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- 09/05/16--08:22: _Nigeria: WFP Nigeri...
- 09/05/16--09:16: _Nigeria: Conflict i...
- 09/05/16--09:17: _Nigeria: Nigeria: H...
- 09/05/16--09:31: _South Sudan: Confli...
- 09/05/16--12:01: _World: Securing Pre...
- 09/05/16--19:21: _World: UNDP and par...
- 09/05/16--21:08: _South Sudan: South ...
- 09/05/16--23:06: _Niger: Réfugiés mal...
- 09/05/16--23:08: _Niger: Réfugiés mal...
- 09/05/16--23:10: _Niger: Réfugiés mal...
- 09/05/16--23:11: _Niger: Synthèse Glo...
- 09/06/16--00:45: _South Sudan: South ...
- 09/06/16--02:19: _South Sudan: Weekly...
- 09/06/16--04:13: _South Sudan: Confli...
- 09/06/16--04:31: _Mali: Mali: UNHCR O...
- 09/06/16--06:35: _World: Global Emerg...
- 09/06/16--09:07: _World: Protracted C...
- 09/06/16--09:22: _Niger: Bulletin hum...
- 09/06/16--10:39: _Chad: West and Cent...
- 09/06/16--10:45: _Chad: Afrique de l’...
- 09/05/16--08:22: Nigeria: WFP Nigeria: Country Brief, July 2016
WFP assisted 128,700 displaced people from May to July 2016 in Borno and Yobe States through Cash Based Transfers; In-kind Food Assistance and through its Blanket Supplementary Feeding Programme (for children aged 6 to 59 months).
A cross-border food delivery operation from WFP Cameroon to Banki town in Borno State commenced on 21 July 2016 to assist 25,000 displaced persons.
On 07 July, the UN Humanitarian Air Service launched a helicopter operation to enable humanitarians to assess and provide immediate response to newly liberated areas not easily accessible by road.
- 09/05/16--09:16: Nigeria: Conflict in north east Nigeria Update - 2 September 2016
Health needs of 800 000 people in north eastern Nigeria, formerly held by militant insurgency groups, must urgently be addressed.
Estimated mortality rates in some areas are 4 times higher than emergency thresholds. The health situation may be much worse.
The rate of severe acute malnutrition is estimated to be 14%.
On 17 August, Nigeria reported 2 polio cases in Borno state, 2 years after the last recorded case in the country.
Insecurity is a major operational constraint, and the risk for humanitarian workers is significant.
In the midst of conflict, South Sudan faces many disease outbreaks.
Recent escalation of the conflict has forced many people to flee, including many supporting the health response.
Preventable and curable diseases, such as malaria and acute watery diarrhoea, are major causes of death among the growing number of internally displaced persons.
Many people do not have access to adequate shelter, which may increase rates of malaria and upper respiratory infections.
The ongoing rainy season is increasing the risk of water-borne diseases, such as cholera.
Even before the recent resumption of hostilities, the health system in South Sudan was facing crisis due to near economic collapse.
Africa continues to show remarkable resilience in weathering both global and regional challenges. Consolidating peace remains the foundation for the Continent’s continued progress and socio-economic transformation.
During the 50th Anniversary of the Organization of African Unity/African Union (OAU/AU) in May 2013, the AU Assembly of Heads of State and Government adopted a landmark declaration. They vowed that Africa would not bequeath the burden of conflicts to the next generation and made a commitment to end violent conflict on the continent by 2020. This was translated into the AU initiative: Silencing the Guns by 2020.
- The transition from the OAU to the AU came with high expectations. It offered a new vision for Africa at a time of renewed economic growth on the continent following years of economic decline, this was a period of rising real per capita incomes and improving human development indicators across the continent.
While Africa’s economic fortunes were beginning to improve there were important exceptions: Countries not at peace, or those emerging from decades of conflict and instability. The human and economic costs of these conflicts had adverse national and cross-border consequences: Increased numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons; the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, lost opportunities and wasted lives. In addition to these old conflicts new and more complex global security challenges emerged.
