator at Search for Common Ground Nigeria, expressed hope that donor agencies and Council members would heed the humanitarian appeal. She called on the Council to take action to prevent violent conflict in the region and stressed that citizens in the affected countries and the international community needed not only to fight Boko Haram, but also to combat interreligious and inter-ethnic tensions.

    In the ensuing debate, Council members expressed concern that Boko Haram still maintained a real capacity to carry out targeted and deadly attacks and that the crisis brought about by the group was still threatening lives. To fight that phenomenon, it was essential to address the underlying causes of the conflict, notably poor governance, underdevelopment and the impact of climate change, and to increase humanitarian, military and logistical support. Equally vital was that Lake Chad Basin countries show ownership of development issues.

    Delegates also underscored the need for greater cooperation among the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, including the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union, with some speakers welcoming the latter’s decision to set up an anti-terrorism fund. The proposed Council mission to the region, they stressed, would send a strong signal and provide useful discussions.

    Nigeria’s representative said that while the insurgency had tested the country’s will, it had failed to break the resilience of its people. Recently, the Government had successfully driven out Boko Haram militants from the Sambisa Forest and embarked on programmes to restore livelihoods in communities, revamp security operations and advance rehabilitation, reintegration and reconstruction efforts. It was working hard to ensure the release of all Nigerians held captive by Boko Haram, including the Chibok schoolgirls who remained in the country’s “national consciousness”. The international community must do its part, he stressed, calling on it to continue to help fulfil the country’s humanitarian needs and address the root causes of terrorism.

    Also speaking today were representatives of the United States, United Kingdom, France, China, Egypt, Japan, Uruguay, Italy, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Senegal, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Bolivia and Sweden.

    The meeting began at 3:04 p.m. and ended at 5:15 p.m.

    Briefings

    TAYÉ-BROOK ZERIHOUN, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, said that the Lake Chad Basin continued to suffer from the combined effects of violent extremism and a serious humanitarian crisis, as well as human rights abuses and violations by terrorist elements. Boko Haram continued to perpetrate violence against civilians in the region with varied frequency and intensity through kidnappings, suicide bombings, improvised explosive devices and ambushes on towns and villages. Since October 2016, that group had shifted most of its assaults to military positions.

    While it was unclear whether the military was the intended target, the increase in clashes with the military seemed to be the result of reaction to the counter-insurgency operations of the Multinational Joint Task Force, as well as a shift in tactics following the split in Boko Haram’s leadership, he said. Despite the commendable military effort by the region against the group, Boko Haram retained the capacity to carry out attacks, including the one on 3 January on a military checkpoint in Baroua in the Diffa region of south-eastern Niger.

    It had been a long time since the kidnapping of the Chibok girls in Nigeria, he continued, noting that the release of some had been a result of negotiations facilitated by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the Government of Switzerland. For his part, Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for West Africa, continued his engagement with the Nigerian authorities and international partners to ensure the release of remaining abductees.

    He went on to emphasize that countries in the region continued to face a serious humanitarian crisis. The number of people in need of assistance had continued to increase and proved the seriousness of the situation. Citing an example, he said that the ongoing violence had destroyed lives, livestock, foodstuffs and economic development. Indeed, the economic impact of the crisis was substantial, and was estimated at about $9 billion in north-eastern Nigeria alone.

    Boko Haram’s destructive activities were taking place in areas of entrenched poverty, marginalization and high levels of income and social inequality, which was caused by an absence of State authority and a severe financial crisis, he said. The United Nations response must address the immediate violence as well as humanitarian needs while simultaneously tackling the root causes of violent extremism and radicalization. Only a combined approach of the international community would help repair the material and social damage inflicted on communities. “The overall goal of the response to the Lake Chad Bain crisis should seek to achieve durable solutions, recovery and sustainable development,” he stressed.

    Grave human rights violations and abuses had accompanied Boko Haram attacks and the counter-terrorism responses, he said, adding that women and girls remained subjected to sexual violence. Acknowledging that various measures had been taken by the Government of Nigeria to address such incidents, he urged concerned authorities to strengthen their responses, including by providing assistance to survivors, bringing all perpetrators to justice and providing targeted protection services in camps and host communities. Given that there had been encouraging reports of surrender of former Boko Haram fighters in Chad and Niger, he encouraged concerned countries to examine their rehabilitation and reintegration programmes for ex-Boko Haram fighters and their families.

    For its part, the United Nations would continue to provide strategic counterterrorism technical assistance and trainings, he said. In addition, the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) had held a high-level meeting in December 2016 to consider approaches to prosecuting, rehabilitating and reintegrating persons associated with that group. The consultations had underlined the need to develop a comprehensive legal framework and a gender-sensitive rehabilitation and reintegration strategy.

    “A military approach will not bring an end to Boko Haram,” he said, adding that affected countries must simultaneously tackle the humanitarian consequences as well as the root causes that led to the emergence of the group. Military operations should be followed with stabilization measures, the restoration of State authority and addressing the social, economic and political grievances of marginalized communities. As four countries of the Lake Chad Basin region were equally affected by the Boko Haram scourge, they needed the Security Council's and the wider international community's support to succeed in their efforts to bring about stability and build the resilience of affected communities.

    STEPHEN O’BRIEN, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, declared: “The humanitarian crisis across north-eastern Nigeria and parts of Cameroon, Chad and Niger, triggered by the horrendous, violent and inhumane campaign of Boko Haram, is deepening.” While the group had lost much of the territory it once controlled, raids and suicide bombings targeting civilians continued to cause widespread death and destruction, fear, psychological and physical trauma, prevent people from accessing essential services and wipe out livelihoods and vital infrastructure.

    There were 10.7 million people in need of humanitarian assistance, he said, up from 9 million in July 2016. Some 2.4 million people were currently displaced, over 1.5 million of whom were children. The protection needs he had highlighted before the Council last July remained dire, with civilians facing violations for humanitarian and human rights law, including death, injuries, sexual and gender-based violence, arbitrary detention, disappearances, forced displacement and forced recruitment. In north-east Nigeria alone, over 7,000 women and girls had been subjected to Boko Haram-related sexual violence. While the United Nations and its partners were providing care and support to victims, other protection activities needed to be scaled up.

    What had started as a protection crisis had also become a major food and nutrition crisis, he said, noting that the number of severely food insecure people across the Lake Chad Basin had increased from 3 million one year ago to 7.1 million today. Although aid was entering the region, forecasts predicted that the situation could worsen further.

    However, he continued, despite those worrying trends, there was hope that 2017 would prove to be a turning point for the people affected by the crisis. “Now is the time to act decisively to expand humanitarian assistance and protection as well as basic services, and thus lay the groundwork for early recovery and reconstruction,” he said, pointing out that the nature of the conflict was changing and more and more areas were coming under Government control.

    He noted that the United Nations and its local partners were currently reaching some 2.1 million people with food assistance, over 4 million with emergency primary health care and over 1.7 million with water and sanitation, while the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) was providing significant support to millions of children. In that vein, he recalled that since July 2015 he had released over $91 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to support humanitarian needs in the Lake Chad Basin.

    Describing the Organization’s close cooperation with the Governments of the affected countries, which were taking a rapidly increasing lead in the humanitarian response, he nevertheless noted that several Governments throughout the region were experiencing fiscal constraints due to economic recession and costly military operations waged against Boko Haram. Recalling that a September 2016 high-level event with the Presidents of Chad, Niger and Nigeria had resulted in new pledges of over $163 million, he nevertheless stressed that the amount was not enough.

    He went on to note that the crisis across the Lake Chad Basin included many of the elements — including poverty, unemployment and the absence of prospects and opportunities for youth — conducive to both violent extremism and protracted humanitarian need. Underscoring the need for continued action and attention from the Council and the international community, he stressed that “now is the time to stand in solidarity with the people of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger”.

    Indeed, the crisis was urgent, and without action and political engagement, as well as sustained humanitarian and development assistance, it would become even more protracted. The appeal for the region for 2016 was only 49 per cent funded, he said, emphasizing that “we can only do less than half of what we know is needed.” Donors must dig even deeper. Meanwhile, the Council should support national and regional action, the conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin to be organized in Norway on 24 February, development strategies and non-governmental organizations in the region.

    FATIMA YERIMA ASKIRA, Borno Women Development Initiative and Youth Programs Coordinator at Search for Common Ground Nigeria, briefed the Council via videoconference, asking its members to take action to prevent violent conflict in the Lake Chad Basin region. Citizens of the region, young and old, boys and girls, as well as the international community, needed not only to fight Boko Haram, but also to combat interreligious and inter-ethnic tensions. She also expressed hope that donor agencies and Council members would heed the region’s humanitarian appeal.

