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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    L'essentiel:

    • Situation alimentaire alarmante chez les personnes déplacées internes à Maiduguri dans l’Etat de Borno – Nigeria.

    • Installation progressive et quasi définitive de la campagne agricole 2016-2017.

    • Hausse continuelle de l’indice des prix des produits observée depuis cinq mois.

    La campagne agricole 2016 a eu un démarrage relativement précoce, notamment dans la zone soudano-sahélienne avec cependant des poches de déficit au Centre-ouest du Sénégal, le littoral du Liberia, la zone centre du Ghana, le sud du Togo et au sud-ouest du Nigeria.

    La mise à jour des prévisions saisonnières en juillet indique que les probabilités d’avoir des cumuls pluviométriques supérieurs à la moyenne sur la majeure partie du Sahel central et oriental et inférieurs à la moyenne sur les régions de l’extrême Ouest, demeurent élevées.

    Les conditions d’élevage globalement moyennes commencent à s’améliorer avec la régénération des pâturages suite aux bonnes pluies enregistrées.

    La situation alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans le bassin du lac Tchad continue d’être précaire surtout chez les personnes déplacées internes (PDIs). A Maiduguri dans l’Etat de Borno - Nigéria, 67,5 pour cent des PDIs sont en insécurité alimentaire et 32 pour cent ont recours à des stratégies d’adaptation d’urgence (mendicité).

    Au début du mois de juin 2016, dans le département de Bosso à Diffa (Niger), une série d’attaques ont été perpétrées par Boko Haram, occasionnant des déplacements forcés de la population. Face à cette nouvelle crise, 59 pour cent des ménages ont déclaré avoir été confrontés à des difficultés alimentaires au cours des sept derniers jours (Bulletin mVAM/Niger - Juin 2016).


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Chad
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan

    • Excellence Monsieur le Secrétaire Général du Ministère de la Femme, de l’Action Sociale et de la Solidarité Internationale,

    • Excellence Mesdames et Messieurs les Représentants du Corps Diplomatique,

    • Mesdames et Messieurs les représentants des Ministères, des Institutions et Services Etatiques,

    • Mesdames et Messieurs les Chefs de Missions et Représentants des Organisations Non Gouvernementales et des Agences du Système des Nations Unies,

    • Mesdames, Messieurs les Chefs de Délégation du Mouvement de la Croix Rouge,

    • Distingués Invités,
      C’est un plaisir et un honneur de m’adresser à vous aujourd’hui, pour cette 8ème Journée Mondiale de l’Aide Humanitaire.

    Je souhaiterais tout d’abord partager avec vous un extrait du message du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies, en cette journée. Et je cite :

    « Aujourd’hui, 130 millions de personnes ne doivent leur survie qu’à l’aide humanitaire – un nombre encore jamais atteint. Si elles étaient regroupées, ces personnes dans le besoin formeraient la dixième nation du monde en termes de population.

    Pour autant qu’ils soient impressionnants, ces chiffres ne reflètent qu’un aspect de la réalité et derrière les statistiques se cachent des individus, des familles et des communautés dont les vies ont été détruites. Il s’agit de gens ordinaires : des enfants, des femmes et des hommes, obligés quotidiennement de faire des choix impossibles. Ce sont des parents qui doivent choisir entre acheter de la nourriture ou des médicaments pour leurs enfants; des enfants qui doivent choisir entre aller à l’école ou travailler pour aider leurs familles; des familles qui doivent choisir entre rester chez elles et vivre sous les bombardements ou prendre le risque de s’échapper par la mer.

    Les solutions aux crises qui ont plongé ces personnes dans des situations extrêmement difficiles ne sont ni simples, ni rapides. Mais nous pouvons tous agir – aujourd’hui, et chaque jour. Nous pouvons faire preuve de compassion, nous pouvons protester contre l’injustice, et nous pouvons nous employer à changer les choses. », fin de citation.

    Journée Mondiale de l’Aide Humanitaire

    Comme vous le savez, la Journée Mondiale de l’Aide Humanitaire a été créée en 2008 par l’Assemblée Générale des Nations Unies. La date du 19 août a été choisie en hommage aux victimes de l’attentat contre le bureau des Nations Unies à Bagdad, en Iraq, le 19 août 2003, au cours duquel 22 personnes avaient perdu la vie, y compris Sergio Vieira de Mello, Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général en Iraq.

    En ce jour, je souhaite unir ma voix à celle du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies afin de vous remercier, vous la Communauté humanitaire du Tchad, et célébrer vos efforts et votre dévouement pour venir en aide à ceux qui en ont besoin. Je rends également hommage aux communautés, au Gouvernement du Tchad, aux bailleurs de fonds, et à tous les individus, qui, d’une manière ou d’une autre, contribuent à alléger les souffrances humaines.

    Situation au Tchad

    Au Tchad, tout comme à l’échelle mondiale, le nombre des individus affectés par les crises ne cesse d’augmenter. Dans le pays, plus de 4,3 millions de personnes sont affectées par l’insécurité alimentaire, soit environ 30% de la population totale. Près de 410 000 enfants de moins de 5 ans souffrent de malnutrition aigüe.

    Le nombre de personnes déplacées par les conflits, l’insécurité et les catastrophes naturelles continue d’augmenter. Si nous prenons l’exemple du Lac, en août 2015, environ 75 000 personnes en déplacement étaient estimées dans la région du Lac, répartis sur 22 sites entre Baga-Sola et Bol. Un an après, ils sont plus de 120 000, répartis sur plus de 180 lieux de déplacement. Face à ces besoins accrus et cette situation complexifiée, la réponse humanitaire a su s’adapter : de neuf partenaires en 2015, aujourd’hui, une trentaine de partenaires interviennent dans la région du Lac, et l’accès humanitaire s’est étendu bien au-delà de l’axe Bol-Baga-Sola, jusqu’aux zones frontalières.

