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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Mali

    FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT

    • Adequate rains so far have facilitated crop development in most regions

    • Coarse grain prices increased seasonably in June but remain lower than their year-earlier levels

    • Humanitarian assistance still needed despite improved civil security situation

    Early prospects favourable for 2016 cropping season

    Precipitation has been generally widespread since the beginning of the cropping season and cumulative rainfall as of early July was above average in most regions, according to satellite images. In the first dekad of June, the northeast of the Sikasso region experienced some short dry spells; however, it has since normalized. Planting of millet, sorghum and rainfed rice is well underway; crops are emerging in the south where pastures have improved significantly.

    A record cereal output was gathered in 2015 following beneficial rains from July over the main producing areas of the country. The 2015 aggregate cereals production was estimated at some 8 million tonnes, about 16 percent higher than the 2014 bumper crop and 28 percent above the average of the previous five years. Production of millet, the most important staple, increased by 9 percent, while rice production increased by 8 percent to about 2.3 million tonnes. Pastoral conditions were also satisfactory. The filling levels of most water points were adequate and animals remained in good condition.

    A bumper crop was already gathered last year. The 2014 output was officially estimated at some 6.98 million tonnes, about 22 percent higher than the 2012 drought-affected output and 13 percent above the average of the previous five years. The increase in cereal production was driven mostly by good rainfall conditions, the larger planted area (17 percent increase), the use of selected seeds and the exploitation of new rice lands.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Senegal

    Key Messages

    • Les récoltes moyennes à supérieurs à la moyenne du riz en cours dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal contribuent à améliorer les disponibilités en cette denrée qui constitue la principale céréale consommée. Les opportunités de mains d’œuvre dans les récoltes et dans l’installation de la nouvelle campagne agricole procurent aux ménages pauvres des revenus et de la nourriture moyens pour satisfaire leurs besoins.

    • Le retard de plus de deux décades dans l’installation des pluies par rapport au calendrier normal dans le bassin arachidier et le nord du pays risque d’affecter les niveaux de réalisation pour les différentes cultures particulièrement dans les régions de Fatick, Kaolack, Diourbel, Kafrine, Louga et Saint Louis. Les productions attendues pourraient être affectées négativement en dépit des énormes efforts du Gouvernement pour rehausser la production agricole du pays.

    • L’approvisionnement des marchés en denrées est suffisant partout dans le pays malgré la baisse saisonnière observée. La disponibilité moyenne grâce à la bonne production de 2015 et les récoltes du riz de contre saison contribuent au maintien des prix à un niveau moyen ou proche de la moyenne ; ce qui favorise un accès moyen des ménages aux marchés pour satisfaire leurs besoins alimentaires. Par conséquent, la majorité des ménages se maintient en insécurité alimentaire minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC).

    • La soudure précoce amène les ménages pauvres du nord et du centre du pays à recourir à des stratégies atypiques de main d’œuvre, d’emprunt, de diminution des dépenses non alimentaires et de préférence des aliments les moins chers. Par conséquent, les ménages pauvres dans ces zones resteront en insécurité alimentaire de Stress (Phase 2 IPC) de juillet jusqu’à la disponibilité des récoltes en octobre.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    Households from Lake Faguibine and Gourma resort to atypical coping strategies

    Key Messages

    • Poor households from Lake Faguibine and Gourma in Timbuktu and Gao have had difficulty accessing markets and have resorted to atypical coping strategies including borrowing and changing eating habits.This is due to below-average cereal production and livestock incomes in 2015 when there were weak floods and high cattle mortality. These households are consequently in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity.

    • The agricultural lean season is underway and began normally across the country for most households thanks to average to above-average market access which has allowed most households to remain in Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity.

    • Normal and above-average rainfall up to July 10th (NOAA) has allowed for the continuation of crop planting across the country. Agricultural labor work is creating food and income opportunities for poor households.The improvement of livestock conditions across the country has ended the animal lean season and has increased animal production to normal levels across the country.