    SAMANTHA POWER (United States) said that in 2016, a famine had likely occurred in the north-eastern part of Nigeria. Severe fighting had kept humanitarian personnel from reaching the region, causing at least 2,000 people to die. While the situation had improved somewhat, the region still lacked sufficient aid. “We have to make sure that food assistance reaches those in need,” she said, stressing that the Government of Nigeria must collaborate with the United Nations to make progress. Turning to Boko Haram, she said that the group systematically enslaved women and brainwashed children. The statistics were grim and 76 per cent of internally displaced persons feared returning home. Also concerning was severe malnutrition, and if 450,000 children did not receive food soon, 20 per cent of them would probably die. To defeat Boko Haram, the international community must invest far more resources, while concerned countries in the region needed to improve their military operations to tackle that group.

    PETER WILSON (United Kingdom) said that his country could not afford to stay silent on the issue. “The situation is simply horrifying,” he said, adding that almost 11 million people needed humanitarian assistance. Expressing concern about the brutality of Boko Haram, he emphasized that the group was a clear threat to international peace and security. “We need to up our game,” he said, noting that, for its part, the United Kingdom had provided $97 million for the region. As money alone would not solve the problem, he looked to the United Nations to increase its capacity and develop a multi-year plan for the region’s recovery.

    FRANÇOIS DELATTRE (France) noted that Boko Haram still maintained a real capacity to carry out targeted and deadly attacks in the Lake Chad Basin and that the crisis brought about by the group was still threatening lives. While the region was “off the radar” of many media outlets, it was one which required increased support. In that regard, he called on Council members and other States to give assistance — including military and logistical support and training, such as those that France currently provided — and to prioritize humanitarian aid. It was essential that the United Nations pursue and strengthen its efforts to help meet the needs of populations, he said, recalling in particular that international law applied to everyone and that all parties must grant the United Nations and its partners humanitarian access. Another priority was the region’s development, which was needed to stop the terrorist movement from prospering on the back of a sense of poverty and deprivation. In that vein, France had contributed €35 million euros through an initiative aimed at improving the region’s economic situation and creating employment, especially for young people.

    WU HAITAO (China) said that while the overall situation in Central and West Africa had remained stable recently, with the Lake Chad Basin countries having made progress in combating terrorism, the security and humanitarian situations remained very serious. The international community should strengthen its assistance to the countries of the region, supporting African counter-terrorism efforts in particular, while simultaneously respecting the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the countries concerned. Greater cooperation with regional and subregional organizations, including the African Union and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), was also needed. States in the region should also be provided assistance to accelerate their development in order to address the root causes of conflict, he said, recalling that China’s Foreign Minister had just completed a visit to several African nations, including Nigeria. The visit had been aimed at enhancing communication and cooperation and building trust — goals which China would continue to pursue in the coming years.

    IHAB MOUSTAFA AWAD MOUSTAFA (Egypt) said that military operations had made significant progress in fighting Boko Haram and limiting its actions. He called upon international partners to increase the volume of aid to stop the group. Also important was to prevent its recruitment and to begin rehabilitation and reintegration programmes. The approach required strong support from Member States and the United Nations, he said, adding that it would guarantee peace while preventing the eruption of new crises.

    KORO BESSHO (Japan) said the humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Basin had unfortunately gone from bad to worse. Despite progress in military operations against Boko Haram, the region must remain vigilant against insurgents who could still carried out attacks. Long-term development would require persistent attention, he stated, adding that the Security Council needed to mobilize comprehensive responses to the complex issues facing the region and work towards sustaining peace. It was equally vital for Lake Chad Basin countries to show ownership of development issues. Japan supported the proposed Council mission to the region and hoped it would result in useful discussions with regional stakeholders.

    LUIS BERMÚDEZ (Uruguay) drew attention to many alarming aspects of the crisis, including the fact that the Lake Chad Basin had lost most of its surface area in recent years and that a populace three times the total population of Uruguay were currently in need of humanitarian assistance. Noting that the international community did not hear much about the crisis, he also pointed to a number of additional aggravating factors, including the activities of Boko Haram and the lack of available food supplies. Underscoring the multidimensional nature of the crisis, and recalling that the Council just days ago had held an open debate on sustaining peace, he said it was necessary to take action not only to mitigate the terrorist threat and support the population, but to improve the situation in the long-run. In that regard, he called on the Council and the international community as a whole to “spare no effort” in helping the region overcome its development challenges. “We need to look at the deep-rooted causes of the crisis,” he said, adding that “we need to offer lasting solutions to the people of region.”

    SEBASTIANO CARDI (Italy), noting that his country had followed the developments in the region very closely, said it had decided to open a new embassy in Niger. He pointed to numerous human trafficking networks and transnational organized crime activities, calling upon the international community to do everything possible to put an end to them. Regional organizations had an important role and the Council’s visit to the region would send a strong signal. Boko Haram continued to commit sexual and gender-based violence. Also concerning was the rising number of internally displaced persons, he said, adding that the current instability had created an environment conducive for smuggling and human trafficking. It was crucial to increase economic and development assistance and to support institution-building.

    TEKEDA ALEMU (Ethiopia) said that security challenges faced by the region were a matter of concern. While taking note of the progress to defeat Boko Haram, he said that the group continued to pose a serious threat to peace and security by targeting innocent civilians, particularly women and children. In order to move forward, it was essential to support countries in the region through information-sharing and capacity-building. Furthermore, he emphasized the need for coordination between the United Nations and the African Union, noting that a Council visit to the region would send the right signal.

    KANAT TUMYSH (Kazakhstan), calling the situation in the Lake Chad Basin both difficult and volatile, expressed his delegation’s strong support for the African Union’s efforts to combat Boko Haram. A global approach led by African countries was needed in that regard, as the group remained a great threat to the region despite some positive results. Strongly condemning a recent suicide attack by two female bombers in Madagali, Nigeria, he went on to say that the deteriorating humanitarian situation also remained urgent. More than 11 million people were in need of assistance, and there was a particular need to protect the rights of vulnerable groups. Also pointing to added pressure placed on host communities as they received significant numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons, he expressed support for the ECOWAS initiative aimed at creating a special “solidarity fund” for victims of terrorism, and called on States to pay closer attention to the links between peace, security and development.

    GORGUI CISS (Senegal) pointed to climate change, drought and the overuse of natural resources as some of the origins of the Lake Chad Basin region’s structural vulnerability. While the spread of Boko Haram had been stemmed last year thanks to efforts of the region and subregion, the group was by no means defeated, and still had the capacity to wreak havoc through asymmetric attacks and other savagery. Its actions also had devastating effects on the region’s political, social and human rights situations, he said, noting that appropriate humanitarian assistance was needed to meet the needs of the population.

    Calling on the international community to help bridge the funding shortfall described by Mr. O’Brien, he said States should also strengthen their efforts to fight Boko Haram and provide political, logistical and financial support to the regional structures currently engaged in that struggle. While fragile progress had been made, the resilience of the region must be built up and more focus must be placed on development if the strategy was to be successful. Among other things, he expressed support for a Council visit to the region.

    PETR V. ILIICHEV (Russian Federation) echoed concerns about the continued activities of Boko Haram, as well as the fact that the group pledged its allegiance to Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da’esh). Calling for an immediate, unified and robust response to the threats posed by Boko Haram, he noted that the group refrained from direct clashes with Government forces, instead preferring to attack civilian and civilian facilities. The challenges of refugees, humanitarian access and other issues could not be resolved without addressing that of terrorism, he stressed, welcoming recent regional efforts in that regard. “Only through joint efforts will victory be achieved,” he said, welcoming the African Union’s recent decision to establish an anti-terrorism fund.

    VOLODYMYR YELCHENKO (Ukraine) said the humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Basin was among the most neglected in the world, with the international community unable to understand how to deal its multifaceted problems. A proper role for the Security Council needed to be found. The Multinational Joint Task Force and others had made commendable efforts to fight Boko Haram, but the region needed additional international support. The Council should engage in a serious discussion on how to strengthen existing sanctions against Boko Haram’s members and affiliates. Relevant inputs and initiatives from the region would contribute to the Council’s work in that regard. Improving socioeconomic conditions must also be a priority.

    SACHA SERGIO LLORENTTY SOLÍZ (Bolivia) agreed with other Council Members that Boko Haram continued to pose a serious threat to the international community. Welcoming the efforts of neighbouring countries to combat the terrorist organization, he condemned its actions, which had severely undermined international peace and security. The abduction of children and women and the destruction of schools must be unequivocally condemned. He demanded the immediate release of all those abducted and said the humanitarian calamity affecting the region was of serious concern. While the issue had been given less attention in the media, it remained one of the gravest challenges facing the international community. Millions had been displaced and required humanitarian assistance. “Here we have a situation that affects more people than the population of Bolivia,” he said, expressing serious concern for the 12 million affected by the crisis.

