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- 08/05/16--00:25: _Nigeria: Nigeria: W...
- 08/05/16--00:32: _Nigeria: Nigeria: W...
- 08/05/16--02:38: _Nigeria: Humanitari...
- 08/05/16--03:01: _Nigeria: Nigeria: H...
- 08/05/16--03:01: _Nigeria: North-east...
- 08/05/16--04:41: _Uganda: Uganda: Eme...
- 08/05/16--05:04: _Niger: Diffa/Niger:...
- 08/05/16--05:08: _Niger: Niger HRP 20...
- 08/05/16--05:28: _Niger: “Scaling-up”...
- 08/05/16--05:43: _Chad: Sahel Crisis ...
- 08/05/16--06:35: _Cameroon: Cameroun:...
- 08/05/16--09:37: _Nigeria: Statement ...
- 08/05/16--10:54: _Nigeria: Nigeria Hu...
- 08/05/16--11:55: _Chad: Tchad : Plan ...
- 08/05/16--21:47: _South Sudan: South ...
- 08/06/16--01:23: _Mali: West Africa S...
- 08/06/16--01:41: _World: Global Weath...
- 08/06/16--05:36: _Sudan: South Sudane...
- 08/06/16--06:23: _South Sudan: Juba R...
- 08/06/16--08:09: _Chad: Tchad - Régio...
- 08/05/16--00:25: Nigeria: Nigeria: WASH Priority Wards in Maiduguri & Surrounds
- 08/05/16--00:32: Nigeria: Nigeria: WASH Partners per Ward in Maiduguri & Surrounds
- 08/05/16--03:01: Nigeria: North-eastern Nigeria and Conflict's Humanitarian Fallout?
Thousands of refugees continue to flee in to Uganda from South Sudan on a daily basis. Yesterday, 2,308 refugees were confirmed as crossing.
Uganda is now hosting more South Sudanese refugees than any other country, followed by second largest asylum country Ethiopia. In the region, current likely scenarios anticipate 973,000 South Sudanese refugees to have sought safety in neighbouring countries by the end of the year.
Yesterday, 1,087 refugees crossed in to Uganda using the Elegu border point (Adjumani/Yumbe axis), 60 in Lamwo and 292 in Oraba (Arua axis), while 896 were received at Kiryandongo Reception Centre.
Refugees from Yei report that anonymous letters are being circulated announcing that fighting will begin in three days. Refugees arriving in Elegu report that armed groups are looting properties and attacking civilians in Juba. The violence is also reportedly beginning to spread to other parts of the country. Others report that roadblocks, manned by armed groups, continue to be in place on the Juba to Nimule road, the main road to Uganda. These groups are reporting robbing civilians attempting to flee to Uganda and are demanding money in order for people to be allowed to pass. New arrivals from Moli, Eastern Equatoria report that a new armed group had arrived in the area and has been attacking civilians.
In Elegu, 63 children arrived who had been separated from their parents.
Close attention is being paid to malnutrition levels as a result of the reported limited food supply in South Sudan. Currently, malnutrition remains below critical levels: Global Acute Malnutrition is at 6.8%, within the 10% emergency standard, while Severe Acute Malnutrition is at 2%. Ongoing screening for malnutrition is taking place for new arrivals while supplementary food programmes are in place for those found to be suffering from malnutrition.
837 refugees were relocated from Adjumani and Moyo districts to the recently-opened Bidibidi settlement area in Yumbe district. 882 refugees who had been moved to settlement area the previous day were provided with plots of land and materials with which to build their new homes. The reception process at Bidibidi settlement is working as planned, with very short stays at the reception centre.
Rapid relocation of new arrivals from reception facilities to newly opened Yumbe settlement.
Improving capacity and conditions at reception facilities.
- 08/05/16--05:08: Niger: Niger HRP 2016: Funding Status as of 5 August 2016
La complétude du reportage au cours de la semaine 29 est de 80% pour les CRENI/AS et de 78% pour les CRENAM. Les données publiées dans ce bulletin correspondent aux données reçues avant le jour de la publication et des mises à jour pourraient avoir lieu dans les prochaines publications.
Au cours de la semaine 29, les CREN ont admis 6 190 enfants souffrant de la malnutrition aiguë sévère (MAS) dont 1 000 avec des complications médicales et 7 434 enfants souffrant de la malnutrition aiguë modérée (MAM). Comparativement à la semaine 28, nous observons une hausse de 11% pour les CRENI et de 4% pour les CRENAM tandis qu’une baisse de 15% a été observée dans les CRENAS.
A la date du 24 juillet 2016, au total 174 761 enfants de moins de cinq ans ont été admis dans les CREN pour malnutrition aiguë sévères (MAS) dont 18 469 MAS avec des complications médicales et 221 723 souffrant de la malnutrition aiguë modérée (MAM). Ces chiffres représentent 43,6% et 31,3% de la cible de 2016 respectivement pour la prise en charge des enfants souffrant de la MAS et de la MAM.
Comparativement à la même période en 2015, les admissions ont baissé de 13% (2 657 enfants) pour les CRENI et de 1% (1,286 enfants) pour les CRENAM tandis qu’elles ont augmenté de 1% (1,371 enfants) pour les CRENAS. L’analyse des rapports mensuels du premier semestre 2016 nous permettra de vérifier cette différence.
Nous attirons l’attention des responsables des centres de surveillance (CSE, SPIS) sur une mise à jour continue des données afin que nous puissions avoir une appréciation plus proche de la réalité.
Les données sont compilées et transmises par les DRSP.
- 08/05/16--05:43: Chad: Sahel Crisis 2016: Funding Status as of 05 August 2016
- Ce chiffre comprend 8,251 réfugiés identifiés hors camp à l’issue de l’exercice de profilage.
