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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Afrique Verte
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger

    Commentaire général : début décembre, la tendance générale de l’évolution des prix des céréales est à la stabilité pour le riz et le mil et, à la baisse pour le maïs et le sorgho. Toutefois, quelques hausses sont observées sur certains marchés à cause d’une forte pression de la demande pour le mil et de la rareté du sorgho. Ces hausses ont été enregistrées pour le mil à Maradi (+9%) et à Niamey (+5%) et pour le sorgho à Agadez (+4%). Les baisses ont été enregistrées : i) pour le riz à Zinder et Dosso (-5%); ii) pour le sorgho à Niamey (-10%), à Tillabéry (-3%) et à Zinder (-2%); iii) pour le maïs à Tillabéry (-7%), à Dosso et Niamey (-6%) et à Maradi (-5%).

    L’analyse spatiale des prix classe le marché d’Agadez au premier rang des marchés les plus chers, suivi de Tillabéry, Zinder, Niamey, Dosso et Maradi. L’analyse de l’évolution des prix en fonction des produits indique : i) pour le riz, baisse à Zinder et Dosso, stabilité sur les autres marchés, ii) pour le mil, hausse à Maradi et Niamey, stabilité sur les autres marchés,

    iii) pour le sorgho, hausse à Agadez, stabilité à Maradi et Dosso, baisse sur les autres marchés et enfin iv) pour le maïs, stabilité à Zinder et Agadez, baisse sur les autres marchés.
    Comparés à début décembre 2015, les prix sont en hausse pour le mil (sur tous les marchés) et pour le sorgho (sauf à Niamey -10% et à Maradi, stable). Ils sont en baisse pour le riz (sauf à Niamey, stable) et pour le maïs (sauf à Maradi, stable).
    Les hausses varient : i) pour le mil de +5% à Tillabéry à +25% à Maradi, ii) pour le sorgho de +3% à Tillabéry à +28% à Zinder. Les baisses sont : a) pour le maïs de -3% à Zinder et Tillabéry à -12% à Agadez et b) pour le riz, de -2% à Tillabéry à –13% à Zinder et stabilité à Maradi.
    Comparés à la moyenne des 5 dernières années, les prix sont globalement en baisse pour le riz, le mil et le maïs. Pour le sorgho, ils sont en hausse sur 3 marchés et en baisse sur 3 autres. Les variations par produit sont : i) pour le mil, -10% à Dosso, -9% à Zinder, -7% à Niamey, -6% à Maradi, -4% à Tillabéry et +2% à Agadez ; ii) pour le sorgho, +11% à Agadez, +10% à Dosso, +6% à Zinder, -9% à Niamey, -4% à Tillabéry et -3% à Maradi; iii) pour le maïs, -14% à Zinder, -13% à Niamey, -12% à Agadez, -10% à Maradi, -9% à Dosso et -8% à Tillabéry; iv) pour le riz, -13% à Zinder, -10% à Maradi, -9% à Agadez, -6% à Tillabéry, -5% à Dosso et -4% à Niamey

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania

    Une insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1de l’IPC) renforcée par des récoltes moyennes.


    • Des récoltes pluviales et des productions laitières moyennes offrent, à la majeure partie des ménages ruraux, un accès alimentaires saisonnier conforme à celui d’une année moyenne.
    Les cultures de décrue se développent, pour le moment, normalement et la réhabilitation des pare-feu en cours permet d’espérer une préservation de pâturages suffisants jusqu’en juillet

    • Une disponibilité céréalière suffisante assurée par des récoltes pluviales moyennes, des importations alimentaires régulières, des flux transfrontaliers fonctionnels et un approvisionnement normal des boutiques de solidarité, qui vendent 30 à 40 pour cent moins cher que le marché formel, placent la plupart du pays en insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) jusqu’au moins en mars 2017.

    • Toutefois, dans la zone agropastorale, des déficits de pâturages et des déficits de production agricole pluviale ont accentué la pression sur les moyens d’existence (cheptel surtout) des ménages pauvres. Ceux de Moudjéria continuent d’être en situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) et pourraient être rejoints, dès mars, par une partie de ceux des moughataa de Monguel, M’Bout, Magta Lahjar, Kankossa, Timbédra et Nema

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    Source: Christian Aid
    Country: Nigeria

    Executive Summary:

    • More than 2.2 million people, including women and children in the northeast states of Nigeria have been thrust into high and deeply concerning levels of humanitarian situations; some of the worst in the world. Violence caused by the insurgency activities of Jama‘atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad(JAS)- commonly known as Boko Haram - and counter military measures/operations have left widespread devastation to homes, livelihoods and families within the region. People trapped in the conflict affected areas fear death and abduction, considering that many are missing, while the destruction of infrastructure and disruption of livelihoods have exacerbated pre-existing low levels of access to education and health services. In addition to this, boys are being forcibly recruited by armed groups and thousands of women and girls have been subjected to sexual abuse, enslavement, while some have been used as suicide bombers. These issues have led to the mass migration of people into communities in the region that have been spared – even if not completely - of the violence and crisis.