    OLOF SKOOG (Sweden) said the aim of putting the region on the agenda today was not meant to stigmatize but rather to shed a light on the conflict and violence that was causing immense human suffering. Boko Haram was indiscriminately attacking and targeting civilians. Other challenges such as climate change leading to resource scarcity and food insecurity only made the situation worse. Highlighting the connection between climate and security, he said that the number of displaced and affected was almost impossible to imagine. Regional efforts to resolve the crisis deserved international support, he added, urging bolstered aid and international engagement on the matter. Financial institutions could fund recovery and reconstruction efforts that created the conditions needed for people to safely return home. The voices of women must also be empowered. The savagery of Boko Haram must be replaced with the rule of law, he added, urging the international community to stay engaged.

    ANTHONY BOSAH (Nigeria) said that when Boko Haram “reared its ugly head” in Nigeria a couple of years ago, it impacted every facet of life from the economy and politics to the livelihoods of ordinary people. While the insurgency tested Nigeria’s will, it failed to break the resilience of the Nigerian people. The Government had made significant progress in the fight against Boko Haram, including by successfully taking over the Sambisa Forest where Boko Haram militants had been hiding out. But, while progress had been made, developmental challenges such as the shrinking Lake Chad persisted. In response to the humanitarian challenges caused by the massive displacement of people, abandoned farmlands and the disruption of the educational system, Nigeria had embarked on programmes to restore livelihoods in communities. It was also revamping security operations and taking a human rights-based approach to help rehabilitation, reintegration and reconstruction efforts.

    The Presidential Committee on the North East Interventions was focusing on coordinating and providing synergy, leadership and direction for the various initiatives, he continued. The Government was also accelerating the implementation of various humanitarian frameworks to alleviate human suffering. Nigeria would remain fully committed to taking all the necessary measures to protect its civilians. The Government was working hard to ensure the release of all Nigerians held captive by Boko Haram, including the Chibok schoolgirls who remained in the country’s “national consciousness”. The Government stood ready to support the rehabilitation and reintegration of the girls and the continuation of their studies once they were freed. Calling on the international community to continue to help fulfil humanitarian needs and address the root causes of terrorism, he stressed that action must no longer be delayed or downplayed.

    For information media. Not an official record.


    0 0

    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    CS/12679
    12 JANVIER 2017

    CONSEIL DE SÉCURITÉ
    7861E SÉANCE – APRÈS-MIDI

    En dépit de plusieurs défaites et de la libération, en octobre dernier, d’écolières nigérianes de l’école de Chibok, Boko Haram poursuit ses offensives et sa politique de terreur dans le bassin du lac Tchad, même si le groupe terroriste semble avoir réorienté ses offensives vers des cibles militaires, a déclaré, cet après-midi, devant le Conseil de sécurité, le Sous-Secrétaire général aux affaires politiques.

    M. Tayé-Brook Zerihoun a toutefois indiqué que la montée en puissance des affrontements de Boko Haram avec les forces armées semblent répondre aux opérations anti-insurrectionnelles conduites par la Force multinationale mixte (FMM) –formée de militaires des pays de la sous-région–, ainsi qu’à un changement de tactique faisant suite à la scission du leadership de Boko Haram, en août dernier, entre Abu Bakr Shekau et son ancien numéro deux, Abu Musab Barnawi.

    « La tendance qui se dégage des attaques récentes semble conforme à la ligne défendue par Barnawi, désireux de s’en prendre moins aux civils musulmans qu’aux cibles militaires, occidentales et chrétiennes », a estimé le Sous-Secrétaire général, en faisant état d’attaques meurtrières commises les 3, 7 et 8 janvier.

    « Les quatre pays du bassin du lac Tchad –Tchad, Nigéria, Cameroun et Niger– sont indifféremment touchés par le fléau de Boko Haram, dans un contexte de crise financière et de tensions politiques et sociales. Ils ont besoin du soutien du Conseil de sécurité et de l’ensemble de la communauté internationale pour réussir dans leurs efforts en vue de rétablir la stabilité et de renforcer la résilience des communautés touchées », a plaidé M. Tayé-Brook Zerihoun.

    Par ailleurs, a-t-il noté, l’échec « manifeste » de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique centrale (CEEAC) et de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) à tenir leur sommet ministériel conjoint sur Boko Haram, « longtemps envisagé », est préoccupant. Du Sénégal au Royaume-Uni, plusieurs membres du Conseil ont secondé cet appel à se réunir dans les meilleurs délais, en vue d’élaborer une « stratégie commune » pour s’attaquer aux causes profondes de la crise suscitée par Boko Haram, qui n’est pas simplement sécuritaire.

    Le Secrétaire général adjoint aux affaires humanitaires et Coordonnateur des secours d’urgence, M. Stephen O’Brien, a dressé un bilan accablant. Selon lui, 10,7 millions de personnes ont actuellement besoin d’une assistance dans le bassin du lac Tchad, contre neuf millions en juillet 2016: 8,5 millions de personnes dans le nord-est du Nigéria et 1,6 million de personnes dans le nord du Cameroun. Il y a, en outre, 2,4 millions de personnes déplacées, dont la plupart des enfants, a poursuivi M. O’Brien, en rappelant qu’au cours de sa dernière mission au Nigéria et au Niger, il avait constaté que 80% des personnes déplacées sont toujours accueillies par des communautés locales, « parmi les plus pauvres au monde ».

    Il s’agit d’une des crises humanitaires actuelles les plus graves, a alerté le Secrétaire général adjoint, en révélant que le nombre de personnes souffrant d’insécurité alimentaire dans le bassin est passé de trois millions il y a un an à 7,1 millions aujourd’hui, en dépit des efforts de l’ONU et de ses partenaires. « La situation dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad est sortie des radars internationaux alors que notre appui n’a jamais été aussi nécessaire », a fait observer le représentant de la France.

    Tandis que le Gouvernement de la France a débloqué, en 2016, une aide de 13,5 millions d’euros pour les pays affectés par Boko Haram, le Japon a annoncé, en décembre dernier, le versement de trois millions de dollars au Niger. Également un bailleur de fonds des pays de la région, le Royaume-Uni a rappelé que l’ONU avait estimé à un milliard de dollars les besoins du Nigéria face à la crise et à 310 millions de dollars ceux du Cameroun.

    Le représentant du Nigéria s’est, pour sa part, enorgueilli des progrès significatifs accomplis par son pays contre Boko Haram: « avant Noël, l’armée a repris la forêt de Sambisa, l’ancien repaire des combattants du groupe terroriste ». Conscient des défis de développement qui se posent dans la région, y compris le rétrécissement du lac Tchad, son gouvernement a initié des programmes pour restaurer les moyens de subsistance des communautés dans les régions touchées, a-t-il dit.

    Alors que M. Zerihoun s’alarmait des allégations de violations des droits de l’homme commises par la Force multinationale mixte, le représentant du Nigéria a assuré que la stratégie antiterroriste privilégiée par son gouvernement inscrivait les opérations militaires dans le cadre d’une approche fondée sur les droits de l’homme, « pour contribuer à la réalisation de la réhabilitation, de la réinsertion et de la reconstruction ». Il faut noter, a ajouté le représentant, que les écolières kidnappées à Chibok « restent dans la conscience nationale du Nigéria ». Son pays œuvre d’arrache-pied à la remise en liberté de tous les Nigérians détenus par Boko Haram, y compris les filles de Chibok, a-t-il insisté.

    S’exprimant par visioconférence depuis Maiduguri, au Nigéria, Mme Fatima Yerima Askira, la Coordonnatrice pour l’initiative de développement pour les femmes de Borno et les programmes de jeunes au sein de Search for Common Ground Nigeria, a plaidé de son côté en faveur de la création d’une architecture de paix régionale, à laquelle les femmes et les filles devront être associées.

    « Les femmes ont également leur mot à dire en matière de paix et de sécurité », a rappelé le délégué du Royaume-Uni, rejoint sur ce point par son homologue de la Suède. Conscient de la nécessité d’assurer un suivi de la situation, ce dernier a estimé, à l’instar du Sénégal, de la France ou encore de l’Italie, qu’une visite du Conseil de sécurité dans la région serait une « étape utile »

    PAIX ET SÉCURITÉ EN AFRIQUE

    Déclarations

    M. TAYÉ-BROOK ZERIHOUN, Sous-Secrétaire général aux affaires politiques de l’ONU, a déclaré que Boko Haram continuait de perpétrer des violences contre des civils dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad, violences qui prennent la forme d’enlèvements et d’attentats-suicides et d’attaques commises contre des localités, sans compter la dissémination d’engins explosifs improvisés. « Depuis octobre 2016, le groupe terroriste a réorienté ses offensives vers des cibles militaires, même s’il reste à déterminer si les militaires sont bel et bien ceux qui sont visés », a précisé le haut fonctionnaire.

    Toutefois, a-t-il dit, la montée en puissance des affrontements avec les forces armées semblent être une réponse aux opérations anti-insurrectionnelles conduites par la Force multinationale mixte (FMM), ainsi qu’à un changement de tactique faisant suite à la scission du leadership de Boko Haram, en août dernier, entre Abu Bakr Shekau et son ancien numéro deux, Abu Musab Barnawi.