    • The market supply of food remains sufficient in this lean season period on all markets across the country. This is particularly true for rice, for which off-season production is continuing. The price of millet, the main staple cereal, is stable or below the five year average which is allowing the majority of households to access markets.


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    Source: Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development
    Country: Mali

    Nourrir une famille : les défis quotidiens d'une femme chef de foyer

    Fatoumata est une mère célibataire, à la tête d'un foyer de 10 membres, enfants et petits-enfants. Depuis le décès de son mari, elle doit subvenir seule aux besoins alimentaires de sa famille. Avant la crise, elle était agricultrice et cultivait le millet, le sorgho, le niébé et le melon. Avec le climat d'insécurité qui règne aujourd'hui dans la région et la présence de groupes armés, elle ne veut plus aller aux champs. Elle a donc décidé de changer d'activité, et a démarré un petit commerce. Aujoud'hui, elle vend des produits issus de l'élevage, comme de la viande, du lait ou de la crème, sur le marché de Ménaka et les environs.

    Dans la région de Ménaka, nombreuses sont les femmes qui vendaient des produits agricoles ou issus de l'élevage, et qui ont subit de plein fouet la baisse de ces activités pendant la crise. Les activités de maraîchage ont cessé pendant la période de conflit, la plupart des marchés ayant été détruits. Les déplacements ont également été limités par le climat d'insécurité de la région, limitant par conséquences les activités commerciales.

    Améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et relancer l'économie locale grâce aux coupons alimentaires

    En 2016, avec le soutien de Food for Peace, ACTED a distribué des coupons alimentaires à plus de 8000 foyers vulnérables. Ils ont également pu recevoir un coupon échangeable contre une chèvre et des aliments pour bétail sur une durée de 3 mois. Le projet a permis d'améliorer la sécurité alimentaire des plus vulnérables dans la région de Ménaka. Au terme du projet, plus de 70% des bénéficiaires ont témoigné de l'amélioration de leurs conditions de vie grâce à l'aide reçue, qui leur a permis d'avoir un accès amélioré à de la nourriture et d'agrandir leurs troupeaux. De plus, les activités économiques et commerciales générées par le projet ont permis de relancer l'économie locale, ACTED ayant acheté tous les produits nécessaires (aliments, chèvres, aliments pour bétail) à des fournisseurs locaux dans chaque commune.

    Une étude récente menée par ACTED dans la région de Ménaka révèle qu'un tiers des foyers n'a aucune source de revenu. L'étude montre aussi qu'avant le projet, 34% des foyers ne consommaient pas assez de nourriture ou avaient une alimentation trop peu diversifiée, et 71% d'entre eux n'avaient aucun stock de nourriture pour nourrir leur famille. Face à cette situation catastrophique, sans aide extérieure les foyers les plus démunis n'étaient pas en mesure de subvenir à leurs besoins les plus essentiels et de vivre dignement.

    "Grâce à l'appui d'ACTED, je peux nourrir ma famille et dormir sur mes deux oreilles, sans l'angoisse de trouver de quoi les nourrir le lendemain", raconte Fatoumata. Fatoumata a reçu des coupons alimentaires qui lui ont permis de subvenir aux besoins essentiels de sa famille en nourriture. Elle a pu se procurer du riz, de la semoule, du concentré de tomate, du lait et de l'huile végétale, qui lui ont permis de nourrir sa famille durant plus de trois mois, et d'avoir, enfin, un quotidien moins pénible. Puis, avec la chèvre qu'elle a acquise grâce au coupon reçu, elle pourra continuer à développer son activité et à améliorer son revenu.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: South Sudan, Uganda

    This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson Adrian Edwards – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at the press briefing, on 26 July 2016, at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.

    By: Adrian Edwards

    Fighting in South Sudan that broke out on 8 July between rival factions loyal to Salva Kiir and Riek Machar has to date forced 37,491 people to flee the country to Uganda. To put this in context: In the past three weeks there have been more refugee arrivals in Uganda than in the entire first six months of 2016 (33,838).