    • Therefore, the large numbers of internal refugees in the region have found new residence in communities in Adamawa, Borno, Gombe and Yobe States. These communities which have been in relative calm have now been burdened with hosting the IDPs, and are having to overstretch on food, water and the provision of basic services. For instance, Maiduguri, the Borno state capital, alone has received about 939,2901Internally Displaced People (IDP) in the northeast by June 2015. This has placed both IDPs and host communities in dire need of urgent humanitarian relief and support for livelihoods and rehabilitation. Recognizing that the crisis has led to a new class of poor and vulnerable people struggling to access limited resources and infrastructure, Christian Aid in its humanitarian programming seeks to address the needs of both those who have been displaced and those who are hosting them.

    • The overall aim of the study rapid needs assessment is to ascertain the precise situation of the IDPs and returnees in host communities in Kaga and Konduga Local Government Areas of Borno state focusing specifically on their most critical needs and in the area of access to food, sanitation, hygiene, social protection and access to water in other craft humanitarian interventions programme that will meet the yearning of the ID with the objective of assessing the availability of WASH services in the IDP camps and host communities in Konduga and Kaga LGAs, identify WASH service delivery gaps and propose interventions to improve the level of access to these services, identify the specific protection needs for special group like the children, aged and the most vulnerable persons

    • The key technical measures under the rapid humanitarian needs assessment covered the development of tools (Focused Group Discussion and Key Informant Interview Guides), for the conduct of the rapid needs assessment, training of enumerators for the collection of qualitative data, planning and supervision of field data collection in Kaga and Konduga local government, development of FGD and KII data collation extracts, analysis and reporting.

    • In view of the above, 12 Focused Group Discussions were held with 6 Male groups and 6 Female groups in Kaga and Konduga LGA respectively with a focus of reaching the IDPs and Returnees in the Host communities, however 24 KIIs in were conducted Kaga and 22 in Konduga LGAs with Camp Leaders, Ward Heads, Women leaders in the Camp and Host communities, Camp Clinics, Youth leaders and Religious Leaders.

    • The rapid humanitarian needs assessment for Kaga and Konduga local Government Areas was conducted using qualitative methods of data collection with the use of focused group discussion and key informant interview to harvest precise data showing the condition of IDPs in their Camps and host communities.

    • The inclusion criteria for the recruitment of FGD group members and KII interviewees covered IDPs who have lived in e camp for at least a period of 6 weeks and this was well adhered to in the recruitment process.

    • The instruments for the rapid humanitarian needs assessment were designed with inputs from Christian Aid and then critically reviewed before deployment on the field for the training of enumerators and data collection.

    • Enumerators for the collection of data was centralized and carried out in Kaga and Konduga LGAs jointly, with 6 enumerators (4 Male and 2 Female) on 25th November, 2016 and field work was conducted in Kaga and Konduga LGA’s of Borno state with 24 FGDs (12 = Kaga and 12 in Konduga LGA) were conducted with 46 KIIs (24 in Kaga and 22 in Konduga respectively) among IDPs and host community members.

    • The key finding of the rapid needs assessment shows that food assistance is a very critical need for the IDp’s and returnees in the host community and IDP’s have ate least meals per day and the quantity of their meals is small with a very low nutritional value as they feed mostly on carbohydrate. The is a general low level of awareness on sanitation and hygiene.

    • The sustainable sources of income for the IDP’s and returnees is petty trade, selling of charcoal, tailoring, knitting, kneading, rearing of livestock and farming.

    • The toilets facilities in all the IDP’s camp assessed are insufficient, hence open defecation has remained a normal practice in the camps and waste is disposed in the open field and this amount to poor sanitation practices for in the camps and Host community. Use of sanitary pad is low among women and majority of IDP’s wash their cloths with only water.

    • The is low level of awareness on basic hygiene in the camp, the practice of hand wash before eating and after using the toilet is common, treatment of water is low among the IDP’s and water is predominantly stored in galloons and clay pot.

    • Finally access to water is a very critical challenge for the IDP’s and Host communities as many trek for hours before having access to water and the number of boreholes currently available cannot cater for the need of the IDP’s without queuing.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda


    • Thousands of South Sudanese continue to flee to Uganda.

    • Three years since the conflict in South Sudan began, humanitarian needs continue to rise.

    • A measles outbreak has been confirmed in Wau, bringing the total number of outbreaks country-wide this year to 13.

    • Humanitarians find aid hub looted during visit to Nhialdiu.


    No. of Internally Displaced Persons: 1.83 million No. of refugees in neighboring countries: 1.3 million No. of people assisted in 2016 (as of 30 October): 4.7 million

    Refugee outflow continues

    The number of South Sudanese fleeing to Uganda continues to grow, with 7,046 new arrivals recorded in a single day on 13 December.

    Refugees who are newly arriving in Uganda - 86 per cent of whom are women and children - continue to face long and difficult journeys in their search for safety.

    The majority reach Uganda through informal border points, while more than 4,000 have arrived in Uganda via the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Many refugees report that they are leaving South Sudan due to the deteriorating security situation, including fighting in Yei and Wonduruba areas, looting of properties, and rumours of upcoming attacks by armed actors in the Equatorias.

