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- 10/12/16--22:22: Nigeria: WFP Nigeria Situation Report #02, September 2016
On 21 September, the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) deployed a second helicopter based in Maiduguri to boost humanitarian access in the North East.
WFP continued its cross-border food delivery operation from Cameroon to Banki, Borno State.
In September, WFP assisted 88,702 people with cash transfers, 107,030 people with in-kind food assistance and 69,584 children aged 6-59 months with nutritious food.
In northeast Nigeria, security and humanitarian conditions continue to deteriorate due to violence and conflict. Fleeing populations and host communities are facing severe food insecurity resulting from successive poor harvests due to abandoned crops, minimal cross-border cash crop trade and lost economic opportunities.
The August 2016 Cadre Harmonisé analysis reports 4.4 million food insecure people in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States. Out of these, 1.1 million people are severely food insecure in Borno and Yobe States (phases 4 and 5).
Following reports of critical gaps in food assistance in some locations in Borno State and to decide on possible expansion, A joint UNICEF-WFP access mission will take place in October following reports of critical gaps in some locations in Borno and to decide on possible scale up through deployment of rapid response teams. In addition, WFP is currently planning a review in all currently targeted Local Government Areas to determine the suitability of the programmes and modalities of assistance according to the context.
- 10/13/16--07:45: Nigeria: Nigeria UNHCR Monthly Update August 2016 Issue # 5
- 10/13/16--10:15: Nigeria: Nigeria: Humanitarian Dashboard (as of 13 October 2016)
- 10/14/16--01:00: South Sudan: Hunger and Malaria in South Sudan
- 10/14/16--02:16: World: Global Weather Hazards Summary October 14 - 20, 2016
- Below-average seasonal rainfall and persistent moisture deficits in the region have negatively impacted developing crops across parts of the eastern Oromia and SNNP provinces of Ethiopia.
- There is a potential for increased number of locusts migrating from the Arabian Peninsula which may negatively impact cropping activities.
- Increasing locust density over northwestern and southern Mauritania since mid-September heightens the risks for an outbreak, according to recent Food and Agriculture Organization locust watch.
As we write this, Africa is suffering from the strongest El Niño it has faced in decades, causing major floods and droughts throughout Africa, leading to rising economic losses and major impacts on the lives and livelihoods of millions across the continent. Countries across the continent are declaring states of emergency, and are calling on the international community for support.
Such crises in Africa are becoming the new norm as the impacts of disasters continue to increase. Natural disasters, such as droughts, oods, landslides, storms, and earthquakes are a regular occurrence, and climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of weather-related hazards even further. The impacts of natural disasters and climate change are further compounded by poorly planned development – as the fastest urbanizing continent in the world, Africa faces a huge challenge as people and assets continue to be placed in harm’s way.
Forced to face these challenges, African countries are emerging as strong leaders in driving the resilience agenda forward by reforming their emergency management systems, establishing new legislation for risk reduction, modernizing early warning and preparedness systems, exploring innovative risk financing solutions, and shaping the global and regional policy dialogue.
In our support to African countries, and in alignment with our twin goals of ending poverty and enhancing shared prosperity, the World Bank is stepping up its e orts to systematically invest in disaster and climate resilience, as highlighted in the Africa Climate Business Plan launched at COP21 in Paris. To illustrate this engagement, the plan intends to bring early warning systems to 100 million people across 15 African countries and pilot new urban resil- ience approaches.
These ambitious targets cannot be achieved without broad-based partnerships and cooper- ation e World Bank works with the African Union and the Regional Economic Communities, as well as technical agencies to promote coordinated and comprehensive approaches to managing common disaster and climate risks. In addition, partnerships with international organizations, bilateral donors, and major regional development partners – such as the African Development Bank – are ramping up resilience activities across the continent the World Bank’s Africa Disaster Risk Management program could not have achieved as much as it has to date without the strong sup- port of the Global Facility for Disaster Reduc- tion and Recovery (GFDRR), and its donors, particularly the European Union and Japan, who have boosted the program’s impact in recent years.
This Strategic Framework 2016–20 clearly articulates the way forward in increasing knowledge, capacity building and advocacy, partnerships and investments, as we collectively strive toward disaster and climate resilient development in Africa We thank all partners and institutions who have contributed to the development of the Framework, and look forward to joining forces on its implementation.
For the past seven years, the people of Nigeria’s north-east have felt the wrath of Boko Haram violence. The conflict wreaked havoc, causing up to 2 million people to flee in fear and creating a humanitarian crisis not seen for many years. Razing towns and villages across four states, the violence directly affected 15 million people, leaving 7 million in need of humanitarian assistance.
The exodus of so many people from mainly agricultural areas resulted in acre upon acre of arable land lying fallow, as mines and unexploded devices remain strewn across farms. The threat of further violence has added to farmers’ fear of returning to plant annual crops. For the third consecutive year, families struggle to find the means to feed themselves, leaving children particularly vulnerable.
Read the full story here.
2.1 million people displaced of which 1.4 million are in Borno and 0.13 million in Yobe States (IOM Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), August 2016)
1.1 million people severely food insecure in Borno and Yobe States
Phases 4 & 5, Cadre Harmonisé, August 2016
Juba, September 28, 2016. - CARE is worried about the new spread of fighting and insecurity to the Greater Equatoria region, an area previously largely unaffected by the conflict that has engulfed the country since December 2013. CARE assessments in Imatong State (Eastern Equatoria) show largescale displacement, with many homes burnt and looted during the fighting, and attacks on civilians and NGOs becoming increasingly common.