    Comme vous le savez, il n’y a pas que la région du Lac qui doit faire face aux mouvements de population. Dans l’est du Tchad, plus de 300 000 réfugiés soudanais vivent toujours dans des camps, certains depuis plus d’une décennie. Au sud, ce sont 83 000 retournés et 73 000 réfugiés centrafricains qui ont besoin d’assistance. Ces populations déracinées ont besoin d’aide, et sont trop souvent négligées par l’attention médiatique, opérationnelle ou financière. Aujourd’hui, nous devons nous réengager auprès d’elles, afin de mettre un terme à leurs souffrances. Nous devons également soutenir la solidarité des populations hôtes, qui partagent leurs maigres ressources et infrastructures. Ces communautés d’accueil sont les premiers acteurs humanitaires, et en cette Journée, nous leur rendons hommage.

    Les populations au Tchad sont également affectées par les urgences sanitaires, dans un contexte d’accès quasi inexistant aux services de santé primaires. Il est douloureux de constater qu’un enfant sur sept meurt avant d’atteindre cinq ans ou qu’une femme sur cent meurt en couche, faute d’accès aux soins. Au cours d’une récente visite au Lac, j’ai été frappé de constater le manque total d’accès aux soins et aux médicaments dans certains villages. Il en est de même pour tous les services sociaux de base : à Abougoudam, à côté d’Abéché, où je me suis rendu début juillet, les enfants se pressaient autour d’un puit, le seul point d’eau à 25 kilomètres à la ronde. L’accès à l’eau est un défi majeur dans tout le pays : rappelons-nous que le Tchad est l’un des pays avec le plus faible taux d’accès à l’eau potable au monde.

    Dans ce contexte, il est impératif de renforcer les liens entre action humanitaire et développement alors que les crises humanitaires sont liées au contexte de faible développement. Seule une action intégrée qui couvre les besoins urgents tout en répondant aux causes profondes des crises, permettra d’améliorer le développement humain au Tchad.

    Sommet Mondial de l’Humanitaire et Objectifs de Développement Durable

    Cette approche intégrée fait écho aux engagements pris au cours du Sommet Mondial de l’Aide Humanitaire.

    En effet, cette Journée Mondiale de l’Aide Humanitaire est particulière car elle se déroule juste après un moment charnière dans l’histoire de l’action humanitaire : le Sommet Mondial de l’Humanitaire, qui a eu lieu les 23 et 24 mai 2016 à Istanbul, en Turquie. J’ai moi-même participé à cet évènement historique, aux côtés de 9 000 autres participants, représentants des Etats, des Nations Unies, des ONG nationales et internationales, des organisations de la société civile, le secteur privé, le monde académique et les médias.

    Le Sommet Mondial de l’Humanitaire marque le début d’un processus de transformation profonde de l’action humanitaire via l’adoption d’un Programme d’action pour l’Humanité autour de cinq grands engagements :

    1. Faire preuve de volonté politique pour prévenir et faire cesser les conflits
    2. Faire respecter les normes qui protègent l’humanité
    3. Ne laisser personne de côté
    4. Améliorer les conditions de vie – fournir une aide ne suffit plus, il faut mettre fin au dénuement
    5. Investir dans l’humanité

    En plus du Sommet Mondial de l’Humanitaire et du lancement de l’Agenda pour l’Humanité, l’année 2016 marque le premier anniversaire de l’adoption des 17 Objectifs de Développement Durable, qui visent à éradiquer la pauvreté, lutter contre les inégalités et protéger notre planète.

    Des engagements à l’action

    A présent, nous devons mettre en œuvre ces deux programmes de façon coordonnée, en renforçant les solutions innovantes et les partenariats entre acteurs humanitaires et acteurs de développement. Il est temps de concrétiser les promesses et de passer à l’action. Ce sera un effort commun.

    Pour cela, la mobilisation de tous les acteurs est capitale. L’Etat tout d’abord, a un rôle essentiel à jouer. Notre action en tant qu’acteurs humanitaires se fait toujours en appui à celle de l’Etat, car c’est à lui que revient la responsabilité première pour la protection de sa population. Je salue d’ailleurs les efforts et l’engagement du Tchad afin de maintenir la paix et la stabilité dans la région. Je remercie également le Gouvernement pour sa coopération avec les acteurs humanitaires, pour nous faciliter l’accès aux zones les plus reculées. J’appelle à présent à la mise en œuvre des initiatives et plans de réponse qui permettront la mise en place de solutions à moyen et long termes pour les personnes vulnérables.

    La mobilisation des bailleurs de fonds est également primordiale. Aujourd’hui, le plan de réponse humanitaire reste largement sous-financé malgré la générosité de nos bailleurs. Un financement de la réponse à hauteur de 35% environ – la mise à jour est en cours et j’invite d’ailleurs tous les partenaires à partager en toute transparence l’état de leurs financements – reste malheureusement insuffisant pour venir en aide aux populations dans le besoin. Par ailleurs, nous avons besoin de diversifier et multiplier les sources de financement, et j’en appelle à votre générosité afin de nous permettre de fournir une assistance à ceux qui en ont le plus besoin.

    Enfin, et tout particulièrement en ce jour, je voudrais à nouveau remercier et rendre hommage à chacun d’entre vous, membres de la communauté humanitaire au Tchad. Chaque jour, votre énergie et votre courage permettent de braver les dangers et les difficultés, afin de fournir une assistance à ceux qui en ont le plus besoin. Je vous en suis reconnaissant, et c’est un honneur pour moi d’œuvrer à vos côtés afin de soutenir les populations du Tchad.

    Certes, la Journée Mondiale de l’Aide Humanitaire a lieu le 19 août. Mais notre responsabilité collective, membres d’une seule et même humanité, est quotidienne. Je saisis l’opportunité de la Journée Mondiale de l’Aide Humanitaire et lance un appel, aux côtés du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies et au nom de la Communauté humanitaire au Tchad, à une solidarité renouvelée avec les populations affectées par les crises au Tchad.

    Je vous remercie.


