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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Sudan

    HIGHLIGHTS

    389,511 total number of refugees and asylum seekers assisted by UNHCR in Chad

    46,000 received livelihoods support to promote refugee self-reliance

    Prevention of statelessness: 7,617 birth certificates issues to returnees since January 2016

    VILLAGIZATION MISSION IN SOUTHERN CHAD

    In an effort to increase refugee self-reliance, UNHCR is seeking to implement a pilot project of transforming two protracted refugee camps into integrated sites. From 28 July to 1 August, a multi-function team from Headquarters in Geneva and the UNHCR Branch Office (N'Djamena) conducted a feasibility study for the creation of the 'integrated sites' of Amboko and Gondje in the Sub Office of Gore, South Chad. The mission held consultations with the refugee committees and discussions with the focal points of the different sectors (health, nutrition, environment, WASH, education) prior to meeting with the traditional heads of town in the camps vicinity. The results of these consultations will enable the team to develop a holistic approach to plan the project which will take into consideration the needs of refugees and the local population in surrounding villages.

    MEETING WITH THE U.S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE

    On Friday, 15 July, the Assistant Secretary of State for the Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM), Ann C. Richard, on mission in Chad visited UNHCR office. Together with the Regional PRM Coordinator, Lance Kinne, they had a meeting behind closed doors with the committee of urban refugees, followed by a discussion with the UNHCR management team lead by the Representative, Jose Antonio Canhandula. UNHCR Chad operation and its perspectives were discussed. The mission objectives were to look for elements of the protracted refugee situation to support advocacy for funding, to lend support to the EU in its effort to highlight the crisis around Lake Chad as well as crisis in other parts of Africa, and to prepare Chad for the September UN General Assembly debates on refugees and the more restricted Leaders' Summit on the Global Refugee Crisis to be held in the same month. During the exchange, the Representative gave an overview of the UNHCR operation highlighting its vision, initiatives, successes, challenges and vulnerabilities. Mrs. Richard reiterated her support to the work UNHCR operation.

    OPERATIONAL CONTEXT

    The closure of the border in the South and the Lake Chad Region continues to affect cross-border movements, and has a negative impact on socio-economic activities such as trade of goods and cattle. In the Lake Chad Region, the State of Emergency is still in effect and the fight against Boko Haram insurgency continue.

    The search for durable solutions for Chadian returnees from CAR remain a challenge as the Government five-year action plan for the reintegration of the returnees is yet to be launched. UNHCR continues its advocacy efforts for the Chadian parliament to pass the national asylum law. The challenge remains the short term of line ministers in office as a result of frequent ministerial reshuffling which impacts the advocacy process.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria

    KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS

    • Recurring natural disasters such as droughts and floods combined with the volatility of markets, pushed many households and communities into chronic vulnerability.

    • Conflict in northern Nigeria and CAR has displaced refugees to Cameroon, and caused internal displacements. In addition, increasing insecurity in the far North of Cameroon and along the border of CAR hampers humanitarian access.

    • Poor coverage of sanitation and access to clean water remain the main causes of malnutrition and water-borne diseases.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

    The Year in Review

    As the final year of the 2014 - 2016 Humanitarian response plan progresses, looking back on last year’s achievements also provides the opportunity to thank donors for their continued engagement and generosity in the Sahel. Donors provided over US$1.2 billion in 2015 enabling one hundred organisations to work across nine countries in one of the world’s major humanitarian operations.

    The collective efforts of our regional, national and local partners - often operating in precarious and sometimes very dangerous conditions - have made it possible for us to assist millions of vulnerable families in the Sahel. I am deeply grateful and we can all be proud of the results achieved.
    In my first year as Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel, I travelled extensively to all nine countries. Wherever I went, whatever community I listened to – people were poor and resources stretched. The assistance we provided to the most vulnerable saved lives and helped reduce critical needs. The past year however, also brought on new challenges.

    First, we are making headway in fighting the Sahel food and nutrition emergency. Our actions lift communities out of crisis, reduce their vulnerability and make them stronger to withstand shocks. Governments are committed to putting the poorest families at the heart of their policies and deliver basic services. Years of building communities’ resilience are bearing fruit. Measures such as safety nets and weather insurances start paying off. There are more long-term development investments.

    The number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Senegal and The Gambia has decreased over the last two years, and development actors are increasingly engaged to ensure vulnerable communities do not slide back into crisis.