Projet d’adduction d’eau de Mokolo.
Monitoring de la frontière.
Vérification et enregistrement des arrivées spontanées.
Réponse aux besoins des Personnes Déplacées Internes et des communautés hôtes.
En marge du dialogue régional sur la protection dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad, organisé à Abuja, les gouvernements du Nigéria et du Cameroun ont paraphé le 9 juin, le projet d’accord tripartite devant servir de cadre juridique pour le retour des réfugiés nigérians vivant dans la région de l’Extrême Nord vers leur pays d’origine. Ce projet d’Accord Tripartite va être soumis à la haute hiérarchie des deux pays pour approbation finale et signature.
Le 10 juin, la Ministre des Affaires Sociales, Mme Nguene Irène Pauline, a effectué une visite de travail au camp de Minawao en compagnie des autorités administratives du Mayo-Tsanaga conduites par le Préfet, et du Chef de la Sous Délégation du HCR Maroua. Au cours de sa descente, elle a eu à visiter quelques infrastructures du camp, notamment le centre de santé d’IMC, le centre de formation professionnelle et un mirador de sécurité pour la surveillance du camp.
- 08/05/16--10:54: Nigeria: Nigeria Humanitarian Situation Report - June 2016
According to IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) Round X Report (June, 2016), there are an estimated 1.7 million people displaced in Adamawa, Borno, Gombe and Yobe as a consequence of the conflict. An estimated 86 per cent of IDPs live in host communities while the remaining 14% live in IDP camps with children making up 55 per cent of the IDP population.
During the month of June, emergency Integrated Primary Health Care services reached 409,749 conflict affected people, out of which 103,755 were living in newly accessible areas. This brings the cumulative number of people reached since January 2016, to 1,973,938 people reached with primary health care outpatient services in North East Nigeria including close to 230,000 people in the newly liberated areas of Borno state.
A total of 85,713 children (66,874 boys, 73,939 girls) have been reached with psychosocial support services (PSS) through a network of 943 trained community volunteers in 195 Child-Friendly Spaces (CFSs) in 23 IDP camps and 209 communities since January 2016.
Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) program reached 58,979 severely malnourished children with outpatient care of which 7% are from the newly liberated areas. 47,423 children severely malnourished under 5 were admitted to therapeutic feeding programmes to receive inpatient treatment.
UNICEF has developed an immediate scale up plan focusing on a multisector response to address the needs of the people living in the newly accessible areas including a massive scale up of the nutrition programme in MMC/Jere and Southern Borno. The critical immediate funding needs required for this Scale Up Plan amount to $ 71.1 million to cover the urgent needs of the affected population in the next 6 months (July-December 2016). These new needs will be reflected in a forthcoming revised HAC for Nigeria.
Fournir une assistance alimentaire aux personnes déplacées sur 40 sites et à 130 000 personnes en insécurité alimentaire sévère.
Soutenir la campagne agricole de 56 000 familles à travers la fourniture de semences et outils, appui à l'élevage et la pêche.
Renforcer la surveillance épidémiologique et la sensibilisation auprès de 250 000 personnes.
Améliorer l’accès aux soins de santé primaire pour 77 000 personnes déplacées et communautés hôtes via l'accès aux médicaments (paludisme et fièvre jaune), aux cliniques mobiles et l'appui aux centres de santé.
Etendre les services éducatifs à 13 200 enfants déscolarisés dans des zones jusque là non couvertes (nouveaux espaces temporaires d'apprentissage, kits scolaires et récréatifs).
Améliorer les conditions d’apprentissage de 45 800 enfants (repas scolaires, distribution de kits, réhabilitation d'écoles et activités psycho-sociales).
Fournir des abris d’urgence à 60 000 personnes déplacées et communautés hôtes vulnérables (distributions de bâches supplémentaires et d'AME).
Renforcer la capacité de 24 000 ménages à faire face au risque d’inondation (kits et formation).
Augmenter l’accès à l’eau potable pour 35 000 personnes (points d'eau et traitement).
Assurer des pratiques d’hygiène (latrines et gestion des déchets) et d’assainissement adéquats pour 49 000 personnes pour prévenir les maladies.
Augmenter le dépistage de la malnutrition auprès de 17 900 enfants.
Etendre la prise en charge de la malnutrition pour 16 210 enfants déplacés et parmi les communautés d'accueil.
Mettre en place des mécanismes multisectoriels de référencement et de réponse pour assurer la protection de 30 000 personnes.
Renforcer les mécanismes de protection communautaires pour répondre aux besoins spécifiques de 1 800 personnes.
- 08/06/16--01:23: Mali: West Africa Seasonal Monitor - 5 August 2016
Total seasonal rainfall is average to above-average over the entire region and all agro-ecological zones (Figures 1 and 2).
Slight rainfall deficits are concentrated in certain areas of the bi-modal zone, southern Nigeria and isolated areas in the western Sahel (central Senegal and southwestern Mali); however, these deficits should not adversely affect crop development unless they persist.
The medium-term forecast for the next two weeks ( and ) calls for moderate to heavy rains over the entire region, an indication of continued favorable agricultural conditions. However, this rainfall forecast includes locust breeding areas in Mali and Niger, which could create favorable conditions for locust breeding.
The Intertropical Front’s (ITF) northward migration continues and during the third dekad of July, it is located north of its climatological position over Mauritania, Mali and Niger and at its climatological position over Chad (Figure 4). This has brought average to above-average rainfall to all agro-ecological zones including the bi-modal zone and the western Sahel (northwestern Senegal and southwestern Mali) where deficits observed during the last few dekads have mostly been reversed.
Rainfall is currently subsiding in the bi-modal zone with the beginning of the period known as the “minor dry season,” which normally takes place in August. Consequently, below-average rainfall conditions during this time period in the bi-modal zone are consistent with normal seasonal tendencies.