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    Source: European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    On 21 August, at least three persons died and 24 were injured in a suicide attack in a market in Mora, a village in the Far North region of Cameroon, close to the Nigerian border. The Far North region is frequently hit by suicide attacks by suspected members of Boko Haram. At the end of June, a suicide bomber killed at least 11 people when he blew himself up close to a mosque.
    Boko Haram violence is still causing massive displacements of population in Cameroon. Currently, there are 158 000 IDPs. In addition, 57 150 Nigerian refugees are registered in Cameroon.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: South Sudan, Sudan

    KEY FIGURES

    A total of 242,675
    South Sudanese arrivals in Sudan since 15 December 2013.
    * This figure does not include a number of South Sudanese living with host communities.

    77,322
    Number of South Sudanese arrivals residing in the eight sites of White Nile State, based on UNHCR individual registration.

    50,621\*
    Number of South Sudanese arrivals to East Darfur since January 2016.
    * As of 14th of August

    145,200
    Number of South Sudanese residing in Khartoum open areas as per IPP and Civil Registry (as of 11 May 2016

    PRIORITIES

    • Ongoing response to South Sudanese arrivals in West and South Kordofan, White Nile State, and East and South Darfur states.

    • Relocations to the new Al Waral site, White Nile State, to address congestion in existing sites.

    • Relocation of the newly arrived South Sudanese refugees from Raja in East Darfur to decongest Khor Omer IDP camp, to Kariu site

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Reports of arrivals from South Sudan have continued since the beginning of August, though accurate figures have been hard to verify. In total, based on both verified and unverified figures, over 92,000 refugees had arrived in Sudan since January 2016.

    • Planning and land demarcation is ongoing by UNHCR for the construction of two new camps in Kariu and Al Nimir, East Darfur State, which will accommodate an estimated 30,000 and 10,000 South Sudanese refugees respectively. In Kariu 1,260 HH plots already designated, as well as areas for communal facilities (clinic, WASH facilities, education, administration blocks, etc), while the site of Al Nimir is currently at the planning stage.

    • On 2nd of August, a decree by the Governor of East Darfur set up a committee for the registration of the South Sudanese refugees to which UNHCR is part of, together with representatives from SRCS, COR, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health and NISS.

    • Over the reporting period, 839 new arrivals were registered in White Nile state border reception centres.

    • As of 14th of August, close to 2,000 HHs have arrived in Al Waral and have been provided with shelter materials and NFIs.

    • In anticipation of continued rains, that presented some challenges to access and site development (especially in East Darfur and White Nile State), UNHCR has pre-positioned supplies where possible and established emergency/communal shelters for new arrivals until household shelter material can be provided (e.g. refugees in Khor Omer, East Darfur, are now accommodated in communal shelters until relocation to the new site takes place).


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    Source: World Food Programme, Government of Niger, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Niger

    Résumé

    Cible Globale

    454 000 personnes vulnérables
    dont 399 000 dans les communes affectées par les mouvements de populations

    Assistance planifiée

    391 000 personnes
    dont 263 000 dans les communes affectées par les mouvements de populations


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    Source: Global Polio Eradication Initiative
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Interview with Michel Zaffran, Director of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

    What are the implications of finding polio in Nigeria 2 years after the last case?

    The implications are that we were right to be cautious about this part of the country, and to be vigilant even after apparent interruption of polio. The two children paralyzed in Nigeria are a sobering reminder that we cannot be complacent as we near the eradication of polio.

    As a risk management measure, a response protocol was prepared when Nigeria appeared to have stopped polio transmission. We are working with the Government of Nigeria to implement this response plan, in which the primary priority is to protect children across several countries in the region so this virus does not spread, and to intensify surveillance.

    The outbreak highlights the risk of transmission throughout the Lake Chad region – which spans notably Chad (Lake Chad area), northern Cameroon, southern Niger and neighbouring parts of the Central African Republic. There are large movements of people across and within these countries and an ongoing humanitarian situation.

    What needs to happen now?

    First, rapid and high-quality vaccination campaigns. The first has already started in the immediate vicinity of the cases. Five more are to take place within the next 16 weeks. Reflecting the risk profile, all five countries are involved, and we are working closely with the governments throughout the region to implement a thorough and effective plan to minimize further transmission of the poliovirus.

    Second, we must finalize field investigations and find out to the best of our ability where this virus has been for the past few years so that we can tighten surveillance in those places where it is less than excellent.

    Finally, under-pinnning these outbreak response measures is the political and financial commitment to finish the job. Whether affected by polio or polio-free, all countries have a responsibility to ensure they are conducting surveillance to find any poliovirus and vaccinating their children to ensure immunity, and to support polio-affected countries in their efforts to join the polio-free world.

    What is the outlook?

    There is every hope for a rapid end to this outbreak. We are not naive to the security challenges, which are common to the countries in and around the Lake Chad area. In 2015, as many as 600,000 children aged less than 5 years were inaccessible for polio vaccine or other health interventions, across the Lake Chad area. But this is still a small proportion of the total populations of these countries, so we are talking about the very last reservoir of polio on the African continent, in a very limited geographical area among a small population. If we conduct several vaccination campaigns that reach nearly every child, we can knock out this virus once and for all.

    Outbreak response in insecure areas or areas with hampered access is of course more complex and more dangerous. However, special tactics for such areas continue to be implemented to ensure as many children are reached as possible – such as working with community members, and with traditional and religious leadership. This programme has worked in some of the most difficult areas and succeeded, in Syria and Iraq most recently.

    With the increased attention on this virus now, and leadership in the region fully focused on it, perhaps this outbreak was exactly the alarm we needed in this final step.


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    Source: World Health Organization
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • Completeness for weekly reporting was 39% for the nonconflictaffected states and 57% for the IDP sites.

    • Malaria is the top cause of morbidity in IDPs and nonconflict-affected areas.

    • Malaria cases in nine states [Twic, Gogrial, Tonj, Rumbek, Western Lake, Eastern Lake, Aweil, Aweil East, and Lol] exceeded expected levels in the week.

    • At least 36 counties countrywide have registered increasing and/or more than expected levels of malaria cases.

    • Cholera outbreaks still confined to three counties, Juba, Terekeka, and Duk with alerts under investigation in Kajo-keji, Nimule, Fangak, and Mingkaman.