In response, and in line with the provisions of the Constitutive Act of the African Union and the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council (PSC Protocol), the AU assumed political responsibility to address these challenges and developed its African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). However, for a chronically underfunded organization, the financial and institutional requirements of assuming these new missions were perhaps underestimated.
Nonetheless the AU rose to the challenge progressively gaining experience, on what it can do alone and what is best done in partnership with others. It is important to underscore that, in responding to peace and security challenges, the AU demonstrated a significant comparative advantage not available to most other regions and organizations. This notwithstanding, it has become manifestly clear that, for Africa to maximize this advantage, adequate and sustainable resources and capacities must be in place.
In the peacekeeping arena, the AU has mandated and deployed seven (7) peace support operations (PSOs), most of them in contexts where the UN has been unable to deploy peacekeepers in a timely manner: the African Mission in Burundi (AMIB), the African Mission in Darfur (AMIS), the African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), the AU Electoral and Security Assistance Mission to the Comoros (MAES), the African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA), and the African-led International Support Mission to Central African Republic (MISCA).
- 09/05/16--23:08: Niger: Réfugiés maliens au Niger - Intikane, Tazalite (31-aug-2016)
- 09/06/16--04:13: South Sudan: Conflict continues to drive displacement in South Sudan
- 09/06/16--04:31: Mali: Mali: UNHCR Operational Update 01 August – 31 August 2016
850 Malian IDP returnee households targeted to receive adequate and durable shelter
6,000 Malian refugee returnees targeted to receive a one-time cash-based assistance
2,500 Mauritanian refugees and local community members targeted to receive improved access to potable water
1,000 refugee children targeted to receive educational support
UNHCR, through its partners Luxembourg Red Cross in Timbuktu and Stop Sahel in Gao and Mopti, have completed the construction of 303 mud shelters and 322 traditional shelters for IDPs, returned refugees, IDP returnees and vulnerable host community members. This represents 67.3 percent of mud shelters and 80.5 percent of traditional shelters previewed to be completed by the end of the year. This shelter assistance aims to restore personal security, dignity and self-sufficiency for displaced households.
In August, UNHCR’s partner Association Malienne pour la Survie du Sahel (AMSS) identified 106 protection incidents among displaced and host community members in the regions of Gao, Kidal, Menaka, Mopti and Timbuktu. Incidents relate to extortion, death threats, sexual violence, theft and robbery, among other issues.
- 09/06/16--06:35: World: Global Emergency Overview Weekly Picks, 06 September 2016
- 09/06/16--09:22: Niger: Bulletin humanitaire Niger - août 2016
- En août, plus de 92 000 personnes étaient affectées par les inondations au Niger.
- L’assistance alimentaire d’urgence à Diffa a couvert les besoins de 65 pour cent des personnes ciblées en juillet.
- Les préparatifs de la rentrée scolaire sont en cours à Diffa. Cependant il y a un besoin urgent de couvrir certains besoins identifiés.
- Le nombre des migrants qui ont transité par le Niger dépasse les prévisions.
- Nb. d’enfants attendus pour la malnutrition aiguë sévère (Source : Plan de réponse humanitaire 2016) 400 794 (196 389 filles et 204 405 garçons)
- Situation projetée pop. ayant besoin d’assistance alimentaire d’urgence de juin à août 2016.
( Source : Plan de soutien du Gouvernement du Niger) 1 021 000 personnes
- Nb. de personnes à risque d’inondation (Plan de contingence multirisque de 2016) 105 000
- Inondations P.1
- Assistance alimentaire à Diffa P.2
- Education à Diffa P.3
- Migration P.4
- Mobilisation de ressources P.5
Au 27 août, le bilan des inondations était de 92 000 personnes sinistrées, 38 pertes en vies humaines et 27 blessés. Le nombre total de personnes affectées a triplé comparativement au bilan établi au 25 juillet dernier et qui estimait à environ 30 000 les personnes sinistrées. Cette forte augmentation du nombre de personnes touchées se justifie par les pluies diluviennes enregistrées dans le pays en août.
En outre, plus de 26 000 têtes de bétail ont été emportées, 900 hectares d’espaces cultivables inondés et plus de 9 000 maisons effondrées selon la Cellule de Coordination Humanitaire (CCH) du Gouvernement du Niger.