    In addition to those fleeing to Uganda, there are an increasing number of people fleeing to Kenya from areas such as Lainya, Wonduruba, Yei, Juba and Torit. Refugees arriving into Kenya report that they chose the route as the roads to the Ugandan border are increasingly dangerous, with armed actors harassing, robbing and targeting people fleeing.

    Since July 2016, more than 394,500 South Sudanese have arrived in Uganda, bringing the total number of refugees there to over 584,000. There are now over 92,000 South Sudanese refugees in Kenya.

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Nigeria


    • 140,475 children under 5 with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have been admitted to therapeutic feeding programmes with a recovery rate of 86 per cent.

    • In 2016, so far, 3.9 million people have been reached with primary health care services through UNICEF-supported, Government-run health centres and clinics in both IDP camps and affected communities.

    • With UNICEF support, 720,497 people have access to safe water. Over one million people have access to sanitation facilities as per agreed standards and more than one million people benefitted through hygiene promotion and distribution of hygiene kits/NFI.

    • In 2016, psychosocial support through Child Friendly Spaces (CFSs) and child clubs, reached 180,924 children, this includes 77,310 children under the scale up plan.

    • With UNICEF’s support, 100,056 children are accessing education through Temporary Learning Spaces and schools, and 181,142 children have benefitted from the provision of learning materials.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Wrapping up a 10-day visit to Niger, Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria, Filippo Grandi vows to assist 460,000 people displaced by insurgency.

    By: UNHCR staff in Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria and Geneva | 21 December 2016

    ABUJA, Nigeria – UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi wrapped up a 10-day visit to Niger, Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria restating UNHCR’s strong commitment to continue helping hundreds of thousands of people forcibly displaced in the region by the Boko Haram insurgency.

    Grandi, who flew out of Nigeria late on Monday after meeting President Muhammadu Buhari in Abuja, highlighted the main challenges ahead for the international community and governments in the region: security, humanitarian response, development and the rights and protection of civilians.

    “We will need to win the battle of development if we want to win the war on radicalism. Poverty, under-development, and lack of education all breed insecurity,” Grandi said. “We need to tackle these important development challenges in the whole region.”

    “We will need to win the battle of development if we want to win the war on radicalism.”

    On Sunday, Grandi travelled to Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State, in north-east Nigeria, where he visited Bakassi, one of 12 camps run by the government with help from aid agencies. “We need to have more sustainable activities,” a farmer told Grandi in a meeting with camp leaders. “We of course appreciate the assistance in the camp, but we have become dependent on aid and we need something to make a living,” he added.

    The farmer and other participants spoke of the additional challenges they face, including the need for more food, water points and latrines. The camp hosts over 21,000 internally displaced people who fled violence in the region.

    Grandi visited a UNHCR-supported centre at the camp which helps women develop livelihoods such as tailoring and leatherwork. UNHCR has also helped develop a workshop to train mechanics in Maiduguri, and centres in Borno and Yola States to help displaced people learn and apply new skills.

    He pledged to continue UNHCR’s support with humanitarian assistance and to encourage the longer-term development interventions needed to improve people’s lives. “I am here to express the solidarity of the world. We will continue to help the government provide material assistance,” said Grandi, while adding: “Your future cannot be in a camp, your future is at home, in your villages and towns.”

    Grandi said significant and large scale intervention and development activities were also needed throughout the affected region. “I am appealing to donors to urgently fund both the humanitarian response to help people in need today and invest in their futures,” he said. “We also need the involvement and expertise of the financial institutions, specifically the World Bank, the Africa Development Bank, and the big bilateral institutions.”

    Grandi also listened to people who had been captured and abused by Boko Haram, including 26-year-old Nancy,* who was repeatedly raped over two years of captivity. She became pregnant but had a miscarriage because of the torture inflicted on her. Nancy subsequently escaped and now has an 11-month-old baby, a daily reminder of her ordeal. She has been reunited with her husband but carries deep scars.

    “Your future cannot be in a camp, your future is at home, in your villages and towns.”

    The High Commissioner also met a 13-year-old boy who was seized by Boko Haram and his father killed. The boy escaped and spent 28 days in the bush, foraging for food before being rescued by the military. He is now living with his mother at the camp.

    The High Commissioner began his visit in Niger on December 10 to spread awareness about the desperate situation in Nigeria and neighbouring countries in one of Africa’s gravest displacement crises.

    He also used the visit to appeal to the international community to step up its response and do more to help governments in all four countries cope with the burden. Last Friday, in Cameroon, he launched a $US241 million appeal  on behalf of 36 partners to help some 460,000 affected people in Niger, Chad and Cameroon, including 183,000 Nigerian refugees.

    While visiting Niger, where he met President Issoufou Mahamdoui and other top officials, Grandi praised one of the world’s poorest countries for keeping its doors open, granting asylum as well as sharing scarce resources. “This is really exceptional … I assure you, I will use the example of Niger around the world,” he said.

    The High Commissioner also visited the troubled region of Diffa, which has been subjected to Boko Haram attacks for almost two years. It hosts a displaced population of over 240,000, including Nigerian refugees and local communities.

    “It is essential not just to focus on the present crisis – but to look to the future, and to the need for development,” he said, citing UNHCR programmes on urbanization and on domestic energy in Diffa.