    • During the week, malaria was the leading cause of mortality with a total of 16 deaths reported from 9 counties countrywide.


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    Source: Afrique Verte
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger

    1-1 AcSSA Afrique Verte Niger

    Commentaire général : début août, la tendance générale des prix des céréales est à la hausse pour les céréales locales (mil et sorgho) et à la stabilité pour celles importées (riz et maïs). Aucune baisse n’a été enregistrée sur aucun marché. Les hausses ont été enregistrées : i) pour le mil à Dosso (+15%), à Zinder (+12%), à Maradi (+11%), à Tillabéry (+9%) et à Niamey (+7%), ii) pour le sorgho à Niamey (+12%), Maradi (+9%) et à Tillabéry (+5%), iii) pour le maïs à Maradi (+7%) et iv) pour le riz à Dosso (+5%).

    L’analyse spatiale des prix classe le marché d’Agadez au premier rang des marchés les plus chers, suivi de Tillabéry,
    Zinder, Dosso, Niamey et Maradi. L’analyse de l’évolution des prix en fonction des produits indique : i) pour le riz, hausse à Dosso et stabilité sur les autres marchés, ii) pour le mil, stabilité à Agadez, hausse sur les autres marchés, iii) pour le sorgho, hausse à Niamey, Maradi et Tillabéry, stabilité à Zinder, Dosso et Agadez, et enfin iv) pour le maïs, hausse à Maradi et stabilité sur les autres marchés.

    Comparés à début août 2015, les prix sont globalement en hausse sur tous les marchés pour les céréales sèches, excepté sur celui d’Agadez pour le maïs (-12%) et pour le sorgho (-5%) et sur celui de Maradi pour le riz (-2%). Les hausses varient : i) pour le mil de +9% à Tillabéry et Agadez à +40% à Maradi, ii) pour le sorgho de +2% à Tillabéry à +31% à Maradi, iii) pour le maïs de +5% à Tillabéry à +38% à Zinder. Pour le riz : baisse à Maradi (-2%), hausse à Niamey (+5%), à Tillabéry (+3%) et à Dosso (+2%) et stabilité à Zinder et Agadez.

    Comparés à la moyenne des 5 dernières années, les prix sont globalement en baisse pour le mil, le sorgho et le riz et, en hausse pour le maïs. Les variations par produit sont : pour le mil -11% à Agadez, -8% à Tillabéry, -1% à Niamey, +3% à Maradi et stabilité à Zinder et Dosso ; pour le sorgho, -11% à Agadez, -6% à Zinder, -4% à Niamey, -2% à Maradi, -1% à Tillabéry et +1% à Dosso ; pour le riz -7% à Agadez, -4% à Maradi et Tillabéry, +5% à Dosso, +3% à Niamey et stabilité à Zinder ; pour le maïs,-15% à Agadez, -3% à Tillabéry, +6% à Maradi, +3% à Dosso, +2% à Niamey et stabilité à Zinder.

    1-2 AMASSA Afrique Verte Mali

    Commentaire général : début août, la tendance générale de l’évolution des prix des céréales sur les marchés est à la stabilité.
    Toutefois, quelques hausses ont été enregistrées à cause de la soudure mais aussi d’une baisse globale de l’offre. Aucune baisse n’a été enregistrée sur aucun marché. Les mouvements à la hausse sont observés : i) pour le riz local à Ségou (+8%) et à Bamako (+3%), ii) pour le riz importé à Kayes (+3%) et à Bamako (+2%), iii) pour le mil à Ségou (+14%) et à Kayes (+5%), iv) pour le sorgho à Tombouctou (+20%) et à Ségou (+7%), et v) pour le maïs à Ségou (+15%) et à Bamako (+6%). Ailleurs, les prix sont stables pour les différents produits.

    L’analyse spatiale des prix indique que Ségou et Mopti sont les marchés les moins chers pour le riz local, Kayes reste le moins cher pour le riz importé, Ségou le moins cher pour le mil, Sikasso le moins cher pour le sorgho et le maïs. Les marchés les plus chers restent : Kayes et Gao pour le riz local, Gao et Sikasso pour le riz importé, Tombouctou pour le mil et le sorgho. En l’absence du maïs à Tombouctou, le marché de Gao est le plus cher pour cette céréale.

    Comparés à début août 2015, les prix sont globalement en baisse ou stables, excepté pour le riz local à Sikasso (+7%) et à Tombouctou (+3%), pour le riz importé à Kayes et Tombouctou (+7%), pour le mil à Bamako (+6%) et à Tombouctou (+2%) et pour le maïs à Bamako et Gao (+3%). Les baisses sont : i) pour le riz local de -5% à Bamako et Kayes, ii) pour le riz importé de -3% à Mopti et Gao à -5% à Bamako, iii) pour le mil de -3% à Sikasso, Mopti et Gao à -9% à Ségou, iv) pour le sorgho, de -6% Bamako à -16% à Sikasso, et v) pour le maïs de -3% à Kayes à -6% à Mopti.

    Comparés à la moyenne des 5 dernières années, les prix sont globalement en baisse pour les céréales sèches, excepté pour le sorgho sur le marché de Tombouctou (+50%) et celui de Gao (+7%) et pour le maïs sur le marché de Gao (+11%) et celui de Bamako (+8%). Les baisses varient : i) pour le mil de - 4% à Gao et Tombouctou à -13% à Sikasso et Ségou, ii) pour le sorgho de -9% à Bamako à -18% à Sikasso et iii) pour le maïs de -4% à Kayes et Ségou à -14% à Mopti. En ce qui concerne le riz, les variations sont : i) pour le riz local de -5% à Kayes, +10% à Sikasso, +5% à Bamako et Ségou et +1% à Mopti et Tombouctou, et ii) pour le riz importé, de -7% à Bamako, -3% à Mopti, -2% à Gao, +6% à Kayes, +5% à Tombouctou et +2% à Sikasso.