    Secondly, in the Lake Chad Basin and in Mali, progress has been slow. Where violence strikes, all is lost in a wink, and needs can spiral out of control again. The Lake Chad crisis is the deadliest and fastest growing in Africa, with an estimated 9.2 million people – almost one in two – in need of emergency relief. Four years after the conflict erupted in Mali insecurity in the north persists, and destitute communities remain vulnerable and rely on assistance.

    Thirdly, across the region, the converging effects of climate change, abject poverty and violent extremism could spiral out of control. Extreme poverty affects one in every two people. With the impact of climate change and unpredictable rains, conditions for farmers and pastoralists – that is more than four out of five families – become worse.
    And violent extremism has added a dangerous ingredient to the blend. Extreme poverty, lack of education and life opportunities make youths across the Sahel more open to being exploited by this evil.

    The longer we wait to address the root causes of crises in the Sahel, the bigger the problem will grow in depth and in numbers. In thirty years, 300 million people – a twofold increase compared to today - are expected to live in the Sahel. If countries in the region do not address this challenge, supported by broad international engagement, the underlying causes of the crisis will be exacerbated acutely.

    We are here to do our part and count on donors to stand by the Sahel, and renew their commitment to our appeal in 2016.

    Toby Lanzer Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel Dakar, Senegal


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Regional Highlights

    • On 28 July, a humanitarian convoy returning from Bama to Maiduguri was attacked by suspected Boko Haram elements. The convoy included staff from UNICEF, UNFPA, and IOM. The United Nations has temporarily suspended road and overnight missions to Bama for the next month.

    • UN agencies conducted the first cross-border aid delivery from Cameroon to Nigeria’s Banki town located 2 km from the Cameroonian border on 21 July, providing four days’ worth of food and NFI to 15,000 IDPs in the town. The operation was essential given the difficult humanitarian access between Maiduguri, the capital of Nigeria’s north-eastern Borno State, and Banki.

    • In Nigeria, nearly a quarter of a million children in Borno State are severely malnourished. One in five of them will die if they receive no treatment.

    • Famine could be occurring in the worst-affected and less accessible areas of Borno, according to USAID’s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). From June to September most areas of the Lake Chad region will face crisis levels (IPC Phase 3) of food insecurity.

    • An unconditional cash transfer programme in five displacement sites around Bol, in Chad’s eastern Lac region targets more than 9,000 beneficiaries. Each family will receive 6,000 CFA francs per family member per month.

    • Military operations by the Niger security and defence forces in collaboration with the Joint Multinational Task Force are ongoing in Niger’s south-eastern Diffa region. Deadly attacks in late May and early June in Bosso and Yebi towns had set off the displacement of 70,000 people.

    Humanitarian Needs

    Population movement

    • Following new registration and assessment, there are now around 115,000 displaced people in Chad’s Lac region. Out of them, 63,000 are internally displaced persons (IDPs), 8,400 are Chadian returnees, 320 are third-country nationals, and 43,000 are yet to be registered to determine their status. In addition, the Lac region hosts around 7,000 refugees from Nigeria.

    • The final report on the June rapid multisector needs assessment finds that in Logone and Chari department health is the priority need, followed by food and water and sanitation. An increase in the number of displaced people is expected for the next DTM due to insecurity and regular attacks in villages close to the Nigerian border.

    Protection

    • Fourteen protection monitoring visits conducted by UNHCR in IDP sites in Borno found that difficult access to water and sanitation, shelter and free movement in and out of camps, limited access to medical care, dire food shortage and lack of livelihood options were the major concerns. In Bakassi camp, IDPs drew attention to the severe water shortage and lack of food. In Kushari host community, IDPs reported limited access to food and means of livelihood especially for widows.

    • Persistent Boko Haram attacks, insecurity and deprivation continue to subject the residents of Cameroon’s Far North region to serious protection risks. Violations of the right to life and physical integrity, right to owning property and free movement are the most frequent.

    Food Insecurity

    • Famine could be occurring in the worst-affected and less accessible areas of Borno, USAID’s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) warned in July, pointing out that the data is however limited and not statistically representative. It noted that from June to September most areas of the Lake Chad region will face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity, as households are only marginally able to meet their food needs with irreversible coping strategies including the sale of productive assets such as farmland and female livestock.

    • Nearly a quarter of a million children in the north-eastern Borno State are severely malnourished and face a high risk of death. Of the 244,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition, around 49,000, or almost 1 in 5, will die if they receive no treatment, UNICEF said on 19 July, calling for concerted efforts by humanitarian organizations and donors to tackle the crisis.