    Yesterday (25 July) an estimated 2,442 refugees were received in Uganda from South Sudan. 1,213 crossed at the Elugu Border Point in Amuru, 247 in Moyo, 57 in Lamwo, and 370 in Oraba. Another 555 were received in Kiryandongo Settlement. The majority of arrivals – more than 90 per cent are women and children. People are coming from South Sudan’s Eastern Equatoria region, as well as Juba and other areas of the country.

    Inside South Sudan the intensity of the violence has subsided since early July, but the security situation remains volatile. The new arrivals in Uganda are reporting ongoing fighting as well as looting by armed militias, burning down of homes, and murders of civilians. Some of the women and children told us they were separated from their husbands or fathers by armed groups, who are reportedly forcibly recruiting men into their ranks and preventing them from crossing the border.

    The situation is extremely worrying. Daily arrivals were averaging around 1,500 ten days ago but have risen to over 4,000 in the past week. Further surges in arrivals are a real possibility.

    The influx is putting serious strain on the capacity of collection points, and transit and reception centres, which are too small for the growing number of arrivals. During the course of the weekend, humanitarian organisations worked to decongest the collection points, as well as installing temporary shelters to increase capacities. UNHCR has deployed additional staff, trucks and buses to assist.

    At its peak, more than 11,000 refugees were staying in Elegu, northern Uganda, in a compound equipped to shelter only 1,000 people. Over the course of the weekend, the centre was significantly decongested, with just 300 people sleeping there last night. Many of the refugees have been moved to the Nyumanzi Transit Centre, where they are receiving hot meals, water, shelter and other life-saving assistance, while others have been taken to expanded reception centres in Pagirinya.

    The management and expansion of reception facilities as well as the opening of a new settlement area remain key priorities. A new settlement area has been identified in Yumbe district that looks set to have the capacity to potentially host up to 100,000 people. Temporary communal shelters are also being constructed to accommodate the continuing arrivals.

    The humanitarian response to the influx of South Sudanese refugees is sorely lacking due to severe underfunding. The inter-agency appeal is only funded at 17 per cent, which is constraining UNHCR and its partners to provide emergency and life-saving activities only and causing limitations to the full breadth of humanitarian assistance that can be offered.

    South Sudan’s conflict, which erupted in December 2013, has produced one of the world’s worst displacement situations with immense suffering. Inside South Sudan, some 1.69 million people are displaced internally, while outside the country there are now 831,582 South Sudanese refugees, mainly in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Uganda.

    For more information on this topic, please contact:

    In Nairobi, Teresa Ongaro, ongaro@unhcr.org, +254 735 337 608
    In Kampala, Charles Yaxley, yaxley@unhcr.org , +256 (0) 776 720 045
    In Juba, Eujin Byun, bjun@unhcr.org, +254 701 751 034
    In Geneva, Nora Sturm sturmn@unhcr.org, +41 79 200 76 18


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Security Cluster
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, CCCM Cluster
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, CCCM Cluster
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
    Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Maldives, Mali, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Message from the Director

    Last year was another significant year for internal displacement caused by armed conflict, generalised violence and weather-related disasters across the world. New displacement by conflict and disaster was recorded in every region of the world, with staggeringly high numbers of people displaced in Yemen, Syria, Iraq, India, China and the Philippines. As the result of new and protracted displacement caused by long-running internal conflicts, the total number of conflict IDPs reached 38 million in 2014. Hundreds of thousands more lived in protracted displace ment following disasters for periods ranging between one and 26 years.

    2015 marked a new turning point for IDMC. We expanded the scope of our monitoring beyond conflicts and disasters to cover the impacts of organised criminal violence and development projects such as dam construction, resource extraction, urban renewal and mega sporting events. With this expansion we aim to provide a more comprehensive picture of internal displacement, of the overlaps between different drivers and of the many data and knowledge gaps that remain. Identifying and quantifying the scale of these phenomena will no doubt reveal an ever growing and complex picture of displacement.