The above-average rainfall in the northern Sahel and Saharan zone has resulted in:
o Favorable crop and pasture conditions
o Earlier than normal planting in the northernmost part of the agricultural zone (Figure 3).
o Suitable conditions for locust breeding
- 08/06/16--01:41: World: Global Weather Hazards Summary, August 5 - August 12, 2016
Consistent and aboveaverage rain over the past few weeks has led to moisture surpluses throughout much of Eastern Africa. Torrential rain is forecast to continue over western Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea, likely to elevate the River Nile and Al Gash River levels further and potentially resulting in flooding over many areas of Sudan during the next week.
Heavy and frequent rain over the past several weeks has led to substantial rainfall surpluses already triggering flooding over many local areas of West Africa, including regions of Burkina Faso since July. During the next week, significant rainfall is forecast, elevating the risk for flooding over parts of Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and northern Nigeria during early August.
With heavy rains received over parts of Senegal, Mali, and southern Mauritania during July, there is a potential for increased number of locusts which may negatively impact cropping activities.
Uneven spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall over the past several weeks has strengthened moisture deficits and led to abnormal dryness throughout portions of Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Damaged crops have already been reported over many local areas, including the Huehuetenango,
Quiché, Sololá, Totonicapán, and El Progreso departments of Guatemala.
Tropical Storm EARL, located over the northwestern Caribbean Sea, is expected to intensify during the next twenty four hours and continue to track westward over the upcoming days. This weather disturbance is forecast to bring torrential rain and strong winds, which could result in flooding and infrastructure damages over the Bay Islands of Honduras, northern coastlines of Honduras, Belize, and northern Guatemala.
Very poor rainfall performance over the past several weeks has resulted in rapidly growing rainfall deficits in eastern provinces of the Dominican Republic. Declining vegetation index values indicate a recent negative response of ground conditions to the lack of rain
(Abuja: 5 August 2016): The acting Humanitarian Coordinator Mr. Munir Safieldin completed a mission this week to evaluate the humanitarian situation in the north-east of the country following the attack on a humanitarian aid convoy returning from Bama town in Borno State on 28 July, 2016.
On his visit Mr. Safieldin met with NGOs and all of the UN agencies working on the ground and spoke with the Borno State Government and Borno State Humanitarian Coordinator Mr. Alhaji Usman Shuwa Jidda.
The Humanitarian Coordinator visited several camps for displaced people in Maiduguri to see the conditions and witness the work of humanitarian organizations in the delivery of life-saving assistance.
Last week’s attack on the humanitarian convoy, which was returning from delivering much-needed aid to 30,000 people, resulted in injuries to convoy members. “IOM remains committed to delivering humanitarian interventions to those who need it most,” said IOM’s head of mission, Ms. Enira Krdzalic who was also in Maiduguri to assess the situation. “We will continue to provide services to sustain human life along with all of our colleagues and partners in the humanitarian community.”
Despite the attack there has been no interruption of humanitarian services to the communities in the four affected states. The international NGOs and UN reaffirmed their commitment to continue work alongside partners on the ground in the delivery of humanitarian assistance. “There has been no let-up in the delivery of aid,” said Safieldin. “Our challenges are great, but our commitment to serve the people who are so desperate for food, clean water and access to basic health services remains stronger than ever.”
He added, “I am pleased that the UN Security Management Team agreed on additional risk migration measures which will allow humanitarian workers to continue work without interruption”.
The Nigerian Humanitarian Response Plan for 2016 seeks US$279 million to provide life-saving needs for communities affected by conflict in the north-east. To-date $86 million or just 31 per cent has been funded.
Children are dying in Bama, a town in Borno state, north-east Nigeria, suffering from lack of food, clean water and medical care. They are the most tragic manifestation of the humanitarian fallout of the Boko Haram insurgency and the state response to it, a crisis that now impacts the lives of millions. The insurgency itself, the aggressive military response to it, and the lack of effective assistance, both national and international, to those caught up in the conflict threaten to create an endless cycle of violence and depredation. Unless efforts to contain and roll back the current crisis are quickly scaled-up, peace is likely to remain a distant prospect in this region of Nigeria.
Once a city of 300,000, Bama is now an army-controlled camp of 30,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), some forcibly moved there by the military. There are around a dozen sites like Bama, hosting at least 250,000 people living under the security forces’ scrutiny. The number will likely grow as military campaigns continue.
Neither the army, nor the Nigerian emergency services are up to the task of caring for them. There have been – and still are – too many bottlenecks. Authorities must pay more attention and commit more resources, clarify and rationalise the country’s assistance structure, improve aid governance, promote transparency (more NGO and media reporting), facilitate humanitarian access and address the widespread suspicion that many IDPs support Boko Haram.
Humanitarian agencies have also struggled to respond adequately, both in recognising the scale of the problem and reacting sufficiently promptly. For their part, UN agencies and international humanitarian NGOs need to engage authorities more proactively and improve their collaboration in responding to one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world today. Doing so will mobilise more international funding – currently grossly lacking – and make better use of international expertise.
If the humanitarian crisis is not addressed soon, it will have serious security and political implications. In the short term, it may push people back into areas under Boko Haram’s control, or to other parts of Nigeria whose capacity to sustain them is questionable, or across international borders, from where some could be trafficked into an already vulnerable Sahel region, and on to Libya – an important gateway to Europe. In the long term, it could leave the Nigerian state and its international partners tainted, undermining further their legitimacy and capacity to control violence in the north east and the Lake Chad region.