    • Malnutrition rates remain above emergency threshold in many districts in Chad. The revised results from a screening for malnutrition conducted in May by WFP on almost 1,600 children in 14 priority sites in Daboua-Kangalam, Baga-Sola and Ngouboua sub-prefectures underline a global acute malnutrition (GAM) rate of 28 per cent and a severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rate of 4.4 per cent, well above emergency thresholds.


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    Source: Mercy Corps
    Country: Nigeria

    Overview

    Summary

    The purpose of this rapid assessment was to establish the severity, scale and range of humanitarian needs in Damboa LGA and use the findings to inform programmatic responses. Damboa LGA was targeted for assessment following verbal reports from Nigerian local authorities and the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) in early 2016 that large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs) located in Damboa and Sabon Gari towns without government or humanitarian agency assistance.

    The assessment was conducted in late July 2016 in two main locations: Damboa town, approximately 90km south west of Borno’s state capital, Maiduguri; and Sabon Gari, a settlement on the road roughly halfway between Damboa and Biu, the main town of southern Borno (see map). Smaller towns and villages in outlying parts of the LGA were not visited because most rural areas were substantially depopulated as a result of insurgent attacks and/or Nigerian Armed Forces operations, and they are not yet accessible for security reasons.

    Overall, the humanitarian needs in Damboa and Sabon Gari are immense. IDPs located in informal settlements (referred to as “camps”), as well as those in host community areas both require immediate assistance. While IDPs in Sabon Gari and the larger camps in Damboa have received some emergency food, shelter, non-food item (NFI) assistance and primary health care (including treatment of malnutrition), there are significant unmet needs in every sector. Unlike other nearby towns like Biu and Gombe with large host populations, the overwhelming majority of households in Damboa and Sabon Gari are IDPs. Even the small percentage of host community households present have only recently returned from displacement elsewhere, chiefly Maiduguri. Thus, nearly the entire population requires assistance, which makes the situation challenging for agencies to target limited resources to the most vulnerable.

    The overwhelming priority is food assistance paired with treatment of malnutrition, as 97% of respondents reported that they could not afford to buy food in the last four weeks. This is followed by the need for a wide range of NFIs (i.e. clothing, bedding and hygiene consumables), water sanitation hygiene (WASH) interventions and shelter repairs or expansion. There are also significant protection risks, notably for the large number of women-headed households and separated or unaccompanied children.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Rwanda, Yemen

    (New York, 16 August 2016) Today, the Emergency Relief Coordinator, Stephen O’Brien, released US$50 million from the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) for severely underfunded aid operations in six neglected emergencies. The funds will provide life-saving assistance for two million people in dire humanitarian need, including 200,000 refugees, 665,000 internally displaced persons, 170,000 returnees and 530,000 people in host communities. “This funding is a lifeline for the world's most vulnerable people caught up in forgotten crises,” said USG O’Brien. “In recent years, the global refugee crisis has put enormous pressure on CERF to help millions of people fleeing conflicts that linger for lack of a political solution. This allocation is made possible by the generous contributions of donors who are committed to leave no one behind, and to helping us reach the furthest behind first.”

    Some US$35 million will allow humanitarian partners to respond to protracted humanitarian emergencies in central Africa, caused by armed conflicts, political instability and human rights violations, and compounded by food insecurity and disease outbreaks. The funds will support the delivery of critical health services, access to food, emergency shelter, protection of women and girls, water and sanitation, and essential logistics support. The allocation will benefit aid operations in the Central African Republic ($9 million), Chad ($10 million) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo ($11 million), as well as Rwanda ($5 million), which is hosting refugees from Burundi and DR Congo.

    A further $13 million will boost relief operations in Yemen where an estimated 21.2 million people, over 82 per cent of the population, require humanitarian assistance. An allocation of $2 million will support humanitarian partners in Eritrea in responding to current needs due to arid conditions and poor rains. Additionally, gaps in health care, water, sanitation and hygiene services will be addressed.

    This second round brings the total allocation from the CERF’s underfunded emergencies window in 2016 to US$150 million. CERF has so far received $311 million in contributions for 2016 and disbursed nearly as much to 35 countries for life-saving activities around the world. As the UN and humanitarian partners work tirelessly to assist the most vulnerable, and with the humanitarian funding gap growing year after year, it is vital that resources are available for future life-saving response.