In August and September CARE led an interagency assessment in three of the counties of Imatong State affected by renewed conflict in July. Much of this area has been cut off to humanitarian actors since July due to widespread insecurity and in many areas the assessment team were the first humanitarian actors on the ground since conflict erupted.
The CARE-led assessment in the three counties of Torit, Ikwoto and Magwi found that large numbers of people had been displaced – especially in Magwi town which was now hosting over 34,000 displaced people from other parts of the county - and also a large number of burnt and looted homes. Across the three counties people remain afraid to move around to access key services like healthcare, and the large exodus of people has also decreased availability of services. Ongoing insecurity, compounded with food shortages and high prices, means that many are in desperate need of food assistance and basic relief items.
According to CARE South Sudan’s Country Director Fred McCray; “many families are now living with relatives as they don’t feel safe to return home, or they no longer have a home to return to. This is putting an extra strain on household resources and space, as most people fled with nothing. Others still are choosing to live in caves in the hills or out in their fields because of the continuing fear of attacks.”
Since the end of June 2016, nearly 200,000 South Sudanese refugees have crossed into Uganda, according to the UN Refugee Agency. The majority of these come from the Greater Equatoria region of South Sudan, including Imatong State. Communities within Imatong report that a lack of food and disrupted education services for their children, coupled with the continuing insecurity, are the main drivers. Others expressed the wish to flee to Uganda but said they didn’t have the money to afford transport for their families.
The Eastern Equatoria area has traditionally been known as South Sudan’s ‘green belt’ and the main food producing region for the entire country. October through till December/January is one of the two harvest seasons within the country and usually a time of increased food availability. “We are seeing the food security situation in the Equatorias getting worse and worse,” says McCray. “This is a new and very worrying factor as they are traditionally the ones feeding the rest of the country. Fighting means people can’t access their fields to tend and harvest crops and many households have had their crops destroyed and livestock killed,” he adds.
The assessment found that women had been disproportionately affected by the July violence, with an increase in the number of gender based violence attacks both within families and by external armed elements. Many women reported that they are still afraid to move freely due to continuing insecurity. “Women are forced on a daily basis to make the terrible choice between safety and survival. Food shortages and continued insecurity increase the risk of rape; with women having to travel out of safety to collect food and firewood” says McCray. “Women are telling us that they are sent, rather than men, for these tasks, as it is better to be raped than killed; which the men would likely be. The horrific choice now, for many families, is between rape and death,” he adds.
The assessment also found that practices of forced marriage of girls had increased over the past two months in many areas as a coping mechanism for the economic revival of families in crisis. CARE plans to distribute basic relief items such as jerry cans, mats, blankets and cooking sets as well as seeds and tools in Imatong State to those affected by July’s conflict. As a result of the renewed clashes and expansion of the areas affected by the ongoing conflict CARE is seeking an additional US $7 million, to help some 100,000 people in the Eastern Equatoria area, as well as other parts of the country.
Media contact: Lucy Beck (Juba) email@example.com tel: +211 959 101 503
In Northeast Nigeria, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and host communities bear the brunt of the multiple impact of the current crisis. Most of displaced families have very limited resources to cope with and need urgent livelihood support.
Usmane is a 30-year-old farmer who fled his hometown three years ago, immediately after his neighbors were attacked by Boko Haram insurgents. Since then, he has been living with his family in the Kasesa IDP camp, in Yobe state. After his arrival, even though he felt relieved to have found a safe place to live, he felt trapped in a spiral of destitution. “I tried to work, to do casual work to make some money, but it was not sustainable. At one point, I had to sell my livestock to buy food for my family” he said.Although he was granted access to land by his host community, he was lacking the seeds he needed to engage in farming.
This year, Usmane received an agricultural kit from FAO, comprising seeds of vegetables in high demand on the local market and fertilizers. His crops are now growing and he looks forward to the harvest: “It is a huge change; we will soon cook our own food! And I also hope to sell watermelons and okra at the market and along the nearby road” he said.
Balama, a community leader living in Kasesa village, explains: “This assistance from FAO was a relief for all of us. The first people arrived here three years ago. They came from Gujba, Zarmari, and from many other places. About 700 families arrived here. We helped them with food and water. The SEMA and NEMA also assisted them. Some of us even gave them shelter, and access to our land until they can go back. But we couldn’t afford to take care of all their needs”.
In total, 3 000 households (about 24 000 people) are benefitting from FAO assistance to engage in vegetable production and marketing in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states, thanks to the financial support of the Government of Japan. A total of five tons of seeds of fast-growing local vegetable crops including okra, watermelon, amaranth, roselle and sorrel, and 45 tons of fertilizers were distributed to crisis-hit beneficiaries.
This assistance will help IDPs and their hosts diversify their diets and improve their nutritional intake especially for children, by increasing the availability and consumption of vitamin- and mineral-rich foods. It also represents a unique opportunity for deprived displaced people like Usmane to earn income by selling almost 80 percent of these farming products, as the vegetable production scheme is far above households’ consumption needs.