    Raising awareness of the nature and dynamics of internal displacement in all its forms is key to helping poli cy-makers and practitioners target limited resources to where they are most needed. It is particularly important to provide insights into displacement as a multi-dimensional and cross-cutting issue of direct relevance to other global challenges, from humanitarian action and peace building, to disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and sustainable development.

    IDMC’s policy work continues to contribute to a wider acknowledgement of displacement as a cross-cutting chal lenge, and promotes the recognition that internal displace ment is rarely the outcome of a single factor or event, but comes about from multiple and overlapping factors that need to be understood for appropriate and durable solutions to be found.

    Working with key partners such as the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), we were proud to influence the key displacement-related decisions that came out of 2015’s landmark policy events. These included the UN Sustainable Development Summit, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the Nansen Initiative’s global consultations on the protection of people displaced across borders, and the COP21 climate change summit.

    These policy frameworks provide important entry points for addressing internal displacement in a more comprehen sive and joined-up way. For this to happen, a solid global baseline and frequently updated quantitative and qualita tive data are needed to inform and monitor these processes each step of the way. This includes building a better knowl edge base on IDPs’ profiles, locations and movements, the conditions in which they live, and the vulnerabilities they may have as a result of their displacement.

    Several significant steps were taken in this direction in 2015, including a plan for the development of an online database which will facilitate IDMC’s users’ access to displacement data and analysis and will provide the most up-to-date country-level estimates on internal displace ment, disaggregated by location and profile.

    We are happy to present our Annual Report 2015 which looks back to our achievements and successes but also considers some of the strategic tasks ahead for IDMC. We would like to thank you all for the support you have given us over the years, and for your encouragement at this crucial time for displacement, migration and refugee issues globally.

    Alexandra Bilak,
    Director of IDMC


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    Source: Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development, International Organization for Migration, CCCM Cluster
    Country: South Sudan

    In coordination with the Inter-Cluster Working Group, the Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster continues to advocate for non-creation of new camp-like settings in Juba. Humanitarian interventions should be aimed at providing temporary emergency assistance that will not serve as a pull factor for IDPs to remain in the sites. OCHA reports that 14,084 people remain displaced by the insecurity in Juba. Of these, 10,838 people are sheltering in the UN Tong Ping and UN House bases. An estimated 3,246 IDPs are staying in Don Bosco collective center in Gumbo.

    UNMISS TONGPING

    CCCM

    Camp Management

    • Estimated population figure remains at 4,000.
    • Camp management continues to support the movement of IDPs from one location in the site to another to facilitate construction of communal shelters.

    Relocation

    • The dry run of the relocation route involving all participants of the relocation convoy participants (IOM busses with UNMISS and SPLA escort) will take place today 26 July.
    • The relocation is expected to begin on Wednesday 27 July, the planned relocation is contingent on feedback from UN House on preparedness for reception of IDPs.
    • 210 IDPs have voluntarily registered for relocation, indicating that they have family or plots at UN House. This group will be prioritized for relocation.
    • It is planned for two rotations of relocation convoy to take place, at 0800 hours and 1300 hours.

    WASH

    • IOM delivered 54,000 liters of safe drinking water at a rate of 13.5L per person per day.
    • Four water points and 30 taps with one tap for 133 people.
    • 76 latrines are functional, with 52 person per latrine. 14 hand washing facilities are installed and functional.
    • The total sludge de-sludged from the UNMISS latrines is 12 cubic meters.
    • 6 cubic meters of de-sludged from UNMISS latrines by UNMISS truck.
    • Construction of 10 bathing shelters is ongoing.
    • 57 health hygiene promoters (HHP) are on the ground working, with one HHP for every 70 people.
    • 50 latrine cleaners (20) and garbage collectors (20) are on the ground and working.
    • 30 garbage collection bins have been prepositioned at different sites in the camp.

    Health

    • IOM conducted 183 health consultations at its temporary clinic
    • 3 new cases of cholera were reported and immediately referred to the Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) (Juba Teaching Hospital).
    • There will be a phased approach to the Oral Cholera Vaccination (OCV) campaign (1) OCV on exit for IDPs relocating to UN House and (2) Mass campaign in the Tong Ping site on 27th and 28th July.
    • 172 households (1,402 individuals) were reached with health hygiene promotion messaging.