Environ 75 pour cent des personnes touchées par les inondations sont localisées dans les régions de Maradi, Tahoua et Agadez.
The Regional Emergency Operation (EMOP) addresses urgent food and nutrition needs of the most vulnerable people and communities in conflict-affected areas and displacement sites of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria. The EMOP ensures the food needs of crisisaffected populations are met through food and cash based transfers; and stabilizes the nutrition situation of crisis-affected children.
The Nigeria food assistance operation started in March 2016. However, WFP has rolled-out data collection tools (mVAM; regional markets study; postdistribution monitoring; rapid assessments; and the Cadre Harmonisé framework) since August 2015. Blanket Supplementary Feeding Programme - (BSFP) Under the BSFP - WFP will distribute Plumpy Sup to stabilize the nutrition situation amongst 150,000 children aged 6–59 months in targeted communities in Borno and Yobe states.
In-Kind Food Assistance In areas where markets are not up to standard functioning capacity, WFP will provide In-Kind food assistance of mixed commodities. WFP is targeting 203,100 IDPs in Borno State in seven locations (Dalori 1, Gubio, Auno, Bama, Banki, Gwoza, and Pulka).
The establishment of the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) in response to the humanitarian crisis in the country’s north-east has allowed the humanitarian community to effectively implement and monitor their projects and scale-up relief activities to assist affected populations. The operational base of the fixed-wing aircraft is in Nigeria’s capital Abuja, with regular scheduled flights to the north-eastern cities of Yola and Maiduguri.
On 07 July 2016, the UNHAS introduced helicopter flights. The helicopter operation constitutes a highly critical component of the access strategy in north-east Nigeria. Some towns outside of Maiduguri can be accessed by road with armed escorts, however, others such as Banki, Gwoza, Pulka and Baga are very difficult to access by surface transport due to high security risks. Furthermore, road convoy restrictions limit the amount of time missions can spend on the ground. This situation has immensely improved since rotary-wing transportation has become available.
800 000 more people lacking basic health services
14.8 million affected by crisis
3.4 million people targeted for health services
Impact on the health sector
More than 50% health facilities poorly or not functioning
14% rate of severe acute malnutrition
4X mortality rates higher than emergency thresholds
2 cases of polio
Health Sector (HRP 2016)
US$ 25 million requested
US$ 5 million requested by WHO
US$ 0.7 million received by WHO
WHO (for Scale-up Plan Borno State)
US$ 8.1 million requested
At a glance
Conflict since 2009 has caused widespread devastation in north eastern Nigeria, generating a crisis that affects more than 14.8 million people in Adamawa, Borno, Gombe and Yobe States. Recent developments liberated some 800 000 people in Borno State, but access remains difficult. They are mostly women, children and elderly. Many have lacked access to health care services for more than two years.-
The working environment in the affected areas is extremely challenging. Resources and capacities to meet the enormous health service gaps are grossly inadequate. Insecurity is a major constraint, with a number of recent attacks on humanitarian staff by insurgents. The annual wet season is also peaking and there are forecasts of major floods in the coming weeks. Access to the 15 local government areas require military escort over long distances on poor roads.
6.1 million people affected
1.6 million displaced prior to the escalation of the conflict
4.7 million people in need of health services
Impact on the health sector
78 health facilities damaged
1638 cases of cholera
1621 cases of measles
1.27 million cases of malaria
US$ 110 million requested
US$31.5 million received
US$ 17.6 million requested
US$ 4.5 million received
At a glance
Severe shortages of medicines, payment of health worker salaries and operational costs for running hospitals and ambulance services have been impacted by the recent conflict.
On 12 August 2016, the United Nations Security Council extended the mandate of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) until 15 December.
Before July, WHO led 67 partner organizations in the country, as the head of the Global Health Cluster. By mid-August, about one-third of these partners remain and, of those, many have retained only a skeleton staff.
Growth and opportunity
The exceptions: Conflict affected regions
As countries in the Greater Horn of Africa deal with El Niño and prepare for La Niña, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) convened the Forty Third Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF43) on 30-31 May 2016 in Naivasha, Kenya with the support of the UN Development Programme, World Bank, USAID, UK MET and the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).
