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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • A National Immunization Days (NID) campaign against polio commenced on 15 November, targeting 3,351,954 children under the age of five. The campaign has been completed in Warrap, Central Equatoria, Lakes and Northern Bahr el Ghazal, with implementation ongoing in remaining states.

    • Cholera cases have significantly declined in the most of the affected areas, however transmission continues in the Bentiu Protection of Civilians (PoC) site and in town. UNICEF and partners are implementing an integrated case-centred approach to interrupt transmission in Bentiu.

    • Ongoing insecurity is severely affecting humanitarian service delivery across all sectors, particularly in southern Unity and Greater Equatoria.

    SITUATION IN NUMBERS

    1.87 million
    People internally displaced since 15 December 2013
    (OCHA Humanitarian Bulletin, 21 November 2016)

    Over 1.1 million
    South Sudanese refugees in neighbouring countries since December 2013
    (UNHCR South Sudan Situation Information Sharing Portal, 14 November 2016)

    Situation Overview and Humanitarian Needs

    The most recent food security outlook shows that food security is expected to deteriorate to extreme levels from February to May 2017 in northern South Sudan. The economic situation continues to deteriorate, with the rate of inflation now above 835 per cent. Coupled with increased insecurity that is preventing the delivery of humanitarian aid to many areas, the economic crisis is putting severe strains on the already precarious food security situation in the country. Insecurity in Greater Equatoria is expected to adversely affect food security for the coming months in a region that is traditionally a major food producer. At least 4.8 million people are now in crisis or emergency phase as per the latest IPC analysis results.

    Conflict and insecurity are also leading to increased displacement. More people are seeking shelter at UN PoC sites, while thousands are crossing the border into neighbouring Uganda, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Sudan every day. South Sudanese seeking refuge outside the country has surpassed one million and Uganda alone is now host to more than 450,000 South Sudanese refugees. There has also been movements of people from Eastern Equatoria towards Kenya via Narus and Nadapal to Kakuma refugee camps. Internally displaced persons (IDP) sites and refugee camps are rapidly becoming over-crowded, putting additional strain on the humanitarian services available. In Greater Equatoria, IDPs are sheltering with host families or hiding in the bush or the mountains. With the arrival of the dry season and the anticipated intensification of the conflict further displacements are expected. The situation is further compounded by grave concerns over rising tensions along ethnic lines.

    The number of cholera cases reported is declining consistently across most affected areas, with the exception of Bentiu PoC site and Bentiu town. Since 29 September, 233 cases have been reported in Bentiu, with the new cases mainly affecting children under the age of two. Meanwhile, a measles outbreak continues to affect Wau PoC site, with 15 suspected cases reported and six confirmed.


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    Source: World Food Programme, Logistics Cluster
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict
    Country: Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali

    This month’s update highlights children and armed conflict concerns and provides recommendations for the protection of children in the situations of Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Mali, as well as targeted recommendations for the forthcoming Open Debate on Human Trafficking in Conflict. The update also provides information regarding the status of the Working Group’s consideration of the Secretary-General’s report on the Central African Republic. The adoption of the final negotiated draft of the report, which was promised by November 4, was delayed and awaits conclusion.

    Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict is a network of local, national, and international non-governmental organizations striving to end violations against children in armed conflicts and to guarantee their rights. Monthly updates are based on the experience of Watchlist and its member organizations in specific country situations and Watchlist’s expertise in over a decade of engagement with the Security Council’s children and armed conflict agenda.


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    Source: Save the Children
    Country: Nigeria

    FOREWORD

    Six years ago, the international community stood, watched and waited as evidence emerged of a looming famine in Somalia. The early warning signs were clearly visible, as the combined effects of drought and conflict took their toll. By the time the international relief effort got into full swing, it was too late to prevent a catastrophe. Around a quarter of a million people lost their lives – over half of the victims were children under five years old.i In the countless analyses that were carried out, UN agencies recognised that delayed action had cost lives. Governments around the world pledged to ensure that the humanitarian systems would never again fail on such a scale.