    “All humanitarian emergencies are underfunded this year,” warned the Emergency Relief Coordinator. “I wish I could allocate more CERF funds to these and other protracted crises, given the enormous needs. However, contributions to the Fund are limited and demand from humanitarian partners around the world is high. This year we are projecting a $50 million shortfall on the annual $450 million funding target. I am very concerned that this could force CERF to significantly reduce allocations for underfunded emergencies in the future. Today, I appeal to all Member States, regional organizations and private citizens to scale up their support to CERF and enable us to save more lives.”

    CERF is one of the fastest and most effective ways to support rapid humanitarian response. The Fund pools donor contributions into a single fund so money is available to start or continue urgent relief work anywhere in the world at the onset of emergencies and for crises that have not attracted sufficient funding. Since 2006, 126 UN Member States and observers, private-sector donors and regional governments have supported the Fund. To date, CERF has allocated almost $4.5 billion for humanitarian operations in 98 countries and territories.

    For further information, please contact:
    Mads Oberlin Frandsen, CERF Secretariat, +1 917 367 2817, +1 347 468 6057, frandsen@un.org
    Amanda Pitt, OCHA NY, +1 212 963 4129, +1 917 442 1810, pitta@un.org


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • As of 9 August, 936 cholera cases have been reported, with 22 deaths. Cholera response is ongoing; 313 cases have been treated in UNICEFsupported Oral Rehydration Points throughout Juba.

    • So far in 2016, 61,181 children in South Sudan have benefited from community-based psychosocial support services. However, services have been scaled back throughout the country as a result of limited funding for the Child Protection sector.

    • 40 Out-Patient Therapeutic sites, 40 Therapeutic Supplementary Feeding Programmes sites, and three stabilization centers are operational in response to catastrophic food insecurity in Northern Bahr el Ghazal.

    Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs

    The situation of women and children in South Sudan has significantly deteriorated following the outbreak of fighting in Juba on 8 July, with pockets of fighting emerging across the country, displacement continues. Up to 12,500 people remain displaced in Juba as a result of the recent violence; over 70,000 have fled to Uganda since the start of July. Insecurity is undermining humanitarian access, further threatening the lives of the estimated 4.8 million people affected by food insecurity.

    Lives of affected populations are also at risk as a result of the recent cholera outbreak, in particular in Juba. As of 9 August, the cumulative number of cases has reached 936; the case fatality rate remains above the 1 per cent threshold, at 2.3 per cent with 22 deaths. The figures below illustrate the evolution of the cholera outbreak, with cumulative cases, deaths, and new cases by location.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Shelter Cluster
    Country: Mali

    NEED ANALYSIS

    • The security environment in Mali remains volatile, particularly in the North. Despite this insecurity, displaced persons are returning to their homes. As of June 2016 some 37,801 Malians remain internally displaced (DTM), while an estimated 134, 262 persons remain refugees in neighboring countries (UNHCR).

    • Populations returning from displacement face many challenges related to access to basic needs including shelter and NFI as a result of destroyed or lost belongings.

    • To respond to the need, in the HRP 2016 (Humanitarian response plan), the shelter cluster estimates 450, 000 people in needs of NFI and 167, 000 people in need of shelter assistance. The cluster has targeted 91,000 persons to receive NFI assistance and 17, 000 vulnerable persons to receive shelter assistance.

    RESPONSE

    Following the HCT strategy, the cluster response is based on vulnerabilities of the affected population, not the status of beneficiaries. The shelter response focuses on three main topics:

    • NFI: NFI distribution for vulnerable persons living in return area;

    • Permanent shelter: Construction or rehabilitation of damaged houses for people who return in their area of origin;

    • Nomadic shelter: Provision of traditional shelter through shelter kits, composed of a tool kit and a construction material kit.

    GAPS / CHALLENGES

    • In comparing the target and the population in need, only 20 per cent of vulnerable persons will be reached;

    • Limited number of active shelter actors and donors;

    • Humanitarian access still remains a challenge due to the security situation in some areas;

    • Lack of qualitative shelter needs assessment.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Les rélocalisations volontaires des réfugiés ont été relancées le 8 juillet 2016. Les raisons qui poussent les réfugiés à choisir de se rendre au camp de Sayam Forage sont principalement le sentiment constant d’insécurité et l’absence d’opportunité socioéconomiques.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uruguay, World

    What is La Niña?