    In Chad’s Lac Region, he visited another UNHCR-funded project, which provides refugees and locals the means to fish in nearby Lake Chad. He cited it as an example for donors of how livelihoods can help people live as normal a life as possible. More funding could help many more people become self-sufficient and stimulate the battered economy.

    In N’Djamena he met President Idriss Deby and hailed the country for providing shelter to refugees from Nigeria, Sudan and Central African Republic. He also discussed development projects aimed at helping refugees and host communities with the World Bank and Africa Development Bank representatives in Chad.

    *Name changed for protection reasons.

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    Source: UN Development Programme
    Country: Cameroon

    Since 2014, Cameroon’s security crisis, caused by Boko Haram, has exposed the vulnerabilities and obstacles that undermine integration of disadvantaged groups, especially women and youth.

    To prevent youth from being radicalised, UNDP trained religious leaders from the Far North Region of Cameroon on how to identify radicalisation and how to speak with radicalised youth.

    The religious leaders were trained to identify early signs of radicalisation in young people and to prevent violent extremism. They also received leaflets to share with young people. Following the workshop, the religious leaders have been meeting young people and participating in events to discuss radicalisation, with the aim of preventing young people from becoming radicalised.

    The workshop, arranged in 21–22 September, was held particularly for religious leaders because they, as active members of communities, are aware of the causes and consequences of radicalisation within their communities. Therefore, religious leaders are best placed to prevent it. Held in Maroua, the capital of the Far North Region, the workshop brought together both Muslim and Christian leaders, of whom 15 were women.

    “The workshop was a refresher training for the leaders to learn certain concept definitions such as radicalisation and de-radicalisation. The exchange of opinions during the session allowed us to get rid of some stereotypes by expanding our understanding on the issue of radicalisation in various forms,” one of the leaders, Imam Mahamat Goni Ali said.

    The workshop is part of a UNDP project “Preventing Radicalization and Strengthening Early Recovery efforts of Women and Youth in Response to the Deteriorating Human Security Situation in the Far North of Cameroon”, which is funded by the Government of Japan with a US$2.1 million grant. It is implemented in the regions of Mayo-Sava, Mayo Tsanaga, Logone and Chari, which are the regions in Cameroon most affected by the attacks of Boko Haram.

    The project focuses on empowering women through employment, while training youth on business planning to provide a stable income. It also aims to reduce the risk of radicalisation of youth and communities, and strengthen their ability to prevent and respond to violent extremism.

    The Far North is the poorest of Cameroon’s regions. Around 70 per cent of the population lives on less than a dollar per day. Poverty and the presence of Boko Haram can expose young people to violent extremism. There is a need to take care of young people so that they are not radicalised and if it happens, offer them help to be able to fully re-integrate into their communities.

    To understand the needs of disadvantaged groups, UNDP organised dialogue forums in 2015. The forums provided important information about the needs of young people and women living in urban and rural areas. In 2016, UNDP, in partnership with the authorities of Cameroon and with financial support from the Government of Japan, has undertaken to implement the recommendations from the forums. This includes defining an action plan and a timetable for a regional dialogue.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria

    Responding to Nigeria Emergency

    Partners have sent medicines, medical kits, tarpaulins, water tanks, generators, prefabricated warehouses, and vehicles to Abuja, Lagos, and Maiduguri.

    For information about stocks available through UNHRD’s Loan and Borrow facility, please visit or contact

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso

    Key Messages

    En cette période de post-récolte, les ménages pauvres disposent de stocks pour accéder à une alimentation normale et vivre une insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC). Par la vente de cultures de rente (arachide, niébé) et de produits forestiers (amende de karité), ils génèrent des revenus supérieurs à la moyenne. En effet, la production de ces cultures et aussi les prix enregistrent des variations à la hausse d’environ 36 et 8 pour cent respectivement comparé à la moyenne quinquennale.

    Le recours à l’orpaillage, la pratique du maraîchage et des travaux de construction sont les principales activités des ménages en ce moment. Pour le maraîchage en particulier, le bon niveau de remplissage des points d’eau, permet la conduite normale de l’activité. Toutefois, l’apparition de maladies sur les cultures les plus pratiquées (oignon et tomate), pourrait réduire les rendements dans quelques zones de production habituelle (Provinces du Sanguié et du Loroum).

    Les prix des céréales de base, comparés à la moyenne quinquennale, sont en baisse de 6 pour cent pour le maïs et le mil et de 7 pour cent pour le sorgho. Dans la région du Sahel, le prix du mil est en hausse de 10 pour cent en raison de la faiblesse de l’offre. La baisse de la demande d’exportation affecte négativement les prix aux éleveurs dans les zones pastorales avec des baisses d’environ 30 et 10 pourcent respectivement pour les bovins et les ovins par rapport à la moyenne quinquennale. Les prix des caprins restent stables.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali


    La période a été marquée par des affrontements respectifs entre les groupes armés à kidal entrainant le déplacement de 1 165 personnes dans les cercles de Bourem (606 ménages), de Gao (500 ménages) et de Ménaka (408 ménages). La Task force PDIs Kidal à Gao et Ménaka s’est mobilisée sous la facilitation d’OCHA afin d’évaluer les besoins humanitaires et apporter les réponses aux PDIs de ces différentes localités. Cependant malgré la baisse des affrontements des groupes armés, les PDIs ne sont toujours pas retournés à cause de l’accalmie précaire et de la situation sécuritaire fragile à Kidal.