    « La tendance qui se dégage des attaques récentes semble conforme à la ligne défendue par Barnawi, désireux de s’en prendre moins aux civils musulmans qu’aux cibles militaires, occidentales et chrétiennes », a estimé M. Zerihoun. Le 3 janvier, Boko Haram a attaqué un avant-poste militaire à Baroua, dans la région nigérienne de Diffa; le 7, une brigade militaire de Buni Yadi, une ville du nord-est du Nigéria; et le 8, le groupe a perpétré des attaques-suicides à Maiduguri.

    Toutefois, a dit M. Zerihoun, la libération de certaines filles kidnappées à Chibok, en particulier celles qui ont été libérées le 13 octobre à la suite de négociations facilitées par le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) et le Gouvernement suisse, est encourageante. Selon le Gouvernement nigérian, les négociations pour la libération des autres filles se poursuivent. La violence en cours a eu des effets dévastateurs dans la région. « L’impact économique de la crise est considérable et est estimé à environ à neuf milliards de dollars, rien que dans le nord-est du Nigéria », a prévenu M. Zerihoun.

    Seule une approche holistique aidera à réparer les dommages matériels et sociaux infligés aux communautés, a assuré le Sous-Secrétaire général. Ce soutien devrait selon lui également comporter des mesures visant à inverser les effets néfastes des changements climatiques sur les moyens de subsistance des communautés des zones touchées, y compris la réhabilitation du lac Tchad.

    Les violations graves des droits de l’homme et les abus ont accompagné les attaques de Boko Haram et les opérations antiterroristes. Femmes et filles restent exposées à la violence sexuelle, y compris l’esclavage sexuel et le mariage forcé. Les opérations contre-insurrectionnelles, tant par des forces nationales que par la FMM, ont été entachées d’accusations de violations du droit international humanitaire, et les suspects d’appartenir à Boko Haram subissent des conditions de détention extrêmes, y compris les enfants.

    Si des mesures notables ont été prises par le Nigéria pour faire face aux incidents de violence sexuelle et sexiste dans des camps concernant des femmes déplacées et des enfants, M. Zerihoun a instamment demandé aux autorités de tous les pays de la région de renforcer leur riposte face à ces violations et abus, notamment en aidant les survivants, en traduisant tous les responsables en justice et en fournissant des services de protection ciblés dans les camps et les communautés d’accueil.

    Afin de soutenir les efforts déployés par les États Membres pour lutter contre le terrorisme et veiller à ce que les auteurs soient traduits en justice, l’ONU continue de fournir une assistance technique et des formations en matière de lutte contre le terrorisme.

    En outre, la Direction exécutive du Comité contre le terrorisme (DECT) et l’Office des Nations Unies contre la drogue et le crime (ONUDC), avec le soutien de l’Union européenne, ont tenu en décembre 2016 une réunion de haut niveau avec les autorités nigérianes pour examiner les approches pertinentes en matière de poursuites, de réhabilitation et de réinsertion des anciens combattants de Boko Haram, a observé le Sous-Secrétaire général.

    Des consultations similaires seront proposées au Cameroun, au Tchad et au Niger lors d’une visite du Président du Comité contre le terrorisme prévue pour début 2017.

    De plus, a poursuivi M. Zerihoun, la FMM mène actuellement des opérations militaires sur les berges du lac Tchad. L’opération est confrontée à des défis uniques, notamment un terrain difficile, un manque de capacités. « La contribution de 50 millions d’euros promise par la Commission de l’Union européenne à la Commission de l’Union africaine à l’appui de la Force et des fonds fournis par d’autres donateurs bilatéraux doivent être versés en temps opportun à la Commission du bassin du lac Tchad pour permettre à la FMM de relever les défis auxquels elle est confrontée.

    Mais une approche militaire n’entraînera pas la fin de Boko Haram, selon le Sous-Secrétaire général. Les pays touchés doivent simultanément s’attaquer aux conséquences humanitaires ainsi qu’aux causes profondes qui ont conduit à l’émergence du groupe, a prévenu le haut fonctionnaire. Les opérations militaires doivent être suivies de mesures de stabilisation, de rétablissement de l’autorité de l’État et de traitement des griefs sociaux, économiques et politiques au sein des communautés marginalisées.

    « Les quatre pays du bassin du lac Tchad sont indifféremment touchés par le fléau de Boko Haram, dans un contexte de crise financière et de tensions politiques et sociales. Ils ont besoin du soutien du Conseil de sécurité et de l’ensemble de la communauté internationale pour réussir dans leurs efforts en vue d’assurer la stabilité et renforcer la résilience des communautés touchées. »

    Si les Nations Unies restent prêtes à soutenir les efforts régionaux, « l’échec manifeste de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique centrale (CEEAC) et de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) à tenir leur sommet ministériel conjoint sur Boko Haram, longtemps envisagé, est préoccupant », s’est alarmé M. Zerihoun.

    L’ONU, a-t-il dit, continue donc d’encourager la région à élaborer une « stratégie commune » pour s’attaquer aux causes profondes de la crise de Boko Haram. L’appui du Conseil de sécurité pour inciter la CEEAC et la CEDEAO à convoquer leur réunion conjointe souligne l’« urgence » de la question.

    M. STEPHEN O’BRIEN, Secrétaire général adjoint aux affaires humanitaires et Coordonnateur des secours d’urgence, a indiqué que 10,7 millions de personnes avaient actuellement besoin d’une assistance dans le bassin du lac Tchad, contre 9 millions en juillet 2016: 8,5 millions de personnes dans le nord-est du Nigéria et 1,6 million dans l’extrême nord du Cameroun. Il y a, en outre, 2,4 millions de personnes déplacées, dont la plupart sont des enfants. Au cours de sa dernière mission au Nigéria et au Niger, il a constaté que 80% des personnes déplacées étaient toujours accueillies par des communautés qui, a-t-il fait observer, sont parmi les plus pauvres au monde.

    Les besoins en termes de protection sont sévères, a-t-il poursuivi, en signalant de graves violations quotidiennes des droits de l’homme et du droit international humanitaire, qui se traduisent par des pertes en vies humaines, des blessés, des violences sexuelles ou sexistes, des détentions arbitraires, ainsi que des disparitions, des déplacements et des recrutements forcés. Rien qu’au nord-est du Nigéria, plus de 7 000 femmes et filles ont été victimes de violences sexuelles commises par Boko Haram, a-t-il précisé en expliquant qu’après leur libération, elles ont été considérées comme des sympathisantes de Boko Haram. Pour réagir à ce problème, les Nations Unies et leurs partenaires ont fourni des soins et un soutien à 5 900 femmes et enfants qui ont été associés ou victimes de violences sexuelles par des membres de Boko Haram, une aide qu’il faudrait, selon lui, améliorer davantage. Il a recommandé de travailler avec le Gouvernement et les communautés pour lutter contre la stigmatisation de ces femmes.

    Cette crise humanitaire s’est aggravée par une insécurité alimentaire grave, a alerté le Secrétaire général adjoint: c’est aujourd’hui une des plus grandes crises humanitaires au monde. Le nombre de personnes qui souffrent d’insécurité alimentaire dans la région est passé de 3 millions il y a un an à 7,1 millions aujourd’hui, et ce, malgré les efforts de l’ONU et de ses partenaires. C’est la libération de personnes aux mains de Boko Haram après l’offensive du Gouvernement qui a révélé le nombre considérable de personnes oppressées, affamées et victimes d’abus, a-t-il dit pour expliquer l’ampleur de ces chiffres.

    L’équipe spéciale commune internationale de l’Union africaine a permis de faire fuir beaucoup de terroristes de Boko Haram hors du Cameroun, du Tchad et du Niger, ce qui a permis de concentrer les efforts sur les besoins du nord-est du Nigéria où l’on compte 5,1 millions de personnes en grave situation d’insécurité alimentaire. Tout cela s’ajoute à une malnutrition chronique sévère et modérée qui sévit dans toute la région du Sahel. M. O’Brien a souligné la particulière vulnérabilité des enfants du nord-est du Nigéria et du bassin du lac Tchad où le taux de mortalité des moins de 5 ans parmi les personnes déplacées est quatre fois plus élevé que le seuil d’urgence. Dans l’État du Borno, il y a 300 000 enfants en déficience alimentaire et 150 000 de plus dans les États d’Adamawa et de Yobe.