    Today, the international community is sleep-walking its way to another humanitarian disaster – this time in North East Nigeria. As in Somalia, a brutal armed conflict has undermined livelihoods, led to mass displacement, and decimated already inadequate health, nutrition, water and sanitation services. As in Somalia, the human tragedy is unfolding away from the spotlight of international media attention. The crisis in North East Nigeria has been crowded out of the humanitarian agenda by the highly visible disasters affecting Syria, Iraq and Yemen. And as in Somalia, lives are hanging in the balance. Some 75,000 children could die over the next year, according to the UNii – and that figure could well prove to be an under-estimate. Nutritional data compiled from screening programmes operated by Save the Children point to Global Acute Malnutrition levels of between 20-50% in some locations,iii significantly exceeding the UN World Health Organisation emergency threshold of 15%. Other data points in a similar direction.

    Headline statistics can obscure the human tragedies that lie behind every humanitarian disaster. In November 2016, during my first trip as CEO of Save the Children UK, I met Abdalla, the boy pictured on the front of this report. I met him at a nutrition screening centre supported by Save the Children on the outskirts of Maiduguri, the capital of Borno state – the epicentre of the crisis. Abdalla was immediately referred to our nutrition stabilisation unit, where his life was saved. Many others were arriving in the unit with the tell-tale signs of kwashiorkor and marasmus, the symptoms of severe malnutrition.iv Some of the mothers I spoke to had walked for two weeks to get their children treated. Many reported stories of brutality, arbitrary killing and sexual violence at the hands of insurgents. All of them were desperate for support to give their children a chance of recovery – and to give them an opportunity to rebuild their lives. Save the Children is on the front line of the crisis, operating outpatient therapeutic sites and an emergency stabilisation unit for severely malnourished children, like the one which saved Abdalla’s life. But our efforts, like those of other agencies on the ground, are being overwhelmed by the sheer scale of the crisis.

    But there is one crucial difference between the tragedy that unfolded in Somalia and the situation in North East Nigeria. In Nigeria there is still a window of opportunity to prevent a full blown famine – but that window is closing fast. Last year, the international community failed to support what we now know was a greatly underestimated humanitarian appeal. Just over one-third of the 2016 Somalia appeal was funded.v Speaking bluntly, the shortfall cost the lives of many children. Estimates for 2017 point to a humanitarian financing requirement of US$1.2bn – and donors must step up to the plate.

    None of this is to downplay the responsibility of the Nigerian government. Ultimately, it is for the government to lead and coordinate the humanitarian response. There are encouraging signs. President Buhari’s government has signalled a recognition of the scale of the crisis that was previously lacking. The economic crisis in Nigeria has hampered the government’s efforts. Yet Nigeria is not a country so poor as to be unable to save the lives of vulnerable children in the North East. Indeed, the crisis provides an opportunity for the government to demonstrate its commitment to overcoming the marginalisation, poverty and instability that has fuelled the crisis. It is now vital that the Nigerian government and donors act decisively and at the highest political levels to reverse the drift towards a full scale famine.

    This briefing sets out a set of practical actions which could avert a humanitarian crisis and provide a platform for recovery. There is nothing inevitable about the tragedy now unfolding in North East Nigeria. By acting now and acting decisively, the international community and the Nigerian government together have the power to save and rebuild lives. Failure to act in the face of the evidence now available and the opportunities to make a difference would be indefensible and unforgivable.

    Kevin Watkins

    CEO Save the Children UK


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • 3.6 million people estimated to be severely food insecure, denoting the highest historic levels of food insecurity during the harvest season.

    • South Sudan food security and nutrition situation likely to further worsen in the January to April period; 4.6 million people projected to be severely food insecure between January to April 2016.

    • Ravaging economic crisis and widespread insecurity impeding improvements in food and nutrition security situation.

    Overview

    Following the outbreak of conflict in Juba in July 2016, heightened tensions and fighting have spread to several other parts of the country, including the once peaceful and stable Greater Equatoria region, which serves as the main bread basket of the country. Conflict in South Sudan has pushed over a million people into neighbouring countries as refugees while a further 1.87 million people are internally displaced—of which about 200,000 people are living in UN protection of civilian (POC) sites. The economic decline has resulted in the highest inflation rate in the world at 836 percent in October 2016. Further, the depreciation of the South Sudanese Pound (SSP), falling from SSP16/US$ in August 2015 to SSP74/US$ in November 2016, and shortage of foreign currency have negatively affected the humanitarian situation. Conflict and insecurity spreading across the country have cut off trade routes and continue to impede commercial imports. Economic activities have been affected as households’ access to farm land has been restricted due to insecurity, worsening the food security situation across the country.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria

    (Abuja: 2 December 2016): The 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan for Nigeria seeks more than US$1 billion to address the needs of those in crisis in the three most affected states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, with 75 partners ready to respond to those needs where areas are accessible.