Hosted by the Government of the Republic of Kenya through the Kenya Meteorological Department, GHACOF 43 produced the consensus regional climate outlook for the June to September 2016 rainfall season over the GHA region.
The regional climate outlook indicates a likelihood of above normal rainfall over most of the northern parts of the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA): including southern parts of Sudan; most of Eritrea, South Sudan and Djibouti; Northern part of Uganda; western Kenya; as well as western, central and northern Ethiopia. There is increased likelihood of near normal to below normal rainfall over the coastal and western parts of the equatorial sector: including much of Uganda, northern coast of Tanzania, Kenyan coast and southern coast of Somalia. The rest of the GHA areas is going to be dry, including: the northern half of Sudan; eastern parts of Ethiopia; eastern parts of Kenya; almost all of Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and much of Somalia; and southern parts of Uganda.
The representative to the Director of the Kenya Meteorological Department, Mr. Elijah Bukachi, noted that local and month-to-month variations might occur as the June to September 2016 season progresses. “I am sure with the early warning that there is a likelihood of a La Niña phenomenon manifesting itself during the later part of the year and with the discussions on preparedness and response for the post El Niño impact, the representatives of the various sectors are better prepared on how to respond to the future extreme events,” He pointed out that the global climate centres will continue to provide the status of global climate updates, and that the IGAD Climate prediction and Application Center (ICPAC) will provide regular regional updates while the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) will provide detailed national and sub-national updates. IGAD, UNDP and the World Bank organized a side event with Member States focusing on the coordination of preparedness, early action, and recovery from extreme climate events such as La Niña.
The GHA region comprises Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM)
• At the protection of civilians (PoC) site adjacent to the UN Mission in South Sudan base in Wau town, the process for establishing a camp leadership structure has begun. A working meeting was held with 15 existing leaders, including seven women, to discuss the way forward.
• Internally displaced persons (IDPs) without shelter living in services areas, such as aid agencies spaces and latrine/water bladder areas, received tokens for relocation to communal shelters. Relocation is expected to be complete in the coming days.
• Displacement Tracking and Monitoring: Movement Trend Tracking (MTT) indicates continued population movement in and out of the PoC site, with a net balance of 15 more arrivals than exits. As of 3 September, 24, 356 IDPs were sheltering at the PoC site.
• An increasing number of new arrivals are indicating food assistance for their motivation for arriving at the site, which may be linked to limited humanitarian access to areas south of Wau town.
• MTT data at the Cathedral continued the trend of the previous week, with more people exiting the site (86) than entering (62).
• IOM continues to support CCCM partners at collective centers, as well as discuss approaches for strengthening communication with communities in coordination with ACTED and OCHA.
Shelter and Non-Food Items (S-NFI)
• S-NFI teams completed seven of 22 new communal shelters at the PoC site.
• 60 plastic sheets were distributed at the PoC site to provide cover for households not reached during the previous distribution.
• IOM distributed 5,460 tokens for an upcoming distribution of solar lamps at the PoC site.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
• IDPs are receiving approximately 20.5 litres of safe, treated drinking water per person per day at the PoC site. Teams have begun drilling two boreholes to ensure continued distribution of clean water.
• IOM and local communities have rehabilitated 18 boreholes in Wau South municipality since early August. Teams also conducted 15 hygiene promotion sessions on good health and hygiene practices.
• Restricted access in some areas south of Wau has delayed repairs to broken hand-pumps, which are relied upon for access to water.
• Malaria was the top morbidity during the reporting period, representing 64% of all health consultations at IOM’s three primary health care clinics at the South Sudan Red Cross, Cathedral and Nazareth.
• Routine vaccination continued during the week, with 423 children receiving vaccinations against common diseases. 50 pregnant and 111 non-pregnant women received the tetanus toxoid vaccine.
• 2,204 individuals beneted from health promotion messages at the three clinics. Messages focused on the importance of vaccinations for children and women of the reproductive age, prevention of water-borne diseases and malaria, and ante-natal care.