Dying in a “Safe Area”: The Situation in Bama
Situated 72km south east of Maiduguri, Borno’s capital, Bama was once a major trade hub on a main road to Cameroon. Overrun by Boko Haram in September 2014, the army recaptured it in March 2015. Most of its inhabitants had already left by then and thousands had been killed by Boko Haram, but the army began bringing in civilians it found during operations in the surrounding rural areas. Citing security concerns, the army has itself been running the Bama camp, notionally the responsibility of the Borno State Emergency Management Agency (BOSEMA). It has banned IDPs from travelling in the camp’s vicinity or to other “safe areas”. The security forces and state-supported civilian self-defence groups, known as vigilantes, also have been “vetting” the newly arrived.
While Bama camp is safe from the Boko Haram threat that hovers over the wider local government area, it is, for many, a place of death. In June, the rate of severe acute malnutrition was 19 per cent among children – the emergency threshold is 3 per cent. According to the UN’s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 244,000 children are suffering from acute malnutrition in Borno state and on average 134 die every day from this. A few health ministry officials have been brought in under military escort for short stays and some humanitarian partners have been intermittently giving the army supplies to distribute to the IDPs, though with little supervision. This is not enough and with major deficiencies in water, sanitation and hygiene and the rainy season (June-September) under way, many are concerned that a cholera epidemic could break out. The rains, furthermore, will make many roads and tracks impassable.
The Humanitarian Costs of Insurgency and Counter-insurgency
Most officials blame Bama’s dire humanitarian crisis on Boko Haram: people began starving while they lived under the insurgents’ control, and the military rescued them. The insurgency has indeed done terrible damage to the lives and livelihoods of many in Borno state, as well as in neighbouring Yobe, Adamawa and Gombe states. Boko Haram ruthlessly targeted some communities, particularly those that set up vigilante forces or helped the military, killing many civilians and forcing many more into exile. Those who tried to stay and live under Boko Haram’s control faced significant difficulties. The insurgents heavily taxed communities, plundered and forcefully recruited among them and fighting disrupted harvests.
But the humanitarian crisis has been exacerbated by the nature of the counter-insurgency campaign. An aggressive, regional military operation has deliberately stifled economic activities, denying Boko Haram supplies, trade and income from protection rackets. Military operations have also made producing and accessing food a lot more difficult for all living in and close to Boko Haram-controlled areas. Trade and mobility, essential for making a living in the Sahel, have become extremely difficult and dangerous.
Attitudes toward those Displaced
Many among the military and many civilians are quick to look with suspicion on people coming from Boko Haram-held areas. Though there is no evidence to suggest a deliberate attempt to punish a population suspected of complicity with the insurgents, there are alarming signs that their welfare is not being prioritised, whether out of a lack of capacity or concern or due to security concerns. Even women captured, abused or forced into “marriage” by Boko Haram bear the stigma of their association, and their children are suspected of having “bad blood”. This fear of “contagion” and, more concretely, of suicide attacks by women and children, is part of the problem. This is one reason the only IDPs the army lets into Maiduguri, which already hosts an estimated 1.5 million, are children requiring sustained medical support, though sometimes without their carers.
Conducting security operations should be kept distinct from humanitarian actions. If not, those in genuine need of assistance risk being denied help; while entire communities stand in danger of neglect. In such an environment, people are likely to feel increasingly alienated from the state, driving them to seek support elsewhere. Humanitarian assistance must remain impartial and needs-based; while security measures must be proportionate to the risk – which will likely be reduced, not increased, by greater freedom of movement – and non-discriminatory.
Inadequate National and International Assistance
At the end of 2015, 3.9 million people in north-east Nigeria out of a total of 5.2 million across the Lake Chad Basin were in urgent need of food assistance. In April 2016, the Borno state Governor Kashim Shettima and UN Regional Humanitarian Coordinator Toby Lanzer visited Bama. Shettima said afterward that his state was “hanging between malnutrition and famine …. People [were] dying like flies”.
Of the $248 million required for the emergency response in north-east Nigeria in 2016, less than 20 per cent was available by May. Donor pledges were higher for Chad and Niger, where the number of persons in need was smaller. The World Food Program (WFP) supported fewer than 2,000 people in the north east in March 2016; that figure had increased to 50,000 in May, but was still way behind target given that more than half of the 1.5 million IDPs just in Maiduguri are judged by the UN to be malnourished, and the situation in rural areas is often worse. In neighbouring Cameroon, also affected by Boko Haram, UN agencies helped four times as many people (90 per cent of the most food insecure). In July, the total number of IDPs in this part of Cameroon was around 190,000. Recent reports of the shocking conditions in Bama did draw some attention, but it took a controversial 22 June communiqué by Médecins Sans Frontières to bring the starving into the limelight.
The Nigerian government’s response has been hampered by constrained resources and multiple pressing security problems. It is facing a resurgent rebellion in the Niger Delta, separatist agitation in the south east, and increasing violence in the Middle Belt, including recent clashes between pastoralists and farmers over land and water, as well as a severe economic and budgetary crisis. Neither the National Emergency Management Agency nor its state-level counterparts have the funds or the capacity and experience to manage a prolonged, large-scale humanitarian operation. Already overwhelmed by IDPs in Maiduguri and other established sites, Nigerian agencies have struggled to serve new camps.
Attempts to improve the government’s response have lagged. The Victims Support Fund (VSF) is constrained by the lack of clarity in Nigeria’s overall framework for humanitarian response. In July 2015, President Muhammadu Buhari established a Presidential Committee on North-East Interventions (PCNI) to coordinate domestic and international humanitarian efforts, but as of July 2016, the committee had still not been inaugurated. Some government sources say the president is waiting for the National Assembly (federal parliament) to create the North East Development Commission (NEDC), which includes a humanitarian portfolio, but some interviewed by Crisis Group fear it may become merely another platform for the region’s elite to share patronage rather than for boosting humanitarian aid.