    La Niña is the cooling of sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific, which occurs roughly every three to five years, lasting from six to 24 months. On average, half of El Niño events are followed by a La Niña, which typically affects global climate patterns in the opposite way El Niño does. The intensity of the La Niña climatic phenomenon generally peaks between October and January

    Purpose of this report

    The aim of this report is to:
    (a) consolidate information on La Niña’s potential impacts on agriculture and food security, specifically in the regions which are now dealing with the consequences of El Niño; and
    (b) provide early action recommendations in the agriculture sector to either reap the beneficial outcomes of La Niña, or prevent, mitigate and prepare for its negative effects.

    What is the current forecast for La Niña?

    Current forecasts indicate that the onset of a La Niña episode may start between August and October 2016 and there is a 55 to 60 percent chance that it would persist until the beginning of 2017.The timing of a La Niña onset is key to determine how its consequences will impact on agriculture.

    What are the main consequences of La Niña for agriculture and food security?

    A La Niña phenomena generally affects the same regions that are impacted by El Niño, with opposite climatic consequences. Areas which experienced dry conditions (below-average rainfall and/or increased temperature) during El Niño, for instance, tend to receive above-average rainfall and in some cases cooler temperatures.

    While the climatic phenomenon usually peaks in intensity between October and January, changes to climatic patterns and their related impacts on food security and agriculture can happen both before and after the peak. It is possible that La Niña could develop as early as August, in which case it might already start affecting the growing seasons in some parts of the world from September 2016.

    The consequences of La Niña on agriculture and food security can be both positive and negative. The positive effects derive from the increased likelihood of above-average rainfall which could improve pasture and crop yields. At the same time, if the above-average rainfall results in flooding, then clearly the results may be negative as in this case there is an increased incidence of seeds being washed away, landslides, crops destroyed and livestock morbidity and mortality. Since La Niña would most likely impact regions that have already been affected by El Niño, the food security situation could further deteriorate and protract into 2018. In the event of a “positive” La Niña, it is important to highlight that the actual full effect of above-average rainfall will not be felt until the next harvest – i.e. the end of 2016 (if La Niña comes early) or by mid-2017 (if La Niña occurs later).


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    Source: Deutsche Welle
    Country: Gambia, Libya, Niger, World

    More than 100,000 migrants pass through Agadez in Niger every year as they struggle to reach Europe. Some pass through it a second time - on the return journey back to their homeland.

    A year ago, 20-year-old John Silva decided to leave his homeland of Gambia. As a young fisherman, he saw no chance to get ahead in life and make something of himself. So he headed for Europe.

    The journey ended abruptly in the Libyan capital Tripoli when the police arrested him and put him in jail for three months. He had to phone his family and ask them to send some money before the Libyans would release him. The family had already clubbed together to give him some money before he left.

    Silva decided he had had enough. "I want to go back to Gambia and work as a fisherman again," he said.

    Traumatized and desperate

    For the last two weeks, Silva has been living in the International Organization for Migration's (IOM) Welcome Center in Agadez, Niger, where some 600 migrants are waiting to be repatriated. "They want to return home urgently and we have to take care of the logistics as quickly as possible," said IOM program coordinator Marina Schramm.

    That doesn't only mean getting hold of tickets, but also new travel documentation from embassies. Like Silva, many of the migrants lost their documents en route. Obtaining new documentation is a wearisome process and tries the patience of the migrants whose plans for a new life in a foreign country are now definitely over. Quarrels between camp inmates are frequent. They are "traumatized and desperate," Schramm said.

    Sitting next to John Silva is his Gambian friend Musa Colley. He stares at the ground, just listening. All of a sudden, he cries out: "The blacks are dying in the Libyan jails. The Libyans hate the blacks." He, too, was incarcerated for three months and was robbed and beaten up several times. Colley had left for Europe in order to support his mother in Gambia. Languishing in a Libyan jail, he was forced to beg for money from her for his release.

    Terror, torture, exploitation and blackmail

    It was stories like these that German development minister Gerd Müller heard during his visit to Agadez. "Terror, torture, exploitation and blackmail. Conditions in Libya are dire," the minister said. That was why Germany was supporting the work of the IOM in Agadez in order to help migrants restore some of their dignity.