    1-3 APROSSA Afrique Verte Burkina

    Commentaire général : début août, la tendance générale de l’évolution des prix des céréales est à la stabilité. Toutefois, quelques mouvements en hausse et en baisse ont été observés. Les hausses ont été enregistrées : i) pour le mil sur les marchés de Ouagadougou (+6%), de Fada et Tenkodogo (+3%) et ii) pour le sorgho sur le marché de Bobo (+17%). Les baisses ont été enregistrées : i) pour le sorgho à Nouna (-4%) et ii) pour le maïs à Kongoussi (-6%) et à Tenkodogo (-3%).
    L’analyse spatiale des prix fait ressortir que les marchés les moins chers sont : Ouagadougou pour le riz, Dédougou et Nouna pour le mil et le sorgho, et Dédougou pour le maïs. Le marché de Dori reste le plus cher pour l’ensemble des céréales.

    Comparés à début août 2015, les prix sont globalement stables pour le riz et le maïs, en baisse pour le mil et le sorgho. Pour le mil : baisse à Dori (-10%) Dédougou (-6%) et Nouna (-3%), stabilité à Bobo, Fada et Kongoussi et hausse de 3% à Ouagadougou et Tenkodogo. Pour le sorgho, baisse à Dédougou (-10%), à Nouna (-7%), à Ouagadougou et Tenkodogo (-6%) et Kongoussi (-3%), hausse à Bobo (+17%) et à Fada (+6%) et stabilité à Dori. Pour le maïs, hausse de +7% à Bobo, Nouna et Tenkodogo, baisse à Dédougou (-10%) et stabilité ailleurs. Pour le riz, baisse de -5% à Kongoussi, hausse de +6% à Dori, et stabilité sur les autres marchés.

    Comparés à la moyenne des 5 dernières années, les prix sont globalement en baisse pour les céréales sèches et en hausse pour le riz. Les hausses sont observées : i) pour le riz à Dédougou et Nouna (+8%), à Dori (+6%) et à Bobo (+3%), ii) pour le sorgho à Bobo (+9%), à Fada (+6%) et à Dori (+1%), et iii) pour le maïs à Bobo (+3%) et à Dori (+2%). Les baisses varient : i) pour le mil, de -6% à Fada à -15% à Bobo, ii) pour le sorgho de -10% à Ouagadougou et Nouna à -14% à Kongoussi et iii) pour le maïs de -1% à Tenkodogo à -13% à Fada, et iv) pour le riz -9% à Kongoussi et -5% à Ouagadougou.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali

    Points Saillants

    • État d’approvisionnement des marchés :

    -L’état d’approvisionnement des marchés varie de moyen à satisfaisant dans l’ensemble à travers le pays.

    • Tendance des prix des céréales et du bétail :

    -Tendance des prix au producteur stable par rapport à juin 2016 et en baisse par rapport à la moyenne de 5 dernières années sauf pour le riz local (riz local +2%).

    -Tendance des prix à la consommation des céréalesstable par rapport à juin 2016 à l’exception du mil qui est en hausse (mil +6%) et tendance des prix à la baisse par rapport à la moyenne des 5 dernières années excepté le riz paddy (riz paddy +4%)

    • Baisse du coût du panier alimentaire mensuel dans les régions de Gao (-6%) et de Mopti (-1%), en hausse à Tombouctou (+6%) par rapport à juin 2016. Par rapport à la même période l’année dernière, le coût du panier alimentaire est en baisse à Tombouctou (-4%), Mopti (-8%) et à Gao (-6%).

    • Tendance des prix à la hausse pour les petits ruminants par rapport à la même période l’année passée. Quelques baisses sont néanmoins observées par endroit.

    • Termes de l’échange (ToT) petits ruminants/céréales :

    • De façon globale, les ToT sont en amélioration à Mopti (+19%) et à Gao (+19%), en détérioration à Tombouctou (-6%) par rapport à la même période l’année passée.

    • Contraintes liées au fonctionnement des marchés :

    -Situation sécuritaire dans les régions du nord : perturbation de certains marchés -Difficultés de transport par endroit liées à l’hivernage.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    94.9 M required for 2016
    23.1 M contributions received, representing 24% of requirements
    71.8 M funding gap for the Nigeria Situation


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    Source: Norwegian Refugee Council
    Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda

    Overwhelmed aid agencies in Uganda are armed with insufficient resources to respond to South Sudanese refugees spilling across the border, after renewed violence pushed over 85,000 people into Uganda’s West Nile region since July.

    “We are ringing the alarm bell now. Cholera is just one result of us not having resources to decongest reception centres at a quick enough pace,” warned Hosana Adisu, the Norwegian Refugee Council’s Country Representative in Uganda. “Other diseases like diarrhoea, malaria and respiratory track infections are likely to break out if we cannot step up the support we are giving to new arrivals.”

    Several refugee transit centres have massively surpassed their holding capacity. For example, the Nyumanzi reception centre in Adjumani was set up to accommodate 3,500 people, but now hosts over 8,000 individuals.

    The Government of Uganda and UNHCR are establishing eight new refugee settlements. However, the relocation of refugees to these sites is not matching the pace of new arrivals. About 1,700 South Sudanese are arriving into Uganda each day.

    “We fear the recent cholera outbreak in Adjumani may spread to other areas including Yumbe, unless urgent measures are taken to contain the outbreak,” continued Adisu. “Fifty-five people have been treated for suspected cholera so far.”

    The new arrivals need urgent assistance including shelter, water, sanitation and hygiene support. Reports of sexual violence against people fleeing South Sudan continue, with a large number of children and youth reportedly suffering from psychosocial trauma as a result of sexual abuse and violence.

    While aid agencies are working around the clock to respond to cholera and other rising needs, they cannot respond adequately to the unfolding humanitarian crisis without increased funding. The South Sudanese Refugee Response Plan is only 36 per cent funded, of the US$212 million required to meet needs.

    Key figures:

    • Over 85,000 South Sudanese have fled to Uganda since July 2016, according to UNHCR.

    • Over 85 per cent of the new arrivals are women and children.