    During the course of 2016 as the Nigerian Armed Forces pushed back Boko Haram held areas the scale of the human suffering became more apparent and the humanitarian community scaled up the response. The centre of gravity for the response moved from Abuja to Borno’s state capital, Maiduguri to enable us better deliver the necessary assistance to the most vulnerable.

    “We welcome the full cooperation of the Government of Nigeria and the initiative behind the Inter-Ministerial Task Force to address the humanitarian situation. This is the largest crisis on the African continent and I am confident that with the support of the international community and the private sector, we can begin to bring hope to the people of the north-east,” said Peter Lundberg, the Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator.

    This Humanitarian Response Plan will address the needs of almost 7 million people, in dire need of nutrition, food, shelter, health, education, protection and the water and sanitation needs of a very vulnerable population. A projected 5.1 million people will face serious food shortages as the conflict and risk of unexploded improvised devices prevented farmers planting for a third year in a row, causing a major food crisis.

    “The Government have already demonstrated and will continue to demonstrate strong commitment to working together with the international humanitarian community,” said Honourable Zainab Ahmed, Minister of State, Ministry of Budget and National Planning, who is tasked.

    “The narrative on this humanitarian crisis can no longer be ignored and we are appealing to the international community to help us prevent the deaths of thousands of innocent civilians over the coming 12 months,” continued Lundberg.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: South Sudan

    Women are on the front line of the agricultural system, providing major inputs to the cultivation, processing and marketing of produce. Failing to address the inequalities and discrimination that face women and girls will make it impossible to end hunger in South Sudan. There is an urgent need to close the gender gap in South Sudan and provide better protection for women and girls, who face continuous distressing levels of sexual and gender-based violence.

    “Gender relationships in South Sudan are complex but livelihood roles and responsibilities are clearly delineated – and this needs to change. Men and boys are seen as the decision-makers and women only for taking care of the household. It is a terrifying reality that women in South Sudan have little to no rights,” explains AbdalMonium Osman, FAO Head of Programmes in South Sudan.

    To mark the annual «16 Days of Activism against Violence against Women», FAO is urging the elimination of gender-based violence and calling for the closure of the gender gap. For FAO, this means targeted measures like ensuring women and girls have access to resources such as land, seeds, tools, as well as empowerment through education in order to gain knowledge and skills that can strengthen their livelihoods.

    “Women and girls are at high risk of abuse, and face specific threats such as sexual harassment, rape and other forms of gender-based violence, underscoring the need for protection and collaboration to end violence and reduce the persistent inequalities between men and women that perpetuate violence. Here at FAO, we design our interventions so that we provide both protection from such risks while also looking to empower women,” highlights Rose Adede, FAO Gender Officer.

    A recent FAO assessment shows that during the most volatile periods in South Sudan, women ensured the survival of their families by adapting and adopting new roles previously carried out by men such as fishing and ox-ploughing in order to ensure food production. As a result, women instigated change in cultural attitudes and beliefs; however, there is still a long way to go.

    Mary (pseudonym), a 40-year-old woman from Rumbek, told FAO about the harassment and inequality that is part of her daily life.

    “Women here are not worth much – a man would rather lose his wife than one of his cows. My husband makes all the decisions for myself and our family, and when we have money he decides what it is spent on. There are times when we do not have enough food in the house because he has bought alcohol, and my children will come to me asking for food, which I do not have. Before I joined FAO’s farmer field school, I knew nothing about taking care of vegetables. I would plant some sorghum (cereal) around the house, but it would not be enough. With the group I prepared the vegetable garden, and planted in my own plot. The teacher would tell me what to do, and when the harvest came I never imagined that I would have so much food for my family. I learned a lot from that time, and I started planting more and more. This gave me some money, and I can buy the things I want. It is my money and my husband cannot decide for me.”

    In 2016, FAO worked with over 600 women like Mary, through the farmer field school approach, paving the way for their empowerment by strengthening their livelihoods.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal


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    Source: UN Children's Fund, Protection Cluster
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Nigeria

    Mausi Segun | Senior Nigeria researcher at Human Rights Watch

    Snatched schoolgirls and suicide bomb blasts have long been the enduring images of Nigeria’s Boko Haram conflict. But now the violence is represented by thousands of new faces: those of starving children.