    Müller wants to find out why so many young people are leaving their countries of origin and how they can be persuaded not to emigrate. Niger is a point of transit for migrants from West Africa, more than 100,000 pass through Agadez, the largest city in central Niger, every year. The number of irregular migrants leaving Niger itself is minuscule. In the first five months of 2015, Germany deported just seven Nigeriens. Altogether, there are just under 1,200 Nigeriens in Germany, 250 of whom face deportation.

    There are many people in Agadez for whom the stream of migrants in transit is a lucrative source of business. They are the hoteliers, the owners of restaurants or money transfer services and, of course, the people smugglers and transport firms. "Young people work in the people smuggling trade because they have no alternative," Nigerien Foreign Minister Ibrahim Yacouba told DW. "There used to be tourism in Agadez. That was where those who now work as people smugglers used to earn their living," he said.

    Tourism and people smuggling are generally not compatible. That's why the government in the capital Niamey wants to stop the flow of migrants through the country, even though this may well annoy many people in Agadez. It's an open secret in the city that if the migrants were to disappear then so too would a profitable branch of the local economy. Tourism, which would first need to be rebuilt, could not make up for the shortfall overnight.

    In a recent address to the nation, Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou announced for the first time that he was going to crack down on the people smugglers. The German development minister said he did not doubt the seriousness of the Nigerien government's intentions to curb irregular migration. Issoufou is fully aware of the status his country enjoys in Europe. Niger is considered a strong and stable partner, an ally in the fight against terrorism. The country is surrounded by some of Africa's trouble spots - Libya, Mali and Nigeria. Issoufou regards Europe as being under pressure to contain migration and has drawn up a plan to do just that. In exchange, he is asking for 650 million euros ($726 million). During his visit Müller promised him at least an additional 15 million euros.

    John Silva and Musa Colley are given a few euros for bus tickets back to Gambia. Despite the frustration he must be feeling, Silva tells us "I am not disappointed with the Europeans. I like the way they treat people." In a few weeks, he will be back in his home country which is governed by dictator Yahya Jammeh. In Gambia, torture, detention of political opponents, and extra-judicial killings are part of everyday life. On the return journey, Silva will pass buses travelling in the other direction containing migrants who will also try to get to Europe.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Halfway through, the 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan received less than 20% of the required funding. This has strong implications for populations affected by crises in Chad.

    • Pasture and water scarcity, loss of weight and loss of animals, the poor distribution of rainfall during the last campaign had adverse effects on food security of pastoralists.

    • The number of people targeted for cash transfers is increasing rapidly since 2007 worldwide and in Chad.

    Consequences of six months of humanitarian underfunding

    An adverse impact of lack of humanitarian funding on vulnerable populations

    At mid-year, less than 20% of the humanitarian response plan is funded. This underfunding did not allow the implementation of all planned emergency assistance activities, with a detrimental impact on mortality, morbidity and the living conditions of populations affected by crises in Chad.

    In food security, due to underfunding, some 78,000 Chadian returnees targeted in Southern Chad received only two monthly rations during the first half of 2016, and 238,000 Sudanese refugees in Eastern Chad are receiving food covering only 40% of their daily caloric needs. If this underfunding goes on, 2.7 million people may switch from moderate to severe food insecurity during the current lean period.
    Regarding nutrition, given the lack of resources, over 120,000 children suffering from acute malnutrition cannot be treated and may die or lose their potential. In some parts of the Sahel, nutrition supplies will be insufficient in the coming months in order to treat acute malnutrition cases.

    In health, nearly 100,000 people affected by population movements do not have adequate access to health centres or mobile clinics, which do not cover all the displacement sites.

    Concerning education, 180,000 children aged 3 to 17 years affected by the crisis have not been enrolled in 2015-2016. Some 130,000 children affected by crises have the chance to access education; however, they have to learn in unfavourable conditions.
    Some have to cross up to 10 km to find the nearest school. They have to share a trained teacher with 174 other students, and in average, are 90 students per classroom. In crisis regions, nearly 70% of the targeted students finished the 2015-2016 year without school kits.

    Due to lack of funding for protection activities, at least 300 survivors of abuse and violence in the Lac region have not benefited from psychosocial, medical and legal support, limiting their ability to overcome the trauma and cope with current and future crises and shocks. Furthermore, 70% of the 60,000 people affected by displacement and targeted to obtain civil status documents in 2016 still have no access to identity papers.
    Without funding for water, hygiene and sanitation projects, 870,000 people affected by population movements do not have access to drinking water in sufficient quantity, and nearly 670,000 continue to defecate in the open.