    Malgré ces tendances inquiétantes, le Secrétaire général adjoint a exprimé un espoir pour 2017. Maintenant que le Gouvernement du Nigéria reprend progressivement le contrôle de son territoire au nord-est du pays, il faut étendre l’aide humanitaire et la protection, ainsi que les services de base. Il a indiqué que l’aide de l’ONU et des gouvernements de la région du bassin du lac Tchad avait permis, au cours des six derniers mois, de fournir une aide alimentaire à 2,1 millions de personnes, des soins de santé d’urgence à plus de 4 millions et de l’eau et des services d’assainissement à 1,7 million. Il a aussi donné le détail de l’aide apportée par l’UNICEF en 2016 qui a notamment offert des traitements pour sauver la vie de 160 000 enfants en déficience nutritionnelle, des soins de santé à plus de 4 millions de personnes et des espaces d’enseignement à plus de 100 000 enfants. M. O’Brien a rappelé avoir débloqué 91 millions de dollars du Fonds central pour les interventions d’urgence depuis juillet 2015 pour financer tous ces efforts.

    Il a salué la bonne coopération de l’ONU avec les gouvernements des pays touchés, ceux-ci ayant amélioré leur réponse humanitaire. Le Gouvernement du Nigéria, par exemple, a nommé un coordonnateur humanitaire en chef en octobre 2016. Plusieurs gouvernements de la région subissent cependant des contraintes budgétaires dues à la récession économique et aux coûts des opérations militaires contre Boko Haram, a-t-il prévenu en soulignant leurs besoins de financement. Il a aussi insisté sur la nécessité de fournir à ces pays une aide urgente pour traiter les causes profondes de la crise comme la pauvreté, lançant un véritable appel à la solidarité. Cette crise revêt un caractère urgent, a-t-il répété en suggérant par exemple de soutenir le secteur agricole de ces pays.

    M. O’Brien a remarqué que la communauté internationale était aujourd’hui plus attentive à la crise sécuritaire et humanitaire de cette région. Au Nigéria, qui est l’épicentre de la crise, les Nations Unies ont un nouveau et fort leadership, ainsi qu’une étroite coordination avec le Gouvernement, a-t-il indiqué en se réjouissant de l’intention du Conseil de sécurité de se rendre sur le terrain prochainement. Il s’est également félicité de l’engagement accru des donateurs qui ont contribué au-delà de 238 millions de dollars pour répondre à la crise humanitaire au deuxième semestre de 2016, triplant ainsi leur contribution par rapport à la première partie de l’année. L’appel humanitaire de 2016 a ainsi été financé à hauteur de 49%, a-t-il dit en souhaitant un engagement encore plus important pour combler les besoins. C’est pourquoi il a doublé les demandes de financement pour 2017: l’appel humanitaire 2017 pour la région est ainsi de 1,5 milliard de dollars.

    Avant de conclure, M. O’Brien a appelé le Conseil de sécurité à soutenir les mesures prises aux niveaux national et régional, la Conférence sur le Nigéria et le bassin du lac Tchad organisée en Norvège le 24 février, les stratégies de développement locales, ainsi que les organisations locales, nationales et internationales qui œuvrent dans ce sens.

    Mme FATIMA YERIMA ASKIRA, Coordonnatrice pour l’initiative de développement pour les femmes de Borno et les programmes de jeunes au sein de Search for Common Ground Nigeria, en vidéoconférence de Maiduguri, s’est également exprimée mais ses propos n’ont pu être traduits par les interprètes de la cabine française en raison de la mauvaise qualité sonore. « Il nous faut une architecture pour la paix dans notre région, à l’élaboration de laquelle les filles doivent être associées », a-t-elle dit en substance.

    Mme SAMANTHA POWER (États-Unis) a affirmé que la famine qui a récemment sévi à Borno n’était pas naturelle, mais bien le fait de l’homme. Elle a demandé au Gouvernement nigérian de coopérer avec les agences humanitaires afin d’améliorer l’acheminement de l’aide, avant d’insister sur la sauvagerie de Boko Haram. Le sort des lycéennes de Chibok est le meilleur exemple de cette sauvagerie, a-t-elle ajouté.

    Mme Power a ensuite détaillé la visite qu’elle a effectuée l’année dernière au Cameroun et au Nigéria dans des camps de personnes déplacées par les activités de Boko Haram. « Toutes les personnes que j’ai rencontrées ont décrit le meurtre d’un proche ou l’enlèvement d’un enfant de leurs propres mains », a-t-elle dit. La représentante a souhaité que le Conseil se rende sur place pour constater de lui-même l’ampleur de la crise. « Nous devrions être tous touchés par les souffrances de ces personnes déplacées », a-t-elle insisté, en déplorant l’audience clairsemée de cette séance du Conseil.

    Elle a demandé une intensification de la riposte internationale à Boko Haram, avant de louer la bonne coordination des pays de la région dans les opérations militaires qu’ils conduisent. « Ces opérations méritent notre plein appui », a-t-elle dit, ajoutant que son pays leur apportait son concours.

    Mme Power a ensuite invité l’ONU à travailler avec les gouvernements de la région afin d’apporter une aide humanitaire, et ce, même à proximité de la ligne de front. Elle a en particulier demandé au Gouvernement nigérian de remédier aux goulots d’étranglement qui empêchent le bon acheminement de l’aide dans le nord-est du pays. La situation dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad est ignorée, a conclu Mme Power, en appelant le Conseil à en faire davantage.

    M. PETER WILSON (Royaume-Uni) a déclaré que la situation actuelle dans le bassin du lac Tchad risque de s’aggraver compte tenu des mauvaises récoltes. Il a donc appelé les bailleurs de fonds à se mobiliser pour apporter une réponse adéquate, alors que l’ONU a estimé à un milliard de dollars les besoins au Nigéria et à 310 millions ceux du Cameroun. Mais l’argent ne suffit pas, il faut aussi faire preuve de leadership, a estimé le représentant. La tenue prochaine d’un sommet régional sur Boko Haram sera l’occasion de voir un tel leadership émerger, a fait remarquer le représentant britannique.

    Pour lui, un des défis les plus urgents est le retour forcé de populations dans des régions où ces personnes déplacées sont susceptibles d’être exposées à des violences. En outre, a-t-il souligné, les femmes ont également leur mot à dire en matière de paix et de sécurité et il est donc essentiel de les associer aux processus de paix et de les protéger des violences, en particulier les violences sexuelles. La fourniture, par Médecins sans frontières, de 810 tonnes de vivres au cours des derniers mois, est un exemple à suivre, a relevé le représentant britannique. Voilà l’esprit qui doit animer chacun d’entre nous, alors que pourtant, une organisation de santé n'est pas tenue d’apporter une aide matérielle.

    M. FRANÇOIS DELATTRE (France) a affirmé que Boko Haram, bien qu’affaibli, conservait de fortes capacités de nuisance. La situation dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad est sortie des radars internationaux alors que notre appui n’a jamais été aussi nécessaire, a-t-il fait remarquer. Insistant sur le coût, tant militaire que financier des opérations engagées contre Boko Haram, le délégué a souligné l’appui de la France aux pays de la région, en particulier le Tchad et le Niger. Les opérations militaires, a estimé M. Delattre, ont fait preuve de leur efficacité.

    Le délégué a demandé à l’ONU de poursuivre ses efforts pour répondre aux besoins humanitaires immenses dans la région, en espérant que les centres d’approvisionnement par lesquels l’aide humanitaire doit transiter, seront bientôt opérationnels. Il a précisé que la France a fourni, en 2016, une aide de 13,5 millions d’euros pour les pays affectés par Boko Haram. Enfin, M. Delattre a mis l’accent sur l’importance du développement de la région, sous peine de voir les groupes terroristes se renforcer. La région du bassin du lac Tchad doit être au cœur des activités du Conseil, a conclu le délégué, en appuyant l’idée d’une visite prochaine du Conseil dans la région.

    M. WU HAITO (Chine) s’est alarmé lui aussi de la détérioration des conditions de sécurité et de la situation humanitaire dans le bassin du lac Tchad, qui appelle une mobilisation sans précédent contre les opérations terroristes menées par Boko Haram, afin de permettre à la Force multinationale mixte (FMM) de mener à bien son mandat.

    La communauté internationale, dans ce contexte, doit respecter la primauté du rôle joué par les organisations régionales et sous-régionales pertinentes, nommément la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique centrale (CEEAC) et la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO). La Chine, a assuré son représentant, est disposée pour sa part à coopérer avec la communauté internationale et les pays de la région pour rétablir la stabilité autour du lac Tchad.

    M. IHAB MOUSTAFA AWAD MOUSTAFA (Égypte) a loué les succès engrangés par la Force multinationale mixte contre Boko Haram et demandé que la communauté internationale lui fournisse un appui renforcé. Il a également demandé une aide accrue pour les programmes de réintégration des anciens combattants de Boko Haram.

    Le délégué de l’Égypte a défendu une approche globale visant à remédier aux causes profondes de la crise, qui prévoirait notamment le renforcement des capacités des pays de la région et une intensification des efforts de développement. Il a souhaité, en outre, que la Stratégie intégrée de l’ONU pour le Sahel soit pleinement appliquée.

    Enfin, le délégué a promis l’appui de l’Égypte aux pays du bassin du lac Tchad en vue de pérenniser la paix.