    S&NFI

    • Four new shelters have been completed.
    • 17 (15 full size shelters for 50 individuals and 2 half size for 25 individuals) completed shelters on site, with the capacity to house 800 individuals.
    • Site development continues with marram spreading and compacting.
    • Tents for transit site have been procured and will be installed today 26 July.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: South Sudan

    Highlights

    • The latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) results highlights a deteriorating food security situation. By July, 4.8 million people are expected to face emergency and crisis levels of food insecurity.

    • WFP provided food assistance to two million people in May – the highest number of people assisted since the conflict broke out in December 2013.

    • WFP provided emergency food assistance to families displaced by the recent fighting in Wau.

    • Scale up of general food distributions continues to support households through the lean season.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Nigeria

    Burkina Faso: Floods kill four, affect thousands

    Floods triggered by torrential rains in four regions, including the capital Ouagadougou killed four people and affected thousands others on 19 and 20 July. The authorities have set up a cell to monitor the impact of the rains and activated the national emergency relief and rehabilitation committee to assist those affected by the floods.

    Chad: Over 9,000 IDPs receive cash assistance

    WFP has launched an unconditional cash transfer programme in five displacement sites around Bol area targeting more than 9,000 beneficiaries. Each family will receive 6,000 CFA francs per month. The programme will run until the end of the year. Other cash-based interventions are in preparation or underway.

    Côte d’Ivoire: IDPs fear returning home

    Some 1,328 of the 3,000 people displaced by farmer-herder clashes in north-eastern Bouna area in March have not returned home due to insecurity fears. The situation in the rural areas around Bouna has improved but remains volatile due to persisting tensions between Koulango, Fulani and Lobi communities. The remaining displaced people continue to receive food assistance.

    DR Congo: Yellow fever vaccination drive launched

    A vaccination campaign targeting around one million people was launched on 20 July in the capital Kinshasa and in Kwango province bordering Angola, where yellow fever has killed more than 300 people since December. A wider vaccination drive targeting 10 million people will start in the next two weeks. The country has registered nearly 1,800 suspected cases.

    Mali: Heavy fighting hits Kidal

    Heavy fighting erupted on 21 July in the northern Kidal town between two armed groups that are signatory to a peace agreement. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the clashes, the first ceasefire violation since September 2015. Humanitarian organizations have decried the persistent insecurity in northern Mali that impedes the delivery of assistance. Separately, militants on 19 July raided a military camp in the central part of the country in an attack claimed by two other armed groups.

    Nigeria: First cross-border food delivery to Banki Town

    On 21 July, a UN cross-border mission from Cameroon to Nigeria provided four days’ worth of food and NFI to 15,000 IDPs in Banki, a town located 2 km from the Cameroonian border. Providing larger amounts of aid may put beneficiaries at risk of further Boko Haram attacks. The cross-border operation was necessary due to the difficult humanitarian access between Maiduguri, the capital of the north-eastern Borno State, and Banki. Given the lack of civilian authorities in Banki and access problems, it is difficult to ascertain the actual number of people affected. According to best estimates, between 15,000 and 20,000 displaced people are in the town.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mali, Nigeria

    Burkina Faso : 4 morts, des milliers de personnes affectées par les inondations

    Les 19 et 20 juillet, des inondations provoquées par des pluies torrentielles dans quatre régions, dont la capitale Ouagadougou, ont tué quatre personnes et affecté des milliers d'autres. Les autorités ont mis en place une cellule pour surveiller l'impact des pluies et activé le Comité national de secours d'urgence et de réhabilitation pour aider les personnes touchées par les inondations.