• Psychosocial Support (PSS): 89 individuals received direct PSS services at the PoC site, South Sudan Red Cross and Cathedral. 11 clients received grief counseling for loss of family members and properties/homes. One case of gender-based violence at the PoC site was referred to the International Medical Corps for further medical attention. PSS community mobilizers reached an additional 10,965 people with PSS messages, focused on ways to cope with displacement and the importance of re-establishing daily routines to the extent possible.
Wau PoC (23 - 29 Aug)
• 54 IDPs entered Wau PoC 2; 83% cited insecurity as the main driver. 39 IDPs exited, with key drivers cited including lack of access to food (33%), lack of employment opportunities (28%) and uncomfortable living conditions (23%).
• 62 IDPs entered the Cathedral site; main drivers cited were insecurity (47%) and lack of food (42%). 86 IDPs exited, citing uncomfortable living conditions (58%) and health reasons (23%) as key drivers.
• Camp Management and Shelter teams identified space for 22 communal shelters to accommodate 1,400 people.
• Community Leadership Mapping results were shared with community leaders. Results will be discussed with partners to plan the process for establishing governance structures.
• CCCM and DTM Teams participated in the inter-agency assessment in Wau town coordinated by OCHA to identify needs in areas where IDPs had returned.
• Drainage cleaning works have been completed. Camp Management and Oxfam conducted a walkthrough to assess the drains before handing over management to Oxfam.
Bentiu PoC (22 - 27 Aug)
• 785 IDPs arrived at the Bentiu PoC during the week with 90% arriving from Leer County. 97% of IDPs entering the PoC cited access to food as their primary motivating factor.
• 75% of households were female headed households, and Protection actors report numerous cases of violence and sexual violence.
• 695 IDPs exited the PoC, with the majority leaving for Gult and Rubkona. The key drivers for leaving included to return home, to pursue farming activities and to visit family.
• Registration remains on hold which poses challenges for accessing newly arrived IDPs with food distribution. The CCCM Cluster is advocating for the restart of new arrival registration.
Malakal PoC (20 - 26 Aug)
• MTT has been restricted at Malakal PoCs, but continues as normal in Renk County.
• 544 IDPs exited Renk County and 318 IDPs entered.
• Key drivers cited for leaving include lack of access to food (33%), lack of employment opportunities (18%) and rejoining family members (16%).
Bor PoC (21 - 27 Aug)
• Camp Management and UNHCR began visits to 85 households in high flood risk areas to discuss moving their shelters as an alternative to flood mitigation measures.
• 13 of 28 planned new bridges were constructed last week to overcome possible flooding in the PoC.
UN House, Juba (23 - 29 Aug)
• Camp Management agency ACTED manages the reception of new arrivals from Tongping Transit site.
• Shelter partners continue constructing temporary communal shelters for new arrivals.
• 307 people in PoC 1 remain in need of shelter, in addition to the remaining Tongping caseload.
Tongping, Juba (23 - 29 Aug)
• 1,836 IDPs have relocated from the UNMISS base in Tongping to UN House
• 651 IDPs relocated during the last 7 days.
• Completeness for weekly reporting was 38% for the nonconflict-affected states and 64% for the IDP sites.
• Malaria is the top cause of morbidity in IDPs and nonconflict-affected areas. A total of 31 (39%) counties countrywide have registered increasing and/or more than expected levels of malaria cases.
• Cholera outbreaks now confirmed in five states [Jubek, Terekeka, Jonglei, Imatong, and Eastern Lakes].
• Kala azar cases on the increase in endemic areas in East Nile, Western Bieh, and Eastern Bieh states.
• During the week, malaria was the leading cause of mortality with a total of 14 deaths reported from five counties countrywide.
South Sudan - Fighting between armed groups across parts of South Sudan continues to drive displacement, including in areas that had been relatively stable since the crisis broke out in December 2013. The dynamic nature of the conflict has resulted in the constant movement of civilians as they attempt to escape shifting locations of insecurity.
Current population movements are fluid in several areas, including Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Unity, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria and Unity. In the past two months, over 80,000 people have been displaced in Wau and 12,000 in Juba alone.