    Renforcer la sécurité sur les axes Gao – Gossi, Gao - Intillit, Gao-Ansongo-Ménaka et Gao Bourem-Anefis pour protéger les civiles et permettre un meilleur accès aux populations vulnérables, et inversement, permettre l’accès des populations aux services sociaux de base.

    Promouvoir le retour des enfants à l’école, assurer le retour des enseignants qualifiés, poursuivre la distribution des kits scolaires, élargir les cantines scolaires et la campagne d’enregistrement à l’état civil.

    Renforcer les capacités des nouveaux élues ou autorités intérimaires afin de mieux asseoir leur plan de développement.

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    Source: International Alert
    Country: Mali

    International Alert has launched a new policy brief on violent extremism in Mali with a roundtable event in Bamako attended by diplomats, journalists and NGO workers.

    The brief, called ‘They treat us all like jihadis’, is based on findings of an 18-month project on Economic recovery and local governance in Mali that we led in the country’s central regions: Timbuktu, Mopti and Ségou. It aims to improve understanding of the different forms that violence takes in these areas, arguing that “violent extremism does not emerge in a vacuum but rather thrives on existing conflict, ingrained tensions and grievances, and normalised violence.” We explain why focusing on understanding local perspectives of conflicts, including violent extremism, is therefore vital to responding effectively to them and building long-term peace in Mali.

    Diplomats from the Canadian, American, Danish and Swedish embassies were among those who took part in the roundtable in Bamako. Findings have also just been presented to 250 government officials at a conference in Copenhagen, hosted by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA).

    We will build on this research when we start a new project in January that will focus on the same three regions of central Mali. This will rebuild trust between communities and improve their relationship with security forces. In doing so we will support both groups in tackling violence, including extremism.

    The new project is being funded by the Canadian Government. It will run in partnership with Timbuktu-based NGO L’Association Malienne pour la Survie au Sahel (AMSS) and the Strategic Capacity Group in Canada.

    Listen to our Mali Country Manager Louisa Waugh discuss key findings of our policy brief (in French) with Project Manager Baba Dakano on Bamako-based national radio station Studio Tamani here.

    The policy brief is available for download in both English and French.

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    Source: International Alert
    Country: Mali


    Cette note d’orientation présente certains résultats d’un projet mené sur 18 mois par International Alert dans trois régions du nord et du centre du Mali: Tombouctou, Mopti et Ségou. S’appuyant sur divers dialogues multidimensionnels avec les communautés et les autorités locales, le projet apporte des éclaircissements sur des facteurs et des dynamiques de « l’extrémisme violent », sur leurs liens avec d’autres dynamiques de conflit ainsi que sur l’importance d’une meilleure compréhension du contexte spécifique et la mise en oeuvre d’approches sensibles aux conflits fondées sur les perceptions locales. La prise en compte de ces aspects aidera non seulement à donner un impact durable aux mesures de lutte contre l’extrémisme violent mais contribuera aussi à la consolidation de la paix et à la construction de l’État au Mali.


    En 2012, le Mali a connu un coup d’État militaire qui a favorisé la prise de contrôle par des rebelles séparatistes et des groupes armés islamistes de vastes zones du Sahel malien suivi de l’occupation, par ceux-ci, de certaines grandes villes à l’image de Tombouctou et Gao. Trois ans après l’intervention militaire, menée par la France1 , qui a refoulé de nombreux groupes armés vers les frontières algériennes et dans les massifs montagneux dans l’extrême nord du pays ainsi qu’en Libye, et malgré la signature, en juin 2015, d’un Accord pour la paix issu du processus d’Alger, entre le gouvernement malien2 et les groupes armés rebelles, les populations civiles maliennes continuent de souffrir très fortement du conflit et de la violence. Cette violence s’est propagée dans le centre du pays jusqu’à Mopti et Ségou.

    Catalysés par la faible gouvernance et l’insécurité générale, les conflits préexistants et irrésolus dans ces régions n’ont cessé de couver et d’accroître les dissensions : au sein des communautés et entre elles, pour des raisons ethniques et sociales, entre l’État et les citoyens, entre les autorités traditionnelles et publiques, et entre les générations. La violence s’est banalisée à travers le nord et le centre du Mali parallèlement à une forte poussée de la criminalité liée à la pauvreté et favorisée par l’afflux des armes et des trafics transitant par le Sahel et les réseaux terroristes implantés dans le Nord.