    M. KORO BESSHO (Japon) a déclaré que son gouvernement contribuait aux efforts dans le bassin du lac Tchad à travers l’aide humanitaire sociale. Au niveau bilatéral, il avait annoncé, en décembre dernier, une aide alimentaire de trois millions de dollars au Niger. À la lumière de l’énorme impact de la crise provoquée par Boko Haram sur les femmes, le Japon a aussi contribué financièrement aux activités de l’Entité des Nations Unies pour l’égalité des sexes et l’autonomisation de la femme (ONU-Femmes) l’année dernière.

    La portée et la complexité des défis auxquels la région fait face exigent plus que de l’aide humanitaire, a estimé le représentant. Les efforts continus de la Force multinationale mixte et les autres opérations militaires menées par les pays de la région ont contenu de manière significative Boko Haram et l’ont délogé de son ancien bastion. Pour consolider les progrès réalisés par les opérations militaires, il faudrait également accorder une attention continue aux défis économiques et sociaux à long terme.

    Le représentant, citant les propos du Président du Nigéria au Forum international de Dakar sur la paix et la sécurité en Afrique, a souligné que la « réduction du taux de chômage des jeunes favorise la stabilisation et décourage le recrutement par Boko Haram ». Le Conseil de sécurité, a-t-il insisté, doit réfléchir aux moyens de résoudre les questions complexes que connaissent les pays de la région du bassin du lac Tchad, afin d’assurer le maintien de la paix. Il est également vital que les pays de la région prennent en main le développement économique et social de leurs communautés à long terme, a-t-il indiqué.

    M. LUIS BERMÚDEZ (Uruguay) a déclaré que le lac Tchad avait perdu 90% de sa superficie au cours de ces dernières années et 10 millions d’habitants, « soit trois fois la population de mon pays ». La dimension transnationale de la crise découle de causes connues de tous, mais l’avenir, a-t-il déploré, n’incite guère à l’espoir si l’on songe à l’absence d’« instrument » pour sortir de la crise et parvenir à une paix pérenne.

    C’est pourquoi l’Uruguay a jugé nécessaire de rendre hommage à la Force multinationale mixte, fruit des efforts régionaux concertés pour répondre à l’aspect sécuritaire de la crise. Mais la délégation a vivement encouragé à rechercher des solutions de long terme à la situation.

    M. SEBASTIANO CARDI (Italie) a indiqué que son pays allait ouvrir une nouvelle ambassade à Niamey, la capitale du Niger. Il a appuyé les efforts des pays de la région contre Boko Haram, avant de se dire préoccupé par le lien qui existe entre les activités criminelles transnationales dans la région et les activités de Boko Haram. Il a rappelé que la résolution 2195 (2014) demande une coopération internationale renforcée afin de lutter contre le terrorisme associé à la criminalité transnationale organisée. Le délégué a souhaité que les organisations régionales jouent un rôle actif dans les efforts de lutte contre Boko Haram. L’Italie, a-t-il assuré, appuie l’idée d’une visite du Conseil dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad. Avant de conclure, le représentant a insisté sur les conséquences des changements climatiques dans la région, lesquelles, conjuguées avec l’instabilité actuelle, créent un environnement propice aux activités terroristes et criminelles.

    M. TEKEDA ALEMU (Éthiopie) a déclaré que la situation sécuritaire dans le bassin du lac Tchad est une source de préoccupation majeure pour son pays, avant de prendre bonne note des avancées réalisées par la Force multinationale mixte (FMM) contre Boko Haram.

    Ceci étant, a-t-il relevé, les menaces posées par Boko Haram doivent être examinées en relation avec l’ensemble de celles qui se posent dans la région, a estimé la délégation, en invitant à mettre au point une « stratégie de lutte globale contre le terrorisme ».

    Devant la détérioration de la situation humanitaire dans la région, la délégation a lancé un appel à la communauté internationale pour qu’elle se mobilise en vue de mettre fin à une crise multidimensionnelle.

    M. KANAT TUMYSH (Kazakhstan) a condamné l’attaque meurtrière qui s’est produite l’année dernière à Maiduguri, avant d’appuyer les efforts des pays de la région du bassin du lac Tchad contre Boko Haram. Il a indiqué que la situation humanitaire dans la région continuait de se dégrader malgré les succès militaires engrangés contre Boko Haram. Plus de 7 millions de personnes sont déplacées au Niger, au Nigéria, au Tchad et au Cameroun en raison des activités de Boko Haram, a poursuivi le délégué. Le Kazakhstan, a-t-il assuré, appuie l’initiative de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) visant à la constitution d’un fonds de solidarité en faveur des victimes de terrorisme. Avant de conclure, le représentant a demandé aux membres du Conseil de se pencher sur les moyens d’augmenter l’aide humanitaire dans la région et de veiller à assurer son acheminement sans entrave.

    M. GORGUI CISS (Sénégal) a déclaré que les changements climatiques et la surexploitation des ressources naturelles expliquent en partie la crise dans le bassin du lac Tchad, favorisant ainsi les rivalités et la montée en puissance d’organisations comme Boko Haram. En dépit d’une riposte militaire coordonnée menée par la Force multinationale mixte (FMM), ce groupe terroriste conserve une force de frappe considérable, a constaté le représentant. Outre les déplacements massifs de populations, et la prise en charge des victimes de violences, une aide internationale est nécessaire pour faciliter la réinsertion d’environ 1 500 déserteurs de Boko Haram, a souligné le délégué, en saluant les efforts déployés par les organisations humanitaires.

    Appelant les pays de la région à se mobiliser, M. Ciss a souligné l’importance pour la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique centrale (CEEAC) et la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) de tenir leur sommet ministériel conjoint sur Boko Haram. Le représentant a également plaidé en faveur d’un effort de sensibilisation et de communication avec les leaders religieux et communautaires pour contrecarrer l’appel de l’extrémisme violent. Il a enfin demandé au Conseil de sécurité de marquer sa solidarité avec les pays de la région, notamment en dépêchant prochainement une délégation dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad.

    M. PETR V. ILIICHEV (Fédération de Russie) s’est dit préoccupé par l’allégeance prêtée par Boko Haram à l’État islamique d’Iraq et du Levant (EIIL/Daech), ainsi que par le changement de stratégie de Boko Haram. Ce groupe évite désormais les affrontements frontaux pour privilégier les attaques contre les civils, a-t-il expliqué.

    Soulignant l’urgence qui s’attache à l’élimination de la menace posée par Boko Haram, le délégué a appuyé les efforts de la Commission du bassin du lac Tchad et de la Force multinationale mixte. Il a également salué la décision de l’Union africaine en juillet 2016 de créer un Fonds de lutte contre le terrorisme. Enfin, le délégué de la Fédération de Russie a souligné la nécessité de remédier aux causes profondes de la situation dans la région et promis l’aide de son pays.

    M. VOLODYMYR YELCHENKO (Ukraine) a déclaré que la situation dans le bassin du lac Tchad était l’une des plus négligées dans le monde. Jusqu’à présent, la communauté internationale n’a pas beaucoup réussi à résoudre les multiples problèmes complexes de la région, non pas par manque d’efforts mais par manque de compréhension de la manière de les traiter à la fois. Comment le Conseil de sécurité peut réagir efficacement à cette crise, en plus d’exprimer ses profondes inquiétudes et de réclamer une plus grande prise de conscience internationale, s’est interrogé le représentant.

    Il faut, a-t-il dit, trouver un rôle approprié pour le Conseil. Tout d’abord, il doit être pleinement conscient qu’une crise humanitaire en perpétuelle détérioration peut se transformer en une véritable menace pour la paix et la sécurité dans la région.

    Il a plaidé pour que le Conseil de sécurité s’engage dans une discussion sérieuse sur la façon de renforcer l’utilisation des mécanismes de sanctions existants contre les membres de Boko Haram et ses affiliés. Ainsi, les apports et les initiatives pertinents de la région contribueraient grandement aux travaux du Conseil sur ce sujet.

    Enfin, pour tout progrès en vue d’atténuer l’immense souffrance des populations du bassin du lac Tchad, l’amélioration des conditions socioéconomiques doit être une priorité.

    M. SACHA SERGIO LLORENTTY SOLÍZ (Bolivie) s’est dit très préoccupé par les alertes concernant l’insécurité alimentaire, l’asservissement, l’esclavage, les enlèvements, les mariages forcés, la brutalité, la crise extrême, les atrocités, la peur, les attentats-suicides et les déplacements forcés dans la région du bassin du lac Tchad. Il s’est dit également très préoccupé par la situation humanitaire et la crise alimentaire que connaissent les pays de la région depuis de nombreuses années. Il s’est félicité des efforts menés pour affronter les groupes extrémistes, grâce à la collaboration de la Force multinationale mixte et des gouvernements des pays affectés.