Support to nutrition-sensitive food production is crucial to help the displaced and food insecure families and host communities engage in a recovery process. More funds are urgently required to implement a large-scale livelihood support programme based on irrigated vegetable growing and micro-gardening.
Conflict and a severe economic crisis are causing increased levels of hunger among residents of urban areas in South Sudan. School meals provided by the World Food Programme (WFP) have become the only assured source of food for many children in Juba, the country’s capital.
JUBA – When fighting erupted in July 2016, Christina Adam, a 12-year old orphan, was at home with her grandmother in the Gudele neighbourhood in the west of the South Sudanese capital Juba. As clashes became intense Christina’s grandmother decided that they join others who were fleeing the area.
“We started running. We were seeing a lot of guns,” Christina recalled. “I was not afraid. I prayed to God and said no gun will shoot me,” she added.
Christina and her grandmother found shelter at a church in Gurei, a neighbourhood further west of Juba. There were hundreds of other people who had gathered there for safety as the guns continued crackling and bangs from explosions filled the air. The fighting in Juba lasted only a few days but conditions at the temporary displacement site were tough.
“When we were in hiding we ate only once every other day. One day we would eat rice, the next day we would just drink water and sleep,” Christina explained.
Once fighting subsided and a ceasefire declared, her grandmother decided that they should return home but new challenges emerged. Shops and markets were closed and it was hard for the family to find food. Christina’s grandmother asked her to go and check if her school, the Straight Link Centre where she received daily school meals provided by the World Food Programme (WFP), had reopened. WFP provides cooked meals or take-home rations to encourage children, especially girls, to consistently attend classes in South Sudan. These school meals are often the only meal a child will receive that day.
The school, which supports hundreds of orphans, former street children and kids who are unable to locate their parents since civil conflict started in South Sudan in December 2013, was also affected by the recent fighting in July. Classes stopped and many of the children fled. The school was damaged as residents of the surrounding area began pulling down the wooden walls and roof to use as firewood for cooking.
Moses Primo, Christina’s classmate, who lives at the school was among the children who quickly gathered in a mud and brick church located on the compound, when fighting erupted. As fighting intensified, Moses and others later fled to other parts of Juba and even beyond the city when a military helicopter hovered around the area aiming shots at targets in the distance.
“We ran when the aeroplane [helicopter] started shooting the bullets from the sky,” said Moses, who doesn’t know his exact age. “The guns from the aeroplane [helicopter] shooting and hanging in the air were loud. Then we saw that all the people were running away and we also ran.”
Moses and some of his friends later sought refuge at the Church in Gurei where Christina was staying with her grandmother. But just a few days later he left the shelter and headed back to the Centre because he was hungry.
“The food from WFP, it is a gift”
Moses, Christina and hundreds of other children who returned to the school in hopes of receiving food and continuing their studies were partially disappointed. The teachers had come back and classes slowly restarted but there was no food for the school meals. The main WFP warehouse in Juba had been looted in the aftermath of the fighting of all of the 4,600 metric tons of food it contained - food that could feed up to 220,000 people in a month. It was impossible for WFP to resupply the school for the rest of the month of July.
“We didn’t have anything that we could give [the students],” Patrick Lopok, the Chairman of the Straight Link Centre Orphanage School said. “But later, we thank God that the World Food Programme was able to run very fast to put us as the first priority.”
The return of school meals has been a great relief to the children in a context of hyperinflation, high food prices and increasing levels of hunger in Juba and the rest of South Sudan.
“Now I eat food every day at school,” Christina said. “I can stay long at school and write my exams.”
“The food from WFP, it is a gift,” Moses added.
However, not everybody has returned to school. Prior to the outbreak of fighting the enrolment stood at 1,050 pupils. This has dropped by 30 percent to 720 pupils since the July fighting, with the majority of those who have returned being girls (520). The school authorities say many boys have taken casual jobs such as polishing shoes or collecting used plastic bottles for sale in order to earn money.
“The boys have gone back to the street. With this war some of the parents are sending the boys to look for food,” Lopok said. “They were forced because their parents can’t provide the basics so they do the work that their parents cannot do in order to provide food for the family,” he added.
School meals provide an important social safety net, encouraging parents to enroll their children and helping to keep them there, while ensuring basic nutrition for child learning and development. In South Sudan, WFP has so far provided daily school meals to more than 160,000 children this year with support from donors including the United States, Norway, and private donors.
Bamako, 13 octobre 2016) - Le Sous-secrétaire général des Nations Unies et Coordonnateur Humanitaire Régional pour le Sahel, Toby Lanzer, termine aujourd’hui une visite de quatre jours au Mali et se dit préoccupé par la détérioration de l’accès humanitaire aux populations dans le besoin. Après s’être entretenu avec le Ministre de la Solidarité et de l’action humanitaire, Hamadou Konaté, le Coordonnateur Humanitaire Régional s’est rendu dans les régions de Gao, Ménaka et Mopti pour se rendre compte de la situation humanitaire sur le terrain.