    La redéfinition de l’opération militaire française, à travers le dispositif Barkhane, comme une lutte contre « le Djihad mondial », place la question de l’extrémisme violent* au centre des priorités sécuritaires dans l’ensemble du Mali, restreignant ainsi les efforts de sécurité aux stratégies de lutte contre le terrorisme. Pendant ce temps, les risques à plus long terme, associés à la culture montante de la violence et aux conflits inter et intracommunautaires prolongés, ne sont pas correctement pris en compte. En 2015, le nombre de morts liés au terrorisme ayant atteint un record historique3, les stratégies de prévention et de lutte contre l’extrémisme violent au Mali figurent désormais au premier plan des préoccupations du gouvernement et des bailleurs de fonds. Ces stratégies sont de plus en plus intégrées aux stratégies d’aide humanitaire et gagnent peu à peu leur place dans les programmes de la société civile malienne par le biais de financements des bailleurs de fonds.

    Face à cet intérêt croissant pour la prévention et la lutte contre l’extrémisme violent, il est essentiel de réfléchir sur sa compréhension dans le contexte malien.

    Cette note d’orientation explore la métamorphose du conflit au Mali et examine les facteurs sous-jacents de l’extrémisme violent. En plus de défendre la nécessité de mieux suivre et de mieux comprendre les différentes formes de violence au Mali, elle souligne les raisons pour lesquelles une approche basée sur leurs spécificités est essentielle pour pouvoir relever les défis de l’extrémisme violent dans ce contexte.

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Nigeria

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Togo

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    Source: World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Niger, Nigeria


    The Food Security Dash Board tracks and reports on food security situation and number of people reached with various food security interventions. The November Dash Board showed that 1,568,850 persons were reached with different food security related activities or interventions. The breakdown of activities/interventions per people reached are: 1,368,361 people are reached with food assistance interventions (in-kind and cash-based transfers); 53,636 people are reached with alternative livelihood activities and 146,853 people are reached with Agricultural production inputs in Borno, Adamawa Gombe and Yobe

    The Food Security Sector Working Group (FSSWG) maintains the 4W matrix, which is updated on monthly basis to provide an insight on what, where, who and when situation of partners. This mechanism has helped to produce regular 4Ws matrix, gap analysis and maps, which are shared with partners to improve co-ordination, collaboration, identify gaps, appropriate and timely response, targeting and reduce overlaps.

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Nigeria

    In the vast agricultural spread of northeastern Nigeria, violence and disruption has put the food security and livelihoods of millions of people at high risk. In order to prevent a further deterioration of the situation, FAO is working with the Government of Nigeria to provide immediate and durable assistance to protect and rebuild the lives and livelihoods of those affected. And it is fast growing, highly nutritious seeds like millet, sorghum and cowpea that are making the difference to 100 000 people who would otherwise rely on food assistance handouts.

    Bukar used to own a small shop in a village near Wassaram, Borno State. Boko Haram continually invaded the store – taking all the stock and money, issuing threats and then bolting back into the bush. The continuous armed holdups left Bukar terrified and destitute.

    Three years ago, he brought his family to settle in the Kasesa Internally Displaced People (IDP) camp in Yobe State, on the outskirts of Damaturu. Casual laboring in nearby villages was the only work he could get. His wife and mother were reduced to begging by the roadside to get some money to feed their family of 17 members, which includes Bukar’s sister-in-law and her children, because his younger brother was murdered by insurgents.

    Food remains the number one concern of the millions of displaced people across the northeastern part of the country. While emergency food assistance is vital, so too is the long-term goals of aiding this resilient, largely agricultural population to return to planting and harvesting their own food.

    During the 2016 rainy season, FAO provided early maturing, highly nutritious millet, sorghum and cowpea seeds and fertilizer to 12 400 IDPs and their host communities in the northeast. Almost 100 000 people in the states of Borno and Yobe benefited from that assistance for food production that could cover their families’ food needs for up to six months.

    Bukar embraced the chance to move back to food production. “I am happy now”, he said. “With this millet, we can cook two meals per day. And for the first time since we settled here, I have my own reserve of food which will last for at least three months”. While Bukar feeds his large family, others can harvest their crops and sell excess at local markets for valuable income.

    “Agriculture being the lifeblood of rural communities in northeastern Nigeria, insecurity has had a devastating impact on food production in the past three years. Our emergency agriculture response helps improve food security and rebuild the livelihoods of the affected communities in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States”, said Nourou Macki Tall, acting FAO Representative in Nigeria. “Our ability to improve the food security situation of IDPs, returnees and vulnerable host communities depends on fostering their agricultural skills to produce food while ensuring a sustainable management of the natural resources they rely on.” he added.

    “Prolonged suffering from food insecurity also requires long-lasting solutions over the medium and longer term. It means helping those who are fleeing violence and helping those who give them a safe shelter,” he further elaborated. Kasesa IDP camp is such a place for Bukar and his large family. They have been taken in by a host community. Across the vast stretch of the northeast, communities have welcomed and helped fleeing people by sharing their land and meagre resources with them.

    But challenges for FAO remain high. A large majority of food-insecure people are still in isolated parts of the state – out of reach from humanitarian aid. In towns and villages in those remote areas of Nigeria, communities are trapped in a spiral of continued loss.

    In the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) for Nigeria FAO is appealing for USD 62 million to improve food production and access, rehabilitate agricultural infrastructure, and promote alternative livelihoods, including women-headed households, and vulnerable youth in northeastern Nigeria.