    • As of the end of July, Uganda hosted over 550,000 refugees. This included 315,000 refugees and asylum seekers from South Sudan, and over 200,000 refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    • South Sudan ranks among the countries with the highest levels of conflict-induced population displacement globally. Over 1.6 million people are displaced inside the country, and more than 900,000 have fled to neighbouring countries since December 2013.

    • 6 million people - more than half South Sudan´s population - need humanitarian assistance.

    • Over 4.8 million people in South Sudan will face severe food shortages over the coming months, and the risk of a hunger catastrophe continues to threaten parts of the country.

    About NRC:

    The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) is a humanitarian organization working in more than 25 countries globally. For more information the organization’s work in Uganda and South Sudan, go to www.nrc.no.

    Press Contacts:


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    DAKAR/ABUJA – The number of people in need of food assistance in north-eastern Nigeria has risen to 4.5 million, nearly twice as many as in March, according to a mid-August analysis (Cadre Harmonisé) by various agencies including the UN World Food Programme (WFP).

    A worsening economy could see this figure rise by a further million as early as next month. A separate food assessment by WFP has warned of soaring prices in areas affected by the Boko Haram insurgency.

    “The news comes as in the past days alone, tens of people have been killed or injured in Nigeria and in neighbouring Chad, Cameroon and Niger – an indication that Boko Haram violence is set to keep pushing more people into hunger and suffering,” said Abdou Dieng, WFP’s Regional Director for West Africa.

    According to the Cadre Harmonisé, the number of people struggling with severe food insecurity has risen fourfold since March to over one million (distributed across Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States). This level of food insecurity is classified as ‘emergency phase’: people generally require food assistance to survive. More than 65,000 people – located in newly liberated but still inaccessible areas in Borno and Yobe – are estimated to be facing famine-like conditions.

    “All indications point to an extremely grave situation. As the rains set in and the lean season deepens, and more areas are opened up to access humanitarian aid, the full scale of hunger and devastation is likely to come to light,” Dieng added.

    The situation remains fluid, with more people uprooted in areas where fighting goes on. Some formerly displaced people are meanwhile returning to find their rural homes uninhabitable: forced to stay in urban areas, they are entirely reliant on external assistance. Further burdened with spiralling inflation, families are having to beg, run up debts or skip meals to survive. Many are reduced to consuming low-nutrient foods – and then, only once a day.

    WFP is scaling up its response, aiming to reach over 700,000 people with food and cash assistance in the coming months. This will include specialized nutritious food for 150,000 children under age five. Much of it, as well as medicines, vaccines and medical equipment, is being delivered through the WFP-managed United Nations Humanitarian Air Service, frequently used by the wider humanitarian community.

    WFP requires US$52 million to continue providing life-saving assistance until the end of the year in north-eastern Nigeria.

    WFP is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food in emergencies and working with communities to build resilience. Each year, WFP assists some 80 million people in around 80 countries.

    Follow us on Twitter: @WFP_WAfrica, @WFP_Media

    For more information please contact (email address: firstname.lastname@wfp.org):
    Adel Sarkozi, WFP/Dakar, Mob. +221 776375964
    Jane Howard, WFP/Rome, Tel. +39 06 65132321, Mob. +39 346 7600521
    Bettina Luescher, WFP/Geneva, Tel. +41 22 917 8564, Mob. + 41-79-842-8057
    Gregory Barrow, WFP/London, Tel. +44 20 72409001, Mob. +44 7968 008474
    Gerald Bourke, WFP/New York, Tel. +1-646-5566909, Mob. +1-646 525 9982


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Nigeria

    Nigeria - The Boko Haram conflict affecting the Lake Chad Basin area, particularly in northeast Nigeria, has resulted in large scale displacement and a significant protection crisis.

    In Nigeria alone, over 2.2 million people are internally displaced, including many living in temporary sites without basic services, where conditions fail to meet the most basic standards. Numbers are growing rapidly as aid agencies gain access to more areas.

    IOM has so far provided humanitarian support to nearly 325,000 people in northeast Nigeria through provision of non-food relief items, shelter, psychological first aid, camp coordination and camp management (CCCM) and training to meet SPHERE minimum standards in humanitarian relief.

    But it needs significantly more financial support to continue to provide shelter, displacement tracking and biometric registration, camp management and psycho-social help for people affected by the crisis.

    IOM leads the shelter and CCCM cluster, together with the Nigerian Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). Its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), implemented in close collaboration with the government, is the principal tool through which essential data on displacement levels, locations and conditions are collected, analyzed and shared.

    Significant resources have been mobilized over the past 18 months with steps taken by IOM to deploy additional technical experts in the area of shelter, camp management and displacement tracking.

    Economic disruption caused by ongoing violence has left millions in a situation of acute food insecurity, prompting the Nigerian authorities to declare a food and nutrition emergency in Borno state, where most of the internally displaced are located. Women, children and the elderly are at particular risk.

    Conditions in the region have now deteriorated to a point where it now meets the criteria required to activate Level 3 emergency status, the highest level of humanitarian crisis, according to IOM Director General William Lacy Swing.

    “The Level 3 Emergency Response will initially be for six months and will apply to IOM’s relief operations in Nigeria, and related activities carried out in neighboring countries. We hope that this will result in a better resourced and more coordinated response to this major humanitarian crisis,” he said.

    IOM Nigeria Chief of Mission Enira Krdzalic said: “The condition of internally displaced people in the northeast is still very precarious. The majority are women, children and the elderly. They are exposed to harsh living conditions due to large scale destruction of their houses and farms by Boko Haram, as well as acute food shortages and lack of medical services. IOM will not abandon these people and we are appealing to the donor community for help. IOM will continue working with Nigerian authorities not to abandon these people and we are appealing to the donor community for help.”

    For more information, please contact IOM Abuja. Ikechukwu Hillarion Attah, Tel: +234 8140671127, Email: iattah@iom.int or Enira Krdzalic, Email: ekrdzalic@iom.int


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: South Sudan

    South Sudan - USAID’s Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) has contributed an additional USD 17 million to support IOM’s emergency operations across South Sudan, where more than 6.1 million people are in need of humanitarian aid.