« Je suis profondément préoccupé par l’impact que les récentes attaques et la reprise des violences dans certaines zones du pays ont sur le travail humanitaire des agences onusiennes et organisations partenaires, » a déclaré Toby Lanzer. « Nous faisons tout pour acheminer l’aide aux populations affectées. Jusqu’à présent, les organisations humanitaires continuent à intervenir dans toutes les zones mais les distributions sont de plus en plus risquées et nous craignons une détérioration importante de la situation humanitaire, alors que le processus de paix est encore fragile. »
La reprise des affrontements entre groupes armés depuis le mois de juillet, en particulier dans la région de Kidal, constitue une violation au cessez-le-feu qui a affecté les populations civiles et occasionne de nouveaux déplacements.
Près de 3 millions de personnes demeurent en situation d'insécurité alimentaire dont 423 000 dans une situation sévère malgré le démarrage des récoltes agricoles dans plusieurs localités du pays. Environ 709 000 enfants sont à risque de malnutrition aigüe cette année.
« A Ménaka, j’ai rencontré des hommes et des femmes déterminés à faire avancer le processus de paix. Je suis cependant préoccupé par le regain de criminalité et banditisme qui affectent cette population déjà fragilisée. Malgré le défi que représente le manque d’accès, la communauté internationale peut, et doit, renforcer son soutien aux populations du Mali et les aider à sortir de la crise, » a conclu M. Lanzer.
Le Mali fait face à des défis humanitaires complexes liés à plusieurs facteurs concomitants : le conflit violent de 2012 stabilisé autour d’un processus de paix encore fragile, les changements climatiques, et la pauvreté extrême. En appui au Gouvernement, les agences de l’Organisation des Nations Unies et Organisations Non Gouvernementales humanitaires au Mali ont développé un Plan de réponse humanitaire pour aider plus de 1 million de personnes en 2016. Ce plan est accompagné d’un appel de fonds de 354 millions de dollars. À ce jour, seul 30 pourcent des fonds requis ont été reçus, ce qui nuit à la mise en œuvre des programmes sur le terrain.
Pour plus d’information et éventuels entretiens, veuillez contacter:
Diakaridia Dembele, OCHA Mali, +223 44 97 60 69, firstname.lastname@example.org(Bamako)
Eve Sabbagh, RHC office, +221 77 569 96 54, email@example.com (Dakar)
Les communiqués de presse d’OCHA sont disponibles sur www.unocha.org/rowca et www.reliefweb.int
Since 2009, the North-East Nigeria continues to face attacks on civilians by Boko Haram that cause death, displacement, destruction of livelihoods, and violation of civilians’ rights. The crisis is directly affecting more than 14.8 million people in Adamawa, Borno, Gombe and Yobe States. Out of affected population, 7 million people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance. More than 2.2 million displaced people, 1.8 million people in host community and 3 million people living in areas that have been inaccessible for most of 2015 have unknown needs. The humanitarian community targets 3.9 million people for humanitarian assistance in 2016.
Chronic food insecurity and malnutrition, cyclical drought, locust infestations, seasonal floods, disease outbreaks, and recurrent complex emergencies have presented major challenges to vulnerable populations in the West Africa region during the past decade. Between FY 2007 and FY 2016, USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) and USAID’s Office of Food for Peace (USAID/FFP) provided humanitarian assistance to address the impacts of a diverse range of crises, including food insecurity and malnutrition in the Sahel; complex emergencies in multiple countries; disease outbreaks, including Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), cholera, meningitis, and measles; an explosion in Benin; and flooding throughout the region.
From FY 2007 to FY 2016, USAID provided approximately $3 billion to respond to disasters in West Africa. USAID/ OFDA assistance included more than $1.2 billion for programs in agriculture and food security; economic recovery and market systems; health; humanitarian coordination and information management; logistics support and relief commodities; nutrition; protection; search and rescue; shelter and settlements; and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). USAID/FFP support included more than $1.8 billion for food assistance in the form of U.S.-purchased food, locally and regionally purchased food, cash transfers, food vouchers, and related activities, including asset-building activities, nutrition sensitization, and climate-smart agriculture activities.
Over the last decade, USAID responded to 97 disasters in the West Africa region. USAID deployed Disaster Assistance Response Teams (DARTs) to the region— including to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone from FY 2014 to FY 2016 for the EVD outbreak—and activated Washington, D.C.-based Response Management Teams to support coordination and response efforts. USAID also sent humanitarian assessment teams to Côte d’Ivoire, the Sahel, and Lake Chad Basin countries in response to complex emergencies and food insecurity. In West Africa, USAID has focused on addressing immediate needs—such as food, basic relief items, health services, protection, and WASH assistance—while supporting recovery activities to build resilience against future crises, including insecurity, drought, floods, below-average agricultural yields, and other shocks.
Nigeria faces immense humanitarian and protection challenges due to the ongoing insurgency in the North East. The conflict has caused grave human rights violations, impacting particularly on the most vulnerable civilians. As of August 2016, there are 2,093,030 persons internally displaced in the North East and North Central regions, with 83% of the displacements originating from Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States as a result of the insurgency. 50,706 vulnerable households comprised of 133,294 individuals have been identified in the North East, including many households with women, children and elderly with serious protection risks. 22,098 registered Nigerians in Adamawa, including many who fled due to the insurgency, have returned back from Cameroon of which 54% are children, 46% are women, and 98% originated from Borno. An additional 90,572 Nigerian returnees from Cameroon have been registered by UNHCR in Gamboru Ngala in Borno State. 24,045 Nigerian returnees from Niger have been registered in Gashua and Geidam LGAs in Yobe in September 2016. Nigeria has a refugee population of 1,250 individuals and 511 asylum seekers, located mainly in Lagos.