    Côte d’Ivoire : Les déplacés craignent de retourner chez eux

    Quelque 1 328 des 3 000 personnes déplacées par les affrontements entre agriculteurs et éleveurs dans la zone nord-est de Bouna en mars dernier ne sont pas retournés chez eux en raison de craintes pour leur sécurité. La situation dans les zones rurales autour de Bouna s’est améliorée mais reste instable en raison de la persistance des tensions entre les communautés Koulango, Fulani et Lobi. Les personnes qui restent déplacées continuent de recevoir une aide alimentaire.

    RD Congo : Lancement de la campagne de vaccination contre la fièvre jaune

    Une campagne de vaccination ciblant environ un million de personnes a été lancée le 20 juillet dans la capitale Kinshasa et dans la province de Kwango, frontière avec l'Angola, où la fièvre jaune a tué plus de 300 personnes depuis décembre. Une campagne de vaccination plus large, ciblant plus de 10 millions de personnes, va commencer dans les deux prochaines semaines. Le pays a enregistré près de 1 800 cas suspects.


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    Source: ALIMA
    Country: Niger, World

    BACKGROUND

    Putting mothers at the center of malnutrition screening strategies acknowledges that they are in the best position to detect the earliest signs of malnutrition and leverages the fact that mothers want to participate as fully as possible in promoting the health of their children.

    This is why, in 2011, ALIMA began exploring the feasibility of training mothers to screen their own children for malnutrition by teaching them how to use color-coded Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) tapes and check for edema. ALIMA was also responding to two persistent problems found in even the best-functioning treatment programs: late presentation of severely malnourished children and coverage rates often below 50%.

    MUAC offers many advantages. Compared to other commonly used anthropometric indicators such as weight-for-height Z score, it is simple to understand and use. Furthermore, MUAC better identifies children at highest risk of death from common childhood illness. Regular screening in the community has been shown to improve early diagnosis while decreasing risk of medical complication or death.

    Current recommendations call for community health workers (CHW) to screen children in their catchment area, without any mention of frequency. Early detection of wasting or nutritional edema requires repeated screens, sometimes at weekly intervals, with particular focus during the months when most malnutrition occurs – typically the rainy season. CHWs are usually asked to screen once per month, but often have multiple competing responsibilities. Family members are best placed to regularly check a child’s MUAC and look for edema, and MUAC-based programs show great promise for improving coverage: in Sierra Leone one such a program showed superior coverage to standard protocol based on weight-for-height measures while in Bangladesh, CHWs using MUAC achieved over 90% coverage.

    ALIMA has conducted two studies in the Mirriah District of Niger to test the Mother-MUAC strategy and estimate the effectiveness and costs of empowering mothers to screen their own children for malnutrition. The pilot study conducted in 2012 with 103 mother-child pairs, showed that minimally trained mothers could classify their children by MUAC color-coded class as well as CHWs. Both groups had similarly high sensitivity and specificity for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and global acute malnutrition (GAM). Classification errors only occurred at the boundaries between normal/MAM and MAM/SAM. Accuracy was not influenced by which arm (right or left) was measured nor by how the mid-point of the upper arm was determined (by-eye or by measurement), providing evidence that can simplify the use of an already easy-to-understand tool, while maintaining accuracy and precision.


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    Source: ALIMA
    Country: Niger, World

    CONTEXTE

    En 2011, ALIMA a commencé à étudier la faisabilité d’une formation des mères pour dépister la malnutrition auprès de leurs enfants, en leur apprenant comment utiliser la bandelette MUAC (Mid-Upper Arm Circumference) qui mesure le périmètre brachial et à détecter les oedèmes.

    Placer les mères au centre de la stratégie de dépistage consiste à reconnaître qu’elles sont les plus à même de détecter rapidement les premiers signes de malnutrition chez leurs enfants et qu’elles sont volontaires pour participer autant que possible à l’amélioration de leur santé.

    ALIMA répond ainsi à deux problématiques récurrentes des programmes nutritionnels: le diagnostic tardif des enfants malnutris et un taux de couverture souvent inférieur à 50%.