    With USAID’s support, IOM will continue and expand lifesaving aid operations for more than 605,300 displaced and vulnerable individuals at the UN protection of civilians (PoC) sites in Bentiu and Malakal, as well as in Renk and other high-need locations.

    “With millions facing severe hunger and displacement, humanitarian needs in South Sudan are the highest they have been since the crisis began. USAID’s contribution and partnership allows IOM to continue lifesaving assistance as we strive to meet the growing needs, which have only been exacerbated by renewed fighting in recent months,” said IOM South Sudan Chief of Mission William Barriga.

    Some USD 5.7 million will help IOM ensure that internally displaced persons (IDPs) maintain access to safe drinking water and liveable hygiene and sanitation conditions in the Bentiu and Malakal PoC sites, where 94,800 and 33,000 people, respectively, are currently seeking protection from the ongoing conflict.

    An additional USD 5.4 million will enable IOM to continue operating primary health clinics at the Bentiu and Malakal PoC sites and scale up harmonised health and hygiene promotion activities focused on preventing the spread of disease in the congested sites.

    IOM will also maintain static health care clinics in Renk, near the border with Sudan, providing medical care for IDPs, host community households and returnees.

    The project will also support health rapid response teams, which can quickly deploy on missions across conflict-affected states, increasing IOM’s flexibility to reach vulnerable populations located far from PoC sites.

    A further USD 845,800 will scale up psychosocial support (PSS) activities in the Bentiu PoC site and roll out PSS programming in the Malakal PoC site, where psychosocial and protection needs are high, particularly following the attack on the site in February 2016.

    USAID/OFDA is also providing USD 5 million to extend the IOM-managed Rapid Response Fund (RRF) project, which has served as a flexible funding mechanism since 2010 to enable quick disbursement of funds to humanitarian organizations able to respond to emergencies as they arise.

    The RRF has played a particularly critical role in responding to the rapidly expanding humanitarian needs in Wau, following the violence that broke out in the area in late June, which displaced more than 80,000 people from their homes.

    The RRF has enabled three NGOs and IOM to quickly provide camp management, child protection, nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene support at displacement sites across Wau town.

    Since the humanitarian crisis erupted in South Sudan in December 2013, the US government has contributed over USD 1.7 billion in humanitarian funding to support operations across South Sudan and for refugees in neighbouring countries.

    For further information, please contact IOM South Sudan. Ashley McLaughlin, Tel: +1 407 625 8354 Email: amclaughlin@iom.int or Jennifer Pro, Tel: +211 920 885 988, Email: jpro@iom.int.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, El Salvador, Gambia, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iraq, Italy, Libya, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Panama, Senegal, Spain, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United States of America, World

    Germany - As the number of migrant deaths worldwide continues to rise significantly, IOM’s Missing Migrants Project has recorded 23 per cent more migrant deaths during the first half of 2016 compared with the same period in 2015.

    The latest IOM GMDAC Data Briefing, “Dangerous Journeys,” released on Tuesday 23 August, was prepared by the International Organization for Migration’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) in Berlin. It takes an in-depth look at the available global figures for migrant deaths and disappearances during the first half of 2016.

    The data collected by Missing Migrants Project indicate that the number of people who go missing or die in the process of migration has increased significantly since 2014, especially in the Mediterranean region. The increase can partly be attributed to improving data collection. However, it also speaks to the level of risk associated with attempting to migrate by irregular means across international borders in 2016, as well as the desperation that motivates people to take these migration journeys.

    “In the first six months of 2016, worldwide more than 3,700 people went missing or lost their lives,” said GMDAC Director Frank Laczko. “This is a 23 percent increase compared to the same time period in 2015, and a 52 percent increase for the same time period in 2014.”

    Dr. Laczko explained this dramatic change can be attributed to a higher number of recorded migrant fatalities in the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa, the Middle East and the Horn of Africa. “Worldwide, the Mediterranean Sea continues to greatly outweigh other regions in terms of the number of people who are recorded missing and/or dead during the process of migration,” he said. “Of the recorded deaths from January to June 2016, 78 percent (2,901) were in the Mediterranean. This compares with 60 percent during the same period in 2015.”

    As in 2015, the majority of people who died or went missing in the Mediterranean Sea in the first six months of 2016 were lost in the Central Mediterranean. In the first half of 2016, 1 in 24 migrants died attempting the Central Mediterranean crossing, compared with 1 in 400 on the eastern route.

    The high rate of death in the Central Mediterranean compared to other routes is due to two main factors: the significantly longer overseas journey; and more dangerous smuggling strategies. Crossing from North Africa to Italy via the Central Mediterranean is a journey of several hundred kilometres, compared to the dozen or so required to travel the eastern or western routes. Additionally, boats used in the Central Mediterranean are significantly larger than those used on the eastern route.

    Migration through Central America, which extends from Panama through Mexico, has led to 43 recorded deaths by various means in the first six months of 2016, and it is likely that more go uncounted. Once migrants reach the border with the United States, they must cross dangerous natural terrain, which has led to at least 161 deaths in the first half of 2016.

    Poverty and the fear of detection at official border crossings have long motivated migrants to illegally hop onto freight trains, collectively referred to as “La Bestia” (the beast), as they make their way through Mexico towards the United States. Journeys are notoriously dangerous, with frequent reports of assault, maiming and death from falling off the trains.

    However, since the implementation of the Mexican Programa Frontera Sur in July 2014, Missing Migrants Project data indicate that train-related deaths in this region have declined. So far in 2016, 37 per cent of the migrant deaths recorded in Central America were caused by migrants being hit by or having fallen off a train, as opposed to the same period in 2015, when 60 per cent of the recorded deaths were train-related.

    Nevertheless, because of the shift to more clandestine means of travel through Central America, such as by foot or hidden in vehicles, when death does occur during migration, there is a higher chance that migrants will not be found immediately, if at all.

    The challenges involved in the collection of data and the identification of those who die during migration are also examined in the data briefing. There are significant gaps in knowledge on the location and context of migrant deaths globally, and the numbers recorded by Missing Migrants Project are considered to be vastly underestimated. Nevertheless, even if the numbers are an informed estimate, what before was vague and ill-defined is now a quantified tragedy that must be addressed.