UNHCR in collaboration with OCHA, finalized the draft of minimum standards of mainstreaming Gender and SGBV in all sectors of response. UNHCR consulted with sector leads of CCCM, Shelter,
NFI, and WASH to discuss and agree on the standards.
UNHCR is currently collaborating with the Food Security Sector Working Group to ensure close interaction and promote protection mainstreaming in the provision of food assistance in Yobe. UNHCR will be attending the meetings going forward to ensure that the link between food security programming and the protection needs of the most vulnerable persons are taken into account in the implementation of food security programmes in the State. UNHCR engaged with actors in the FSS highlighting the need to ensure the active participation of women and girls as well as the most vulnerable persons in all food security activities.
UNHCR collaborated with OCHA in convening the first UN/INGO/NGO Humanitarian coordination meeting for Yobe State. The objective of the meeting amongst others is to provide a platform for effective coordination amongst partners (UN/INGOs/NGO). A TOR was presented and all members were encouraged to provide input. The meeting, which will be held on monthly basis, is expected to enhance coordination among key stakeholders
Visit of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons
UNHCR supported the mission of the UN Special Rapporteur on Internally Displaced Persons, Dr. Chaloka Beyani, in Maiduguri. Dr Chaloka Beyani who visited Nigeria between 23 and 26 August 2016.
The mission held consultation with senior government officials, members of the Nigerian armed forces, humanitarian organisations, civil society organisations and representatives of IDPs and host communities.
During his visit to Maiduguri, the Special Rapporteur visited NEMA Zonal Coordinator, the Deputy Governor of Borno state, Honourable Usman M. Durkwa, His Royal Shehu of Bama, the SSG of Borno state with his team, met with UN agencies namely WFP, UNICEF and OCHA. The special rapporteur and his team also visited Bakassi, EYN CAN Centre and Madinatu host community with active interaction with IDPs. In addition to providing assistance to the mission and providing briefing to the team of the special rapporteur, UNHCR also carried out advocacy activities to ensure that the end of mission report by the Special Rapporteur incorporates key protection outcomes.
There are still areas in the far north that remain inaccessible to the humanitarian community, despite the gains made in accessing people displaced by Boko Haram violence and counter insurgency measures. For a third year in a row, acre upon acre of land lies fallow as farmers were unable to plant crops for security reasons. Food security remains the no. 1 urgent priority for people across the four affected states with 4.4 million people in need of food assistance. A revision of the Humanitarian Response Plan increased the required funding to US$484 with just 26 per cent of the necessary life-saving requirement met so far. Funding for the Early Recovery and Livelihoods Sector remains at zero per cent, while protection needs are just 10 per cent met and food 25 per cent funded. Funding has failed to keep pace with the additional requirements resulting in severe shortfalls for many humanitarian partners.
• IDP returns in northeastern Nigeria continue; humanitarian actors concerned that returnees lack access to basic services
• Insecurity continues to affect populations throughout the Lake Chad Basin, limit the delivery of humanitarian assistance
• WHO confirms fourth wild poliovirus case in Borno; health actors conduct ring vaccinations throughout the region
• On October 9, U.S. Ambassador Eunice S. Reddick redeclared a disaster in Niger due to the ongoing complex emergency generated by the Boko Haram insurgency. This was followed by U.S. Chargé d’Affaires, a.i., David J. Young’s October 11 redeclaration of a disaster in Nigeria due to the continued and significant humanitarian needs resulting from the conflict. In FY 2015–2016, the USG has provided more than $366 million in humanitarian assistance to the Lake Chad Basin countries of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria.
• Insecurity persists throughout the Lake Chad Basin, and populations in all four countries continue to experience Boko Haram-related attacks, conflict, and suicide bombings. On October 12, a suicide attack near an internally displaced person (IDP) camp in Borno’s capital city of Maiduguri resulted in the deaths of at least eight people and injured 15 more. Security incidents in the region in recent months, including attacks on commercial and humanitarian convoys, looting, and raids, continue to affect vulnerable populations. In addition to the threat to conflict-affected individuals, attacks associated with Boko Haram negatively impact humanitarian aid operations by limiting access to populations in need of life-saving humanitarian interventions.
• On October 10, the UN World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed a new wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Borno State’s Monguno local government area (LGA), bringing the total number of confirmed cases in Borno to four. In response to the WPV cases, nearly 39,000 health care workers in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria are mobilizing regionally to vaccinate more than 41 million children, according to the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The governments of the five countries are delivering the vaccines in five rounds coordinated across the region, with support from humanitarian organizations. Two of the immunization rounds have been completed to date, with three more planned before the end of 2016.
The polio outbreak response in Nigeria and across the Lake Chad basin is being run within the context of a broader humanitarian emergency response, as north-east Nigeria is classified within WHO as a Grade 3 emergency. But what does this actually mean?
To find out more, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) spoke to Rob Holden, WHO Overall Incident Manager and Pascal Mkanda, regional polio coordinator for WHO’s Regional Office for Africa, who talk about working as ‘one WHO’, combining resources, playing off comparative advantages, a unique ability to work in areas not accessible by other agencies or partners, and ensuring Africa remains on track for polio-free certification.