    Read the full article on IRIN


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    Source: UN Children's Fund, International Rescue Committee, Save the Children
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: Government of Chad, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Chad

    Résumé narratif des causes, du contexte et des principaux problèmes

    • La production céréalière prévisionnelle de la campagne agricole 2016/2017 est estimée 2 813 842 tonnes. Elle est en hausse de 14 % par rapport à l’année dernière (2 452 528 tonnes) et de 11% par rapport à la moyenne quinquennale (2 530 630 tonnes). Les productions du maïs et du mil enregistrées au niveau national sont en hausse respectivement de 13% et de 12% par rapport à la moyenne de cinq dernières années. Toutefois, certaines régions ont enregistré une baisse de la production céréalière, notamment la Tandjilé (-11,2%), le Wadi Fira (- 11 %) et le Bahr El Ghazal (- 5%).

    • Les marchés des produits alimentaires, sont bien approvisionnés en cette période de récolte grâce à un bon niveau d’offre au niveau national, à l’exception du Lac, où les marchés sont perturbés à cause du ralentissement des flux impactés par la situation d’insécurité. Les prix des produits alimentaires connaissent une baisse saisonnière comparée à la moyenne quinquennale à cause des récoltes en cours. Cette tendance est aussi observée pour le prix de bétail à cause de l’insécurité qui affecte la fluidification des échanges entre le Tchad et le Nigeria. Le pouvoir d’achat des ménages pasteurs est en baisse dans la plupart des zones pastorales et agropastorales à cause de la détérioration des termes de l’échange.

    L’analyse de la consommation alimentaire indique que 8,4% et 13,1 % des ménages du Tchad ont respectivement une consommation alimentaire pauvre et limite. Pour ces deux catégories de ménages, l’alimentation est très peu variée (respectivement 4 et 5 groupes d’aliments) et moins riche avec une faible consommation de lait, de protéine animale et de légumineuse. Ces ménages font face à un déficit important de consommation alimentaire. En moyenne, chaque ménage consommerait environ six groupes d’aliments sur douze. Dans les départements de Bahr El Ghazal Nord, Ennedi, Guera, Mangalmé, Dagana, Nord Kanem, Assoungha, Aboudeia, Tandjilé Ouest, Iriba, Megri, les contraintes d’accès à une nourriture suffisante, riche et variée ont conduit de nombreux ménages à recourir à des stratégies particulièrement sévères pouvant conduire à une altération des leurs moyens d’existence.

    L’analyse de l’économie alimentaire des ménages montre que sur les seize (16) profils analysés qui couvrent vingt-huit (28) Départements, sept (7) connaissent des déficits de protection des moyens d’existence (Mamdi, Wayi, Kanem, Nord Kanem, Bahr El Ghazal Nord, Biltine et Tandjilé Est). Ces déficits sont dus principalement aux baisses importantes de prix de bétail, de revenus tirés de l’exode, de la main d’œuvre locale et de transfert monétaire. Actuellement, la majorité des moyens d’existence connait une évolution stable suite aux conditions agropastorales acceptables et les bonnes perspectives des productions de contre saison, mais il existe un risque de dégradation, notamment dans les zones à déficit de protection de moyens d’existence.

    Nutrition : Les résultats de l’enquête nutritionnelle SMART d’Août/Septembre 2016 au Tchad, font ressortir d’une manière globale, que la prévalence de la malnutrition aigüe globale (MAG) est de 11.2%. Cette prévalence est au-dessus du seuil d’alerte de 10% fixé par l’OMS. Il faut noter que la prévalence de la MAG dépasse le seuil d’urgence de 15% fixé par l’OMS dans les régions de l’Ennedi Ouest (23,3%), du Borkou (19,3%), du Ouaddaï (16,9%), du Batha (16,6%), du Bahr El Ghazal (16,1%) et du Salamat (15,6%). La région du Kanem, avec une prévalence de 14,9%, est aussi à la limite du seuil d’urgence.