Many implementation partners of UN agencies lack the capacity to work in the region’s remoter parts where the terrain is extremely challenging and where they do not enjoy the relative protection of Maiduguri (which itself faces significant humanitarian needs). So far, humanitarian workers have been unable to establish credible contacts with Boko Haram to negotiate access and obtain guarantees that can reduce risks to acceptable levels. Particularly in areas of Borno state outside the Maiduguri metropolitan area, most organisations have depended on the army for protection, assessments of local security conditions and sometimes humanitarian service delivery.
Nigeria, with Africa’s largest population and economy, is sensitive to foreign criticism and, understandably, keen to ensure that foreign support in addressing the crisis does not compromise its sovereignty. Many officials remember the civil war (1967-1970) when Nigeria was condemned for the terrible famine in the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra and some secessionist supporters provided military aid under the guise of international humanitarian assistance. As a result, authorities are sensitive to outside aid or reporting. Yet the lack of reporting has made it difficult to mobilise international support for resources.
The Risks Ahead
Failure to adequately support IDPs, in part because of suspicion that they support Boko Haram, may push them back into, or discourage them from leaving, insurgent-controlled areas. Furthermore, it is entirely possible that Boko Haram’s attacks and suicide bombings in and around IDP camps are attempts by the insurgents to staunch the flow of people from areas under their control. It may be working to an extent. Some IDPs reportedly are choosing to return to their home areas, despite the risk of Boko Haram attacks, rather than staying in dire camps.
In the long term, failure to help those in need could further undermine the state’s legitimacy and capacity to control violence. While the Nigerian military and its regional and international partners may be able to contain Boko Haram, unless the state addresses poor governance and other structural factors that drove people to support the movement, there is a high risk either that Boko Haram will be revived or similar groups will emerge.
W**hat Should Be Done**
To prevent the current humanitarian emergency from claiming more lives, prolonging the conflict and fuelling longer term insecurity in the region, the government must match its military campaign against Boko Haram with strong commitment to addressing the immediate humanitarian needs and longer-term development and reconstruction assistance to rebuild the north east. That includes granting access to, and facilitating, independent local and international reporting and assessments. This is necessary not only for proper resource mobilisation, but even more importantly as a way to provide independent analysis of outstanding emergency relief requirements.
Borno state Governor Kashim Shettima and President Muhammadu Buhari, as well as some army commanders, have been remarkably willing to talk to journalists. However, the president should pay special attention to the governance of aid. Reports of the embezzlement and diversion of food and other aid need to be properly investigated and officials found to have stolen or mismanaged aid must be sanctioned. For example, the report of the Borno state House Verification Committee into allegations of aid diversion, which should be completed soon, should be made public and quickly and openly acted upon.
The government and international partners should have fewer qualms about bringing assistance closer to the war zones. It is possible that some of it could leak to Boko Haram members, but this marginal price should be balanced with the immense relief it would provide, the lives it would save and the goodwill it would generate for the government. Furthermore, improved assistance would probably be more efficient in attracting civilians to government areas than military mop-up operations. Where Boko Haram can no longer use the “rhetoric of plenty”, as it once did, offering feasts of meat and cold drinks to potential recruits, authorities now have that card to play.
Equally, the reluctance to allow IDPs encamped in secondary towns like Bama to move around should be revised. The arguably marginal benefit in security which the ban on movement provides will be far outweighed by the humanitarian gains and goodwill generated by easing up this restriction. As an immediate measure, all those most in need should be allowed to temporarily move to Maiduguri or other cities where appropriate treatment is available.
While vigilante groups have done much to defend their communities, Borno state authorities should stop using these irregular forces to vet IDPs. Further, the Federal Government should begin to put in place a demobilisation process lest longer-term problems result, including increased risks of communal violence based on revenge between vigilante group members and displaced persons.
International partners must drastically increase their humanitarian response, including by releasing all funds pledged to the UN and other humanitarian agencies for the emergency. They must lend greater support to the government, preferably in a high-level forum that includes the military, UN agencies, international NGOs, as well as local civil society and NGOs. This forum should provide a platform for all actors to share knowledge, including their assessments of the gravity of the humanitarian situation and areas of greatest needs as well as clarify guiding principles and improve working relations.
The Buhari administration for its part needs to be far more proactive. A clarification of its assistance framework is pressing, and senior officials need to make clear that they regard the unfolding humanitarian crisis as a first-order priority. The government should accelerate the implementation of its response, for instance in disbursing the 12 billion naira (about $41 million) which it announced, in May 2016, would be used to rebuild the north east and also in implementing the programs of the Victims Support Fund. It is also essential that accountability mechanisms are strengthened.
The authorities should not forget that they announced the North East Marshall Plan (Nemap) in October 2015 with the aim of providing “intermediate and long-term interventions in emergency assistance, economic reconstruction and development” – a vital component of efforts to bring peace to the region. The first action of this ambitious plan should target camps for the displaced. In order to rebuild state legitimacy, the authorities should scale down reliance on security forces to manage the camps and give greater room to civil authorities.
Finally, periodic visits by senior leaders, including President Buhari himself, to the camps and major communities hosting IDPs are essential to begin breaking down the suspicion faced by the newly displaced, and to affirm to them, as well as to state and government officials, that as Nigerian citizens and victims of the insurgency, they should not be left without food or medical assistance. Governor Shettima’s visits are welcome moves. He should make more and his fellow governors should follow his example. Without a visible and genuine commitment to providing the humanitarian support needed in these areas, insecurity will persist – and could become worse – and peace will remain far out of reach.