In southern parts of Central Equatoria, which had previously remained fairly stable, an escalating number of security incidents has pushed large numbers of civilians to leave their homes to seek safety. The movements have been particularly significant from Yei, with multiple reports of targeted violence and harassment against civilians and disruptions in the delivery of aid supplies.
“At the same time as we see the needs continue to grow, access constraints are making it more difficult for humanitarians to access vulnerable people or even measure the scale of displacement and unfolding needs as violence spreads to new locations,” said John McCue, IOM South Sudan Head of Operations.
Many of the recent population movements from Central Equatoria have been across the southern borders to Uganda and Kenya, but increased insecurity in parts of Yei, Morobo and Magwi counties is making it increasingly dangerous for civilians to move and may be preventing people from reaching safer areas.
In Leer, Unity, insecurity has forced civilians to seek protection in nearby islands, while others have reportedly moved south or reached the UN protection of civilians site in Bentiu. These patterns of movement in central Unity may increase as insecurity persists.
On 4 September, IOM joined a UN Security Council delegation to witness first-hand the needs of displaced communities in Wau since heavy fighting in late June. While IOM and humanitarian agencies are providing lifesaving aid at displacement sites across Wau town, access constraints have limited efforts to reach thousands of displaced families in some areas south of town since early July.
IOM recently regained access to Ngisa in southern Wau to deliver essential medicines and evaluate health and water needs. IOM has received reports of people returning to parts of Wau town, which may be a response to improved security in the area or a result of limited access to relief services in areas outside of the town.
More than 1.6 million people are internally displaced across South Sudan, in addition to 786,000 people who have fled to neighbouring countries since December 2013. More than half of the country (6.1 million people) are in need of relief aid.
24 Urban refugees with specific needs received assistance to address chronic illnesses, protection and housing needs.
636 Malian refugees in Niger benefited from transportation assistance during their voluntary return to Mali.
106 Protection incidents were reported in the regions of Gao, Kidal, Menaka, Mopti and Timbuktu.
USD 49.2 million requested for the operation
The number of suspected cholera cases has risen 22% between January-July 2015 and January-July 2016, accounting for 24,505 this year. 227 of the cases have resulted in death in 2016 as of July, which is a 32% increase from last year. Since the outbreak in 2010, 9,393 people have died from suspected cholera cases.
The number of people in need of immediate food assistance remains high, due to the severe drought that has affected the country since the beginning of 2015. As of 28 August, assessment reports indicate that 596,000 people require immediate food assistance, compared to 370,000 people in April. Overall, 729,000 people, nearly one-third of the population, are food insecure.
A FEWSNET assessment has found global acute malnutrition rates ranging between 20% and 60% in areas of Borno and Yobe states, reinforcing previous information highlighting the extremely alarming nutrition situation in northeastern Nigeria. Higher GAM rates are expected in locations that are still not accessible.
This report draws on some recent operational experiences of the ICRC to describe the theory and practice of the ICRC’s approach to humanitarian assistance in protracted conflict. The ICRC spends about two thirds of its budget on protracted conflicts. The average length of time the ICRC has been present in the countries hosting its ten largest operations is more than 36 years. Protracted conflicts are a major source of human suffering and a cause of protracted displacement, migration and development reversals.
The report contributes to important humanitarian policy discussions on the reliefdevelopment relationship, the urbanization of humanitarian response, multi-year planning and humanitarian financing. Chapter 1 starts with theoretical and legal analysis of protracted conflict. Chapter 2 examines the damaging effects of protracted conflict on State and society. Chapter 3 describes the ICRC’s “combined approach” to short and long-term needs.Chapter 4 looks at key areas where the ICRC is determined to improve its performance and some important international policy changes that will help it do so.
KEY MESSAGES IN THE REPORT
Protracted conflicts are not new but there are key features that are specific to our times. Many wars in history have been long. The ICRC has routinely operated in protracted conflicts in the last 70 years but particular trends can be observed in protracted conflicts today. Many long conflicts are largely urban in nature and involve new forms of technology that influence tactics and communications differently. Today’s conflicts affect middleincome countries as much as poorer countries. They attract a large humanitarian sector and a more diverse, 24/7 global media sector. Today’s conflicts are also viewed by States and civil society in a much more conscious way through the lens of international law – notably, international humanitarian law (IHL), international human rights law and refugee law.