    La mesure du Périmètre Brachial (PB) comporte de nombreux avantages. Comparée aux autres mesures anthropométriques, telles que le rapport poids-taille, elle est un meilleur prédicteur de la mortalité, particulièrement quand elle est utilisée régulièrement chez les enfants âgés entre 6 et 59 mois. Le PB est également simple à comprendre et à utiliser. Les dépistages réguliers au sein de la communauté ont montré que la détection était plus précoce diminuant ainsi le risque de mortalité et morbidité.

    La majorité des recommandations actuelles s’appuient sur les Agents de Santé à Base Communautaire (ASBC ou relais communautaires) pour dépister avec le MUAC dans leur zone. Il est cependant d’une fois par mois. Former les membres de la famille à mesurer régulièrement le PB et à vérifier la présence d’oedème pourrait donc améliorer considérablement la couverture des programmes et encourager une détection précoce, ce qui réduirait les risques de décès et de complications médicales nécessitant des soins hospitaliers coûteux.

    ALIMA a mené deux études dans le district de Mirriah au Niger pour évaluer la stratégie PB mères et estimer l’efficacité et les coûts d’une telle stratégie. L’étude pilote menée en 2012 auprès de 103 binômes maman-enfant a montré que les mères formées pouvaient classifier leurs enfants selon la couleur de la bandelette, de la même manière que les Relais Communitaires (ReCos). Les deux groupes avaient la même lecture pour la MAS (Malnutrition Aigüe Sévère) et la MAM (Malnutrition Aiguë Modérée). Les erreurs de classification sont survenues uniquement aux seuils entre normal/MAM et MAM/MAS. La précision n’est pas affectée par le choix du bras (gauche ou droit) mesuré ni par le choix du milieu du bras (à l’oeil ou en mesurant), prouvant ainsi qu’il est possible de faciliter davantage l’utilisation d’un outil déjà très simple, tout en maintenant sa précision.

    Une étude plus large menée entre 2013 et 2014 a montré que cette approche pouvait facilement être mise à l’échelle d’une aire sanitaire. Les 12 000 mères et accompagnants formés ont démontré des compétences identiques aux personnels de santé, aussi bien pour la prise du PB que pour l’identification des oedèmes. La MAS était détectée plus tôt (c’est-à-dire avec un PB médian plus élevé) et moins d’hospitalisations ont été faites parmi les enfants dépistés par les mères. Faire des mères le point focal du dépistage réduit considérablement le coût pour une année par enfant, par rapport à la stratégie basée sur les ReCos.

    ALIMA a étendu le PB mères à plusieurs autres pays et vise à mettre en oeuvre cette stratégie dans l’ensemble de ses programmes de lutte contre la malnutrition. Le guide présenté ciaprès est le produit des expériences et leçons apprises, afin que d’autres organisations puissent bénéficier de ces connaissances et adopter cette stratégie. Il comprend une gamme d’outils développés pour planifier et réaliser les sessions de formations des mères et des gardien(ne)s sur l’utilisation de la bandelette MUAC et la détection des oedèmes ; et poursuivre la mise en oeuvre de la qualité des activités médicales. Notre objectif est que, dans un futur proche, l’ensemble des familles soit à l’aise avec les techniques et soit en mesure de dépister leurs enfants, partout où la prévalence de la malnutrition infantile est importante. Les mères et les membres de la famille sont les personnes les plus à-même de détecter l’émaciation, et/ou les oedèmes, dès les premiers signes. Le PB mères pourrait ainsi générer de réels progrès en termes de réduction de la mortalité et morbidité liées à la malnutrition.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Niger

    Les rélocalisations volontaires des réfugiés ont été relancées le 8 juillet 2016. Les raisons qui poussent les réfugiés à choisir de se rendre au camp de Sayam Forage sont principalement le sentiment constant d’insécurité et l’absence d’opportunité socioéconomiques.


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    Source: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
    Country: South Sudan, Switzerland

    Bern, 27.07.2016 - In South Sudan thousands of people have fled the recent hostilities between rival political factions. These new outbreaks of violence have compounded the already considerable humanitarian needs in the country. Switzerland has decided to provide an additional CHF 2 million to alleviate the suffering of the local population.