Number of new arrivals on Thursday 4th August (as per field reports)
Number of new arrivals since 1st July 2016 (as per field reports)
Number of new arrivals since 7th July 2016 (as per field reports)
Number of new arrivals registered since 1st January in Uganda (RIMS) (as of end of June)
Total number of South Sudanese refugees registered in Uganda (RIMS) (as of end of June)
*Figures (not updated daily) according to Uganda Government Refugee Information Management System (RIMS)
190,591 Personnes Déplacées Internes.
65,172 * Réfugiés vérifiés et préenregistrés par le HCR depuis Mai 2013.
56,921 Réfugiés vivant au camp de Minawao.
5,359 Nouveaux arrivés enregistrés par le HCR depuis Janvier 2016.
USD 56, 361,252
Requis par les agences et les partenaires pour couvrir l’ensemble des besoins dans le cadre du « 2015 Refugee Response Plan »
The Secretary-General welcomes the signing of an agreement between the European Commission and the African Union Commission, in Brussels on 1 August 2016, for a €50 million European Union contribution to the Multi-National Joint Task Force (MNJTF), an initiative of the Lake Chad Basin countries and Benin to combat Boko Haram in the sub-region.
The Secretary-General wishes to take this opportunity to commend the Lake Chad Basin countries and Benin for the significant progress achieved in combating the terrorist threat posed by Boko Haram. He particularly welcomes the enhanced cooperation and coordination by countries of the region, their individual contributions to the Force and the sacrifices made in the fight against Boko Haram.
The Secretary-General renews the United Nations readiness to continue to support regional efforts in the fight against terrorism, consistent with its mandate. He reiterates his call on MNJTF Member States to ensure that counter-terrorism measures are in full compliance with their obligations under international human rights, humanitarian and refugee laws. This is crucial, as Boko Haram is most unlikely to be defeated if the affected communities do not have confidence in the armed forces that are supposed to protect them.
The Secretary-General encourages the Governments of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria to consolidate MNJTF operations by re-establishing state authority and resuming social services in Boko Haram-affected areas, as well as creating an environment conducive for the safe and voluntary return, resettlement or local integration of the internally displaced and refugee populations.
The Secretary-General recommends the EU for this timely contribution and urges the international community to continue to enhance its support to regional efforts to combat the Boko Haram threat and in mitigating the impact of its activities through the provision of requisite humanitarian, political, financial and logistical support.
Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs
The conflict between Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JAS), commonly known as Boko Haram, and the Nigerian Security Forces (NSF) in the North East of Nigeria is entering its seventh year. According to IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) Round X Report (June, 2016), there are an estimated 1.7 million people displaced in Adamawa, Borno, Gombe and Yobe as a consequence of the conflict. The largest proportion of these IDPs are located in Borno state (1.4 million), followed by Adamawa (159,445), Yobe (112,671) and Gombe (27,376). The vast majority of IDPs (86 per cent) live in host communities while the remaining 14% live in IDP camps. Children make up 55 per cent of the IDP population and more than half of them are under five years old.
A Joint UN Assessment1 was carried out in Borno and Yobe States between 11 and 14 April 2016. The assessment focus was on IDPs and host communities in the newly accessible areas of Bama, Damboa, Dikwa and Monguno LGAs, on Maiduguri and surrounds (Jere & Konduga LGAs) in Borno, and Damaturu, Badem Fune, Jakusko and Yunusari in Yobe. While the primary focus of the mission was on food security and nutrition, such needs cannot be addressed in isolation given the massive and urgent needs in WASH, health, CCCM/shelter & NFI and protection, calling for a joint needs assessment across these sectors.
The key findings from the Joint UN Assessment show that a total of 800,000 people are severely food insecure and require immediate food assistance in Borno and Yobe States. In Borno State alone, over 550,000 people are severely food insecure, including 180,000 in Maiduguri’s outskirts, 120,000 camp residents and in particular the estimated 250,000 IDPs in newly accessible areas. In Yobe State some 250,000 people are severely food insecure including 200,000 in rural areas and at least 55,000 IDPs and host populations in Damaturu.
There are at least 242,000 children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) in Borno and 136,000 in Yobe where health and nutrition services are extremely limited especially in the newly accessible areas. Seventy-five per cent of water and sanitation facilities in Borno and 9 per cent in Yobe require rehabilitation. The vast majority of IDPs are children, women and older persons with severe protection needs including an urgent need of psychosocial support.
Nutrition program data obtained since the assessment in April gathered through Mid and Upper Arm Circumference Screening of children under 5 in newly accessible areas provided evidence in support of the alarming findings from the Joint UN Assessment. For example, MUAC screening carried out by the State Primary Healthcare Development Agency (SPHCDA) with UNICEF support in Bama, Dikwa, Konduga and by ALIMA in Monguno show extremely high GAM rates ranging from 22 – 59 per cent.
The Federal Minister of Health declared a nutrition emergency for Borno State on the 27 June 2016. UNICEF response will focus on Nutrition, WASH, Health and Food, however, there are also acute needs in other sectors.
There are acute child protection issues in the North East. It is estimated that there are 20,000 unaccompanied and separated children, over 7,000 women and children who have been subjected to Boko Haram related sexual violence, including forced marriage, and over 1,000 boys who were recruited and used by Boko Haram. Over 1,200 abducted children have been rescued in 2016 alone. A joint assessment by UNICEF and International Alert, supported by the Government of Japan (February 2016), on perceptions of girls and women subjected to Boko Haram related sexual violence, and forced marriage highlighted the significant challenges that they face when they try to return to their communities, due not only to stigma but also fear that they have been radicalised. Also of extreme concern, is that children born out of sexual violence are at real risk not only of rejection but also violence in some communities. The reintegration challenges facing boys who were recruited and used by Boko Haram are even more acute. Two studies in 2016, funded by the UK Department for International Development and carried out by UNICEF, the British Council and the Neem Foundation, have highlighted extreme resistance from both families and communities to the return of these boys, regardless of whether they were abducted and were recruited through other means, with violence being threatened if they return.