    Finally, in the Lac region, over 18,000 displaced families have not received tarps and go without any shelter to protect them against harsh weather conditions such as rain and wind. Furthermore, over 50,000 displaced people have not received non-food items (NFIs) for their survival. Without NFIs, they cannot cook, fetch and store water, protect themselves from the cold and mosquito bites, take a bath and live in dignity


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    Source: Malteser
    Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda

    According to new UN figures, six million people – or more than half of the total population – are in need of humanitarian aid in South Sudan, the world’s newest independent country. Unrest returned to the country as it celebrated five years of independence at the beginning of July, almost a year since the conclusion of a tentative ceasefire that put a hold on years of bloody civil war. Since then, persistent outbreaks of violence have kept South Sudan and the international community on edge.

    At present, 1.6 million South Sudanese people have been internally-displaced – forced to live like refugees in their own country. Many of them have sought refuge from the violence that plagues the country in rapidly-growing slums on the edge of the capital city Juba and the second city Wau, where getting access to clean drinking water and healthy nutrition are major problems. Since mid-July, Malteser International has been working to provide around 25,000 people in the slums around Juba with better access to food and clean water.

    Almost 100,000 people have fled to the city of Juba from the nearby countryside because they feel safer in the city. Malteser International has implemented a voucher system that allows them to access a secure supply of food and water. However, many experts fear that the ongoing instability in South Sudan could have severe long-term consequences for the food supply. “People feel increasingly unsafe from attacks in the countryside, and more and more of them are fleeing to the cities. Of course if there is nobody left on the land then the crops cannot be harvested. It is unlikely that this problem will go away in the foreseeable future, and that could mean that the next harvest is lost,” said Daniela Krings, responsible for Malteser International’s work in South Sudan and Uganda.

    In addition to the millions internally-displaced in South Sudan, around 700,000 people have fled the country altogether to seek safety abroad. Around 80,000 of these are currently living as refugees in Uganda.

    “A large number of South Sudanese people have fled to Uganda because of the friendly reception they have received from the government there. There is a lively culture of friendly hospitality in Uganda,” said Krings. Since September 2015, Malteser International has been helping to ensure that around 20,000 of these refugees have access to a supply of clean drinking water, as well as helping them to grow their own food.

    The DR Congo is also host to an increasing number of South Sudanese refugees. Malteser International has been providing support for local health centers in the country, which have to bear the burden of providing the refugees with medical care. “We are preparing to expand our support for South Sudanese refugees across the region; above all, because the situation in South Sudan itself shows no signs of improvement,” said Roland Hansen, head of Malteser International’s Africa department.


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    Source: Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development, International Organization for Migration, CCCM Cluster
    Country: South Sudan

    711 IDPs have relocated from the UNMISS base in Tongping to UN House since movements began on 28 July. Approximately 120 cholera cases have been reported at both sites, with case incidence declining at the UNMISS base in Tong Ping.

    OCHA reports that approximately 12,500 people remain displaced due to the recent fighting in Juba. 11,338 people are seeking shelter at the UNMISS bases in Tongping and UN House and a further 1,250 IDPs are seeking shelter at the Don Bosco collective center in Gumbo.

    UNMISS Tongping

    CCCM

    • Camp management continues to work with community leaders and protection partners to provide IDPs with the information required to ensure IDPs are able to make an informed choice about relocation. This includes holding a follow-up meeting from the ‘Go and See’ visit on 03 August, involving RRP, protection partners and the community as well as focus group discussions, where relocation concerns are discussed and information on the relocation process and services available at UN House is provided.

    • Partners have agreed that relocation will take place three times a week: Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Mobilization and registration for the next planned relocation (17 August) is ongoing.

    WASH

    • IOM delivered 305,500 liters of safe drinking water at a rate of 18.4L per person per day.

    • Three water points and 42 taps are installed and functional, with one tap for every 97 people.

    • 74 latrines are now functional, with 55 per 1 latrine (8 non-functioning latrines will be backfilled and decommissioned). 14 hand washing facilities are installed and functional, UNICEF is maintaining latrines through backfilling.

    • 20 bathing facilities are now functional, with one bathing shelter for every 205 people • 3,989 jerry cans were cleaned at the water points as part of the ongoing jerry can cleaning campaign, spraying is ongoing at the Western gate and at all stagnant water points.

    • 5,739 people were provided with hygiene promotion messages through 12 health education sessions held at schools and markets and 506 household visits.