    To address food security and livelihoods-related needs on a larger scale and timeframe, FAO is also developing a regional strategy to enhance the resilience of livelihoods in the Lake Chad Basin. This strategy will combine FAO emergency responses with medium-term livelihoods promotion and diversification, vulnerability and risk reduction, as well as conflict mitigation and prevention, to contribute to sustainable development and peace-building.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali


    L’insécurité demeure une préoccupation majeure et impacte sur l'accès humanitaire. Une présence militaire renforcée sur les principaux axes routiers et au niveau des grands centres urbains est nécessaire pour permettre un accès sécurisé aux acteurs humanitaires et limiter les actes de banditisme contre les populations civiles. La dispersion des points d’eau existants et leur éloignement des pâturages exploitables en saison sèche, imposent des longs déplacements qui affaiblissent les animaux. Les ressources disponibles ne servent alors qu’à couvrir les seuls besoins d’entretien. La productivité des troupeaux baissent considérablement à cette période.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad, Nigeria

    Ce rapport a été produit par OCHA en collaboration avec les partenaires humanitaires et concerne les vagues de déplacements internes depuis le 21 juillet 2015. Il est publié par OCHA Tchad et couvre la période du 1 er au 30 novembre 2016. Le prochain rapport sera publié vers le 10 janvier 2017.

    Faits saillants

    • La situation sécuritaire est restée calme en novembre, aucun incident n’ayant été rapporté.

    • L’accès humanitaire est limité dans certaines zones par la montée des eaux du lac.

    • Les déplacements secondaires continuent : près de 122 000 personnes sont déplacées dans la région du Lac, auxquelles s’ajoutent plus de 8 200 réfugiés.

    • Plusieurs incendies d’origine involontaire ont affecté 560 personnes dans la région du Lac

    • La grève des fonctionnaires liée au non-paiement d’arriérés de salaires continue d’affecter l’accès à la santé et à l’éducation.

    • Un dépistage organisé par l’UNICEF et la Délégation sanitaire régionale auprès de 27 000 enfants de moins de cinq ans a permis de dépister 17% d’enfants souffrant de malnutrition aigüe globale dont 5% de malnutrition aigüe sévère.

    Aperçu de la situation

    La situation sécuritaire est restée calme en novembre, aucun incident n’ayant été rapporté.

    En ce qui concerne les personnes en situation de reddition, plus de 300 hommes y compris potentiellement des enfants sont toujours retenus au lycée de Baga Sola, sans clarification de leur statut. 714 femmes et enfants ont été transférés le 24 novembre par les autorités tchadiennes à leurs chefs de cantons d’origine.

    L’accès humanitaire est limité dans certaines zones du fait de la montée des eaux du lac. Ce phénomène est récurrent : chaque année en novembre, les eaux montent et inondent les bras du lac.
    Les partenaires humanitaires doivent trouver des solutions alternatives afin de fournir une assistance dans les zones de Ngouboua, Kaiga Ngouboua, Tchoukoutalia et Fourkouloum.

    La grève des fonctionnaires à cause du non-paiement d’arriérés de salaires continue d’affecter l’accès à la santé et à l’éducation. Dans la région du Lac, le personnel de l’hôpital de Baga-Sola a débuté une grève sèche le 1 er décembre, n’assurant plus le service minimum. Sur 450 écoles de la région, une vingtaine est actuellement fonctionnelle, principalement des écoles privées et confessionnelles.

    Plusieurs incendies d’origine involontaire ont affecté 560 personnes dans la région du Lac en novembre. Le 14 novembre, selon l’ONG Help-Tchad, environ 400 personnes ont été affectées par des incendies à Kaiga Kinjiria, qui auraient détruit 86 cases, ainsi que des biens matériels et des vivres. De plus, 161 personnes ont été affectées par des incendies qui ont détruit 55 cases ainsi que des biens et des vivres les 27, 29 et 1 er décembre dans la zone de Tchoukoutalia, selon l’ONG ACHUDE. Deux incendies ont également affecté les marchés de Baga Sola et Selia les 11 et 16 novembre. En l’absence de stocks de contingence, les capacités des acteurs humanitaires sur place sont insuffisantes pour répondre à ces besoins en abris, articles ménagers essentiels (AME) et vivres.

    Les inondations et les pachydermes auraient détruits plusieurs milliers d’hectares de champs.
    Selon les autorités, 5 469 hectares de champs auraient été inondés vers Baga Sola, Doum Doum et Bol début novembre. Par ailleurs, 222 hectares auraient été détruits par les éléphants. Une évaluation de l’ampleur des dommages et de l’impact sur la sécurité alimentaire des ménages affectés est en cours de préparation.