As the security situation evolves new areas become accessible and new dimensions of need emerge. State coordination committees have informed UNICEF about the urgent needs of schooling in newly accessible LGAs. These needs included temporary learning spaces/tent, rehabilitation of damaged school buildings, water sources, and toilets. Children are more vulnerable in return areas due to absence of safe schooling, only damaged /destroyed facilities and lack of uniforms and learning materials. The availability of teachers is another critical need to be addressed urgently as well as the capacity of existing teachers. Seasonal storms – high winds and heavy rain have disrupted learning in temporary learning spaces (tents). High winds have unrooted and damaged tents. The weather has created a safety hazard for children – flying tents and wet, dirty tent floors. Children who attended these 32 damaged tents lost access to safe learning spaces.
Un plan de réponse couvrant les quatre pays du bassin du lac Tchad (Cameroun, Niger, Nigéria et Tchad) a été développé par la communauté humanitaire afin de prioriser l’assistance aux populations vulnérables d’ici à fin septembre.
Au Tchad, au cours des 90 prochains jours, plus de 250 000 personnes affectées par la crise dans la région du Lac ont besoin d’une assistance d’urgence. Une réponse multisectorielle est essentielle pour éviter la détérioration des vulnérabilités existantes exacerbées par la saison des pluies, la période de soudure, et les opérations militaires en cours, dans un contexte de faible accès généralisé aux services sociaux de base.
A cette période critique de l'année, la communauté la communauté humanitaire a besoin de votre soutien immédiat pour couvrir les besoins prioritaires et sauver des vies.
Besoins prioritaires multisectoriels
$6,5 millions SECURITE ALIMENTAIRE
Pour lutter contre l’insécurité alimentaire croissante durant la période de soudure, et faire face au manque de moyens d’existence et à la faible production agricole des personnes en déplacements et des communautés affectées par ces déplacements, il faut :
$2,3 millions SANTE
Pour diminuer le risque de maladies, en particulier le choléra, exacerbé pendant la saison des pluies, il faut :
2,2 millions EDUCATION
Pour préparer la prochaine année scolaire et étendre l’accès à l’éducation, il faut :
$1,8 million ABRIS / ARTICLES MENAGERS ESSENTIELS
Pendant la saison des pluies, alors que les intempéries exposent les plus vulnérables au risque de maladies, il faut :
$1,4 million EAU HYGIENE ASSAINISSEMENT
Pendant la saison des pluies, traditionnellement accompagnée d'une recrudescence du risque de choléra, il faut :
1,4 millions NUTRITION
Pour lutter contre les taux de malnutrition alarmants dans les sites de déplacement, particulièrement pendant la période de soudure, il faut :
$1 million PROTECTION
Dans un contexte d’opérations militaires entrainant des déplacements et des risques de violations des droits de l’homme, il faut :
5 August 2016 – The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) said today that it is responding to a growing food security emergency causing malnutrition in children in both rural and urban areas of crisis-gripped South Sudan.
“The situation in South Sudan is catastrophic, and even more so for children,” UNICEF spokesperson Christophe Boulierac told a news briefing in Geneva, where he also pointed out that so far this year, the agency has treated 120,000 children under age five for severe malnutrition; a nearly 50 per cent increase over the same period in 2015.
Initially, UNICEF had been planning to provide support to 166,000 children in 2016, but that figure has been revised to more than 250,000, he added.
Seven out of the country’s 10 states have reached the malnutrition-rate-emergency threshold of 15 per cent, while in Northern Bahr el Ghazal, the malnutrition rate stands at 33 per cent, he explained.
UNICEF has also noted a sharp rise in malnutrition in South Sudan’s urban areas, including the capital, Juba, where the rates of children admitted for malnutrition to UNICEF-supported Al-Sabbah children’s hospitals were some 20 per cent higher in the first six months of 2016 than for the same period last year. The spokesperson cited the country’s inflation rate as one of the main reasons for the high increase, explaining that it made basic household staples too expensive for many families.
Mr. Boulierac stated that while UNICEF could not provide figures of children dying from starvation, “one quarter of a million children in South Sudan are facing severe malnutrition.”
According to the spokesperson, with a number of roads inaccessible, the ongoing conflict has further limited UNICEF’s ability to respond – leaving, in the most urgent cases, the more expensive option of air transport for delivering supplies.
Additionally, Mr. Boulierac stressed that “due to insecurity and the rainy season, UNICEF staff in South Sudan are unable to be fully mobile and deliver their goods and services.”
Mr. Boulierac said that of the $154.5 million UNICEF needs for South Sudan in 2016, the Fund had, to date, received only $52 million to assist with water and sanitation; child support services; nutrition; health; and education.
He indicated that more than 900,000 children have been displaced in the country, which – with 1.8 million children, or 51 per cent of school-age youngsters out of school – also had the highest proportion of out-of-school children in the world.
“An estimated 16,000 children had been recruited by armed groups, and there were concerns that the renewed violence would lead to a further expansion of that practice,” explained the spokesperson.
He also called attention to the fact that sexual violence and rape had been used as a weapon of war, saying “all the ingredients were there to be extremely concerned.”
Between 8 and 25 July, at least 72 civilian deaths and 217 cases of sexual violence had been documented in Juba alone.
The spokesperson for the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), William Spindler, added that the total number of South Sudanese refugees in the region stood at 917,418 – most of whom are sheltering in Uganda.
The recent fighting in South Sudan between rival forces – the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) loyal to President Salva Kiir and the SPLA in Opposition backing First Vice-President Riek Machar – erupted in and around Juba, on 7 July, close to the fifth anniversary of its independence.