GPEI: WHO and its partners are engaged in a polio outbreak response in north-eastern Nigeria, but it is being conducted within a broader humanitarian emergence response in the region. Why?
Rob Holden: I think the very first thing to say is that nothing is going to detract from Africa’s goal of becoming polio-free. All countries across the continent have worked incredibly hard to bring Africa to the brink of being polio-free, and this outbreak will be stopped rapidly and the region will be rapidly certified. The most effective way to achieve this, in the current emergency context, is to actually conduct the outbreak response within the broader humanitarian response. And there are many reasons for this. Firstly, it makes sense from an operational point of view. The GPEI has a vast infrastructure and staff on the ground. So have we. It makes sense to coordinate and align our efforts. But most importantly is the humanitarian aspect of the response. We cannot just deliver polio vaccine to populations who have not had access to basic healthcare or even food in months. We have to ensure that the populations receive what they actually need. Yes, there is a polio outbreak and they need vaccines to protect them from this virus. But over and beyond that, they need much more at the moment.
Pascal Mkanda: Rob is right. If you think about the current situation on the ground: the main areas affected by the humanitarian emergency are Borno, Yobe, Adamawa and Gombe states. Approximately 50% of the population is affected by this emergency. There are almost two million internally displaced persons, along with approximately 155,000 refugees in Chad, Cameroon and Niger. Access to health services has been drastically compromised, with half of the population not having access to any basic health services. This is significantly increasing the threat of disease outbreaks, and is resulting in high levels of morbidity due to common ailments such as malaria, acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, and others. Acute malnutrition is increasing, leading to further medical complications and exacerbating severity of common ailments. In total, seven million people are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. We cannot deliver aid in isolated silos. We have to try to deliver the full package of what the populations and communities need most urgently. It makes sense operationally, it makes sense politically, it makes sense from a public health point of view and from a cost-effectiveness point of view. But most importantly, it makes sense from a humanitarian point of view. It’s really the only way to operate.
Rob Holden: Incidentally, this is also how the polio outbreak responses were successfully run recently in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa.
GPEI: How does it concretely work on the ground?
Rob Holden: It’s very challenging. One thing is to get medical supplies of aid on the ground. The other is to ensure that it actually reaches those groups of people that it needs to. And in an area affected by lack of infrastructure, large-scale population movements or inaccessibility due to insecurity, it makes it very challenging regardless of whether you want to deliver polio vaccine or an oral rehydration table. But at the same time, since our challenges are the same, so are our solutions. So we tap into one another’s networks and make sure we work hand in hand and as we reach populations we reach them with a more comprehensive package of aid.
Pascal Mkanda: It means that in the first instance within WHO, we – meaning the emergencies and polio teams – work hand in hand on a day-to-day basis. At all levels of the organization, whether at global, regional, national, state-level or at Local Government Area level. Who has what staff and capacity on the ground, and where? What do they need? What can one group or the other provide rapidly? What is the latest information or data that your teams can share, to help maximise the impact of the response? This day to day interaction is critical for planning and operational purposes. We are operating as ‘one WHO’.
Rob Holden: And this same internal modus operandi is then extended to other partners. Of course we work with the government on the ground. But as importantly, we work in this way with other UN agencies and NGOs on the ground, to ensure we contribute in a strategic and targeted way, complementing each other’s works rather than duplicating it. Much has been learned since the 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia, in terms of coordinating complex emergency humanitarian response among the humanitarian sector. Everyone recognizes that everyone has the same challenges, and our response must be the same. That is the aim, though for sure in such complex settings as north-eastern Nigeria it is very difficult. But the fact is: we have a network of more than 2,000 staff and volunteers on the ground. They have vast know-how, including of the local environment. As a result, we are able to operate in locations where at the moment no other agency or partner is able to operate. This puts us in a hugely advantageous position, and the overall response must capitalise on that.
GPEI: What exactly is WHO’s role then in this coordinated humanitarian response?
Rob Holden: WHO’s remit and technical expertise is of course to support the Government and its leadership in strengthening the provision of basic health services. The provision of evidence-based technical guidance is a key strength of our organization. That is one of our main areas of focus, in support of the Government at all levels, to address the primary healthcare crisis that has emerged, and try to close this gap in service provision. As such, we work closely with the State Ministry of Health in Borno, to coordinate the health sector response, with particular focus on reaching areas and populations most acutely in need. This includes delivery of basic health services such as vaccinations, enhancing surveillance for epidemic-prone diseases, providing life-saving interventions to manage common ailments among children, adult and the elderly, and improving maternal and child health services at the community and facility level including mentoring of health workers. We then are in a constant state of evaluating the impact of the interventions, which allows us to put in place corrective measures based on these analyses.
Pascal Mkanda: Populations in complex emergencies are more vulnerable to diseases such as polio. That is why a strong focus is placed on putting in place robust disease surveillance and investigation mechanisms, to rapidly identify any major outbreaks of any disease and enable a rapid and robust response. In that sense, the polio outbreak will be a real proof-point for how the broader response is working. It was identified and is now being responded to. An emergency within an emergency, as it were. Progress and success addressing it will tell us a lot about how the overall humanitarian response is being implemented. And of course as WHO, it is about maximising our comparative advantage within the broader response. We help deliver health interventions. At the same time, organizations such as the World Food Programme for example help deliver food. The polio team provides of course the polio vaccine. But the point is: all these different programmes and organizations all have their own staff and infrastructure on the ground. It is all in our interest to deliver our ‘products’ as it were to the populations who need them the most. So by working together, we can increase our reach and make the biggest impact. That’s the overall aim and it’s really the only way to work.