    Les évaluations de sites se poursuivent. Du 29 novembre au 1 er décembre, l’ONG Help-Tchad a réalisé une évaluation rapide sur sept sites dans la zone de Ngouboua (Kaya, N’Gacha, Boud 1 et 2,
    Kangalia, Kola 1 et 2), où l’ONG estime à 37 200 le nombre de personnes déplacées qui auraient fui les îles du lac suite aux violences de groupes armés ou sur demande des autorités à cause d’opérations militaires. Par ailleurs, cinq sites non-évalués (Lolia 1, 2, 3 et 4, Boloua, Wadrarom,
    Tchoukou Keina, village Kodja) seraient également présents dans la zone et rassembleraient 8 400 personnes, selon des estimations fournies par les chefs communautaires. Des besoins en vivres, en eau, en santé et nutrition, et en articles ménagers essentiels sont rapportés. Il est cependant nécessaire d’organiser une mission d’enregistrement afin de confirmer ces chiffres. En effet, les derniers chiffres du cluster Abris/AME/CCCM rapportent 7 388 personnes déplacées dans la souspréfecture de Ngouboua, et les populations hôtes seraient au nombre de 29 058 personnes.

    Par ailleurs, l’ONG ACF a réalisé une évaluation multisectorielle rapide sur le site de Kékédine (axe Liwa-Kiskawa) le 4 novembre, où sont estimées 454 personnes dont 82% de déplacés et 18% de retournés tchadiens. Leur déplacement serait lié à l’insécurité dans leur zone d’origine, il y a près de huit mois. Les besoins prioritaires sont en eau, AME, santé et sécurité alimentaire. Enfin, l’OIM a fait une évaluation rapide dans six lieux de déplacement (sites de Toukoul, Aliga-Koulboua,
    Tchoukoubarka, Taflinga, Moundi, et village Kanirom) dans la sous-préfecture de Daboua du 25 au 27 octobre, où 4 250 personnes sont estimées déplacées. Sur cinq de ces lieux de déplacement, l’ONG OXFAM fournit une assistance en transferts monétaires, cependant d’autres besoins dans les secteurs de la santé et de l’eau et l’assainissement ont été rapportés.

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    Source: Action Against Hunger USA
    Country: Nigeria

    Action Against Hunger warns of potentially dire yet still avoidable crisis in Borno State

    (NEW YORK) December 22, 2016—Multiple experts, including Action Against Hunger, have validated new analysis confirming an elevated risk of famine in Nigeria’s Borno State among populations cut off from humanitarian assistance due to the Boko Haram insurgency. The international humanitarian organization Action Against Hunger warned that unless the international community and the Government of Nigeria intensify efforts to provide safe access for humanitarian organizations to reach people in these “no go zones,” Borno will spiral into a dire, but still avoidable emergency.

    The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), of which Action Against Hunger is a partner, issued an urgent alert that famine is likely ongoing—and “likely to continue”—in inaccessible areas of Borno state. According to the IPC alert, persistent conflict is the main cause of extreme hunger and widespread displacement in Borno.

    Action Against Hunger’s Country Director for Nigeria, Yannick Pouchalan, said, “The alert suggests that civilians are suffering tremendously in areas we can’t reach. They have little or no food, no clean water, and no emergency health services. We are gravely concerned that numbers of children could be dying every day from preventable diseases unless they can be reached by humanitarian assistance.”

    The IPC alert indicates that food security has improved in the “newly liberated” areas of Borno where humanitarian organizations are responding. Preliminary data from an Action Against Hunger assessment suggests that after four months of emergency nutrition and food assistance interventions in Monguno in north Borno, the prevalence of acute malnutrition has decreased to below emergency thresholds. But any interruption in the current levels of assistance could threaten the fragile improvements that aid agencies have achieved. Until markets resume functioning, and until displaced populations can safely return to their communities and resume farming as their source of income and food, they will remain dependent on food distributions and humanitarian aid for their survival.

    “Considering the enormous scale of needs and the trauma people have endured, we need to do more than just keeping people alive: we must reach populations cut off from help, but we must also scale up our programs to meet the urgent survival needs of people in the areas we can reach,” said Pouchalan. “Food stocks are very limited, and the next rainy season will put vulnerable children at even greater risk from threats such as malaria. We must do everything in our power to ensure the protection of civilians in this crisis and mobilize interventions to provide shelter, psychosocial support, comprehensive primary health care, sanitation and longer-term solutions to help people rebuild their livelihoods.”

    Action Against Hunger joins the United Nations and humanitarian partners in urging the international community and all parties in Nigeria to ensure immediate, unimpeded access to insecure areas to alleviate suffering and to ensure that humanitarian assistance is delivered in a principled manner. We also urge the government to ease bureaucratic impediments for importing essential supplies and to expedite visa processes so that humanitarian personnel can be positioned where they are needed most. It also imperative for humanitarian organizations to have access to no go zones to conduct assessments and accurately quantify the scale of urgent needs.

    Action Against Hunger has current programs in Yobe, Jigawa, and Borno States, where we have been working since 2010. Since May 2014, we have continuously scaled up our health, nutrition, food security, and water and sanitation programs in Yobe and Borno States. In August this year, we launched a new emergency program in the newly liberated area of Monguno in north Borno, where we are currently assisting displaced people with food, water and sanitation, health services, and emergency nutrition.

    This week, Action Against Hunger also mobilized a new response in a previously inaccessible area of north Borno called Cross Kawa, where we have begun distributing supplementary food to pregnant women and nursing mothers, and screening and treating children suffering from severe acute malnutrition. In the coming weeks, we will distribute emergency shelter, hygiene kits, and supplementary food to children under five in Cross Kawa, where people have not received any humanitarian assistance for about two years.

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