    Switzerland is concerned about the fate of the civilian population of South Sudan following the outbreak of hostilities at the beginning of July 2016 in the capital Juba and other parts of the country. The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) will release CHF 2 million to help the victims of this new wave of violence.

    Half of this amount will be channelled to the South Sudan Common Humanitarian Fund, to which Switzerland has been contributing since 2014. The funds will help finance the operations in the SDC's three priority sectors in this country: food security, water and the protection of civilians. The other million will be allotted to the World Food Programme (WFP) to assist efforts to fight food insecurity, which is affecting over four million people in the country.

    This new outbreak of violence is exacerbating the already dramatic humanitarian situation. South Sudan suffers from extreme poverty and a civil war, which has been undermining it since December 2013.

    South Sudan, which is the world's youngest state, is one of the priority intervention zones of Swiss Humanitarian Aid, whose budget for this country in 2016 amounted to approximately CHF 18 million before this new contribution.

    South Sudan is also a priority country of the FDFA's Human Security Division (HSD), which has been working to implement the peace agreement concluded in August 2015. The HSD is also involved in the reconciliation efforts and in strengthening local government in collaboration with the traditional authorities. The budget for its peace promotion activities totals about CHF 1 million per year.

    Address for enquiries

    Information FDFA
    Bundeshaus West
    CH-3003 Bern
    Tel.: +41 58 462 31 53
    Fax: +41 58 464 90 47
    E-Mail: info@eda.admin.ch


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    Sécurité

    La situation sécuritaire dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord demeure précaire. Certaines localités de la région ont subi des attaques de la secte Boko Haram au cours de la semaine. Les combattants de la secte islamiste se sont attaqués non seulement aux populations civiles, mais également aux bases des forces de défense à Kamouna au Cameroun et au poste de Damboré au Nigeria tenu par les forces camerounaises. Ils avaient pour objectif la récupération d’armes et des approvisionnements en vivres. Quatre civils ont été tués.

    Développement Majeurs

    Un atelier des consultations nationales a été organisé, le 19-20 juillet, par le Ministère de la Sante Publique et le HCR, sur la prise en charge sanitaire des réfugiés, en vue d’étudier les voies et moyens d’intégrer les services de santé des réfugiés existants et à venir dans le système national afin de rendre le service plus harmonieux. Les travaux visaient à présenter et valider le plan stratégique d’intégration de la prise en charge des réfugiés dans le système national de santé publique, développer une feuille de route pour sa mise en œuvre effective et valider la Convention-Cadre entre le MINSANTE et le HCR. Aux termes de ces deux journées les principaux objectifs ont été atteints Le 20 juillet, le HCR a procédé à la remise des matériels d’appui au Comité Interministériel Ad-Hoc chargé de la gestion des situations d’urgence concernant les réfugiés au Cameroun, que préside le ministère de l'Administration Territoriale et de la Décentralisation (MINATD). La cérémonie a été présidée par Son Excellence Monsieur le Ministre René Emmanuel Sadi à la Mairie de Yaoundé. Le HCR vient renforcer son soutien en mettant à la disposition des souspréfectures un lot d’équipement de bureau, de communication et de mobilité.

    Dans le cadre de la poursuite des formations du personnel d’Etat Civil, du 18-22 juillet, le HCR a organisé à Buea, un atelier de formation sur: «la procédure d’enregistrement des naissances et les risques d’apatridie liés au manque d’enregistrement des naissances dans la péninsule de Bakassi », à l’attention des Préfets, Sous-Préfets, Maires et Secrétaires d’Etat Civil. Au cours de cet atelier, des présentations ont été faites sur la Réforme de l’Etat Civil, la Loi sur la nationalité Camerounaise, l’apatridie et la réduction des risques d’apatridie, et les risques liés au manque d’enregistrement des actes de naissance. Par la même occasion, le HCR a procédé à la remise d’un important lot d’équipements et de matériels de bureau aux neuf communes de Bakassi, afin de favoriser l’enregistrement des naissances et par là, prévenir les risques d’apatridie.


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