GPEI: Thank you both for your time.
Ce document décrit les différents groupes de travail humanitaires actifs dans l’Extrême-Nord du Cameroun. Ces groupes de travail se réunissent régulièrement pour discuter des différentes activités, challenges, problèmes et contraintes auxquelles ils font face dans le cadre de la réponse humanitaire dans l’Extrême Nord du Cameroun. Chaque groupe de travail est chapeauté par un ministère en Co-lead avec une ou des agences des nations-unies. Chaque groupe de travail a une ou plusieurs thématiques définies à travers des secteurs. Le groupe de travail se charge d’évaluer les besoins spécifiques à leurs secteur d’interventions ; définir des objectifs à atteindre, définir la réponse humanitaire appropriée aux besoins des personnes victimes de la crise humanitaire a l’Extrême Nord, ils implémentent, coordonnent et monitorent la réponse.
Juba, 14 October 2016: Alarming levels of malnutrition and a severe malaria outbreak are putting thousands of lives at risks in Northern Bahr el Ghazal, South Sudan. A full-scale emergency response has been launched by the humanitarian community. Medair, an international emergency relief and recovery organisation, is part of this response and is providing emergency nutrition and health services, safe water, and sanitation and hygiene support.
“Northern Bahr el Ghazal is experiencing one of the most severe malnutrition crises the country has seen in years,” says Becky Hammond, Medair’s Nutrition Advisor in South Sudan. In some areas, half of the population is facing severe food insecurity and one out of three people is already malnourished. The situation is particularly challenging due to the protracted crisis, which has led to a further increase in food prices. The closure of the border with Sudan, combined with late rains and flooding of field crops, has contributed to the worsening food insecurity.
“The situation is bad. How am I going to sleep tonight? I didn’t even eat last night,” recounts Regina, a single mother of a 12-month-old daughter living in the area. Regina cultivated her plot of land earlier this year, but the crops have been destroyed by flooding and she doesn’t have any other source of income. The only food available to Regina is pumpkin seeds and sometimes she is able to get hold of some dried fish. Regina’s daughter is severely malnourished.
The emergency levels of malnutrition are compounded by a malaria upsurge in the past weeks and the limited access to water and sanitation facilities. The prevalence of malaria cases in the area has increased by 400 percent in nine weeks’ time. The limited availability of essential drugs and the small number of staff in health facilities have made it very difficult for people to receive adequate treatment in time unless they have enough money to pay.
Medair’s emergency response team is providing critical services to the most vulnerable in the area. In the past weeks, the team has set up three emergency nutrition clinics to treat children under five with acute malnutrition and is aiming to establish four additional sites. The team is also providing emergency water, sanitation, and hygiene services and has opened a malaria treatment centre in Aweil town. Last week, the team saw 2,599 patients in the malaria treatment centre ̶ a reflection of the immense health needs in the area.
Medair’s emergency response activities in Aweil are funded by the European Commission and the UK government.
La Croix-Rouge Malienne(CRM) avec l’appui financier du Croissant-Rouge des Emirat Arabe Unis a procédé à une assistance dans la cercle de Bankass (Région de Mopti) entre le 15 et le 30 septembre 2016.Le lancement de la campagne a réuni les autorités administratives et locales qui ont tant appréciés ce geste symbolique de la CRM et ses partenaires. La dite donation s’inscrit dans le cadre de la réponse aux inondations qui ont touchés certaines zones du Mali en saison d’hivernage. Au total quatre cent trente-cinq personnes(435) des villages de Soban, Ogossodou et Wélégara ont reçu des vivres et non vivres. Ce fut un grand soulagement pour les ménages qui après ces inondations ont vu leurs maisons et champs endommagés. En effet suite à la forte pluie des mois d’août, les volontaires de la Croix-Rouge locale de Bankass se sont déployés sur le terrain pour faire une évaluation rapide afin de constater les dégâts et recenser les besoins immédiats des populations.
Suite à cette évaluation, la Croix-Rouge Malienne a procédé à une donation aux quatre-vingt sept ménages (dont 435 personnes) touchés qui étaient repartis comme suite :
– 50 kg de céréales, 4 litres d’huile, 2 kg du sucres, 0.5 kg de sel, 2 couvertures, 2 nattes, 2 moustiquaires imprégnées, 2 ustensiles de cuisine, 2 gobelets, 2 seaux d’eau, 1 boite de grésil et 4 morceaux de savon par ménage.
En parallèle à cette donation, la Croix-Rouge Malienne a formé vingt-cinq communautaires (25) en technique de réduction des risques de catastrophe dans le cercle de Bankass. Cette formation avait également pour but de faire la promotion de l’hygiène au profit de la population tout en organisant des causeries débats sur les aléas et mesures communautaires de réduction des risques.
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New York/N’Djamena, le 14 octobre 2016– Cinq enfants sur six âgés de moins de deux ans ne consomment pas suffisamment d’aliments nutritifs pour leur âge, ce qui les prive de l’énergie et des nutriments dont ils ont besoin au stade le plus décisif de leur développement physique et cognitif, d’après un nouveau rapport de l’UNICEF.