The young country has faced ongoing challenges since a political face-off between the two leaders erupted into conflict in December 2013. The crisis has produced one of the world's worst displacement situations with immense suffering for civilians.
UPDATE ON SEASONAL PROGRESS
The passage of Tropical Storm EARL expected to partially mitigate dryness over Central America
Africa Weather Hazards
Central America and the Caribbean Weather Hazards
August 5, 2016 (EL-FASHER) - Thousands of South Sudanese refugees in North Darfur state have launched an appeal to the Sudanese government and aid groups to provide them with food, clothing and shelter.
Last month Sudan said it has received 500,000 South Sudanese refugees since 2013. South Sudanese tribal chief Ajack Deng Kual told Sudan Tribune that 7,000 refugees have arrived in the locality of Al-Leit, 325 km. south east of North Darfur capital, El-Fasher from Bahr el-Ghazal region in South Sudan.
He pointed that there are no official statistics on the exact number of refugees who arrived in North Darfur, saying they are in dire need for food, shelter, drugs and clothing.
For his part, Deng Malonk Akol, a refugee from Awil town, pointed to the miserable situation in South Sudan, saying the vast majority of refugees in North Darfur are women, children and the elderly.
Joseph Garang Atak, a refugee from north Bahr el-Ghazal, said they sleep on the floor of the farms in which they took refuge, demanding the Sudanese government and aid groups to provide them with shelter.
Last month, fighting erupted in South Sudan’s capital Juba between followers of President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar, the former rebel leader who became vice president under a deal to end a two-year civil war.
The violence, which has killed hundreds of people, broke out as the world’s newest nation prepared to mark five years of independence from Sudan on July 9.
Last month, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said that refugees fleeing conflict and food insecurity in South Sudan continue to arrive in Sudan.
It pointed out that “as of 3 July, 79,571 people from South Sudan had arrived in Sudan since 1 January 2016, of whom 53,273 in East Darfur”.
On 17 March, Sudanese government announced a decision that all South Sudanese in Sudan are to be treated as foreigners, instead of ‘brothers and sisters’ as they were previously regarded.
South Sudan broke away from Sudan in July 2011 and established its own independent state after decades of war between the two former northern and southern regions of one country.
203 IDPs have relocated from the UNMISS base in Tong Ping to UN House since movements began on 28 July. Several cholera cases have been reported at both sites with three confirmed positive by culture at Tong Ping (one) and UN House (two). In response, Health and WASH partners have increased their efforts at the sites in order to mitigate and prevent the spread of cholera.
OCHA reports that approximately 12,500 people remain displaced due to the recent fighting in Juba. 11,338 people are seeking shelter at the UNMISS bases in Tong Ping and UN House and a further 1,250 IDPs are seeking shelter at the Don Bosco collective center in Gumbo.
• To encourage IDPs to register for relocation, camp management continues to work with community leadership who provide messages to IDPs about available services at UN House and relocation processes.
• 53 IDPs have registered for relocation to UN House, with the movement planned to take place on 5 August. Mobilization and registration of IDPs for relocation is ongoing.
• Upon arrival at UN House all IDPs who have relocated from the UNMISS base in Tong Ping will be registered.
• Nonviolent Peaceforce in coordination with camp management and UNMISS is raising awareness among the IDPs of a UXO recently identified at the site.
UNMISS require that all IDPs move from where it was located to the Rwanbatt.
• IOM delivered 200,000 liters of safe drinking water at a rate of 18L per person per day • Three water points and 30 taps are installed and functional, with one tap for every 143 people.
• 82 latrines are functional, with 52 person per 1 latrine. 14 hand washing facilities are installed and functional.
• 20 bathing facilities are now functional, with one bathing shelter for every 216 people.
• 2,000 jerricans were cleaned at the water points as part of the ongoing jerrican cleaning campaign.
• More than 4,000 people were provided with hygiene promotion messages through 182 health education sessions held at schools, markets and directly in households.
• Garbage collection at the site is ongoing.
• Following flooding at the site on 4 August IOM WASH and Shelter teams worked with the UNMISS Japanese battalion to pump water out of the site using trash pumps and drainage solutions.
• A sample of shelter that IDPs will find at UN House is planned for the transit site.
• Site development will continue to ensure that the camp has dry areas to allow IDPs to continue to construct their shelters.
• 37 shelters have been constructed (35 full size shelters (5x18m) for 50 individuals and 2 half size (5x9m) for 25 individuals) with capacity to house 1,800 individuals.
• 270 consultations at the IOM clinic, with an average of around 90 consultations per day • 4 new confirmed cholera cases over the last 3 days, one patient has been transferred to Juba Teaching Hospital.
• Top morbidities were malaria and Acute Respiratory Infection.
• Registration for mosquito net distribution is completed, the net distribution will take place on 6 August.
• POC3 community meeting will take place as usual Friday, 2pm, the POC1 meeting was cancelled today.
• 13 temporary communal shelters with capacity to house 780 people have been constructed and 20 latrine stances have been completed by WASH partners, at the UN House transit for new arrivals.
• 20 latrine stances have also been completed by WASH partners.
• A total of 51 cholera cases have bene treated at the health clinic in UN House, currently there are 8 admissions.
• 888,000L of water was delivered by UNICEF water trucks on 4 August. 12 water points were disinfected, 6 storage containers cleaned and 6 spraying campaigns conducted.
• 6 oral rehydration point sites have been established and are functional.
• Latrine coverage POC1: 66 persons per latrine; latrine coverage POC3: 35 persons per latrine.
• Sewage and garbage collection ongoing in POCs 1 and 3.
• 410 households reached with hygiene promotion messages and water treatment tablets, 7 hygiene promotion sessions took place in schools and public.
• 8,205 children aged between 6-59 months were reached with Blanket Supplementary Food Distribution in POC1