    Le représentant a condamné les actes menés par le groupe terroriste de Boko Haram et exprimé sa solidarité avec les victimes, notamment celles des attentats du 27 décembre et du 8 janvier derniers. Notant que les médias ne parlent pas beaucoup de cette crise, il a cependant attiré l’attention sur le nombre impressionnant de personnes souffrant de la crise. La Bolivie apportera son soutien à la lutte menée par les pays de la région, ainsi qu’aux efforts de la communauté internationale, a-t-il assuré.

    M. OLOF SKOOG (Suède) a noté que la séance d’aujourd’hui est la conséquence d’un échec dû au fait qu’on n’a pas agi assez tôt. Il ne faut pas stigmatiser, a-t-il souligné, tout en appelant à mettre en évidence une crise trop négligée. Notant la complexité de la situation et le niveau élevé des souffrances humaines, il a rappelé que les causes fondamentales de la crise sont très profondes. Il a notamment cité les changements climatiques et la désertification qui contribuent à l’insécurité alimentaire et créent des conditions propices aux conflits.

    M. Skoog s’est dit marqué par l’image qu’a évoquée Fatima, l’activiste qui est intervenue en début de séance: celle d’une femme malade, allongée dans le sable, n’ayant pour se couvrir que des haillons et entourée de ses enfants qui n’ont rien à manger. Qu’allons-nous faire? Il faut d’abord renforcer l’aide humanitaire, a-t-il répondu en appelant à accroître l’aide internationale lors de la prochaine conférence à Oslo. Parmi les autres mesures qu’il a préconisées, il a insisté sur l’importance d’entendre la voix des femmes, comme celle de Fatima. Il faut continuer à être vigilant dans le suivi de la situation, a-t-il ajouté en estimant qu’une visite du Conseil de sécurité dans la région serait une étape utile.

    M. ANTHONY BOSAH (Nigéria) a déclaré qu’en dépit de la dévastation dans la région du lac Tchad provoquée par Boko Haram, la Force multinationale mixte a enregistré d’importants succès pour affaiblir ce groupe.

    Pour sa part, le Gouvernement nigérian a fait des progrès significatifs dans la lutte contre Boko Haram. Avant Noël, l’armée a repris la forêt de Sambisa, l’ancien repaire des combattants de Boko Haram. Le Gouvernement est conscient des autres défis de développement dans la région, y compris le rétrécissement du lac Tchad, source de violence, avec la crise humanitaire qui l’accompagne. Éviter une telle éventualité nécessiterait une intervention internationale pour recharger le lac en eau

    Pour relever les défis humanitaires provoqués par les déplacements massifs de populations, le Gouvernement a lancé des programmes pour restaurer les moyens de subsistance des communautés dans les régions touchées. Il a mis en place une stratégie de lutte contre le terrorisme centrée sur les gens et reposant sur la combinaison d’opérations de sécurité modernisées et sur une approche fondée sur les droits de l’homme pour contribuer à la réalisation de la réhabilitation, de la réinsertion et de la reconstruction.

    Le Gouvernement est fermement résolu à assurer la protection des civils dans le conflit armé et reconnaît la responsabilité des États à garantir celle des personnes sous sa juridiction. Cette conviction montre la détermination du Gouvernement à prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires pour protéger les civils dans la lutte contre le groupe terroriste Boko Haram.

    Il faut noter, a ajouté le représentant, que les écolières kidnappées de l’école de Chibok restent dans la conscience nationale du Nigéria. Le Gouvernement travaille d’arrache-pied pour la libération de tous les Nigérians détenus par Boko Haram, y compris les filles de Chibok.

    Il est prêt à assurer leur rapide réhabilitation, réintégration et la poursuite de leur scolarité une fois qu’elles seront libres. Les efforts sont menés pour faire en sorte que toutes les victimes retrouvent leur dignité et puissent à nouveau jouir de leurs droits fondamentaux et de la liberté dans les plus brefs délais.

    À l’intention des organes d’information • Document non officiel.


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    Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

    Total number of people requiring emergency food assistance 15 058 161

    Total expected number of severely malnourished children < 5 (SAM) 3 367 043


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Iraq, Nigeria, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen

    2016 was a year of challenges and upheaval across the globe. The ongoing migration and refugee crisis has uprooted nearly 50 million children worldwide, leaving them vulnerable to violence and exploitation. Conflict and natural hazards continue to take a toll on children, with nearly 1 in 4 living in areas affected by crisis. In Haiti, the destruction caused by Hurricane Matthew has left 2.7 million people in need of life-saving assistance. In the aftermath of the conflict in Central African Republic, 1 in 2 children is affected by stunting.

    As the first year that the world worked towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, 2016 also marked the beginning of a renewed effort to end poverty and promote equity for all children. Despite the tremendous progress driven by the Millennium Development Goals, there is still much room for improvement. Today, undernutrition contributes to nearly half of all deaths in children under 5. There are pronounced disparities between the both the rich and the poor and urban and rural populations in access to improved water and sanitation. As of 2014, 25 million children of primary school age are expected to never attend school. Two thirds of them are girls. And every five minutes, a child dies as a result of violence.

    Yet, in 2016 there were also great accomplishments. By the start of the year, the Ebola crisis in West Africa had come to an end, though UNICEF continued to support children in the wake of the epidemic. In April, world leaders gathered in New York to sign the Paris Climate Agreement, an important step towards addressing the risks and effects of climate change.

    And in December, UNICEF marked its 70th anniversary of serving as a defender of children around the world, regardless of their gender, religion, race or economic background.

    Our work in 2016 spanned all regions, across all sectors of international development and disaster relief. Read on to see what has been accomplished for children living in five of the world’s most complex and dangerous crises.

    Syrian crisis

    The Syrian Arab Republic is one of the most dangerous places in the world to be a child. After almost six years of conflict, the country is now facing the largest humanitarian crisis in the world, with grave protection and human rights violations occurring daily. An estimated 13.5 million people are affected by the crisis, including 6 million children. More than 2 million Syrian children are now living as refugees in neighbouring countries. In 2016, UNICEF and partners scaled up their provision of essential services and supplies to affected communities and displaced populations, particularly the most vulnerable.

    Snapshot of UNICEF’s impact as of November 2016:

    • More than 1.5 million people given hygiene promotion session and/or a hygiene kit

    • About 895,000 children enrolled in formal education

    • Nearly 370,000 children enrolled in non-formal or informal education

    • More than 21 million children under 5 vaccinated against polio

    • More than 900,000 children and adults participating in child protection and psychosocial support programmes

    Meet the Syrian children affected by the crisis:

    Mohammed
    When UNICEF first met Mohammed, he was malnourished and extremely weak. See how he is doing now.

    Malak
    A seven-year-old Syrian girl with an old soul recounts her journey from the Syrian Arab Republic to Greece.

    Judy
    Nine-year-old Judy is excited to return to school, but going to class in eastern Aleppo is not always easy.

    Nigeria regional crisis

    In 2016, security returned to some areas of north-east Nigeria, allowing aid workers to visit sites that were previously under Boko Haram control. But this new access revealed an acute humanitarian situation, with alarming rates of malnutrition among children and an outbreak of wild poliovirus. In the three most directly affected states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, an estimated 8.5 million people will require humanitarian assistance in 2017, including 1.63 million internally displaced persons, more than half of whom are children.

    Snapshot of UNICEF’s impact as of 31 December 2016:

    • About 745,000 conflict-affected people provided with access to safe water

    • Nearly 160,000 children under 5 with severe acute malnutrition admitted to therapeutic feeding programmes

    • More than 4.2 million conflict-affected people reached with emergency primary healthcare services

    • More than 185,000 conflict-affected children reached with psychosocial support

    • Nearly 107,000 conflict-affected children given access to education in a protective and safe learning environment

    Meet the children affected by the Nigeria regional crisis:

    Umara
    At just 7 month old, Umara is severely malnourished. He is one of over 100,000 children UNICEF is treating for malnutrition.

    Fatime
    Walk a mile in seven-year-old Fatime's shoes as she escapes Boko Haram violence and returns to Chad from Niger.

    'Aminata'
    'Aminata', 17, was taken by Boko Haram and forced to marry an insurgent. She lived with him until she finally managed to escape.

    Yemen

    With the escalation of conflict in March 2015, Yemen is facing a major humanitarian crisis. Some 18.8 million people – 70 per cent of the population – are in need of humanitarian assistance, including 9.6 million children. Child rights violations have increased dramatically and children are facing significant psychological stress. The status of health, nutrition and sanitation in the country is dire, with a recent cholera crisis putting 7.6 million people at risk.

    Snapshot of UNICEF’s impact as of 23 November 2016:

    • Nearly 4.5 million people provided with improved water sources and sanitation services

    • More than 347,000 children given access to basic learning supplies

    • More than 4.8 million children under 5 vaccinated against polio

    • More than 4 million children under 5 given micronutrient interventions

    • About 434,000 children receiving psychosocial support

    Meet the children and families affected by the crisis in Yemen:

    Arafat
    Already chronically malnourished, six-year-old Arafat is now suffering from cholera.