« Ce sont les nourrissons et jeunes enfants qui ont les besoins en nutriments les plus élevés au cours d’une vie. Cependant, l’organisme et le cerveau de millions de jeunes enfants n’atteignent pas leur plein potentiel en raison d’une alimentation insuffisante, à un stade trop tardif », déplore France Begin, Conseillère principale pour la nutrition à l’UNICEF. « À un si jeune âge, la malnutrition entraîne des lésions mentales et physiques irréversibles. »
Au Tchad, le Rapport sur le coût de la faim réalisé sous le leadership du Ministère du Plan et de la Coopération Internationale avec l’appui du Programme Alimentaire Mondial indique que :
· Seul un enfant sur trois souffrant de sous-nutrition a reçu une attention médicale adéquate ;
· 43% des cas de mortalité infantile au Tchad sont associées à la sous-nutrition ;
· La mortalité infantile associée à la sous-nutrition a réduit de 13 % la population active du Tchad.
· 56% de la population adulte au Tchad a souffert de retard de croissance durant l’enfance.
Le rapport de l’UNICEF From the First Hour of Life (« Dès la première heure de vie ») révèle que les pratiques nutritionnelles inadaptées, notamment l’introduction tardive des aliments solides, les repas peu fréquents et le manque de diversité alimentaire, sont monnaie courante, et privent les enfants de nutriments essentiels à un âge où leur cerveau, leurs os et leur organisme en développement en ont le plus besoin. Les résultats indiquent que :
· Les jeunes enfants reçoivent leurs premières cuillerées trop tardivement. En effet, un bébé sur cinq ne consomme pas d’aliments solides avant l’âge de 11 mois ;
· La moitié des enfants âgés de six mois à deux ans ne prennent pas le nombre minimum de repas recommandé pour leur âge, ce qui accroît le risque de retard de croissance ;
· Moins d’un tiers des enfants de six mois à deux ans reçoivent une alimentation diversifiée, définie comme la consommation d’aliments provenant d’au moins quatre groupes alimentaires chaque jour, et souffrent ainsi de carences en vitamines et minéraux ;
· Près de la moitié des enfants d’âge préscolaire souffrent d’anémie ;
· La moitié seulement des enfants âgés de six à onze mois reçoivent des aliments d’origine animale, notamment du poisson, de la viande, des œufs et des produits laitiers, qui représentent une source essentielle de zinc et de fer ;
· Le coût élevé des aliments d’origine animale ne permet pas aux familles les plus pauvres d’améliorer l’alimentation de leurs enfants. En Afrique subsaharienne et en Asie du Sud, seul un enfant sur six âgés de six à onze mois provenant de foyers défavorisés bénéficie d’un régime présentant une diversification minimale, contre un sur trois dans les foyers les plus aisés ;
· Une meilleure nutrition chez les jeunes enfants permettrait de sauver 100 000 vies par an.
· Les gouvernements et le secteur privé devront investir de façon plus massive et plus ciblée pour rendre les aliments nutritifs abordables et accessibles aux enfants les plus pauvres. Les transferts en espèces ou en nature aux familles vulnérables, les programmes de diversification des cultures et l’enrichissement des denrées alimentaires de base sont autant de mesures fondamentales pour améliorer la nutrition des jeunes enfants. Il est par ailleurs crucial de mettre en place des services de santé communautaires qui forment les responsables des foyers à de meilleures pratiques alimentaires, mais aussi de garantir un accès à l’eau salubre et à un système d’assainissement, absolument indispensables pour prévenir la diarrhée chez les enfants.
« Nous ne pouvons pas nous permettre de perdre notre combat contre la malnutrition des jeunes enfants. Leur capacité à grandir, apprendre et contribuer à l’avenir de leur pays en dépend », conclut M
Note aux éditeurs
Le rapport From the First Hour of Life (« Dès la première heure de vie ») de l’UNICEF dresse un état des lieux des pratiques d’alimentation des nourrissons et jeunes enfants dans le monde. La première partie, publiée le 29 juillet, traite spécifiquement de l’allaitement, tandis que la seconde, publiée le 14 octobre, est axée sur l’alimentation complémentaire des enfants âgés de six mois à deux ans.
La Journée mondiale de l’alimentation est célébrée chaque année le 16 octobre afin de sensibiliser à la sous-nutrition et susciter des engagements en faveur de l’éradication de la faim sous toutes ses formes.
Télécharger des photos et vidéos de qualité professionnelle ici : http://uni.cf/2dLeUrd
À propos de l’UNICEF
L’UNICEF promeut les droits et le bien-être de chaque enfant, dans tout ce que nous faisons. Nous travaillons dans 190 pays et territoires du monde entier avec nos partenaires pour faire de cet engagement une réalité, avec un effort particulier pour atteindre les enfants les plus vulnérables et marginalisés, dans l’intérêt de tous les enfants, où qu’ils soient.
Pour plus d’informations sur l’UNICEF et son travail : www.unicef.org/french
Pour plus d’informations, veuillez contacter :
Maria Fernandez, UNICEF Tchad, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: +235 663 600 042
Communication Officer, UNICEF Chad
United Nations Children’s Fund
Route de l’Aeroport, Rue 1039
P.O. Box 1146, N’Djamena, Tchad