Protracted conflicts are characterized by their longevity, intractability and mutability. Some are based on a single conflict. Others are a series of multiple conflicts. The parties to long conflicts typically fragment and mutate over time. Conflict often ebbs and flows unevenly across a country, with varying moments of intensity. A conflict may also be reframed with different goals over time and be internationalized in a variety of ways. Lack of respect for IHL is a major source of human suffering in protracted conflicts. Even when IHL is not violated in the conduct of hostilities the humanitarian consequences of these conflicts can be great because of widespread displacement, the cumulative impact on basic services and livelihoods over time, and the sharp increase in “war poor” populations.
The humanitarian consequences of protracted conflict are severe and can be immediate and cumulative. People’s experience of a protracted conflict typically involves immediate direct suffering as a result of attacks, deprivation and displacement, and more indirect suffering due to the cumulative deterioration of basic services, life chances and livelihoods. People’s needs cut across many different sectors and extend over many years.Humanitarian action may respond to urgent need and long-term need, as long as it is humanitarian in purpose and impartial in nature. Protracted conflict is not a legal term in IHL. Nor does IHL differentiate between the concepts, in international policy, of relief, early recovery and development. Humanitarian action according to IHL transcends these categories and may include a range of activities to aid people’s survival, their means of survival and their dignity. The ICRC engages across this spectrum of activities in accordance with its fundamental principles and IHL.
Today’s protracted conflicts create some new challenges for humanitarian action.
This is especially the case in cities, where urban infrastructure and systems pose largescale technological and staffing problems for the maintenance of vital inter-connected services. The intensity and longevity of protracted conflicts also create greater expectations of sustainable and individualized services across a wide range of vulnerable groups. The absence of development investment makes it difficult to build strong local partnerships to ensure humanitarian continuity during and after conflict.
The ICRC responds to needs in protracted conflict by implementing a “combined approach” that operates in the short and long terms to meet immediate needs and mitigate cumulative impact. This involves working with two timelines simultaneously – one that plans week to week, and another that thinks two to five years ahead. The ICRC works quickly to address immediate needs and also works deeply with regard to the various health, water, livelihood and protection systems that ensure people’s survival and dignity. Agility and proximity remain critical to the ICRC’s operational approach, which must be able to adapt to the fluidity of armed conflict. Staying close to affected people as their locations and situations change is essential. So, too, is a diverse “palette of activities” that enables the ICRC to remain relevant to people’s changing needs.
The ICRC aims to improve its general approach in protracted conflicts in five ways.
It will develop its multi-year approach to focus more on outcome goals in protection and assistance. It will increase its ability to absorb multi-year financing. It will concentrate on securing development holds against the development reversals of protracted conflict. It will seek partnerships that can ensure humanitarian continuity during and after conflict, and it will deepen its engagement with affected populations.
316 millions Fonds requis (US$) en 2016
110 millions US$ (soit 35%) Fonds mobilisés
Augmentation du nombre de personnes touchées par les inondations
LOCUST INVASION COULD WORSEN FOOD INSECURITY
Farmers in the western Kanem region and Sila and Ouaddai regions in the east have reported locust invasion in several farms. The authorities are planning assessments to organize response. Crop destruction by the locusts could increase food scarcity in these regions where more than 175,000 are already severely food insecure and malnutrition has been on the rise in recent months.
CONCERNS OVER PLIGHT OF PARK EVACUEES
The situation of 20,000 people evacuated in August from the Mont Péko National Park for illegal occupation remains precarious. Humanitarian response is ongoing, but resources dedicated to emergency assistance are scarce, with acute shortfalls in food, shelter and NFI as well as WASH supplies.
Additional resources are required to prevent further deterioration of the humanitarian situation.
POLITICAL DEADLOCK AFTER POLL RESULTS
Some calm is returning to Libreville and the country after several days of violent protests and looting following the announcement of presidential election results on 31 August.