    For further information, please contact Frank Laczko at IOM GMDAC in Berlin. Tel. +49 30 278 778 11, Email: gmdac@iom.int


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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Burundi, Nigeria, World, Yemen

    Weekly Picks

    Nigeria

    The Nigerian government has reportedly shut down 12 IDP camps in Adamawa state and six out of seven in Yobe state. Many IDPs are unable to return to their homes, which have been damaged or destroyed, or are still insecure. Most of the remaining IDP camps are located in Maiduguri, Borno state.

    Yemen

    Thousands of people are likely to be affected by the reduction in health services as MSF has evacuated its staff from six hospitals in Sa'ada and Hajjah governorates, following an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition on a hospital that killed at least 19 people in Hajjah governorate. This was the fourth time an MSF-led hospital has been hit by airstrikes in the past year.

    Burundi

    100 people have been hospitalised with suspected cholera in Bujumbura rural and city provinces since 27 July, mostly in Kabezi district. Poor hygiene conditions and a shortage of safe water points are contributing to the outbreak. Water shortages are reportedly due to the dry season, which runs from June to September. Previous cholera outbreaks in Burundi have affected displaced populations, and with people continuing to move, the risk of the outbreak spreading is high.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Niger


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    Source: Government of Belgium
    Country: Belgium, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Under the leadership of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Development Cooperation Alexander De Croo, Belgium has decided to allocate more than EUR 9 million in humanitarian aid to address the needs in the Lake Chad Basin.

    "Lake Chad Basin is seriously affected by the violent attacks by militant group Boko Haram and by a severe food insecurity. More than 2,6 million people have been displaced due to the terror caused by Boko Haram. About 9 million people are in urgent need of humanitarian aid. Belgium closely monitors the evolution of this crisis and places a particular focus on this region, one of the priority areas for Belgian development cooperation”, said Alexander De Croo.

    Following the worsening of the humanitarian situation in the Lake Chad Basin, Belgium has decided to grant a specific support of EUR 9.151.332 for the period 2016-2017 to the following humanitarian organizations:
    - The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
    - The World Food Programme (WFP)
    - The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
    - The NGO Caritas

    The funding of EUR 2 million for the ICRC operations in Nigeria aims at responding to emergencies in this country, in particular in the conflict zone in the North-East. The objective of the project is notably to support and protect the victims of the conflict and to work together with the authorities, the armed forces, the police, the civil society and the Economic Community Of West African States in order to raise awareness about International Humanitarian Law and to promote its implementation at a national level.

    The funding of EUR 3 million for the WFP aims at delivering air services (UNHAS) in Nigeria and Chad to allow a quick and safe access to the aid beneficiaries.

    The funding of EUR 2.050.000 allocated to OCHA aims at strengthening the capacity of their offices in Niger and Chad in order to ensure a better coordination of the available humanitarian resources.

    The funding of EUR 2.101.332 to the NGO Caritas aims at building the capacity of vulnerable population of Niger to limit the adverse impacts of drought and of population displacement due to the atrocities of Boko Haram. The direct beneficiaries of the project, implemented in Diffa, will be refugees fleeing Nigeria, Nigerien returnees from Nigeria, internally displaced persons as well as the host population.

    Our country also provides substantial funding to the flexible funds of OCHA (CERF) and WFP (IRA). In June 2016, CERF spent US$ 13 million to provide vital support to 250.000 persons in North-East Nigeria. It also allocated US$ 10 million in response to the crisis in the Lake Chad area and to food insecurity in Chad. In 2016, IRA approved the allocation of US$1.682.243 to address humanitarian needs in Nigeria. Belgium contributed therefore indirectly to this additional aid as well.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan, Sudan

    Overview on Education in Emergencies (EiE) in Sudan 2016

    North and Central Darfur

    The gap in education is still very high with some 3,400 school aged children identified as being in need of learning facilities in Sortony, North Darfur following their recent displacement from Jebel Marra. This translates to 68 temporary classrooms alongside teaching and learning related materials. The government approval for construction of these classrooms was granted after advocacy by UNICEF, sector partners and the Ministry of Education.

    The Education sector has secured funding for the construction of 40 classrooms (of the 68 needed), leaving a gap of 28 classrooms for which funds are still required. Other needs include for sitting mats, black boards and textbooks. Teachers in Sortony and Tawilla localities also require training on the new curriculum for first and second grades. In another locality, Kutum, the gaps include 155 latrines, textbooks for first and second grades (covering 32,994 pupils) and school feeding. Plan International and FPDO have been allocated funds from the SHF first round of allocations to minimise the gaps, particularly in classrooms and supplies.

    South Sudanese Education in East Darfur

    The Education sector continues to support the Government in coordinating the education response for refugees in East Darfur State. Growing food insecurity and ongoing conflict has displaced thousands of South Sudanese to Sudan. Since the beginning of 2016, an estimated 14,350 children are of school age and in need of education in East Darfur. UNICEF and sector partners will be providing education supplies for 5,520 children and will be constructing 54 temporary classrooms, 22 WASH facilities and training 90 teachers with the support of US $425,000 from CERF, in collaboration with OCHA and UNHCR.

    Education of Flood-Affected Children

    According to the Federal Ministry of Education in South Darfur, 583 school aged children have been affected by the heavy rains and floods in Bilail and Alsalm localities. In Sennar State 5,571 school aged children from Aldali, Almazmom, East Sennar, Aldindir, Alsoki, Singa and Abuhugar are affected. Nifasha IDP camp in North Darfur was seriously affected by flooding with damage to educational facilities currently under assessment. Floods have also affected West Kordofan where plans are underway for an education assessment.

    In El Nouhod locality, West Kordofan, UNICEF (through the Education sector core-pipeline) provided an initial response, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, of school in a box kits, student kits and recreational kits benefiting over 800 school children. A WASH unit has also been constructed at the school benefiting 771 students who did not have access to a functioning latrine due to the floods. Similar interventions were also provided to 1,440 flood affected children in Aroma locality in Kassala.


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