    Rania
    A member of Yemen's marginalized community, Rania overcomes multiple obstacles to stay at the top of her class.

    Miryam
    A grieving mother, Miryam lost her son to a conflict he should never have been a part of.

    South Sudan

    The situation in South Sudan has deteriorated significantly since the start of 2016 and is compounded by the worsening economy and fragile political situation. By the end of 2016, an estimated 31 per cent of the population was experiencing severe food insecurity, and the situation is only expected to worsen in 2017. Children are the most vulnerable, and make up 70 per cent of those seeking refuge in neighbouring countries.

    Snapshot of UNICEF’s impact as of 31 December 2016:

    • More than 203,000 children aged six to 59 months with severe acute malnutrition admitted for treatment

    • Nearly 610,000 children aged six months to 15 years in conflict-affected areas vaccinated against measles

    • More than 742,000 people provided with access to safe water

    • More than 693,000 children and adolescents reached with critical child protection services

    • About 314,000 children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years provided with access to education in emergencies

    Meet the children and families affected by the crisis in South Sudan:

    Athill
    Athill's twins are among an estimated 360,000 children under 5 suffering from severe acute malnutrition.

    Nyaneada
    Nyaneada hadn't seen her parents in nearly two years before she and her siblings were reunited with them.

    Malual
    Malual fled to Juba after an outbreak of fighting. He now attends school at UN protection of civilians site.

    Iraq

    Violence in Iraq intensified in 2016, with one in five children at risk of death, injury, sexual violence, recruitment into armed conflict or abduction. As many as 11 million people require humanitarian assistance and more than 1.4 million children are displaced, the majority of whom have lost an entire year of school. In Mosul, following a military operation to retake the city in October, more than 100,000 people remain displaced, half of them children.

    Snapshot of UNICEF’s impact as of 30 November 2016:

    • More than 1 million people provided with access to a sufficient safe water supply

    • About 57,000 school-aged children reached through temporary learning spaces

    • More than 88,000 children participating in structured, sustained, resilience or psychosocial support programmes

    • More than 5.6 million children 0–59 months vaccinated against polio in crisis-affected areas (among internally displaced persons and host communities)

    • More than 1.2 million vulnerable people newly displaced by conflict receiving rapid response mechanism kits within 72 hours of trigger for response

    Meet the children affected by the crisis in Iraq:

    'Ahmed'
    Displaced and orphaned, 'Ahmed' goes to a youth centre to recover from the experience of being caught up in conflict.

    Noor
    Noor fled her home in Haji Ali and is now taking shelter with her family in Debaga Camp.

    Hamed
    Hamed, 13, lost his father and his leg in a mortar attack. He is now back in school in Falljah.

    Looking ahead

    Yet throughout 2016, in the midst of what could often seem like a bleak humanitarian landscape, we bore witness to everyday [acts of kindness)](https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/90514_90528.html and humanity. A Syrian refugee who volunteered to assist refugees and migrants as they arrived on the Greek island Lesbos. A Norwegian man who welcomed a Syrian family to his hometown with open arms. A barber in Greece who gives free haircuts to young refugees. Villagers in Niger who carried benches and tables to temporary classrooms set up for displaced children.

    We received hundreds of Tiny Stories from famous and amateur authors, expressing their dreams for every child. We heard from aid workers, recalling their toughest and most rewarding moments on the front lines. We met and supported loving caregivers worldwide, who work tirelessly to provide comfort and safety for our children.

    As we enter 2017, we are working with the same determination to offer help and hope all over the world, for every child.


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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    12 janvier 2017 – Deux hauts responsables des Nations Unies ont souligné jeudi devant le Conseil de sécurité que le groupe extrémiste Boko Haram restait capable de mener des attaques dans les pays de la région du bassin du lac Tchad même s'il a perdu une bonne partie du territoire qu'il contrôlait.

    « Malgré les louables efforts militaires de la région contre Boko Haram (…), Boko Haram conserve la capacité de mener des attaques », a expliqué le Sous-Secrétaire général aux affaires politiques, Taye-Brook Zerihoun, devant les membres du Conseil.

    Le Secrétaire général adjoint aux affaires humanitaires, Stephen O'Brien, a noté pour sa part une intensification de la crise humanitaire dans le nord-est du Nigéria et dans certaines parties du Cameroun, du Tchad et du Niger, déclenchée par la campagne « horrible, violente et inhumaine de Boko Haram ».

    « Bien que Boko Haram ait perdu une grande partie du territoire qu'il contrôlait autrefois - mais pas la totalité -, les raids et attentats suicides visant des civils continuent de causer des destructions, de la peur, des traumatismes psychologiques et physiques, d'empêcher les gens d'accéder aux services essentiels et de détruire des moyens de subsistance et des infrastructures vitales », a-t-il ajouté, précisant que 2,4 millions de personnes sont actuellement déplacées, dont 1,5 million d'enfants.

    « C'est le moment de se montrer solidaire des populations du Nigéria, du Cameroun, du Tchad et du Niger », a déclaré M. O'Brien. « Cette crise est urgente. Sans notre action, sans notre engagement politique, sans notre assistance humanitaire et notre aide au développement, nous ne serons pas en mesure d'empêcher que cette crise ne se prolonge encore plus ».

    Le chef de l'humanitaire de l'ONU s'est félicité des efforts des bailleurs de fonds pour répondre à la crise humanitaire dans le bassin du lac Tchad, avec des contributions s'élevant à plus de 238 millions de dollars au deuxième semestre de 2016, triplant ainsi le montant des six premiers mois de l'année.

    « Malgré cette accélération des contributions dont je me félicite, nous avons besoin que les bailleurs de fonds puisent encore plus dans leurs réserves. Nous avons aussi besoin de davantage de bailleurs de fonds », a-t-il dit.

    M. Zerihoun a rappelé que les Nations Unies restaient engagées et prêtes à soutenir les efforts régionaux visant à répondre aux conséquences et aux causes profondes de la crise provoquée par Boko Haram.

    Il s'est toutefois dit préoccupé par « l'apparent échec de la Communauté économique des États d'Afrique centrale et de la Communauté économique des Etats d'Afrique de l'Ouest à organiser leur Sommet ministériel conjoint prévu de longue date sur Boko Haram ». « L'ONU continue d'encourager la région à élaborer une stratégie commune pour répondre aux facteurs de la crise provoquée par Boko Haram », a-t-il ajouté.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Burkina Faso

    OUAGADOUGOU – In a region where school enrolment rates are very low, and early marriages a major cause of dropout among young girls, the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) has set up school canteens to help reduce malnutrition rates and to keep children in school. For better results, the organization has partnered with a women’s group that specializes in milk processing.

    The “milk project” – known here as the “white gold of the Sahel” – started in 2015 in Dori, the capital of Sahel region, one of Burkina Faso’s poorest and most malnutrition-prone areas. It involves the use of local products in school snacks: every day, a total of 3460 children, from more than 20 schools across the region, are receiving locally made yoghurt. The project has turned a whole community – and above all the women from Dori’s milk processing plant – into custodians of the children’s wellbeing.

    “We are very happy with the outcomes of this project. One year ago it was hard to imagine that we could serve fresh yogurt to all these children everyday. We still have long way to go to further expand and reach thousand more kids across the Sahel but the community has taken ownership of the project, the most innovative and sustainable of its kind,“ said Jean Charles-Dei, Burkina Faso country Director”

    To raise awareness of the milk project and of WFP’s wider work towards Zero Hunger, the internationally renowned chef Christian Abegan has cooked a special menu, using locally produced foods, for the children of Dori on 12 January. Almost 500 people – mostly children but also government officials – were there to celebrate a symbol of hard work, dedication and partnership. In preparation, Chef Abegan could be seen walking the winding and vibrant streets of Dori’s market, sampling fresh vegetables, meat and other produce.

    “For me, cooking is an act of love, and I just want to share love with these children and this village. I have been inspired by their joint efforts to build a better community and give their children the opportunity to live a healthy life, not hungry life,” said enthusiastically Chef Abegan”.

    In Burkina Faso, the national rate of global acute malnutrition for children under five rose to 10.4 per cent in 2015. The rate of stunting (or low growth for age), which is caused by chronic malnutrition, was 30.2 per cent. An authoritative African Union-led study has concluded that undernutrition in children is costing Burkina Faso an estimated 7.7 per cent of GDP a year.

    # # #

    WFP is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. Each year, WFP assists some 80 million people in around 80 countries.

    Follow us on Twitter: @WFP_WAfrica, @wfp_media

    For more information please contact (email address: firstname.lastname@wfp.org):
    Simon Pierre Diouf, WFP/Dakar: +221 77801 22 21 Esther Ouoba, WFP/Burkina Faso: +226 (xxxx)


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