However, the outcome of the vote has triggered a political deadlock. Opposition leader Jean Ping has called for a general strike, terming the re-election of President Ali Bongo fraudulent, while the Justice Minister resigned over the disputed results. The African Union has said it will send a delegation to help resolve the stand-off.
FIVE KILLED IN VILLAGE ATTACK
Suspected Boko Haram attackers on 2 September killed five people during a raid on Toumour village in the south-eastern Diffa region. The gunmen also torched several homes and injured two people before escaping. It was the first such incident in the region since June when tens of thousands of people fled their homes following a series of attacks. Military operations are ongoing in Diffa and a months-long state of emergency has been extended to 27 October.
RETURNEES FACE DIRE CONDITIONS
The severe destruction of livelihoods, homes, hospitals, schools and roads in Gujba and Gulani localities in the northeastern Yobe Sate has left returnees in desperate need of immediate food and NFI assistance, including agricultural inputs. The two areas are inaccessible to humanitarian partners. Between 70 and 90 per cent of the original populations are reported to have returned to the two localities. Humanitarian partners are exploring alternative strategies, including third-party aid delivery to reach the affected people.
UNE INVASION ACRIDIENNE POURRAIT AGGRAVER LA SÉCURITÉ ALIMENTAIRE
Les agriculteurs de la région ouest de Kanem ainsi que des régions de Ouaddaï et de Sila dans l'est ont signalé une invasion acridienne dans plusieurs fermes. Les autorités planifient des évaluations pour organiser la réponse. La destruction des cultures par les criquets pourrait aggraver la pénurie alimentaire dans ces régions où plus de 175 000 personnes sont déjà en insécurité alimentaire sévère avec une hausse de la malnutrition ces derniers mois.
INQUIÉTUDES SUR LE SORT DES ÉVACUÉS
La situation des 20 000 personnes évacuées du parc national du Mont Péko en août pour occupation illégale reste précaire. La réponse humanitaire est en cours, mais les ressources consacrées à l'aide d'urgence sont rares, avec des déficits aigus dans la fourniture de vivres, d’abris, d’articles non alimentaires ainsi que de produits WASH. Des ressources supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour empêcher une nouvelle détérioration de la situation humanitaire.
IMPASSE POLITIQUE APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DES ÉLECTIONS
Un certain calme est revenu à Libreville et dans le reste du pays après plusieurs jours de violentes manifestations et pillages suite à l'annonce des résultats des élections présidentielles le 31 août. Cependant, le résultat du vote a entrainé une impasse politique. Le chef de l'opposition Jean Ping a appelé à une grève générale, décrivant la réélection du président Ali Bongo comme frauduleuse. Le Ministre de la Justice a démissioné à la suite des résultats contestés. L’Union Africaine a déclaré vouloir envoyer une délégation pour aider le pays à sortir de cette impasse.
CINQ TUÉS DANS L’ATTAQUE D’UN VILLAGE
Le 2 septembre, des attaquants présumés de Boko Haram ont tué cinq personnes lors d’un raid sur le village de Toumour dans la région sud-est de Diffa. Les hommes armés ont également incendié plusieurs maisons et blessé deux personnes avant de fuir. Il s’agit du premier incident du genre dans la région depuis le mois de juin lorsque des dizaines de milliers de personnes avaient fui leurs maisons après une série d'attaques. Des opérations militaires sont en cours dans la région de Diffa et l’état d'urgence en vigueur depuis plusieurs mois a été prolongé jusqu'au 27 octobre.
LES RETOURNÉS SONT CONFRONTÉS À DES CONDITIONS EXTRÊMES
La destruction importante des moyens de subsistance, des maisons, des hôpitaux, des écoles et des routes dans les localités de Gujba et Gulani dans le nord-est de l’État de Yobe a plongé les retournés dans un besoin désespéré d’assistance immédiate en vivres et articles non alimentaires, y compris des intrants agricoles. Les deux zones sont inaccessibles aux partenaires humanitaires. Entre 70 et 90% des populations d'origine seraient retournées dans les deux localités. Les partenaires humanitaires explorent des stratégies alternatives, y compris la collaboration avec des prestataires pour atteindre les personnes touchées.