    Mortalité : Le taux brut de mortalité observé au niveau national est inférieur au seuil d’alerte de 1 décès pour 10 000 personnes par jour (0.69 décès pour 10 000 personnes par jour). Par contre quatre (4) régions présentent des taux supérieurs à ce seuil ; Il s’agit de l’Ennedi Ouest, du Logone Occidental, du Logone Oriental et du Mandoul.
    Chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans, le taux de mortalité est de 1.08 décès pour 10 000 enfants par jour. Ce taux est inférieur au seuil d’alerte de 2 décès pour 10 000 enfants de moins de 5 ans par jour dans toutes les régions sauf au Logone Oriental, où il s’établit à 2.19%. D’une manière générale au niveau national, le taux de mortalité chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans est de 1.08 décès pour 10 000 enfants par jour.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Food Programme, Action Contre la Faim France, UN Children's Fund
    Country: Chad

    Résumé executive

    • Entre le 24 et 26 octobre une mission d’évaluation conjointe s’est rendue au village de Foyo, à 60km de Rig Rig dans la région du Kanem suite à un appel d’alerte lancé par le sous-préfet de Rig Rig le 12 octobre.
    • L’équipe était composé des organisations suivantes: ACF, ARNUT, OCHA, PAM, UNICEF, SECADEV et les services étatiques techniques dont : les délégations de la santé, des affaires sociales et de l’élevage.
    • Selon les autorités, le nombre de personnes déplacées est actuellement de 222 personnes (dont 69 Hommes, 78 Femmes et 75 enfants).
       Il s’agit d’un groupe d’éleveurs arabes (de 50 à 60 familles) qui ont dû fuir leur lieu d’habitat habituel (qui reste à être confirmé) suite à une attaque durant lequel le bétail et les biens de cette communauté ont été volé.
    • Actuellement les relations avec la communauté hôte sont bonnes, et la prise en charge de ces personnes est assurée par la communauté hôte, elle-même démunie. Une première assistance alimentaire fournie par la communauté locale a été fournie il y a 3 mois.
       Selon les personnes qui ont participé au focus groupe, les besoins prioritaires pour les membres de cette communauté sont : (voir le rapport)
      Actuellement, le groupe se sent en sécurité dans la communauté hôte et prévoit de rester sur place.
    • L’accès aux services de base est possible mais limité à cause de l’éloignement du site (1 heure de marche pour arriver au centre de santé ; points d’eau non-protégés se trouvant au sein du village ; une école est existante au sein du village mais actuellement fermée à cause de la grève générale).
    • Recommandations de la mission :

    1- Fournir une assistance alimentaire ponctuelle et ciblée pour couvrir 2 mois pour la population hôte et de 2-3 mois pour les personnes déplacées.
    2- Développer dans la zone des activités génératrices de revenus visant à soutenir les femmes dans la prise en charge de leur famille.
    3- Renforcer l’appui aux soins de santé primaire et de prise en charge nutritionnelle et en ressources humaines.
    4- Améliorer l’accès à l’eau potable par la construction de 1 à 2 forages dans le village de Foyo.
    5- Rendre l’école fonctionnelle et assurer l’accès aux enfants des déplacés.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Algeria, Chad, Eritrea, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Western Sahara, Yemen

    Desert Locust outbreak continues in **Mauritania** while smaller ones develop in **Eritrea** and **Yemen**

    A Desert Locust outbreak continues in western **Mauritania** where ground control operations are in progress against hopper bands and groups of hoppers and adults within an area of about 300 km by 200 km between Nouakchott and Atar as well as along a 100 km stretch of coast south of Nouakchott. Breeding has extended into the southern portion of the **Western Sahara** in the extreme south of **Morocco** where hatching occurred and limited control operations are underway against small hopper bands that are forming. Another generation of breeding could occur in **Mauritania** if temperatures remain warm. 

    More groups, bands and perhaps a few small swarms are expected to form in the outbreak area. Adult groups and perhaps a few small swarms may move progressively northwards during periods of warm southerly winds and reach northern **Mauritania** and adjacent areas of the **Western Sahara** where breeding will occur in areas that received heavy rains in October. 

    Elsewhere in the region, scattered adults persist along the southern side of the Atlas Mountains in **Morocco** and in western **Algeria**. Small-scale breeding continues in the extreme south of **Algeria** near the **Mali**an border where control was carried out. In northern **Niger**, local breeding occurred in Tamesna and the Air Mountains and limited control was undertaken recently.

    In the Central region, small local outbreaks developed on the Red Sea coast in **Eritrea** and **Yemen** while a short-lived outbreak from last month subsided in **Sudan**. Ground control operations are in progress in both countries but limited in **Yemen** due to insecurity. Small-scale breeding will cause locust numbers to increase along both sides of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts during December.


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