    • Daily garbage collection and latrine de-sludging at the site is ongoing.
    Shelter • Site development aims to ensure sanitary and safe living conditions for the population residing at the site.

    Health

    • Total consultations for the reporting period is 471.

    • 41 Cholera cases have been reported at the IOM clinic.

    • Top morbidities reported at the IOM clinic were malaria and Acute Respiratory Infection and Acute Watery Diarrhea.

    Nutrition

    • Community Nutrition Volunteers (CNVs) conduct screening during the week. If there are cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with medical complications, they are first referred to the IOM clinic for stabilization and thereafter the patients are transferred to UN House PoC.

    Education

    • 1,155 (499 females), are registered to attend classes, however attendance is declining, possibly due to poor school environment especially when it rains.

    • 3 units of 7 classrooms each have been constructed.

    • Three classrooms that were flooded were compacted with marram on Friday • 28 (7 females) volunteers have been selected as teachers - training has begun this week.

    • There is a need to ensure that adequate learning materials are available for students.
    Protection

    • Protection actors are identifying shelter solutions for Persons with Specific Needs; UNHCR is leading this process.

    UNMISS UN House

    CCCM

    • On Saturday 13 August, IOM successfully led a head count at PoC1 and PoC2. This involved the support of a number of partners including UNMISS, REACH, IMC, CWW, SAADO, CINA, UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF, ACTED, NP, HI, WVI and THESO. The results of this are being compiled and will be shared shortly.

    • Currently there are 37,247 IDPs residing at PoC1 and PoC2, including those relocated since the head count was conducted.

    8,661 IDPs in PoC1
    28,586 IDPs in PoC3

    WASH

    • WASH partners have completed construction of 24 latrine stance structures, the construction of 10 bathing shelters is on-going and the construction of one water point has been completed. THESO is constructing WASH infrastructure for new arrivals and to support the cholera response.

    S-NFI

    • Shelter partners have identified space with capacity to accommodate 719 individuals.

    Health

    • Dead body management is a challenge, camp management is working with UNMISS to determine a solution which is satisfactory for the community and meets health and hygiene standards.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: South Sudan

    South Sudan– An estimated 37,200 displaced persons are currently seeking protection at one of the two UN peacekeeping bases in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, according to a population count held at the UN House protection of civilians (PoC) site on 13 August.

    Renewed violence and instability have generated new displacement in South Sudan in recent months. Facing insecurity and hunger, more than 190,000 people continue to seek protection at PoC sites across the country, in Juba, Bentiu, Malakal, Wau, Bor and Melut.

    The majority of the 37,200 internally displaced persons (IDPs) living at the UN House PoC site fled the violence that erupted in Juba on 15 December 2013 and quickly spread throughout the country. Thousands more fled to the base when fighting resumed in the capital between government and opposition forces in July 2016.

    To determine the current size of the IDP population in the site, IOM joined ACTED, camp manager of the UN House PoC site, and other UN and non-governmental organizations[1] to conduct the population count. The exercise began before dawn to ensure accuracy, with a house-to-house operation.

    The population count is important for the delivery of services, particularly food assistance. The exercise will improve planning for humanitarian assistance and enable the UN World Food Programme to provide food for the full population registered at the site.

    “Interagency cooperation was essential to the success of the exercise. Staff from 15 agencies participated in the population count, from planning to logistics to implementation,” said Andrea Paiato, IOM Camp Coordination and Camp Management Programme Coordinator.

    UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) peacekeeping troops and UN Police provided security, while camp management and partners conducted a messaging campaign before registration.

    The fighting in Juba in July displaced at least 15,000 people, of which more than 12,500 remain displaced at the UN House PoC site, UNMISS peacekeeping base in Tong Ping and collective centres.

    IOM is coordinating with relief agencies to provide emergency assistance to IDPs at the Tong Ping site, managing an emergency health care clinic, providing shelter and ensuring access to safe drinking water. ACTED continues to facilitate humanitarian operations at the UN House PoC site.*

    For further information, please contact Ashley McLaughlin at IOM South Sudan, Tel: +1 407 625 8354, Email: amclaughlin@iom.int or Jennifer Pro at Tel: +211 920 885 988, Email: jpro@iom.int

    [1]ACTED, Community in Need Aid, Concern Worldwide, Handicap International, International Medical Corps, IOM, Nonviolent Peaceforce, REACH, Smile Again Africa Development Organization, THESO, UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP and World Vision


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