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- 04/29/16--07:35: _Cameroon: Cameroon:...
- 04/29/16--07:41: _Chad: Chad: Humanit...
- 04/29/16--07:46: _Gambia: Gambia: Hum...
- 04/29/16--07:50: _Nigeria: Nigeria: H...
- 04/29/16--07:53: _Niger: Niger: Human...
- 04/29/16--07:57: _Mali: Mali: Humanit...
- 04/29/16--08:01: _Mauritania: Maurita...
- 04/29/16--19:00: _World: New measures...
- 04/29/16--22:16: _Mozambique: Press b...
- 04/30/16--03:51: _Nigeria: Nigeria: F...
- 04/30/16--07:30: _Niger: Niger: Mise ...
- 04/30/16--23:16: _Nigeria: With assis...
- 04/30/16--23:21: _Burkina Faso: Burki...
- 05/01/16--06:51: _Mauritania: Maurita...
- 05/01/16--18:59: _Niger: Niger Flow M...
- 05/01/16--20:38: _Niger: Niger: Epide...
- 05/02/16--01:10: _Niger: WFP Niger Co...
- 05/02/16--03:14: _Mali: Mali: Shelter...
- 05/02/16--08:18: _Senegal: Senegal: H...
- 05/02/16--10:00: _World: Launch of th...
- 04/29/16--07:35: Cameroon: Cameroon: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
- 04/29/16--07:41: Chad: Chad: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
- 04/29/16--07:46: Gambia: Gambia: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
- 04/29/16--07:50: Nigeria: Nigeria: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
- 04/29/16--07:53: Niger: Niger: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
- 04/29/16--07:57: Mali: Mali: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
- 04/29/16--08:01: Mauritania: Mauritania: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
Three measures (EUR 63 million) will be geared to the regions of origin of migrants in Senegal and Mauritania in order to create economic opportunities for young people, prevent irregular migration and promote voluntary returns.
Two measures (EUR 37 million) will target the areas of transit in Niger in order to increase employment opportunities and income-generating activities for migrants and local populations.
One measure (EUR 6 million) will be aimed at setting up a joint investigation team in Niger to combat networks engaged in smuggling migrants and human trafficking.
A regional measure (EUR 5 million) will build on the capacities of the countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in the fight against organised crime, trafficking and terrorism by creating or strengthening capacity to collect, pool, manage and share police data.
One measure (EUR 3 million) will help to protect migrant children from exploitation and human trafficking in Mauritania.
One measure (EUR 6 million) will be aimed at strengthening the commitment of the Malian diaspora in Europe to developing Mali's economy and in particular the areas of origin of migrants.
One measure (EUR 10 million) will underpin the implementation of the Northern Mali Peace Agreement.
Eight measures (EUR 118 million) will target the Lake Chad region and the areas affected by the crisis linked to Boko Haram in order to boost the resilience of vulnerable groups, in particular women and the displaced, and strengthen conflict prevention and management.
Two measures (EUR 30 million) will be aimed at supporting the most vulnerable groups and contributing to the socio-economic integration of women in northern Burkina Faso.
- 04/29/16--22:16: Mozambique: Press briefing note on Mozambique and Nigeria
- The conduct of law enforcement officials is addressed by a number of specific international standards and codes, including the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, and the UN Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials.
- 04/30/16--03:51: Nigeria: Nigeria: Food Security Outlook Update - April 2016
Conflict in the Lake Chad region has declined relative to previous months, improving access to trade routes and allowing some IDPs to return to their homesteads. These households, however, have significantly reduced food access given limited livelihood opportunities and little to no harvests during the last three years. Poor households worst affected by the insecurity in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa will face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) through at least September with smaller populations, making up less than 20 percent of the total population1, likely in Emergency (IPC Phase 4).
Households in parts of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa states that have been less affected by Boko Haram-related conflict were able to participate in the recent main season harvest and ongoing dry season activities, although at below-average levels. Between April and September, these households will only be able to meet their basic food needs and will face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) acute food insecurity.
Along major river floodplains, the dry season harvest is underway for vegetables, rice and wheat. This harvest is average to above average in most areas, and is increasing income-earning opportunities, food diversity and access for poor households. Additionally, typical land preparation and planting activities for the next main season are providing increased labor opportunities for poor households throughout the country compared to previous months.
The depreciation of the Nigerian naira has led to continuously increasing food and fuel prices across the country and has limited imports of some staples such as rice and wheat. Similarly, livestock imports from neighboring countries have declined. This has further reduced the purchasing power of many households, limiting their food access.
- 04/30/16--07:30: Niger: Niger: Mise à jour sur la sécurité alimentaire - Avril 2016
Les disponibilités alimentaires chez la plupart des ménages restent encore suffisantes pour couvrir la demande de consommation. Les ménages agricoles déficitaires arrivent à accéder aux produits de consommation grâce aux revenus normaux générés par les activités saisonnières telles que la production agricole irriguée, les travaux de préparations des sols et la main d’œuvre liée à l’exode saisonnier. Ainsi, la plupart des zones se maintiennent en insécurité alimentaire aigue Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) jusqu’en septembre 2016.
Les disponibilités en produits de consommation sont aussi suffisantes sur les marchés qui affichent des prix globalement en baisse par rapport à la moyenne à la faveur de flux internes et transfrontaliers de céréales locales qui se poursuivent normalement, sauf dans la région de Diffa. Cette tendance des prix observée jusqu’en avril pourrait se poursuivre jusqu’en fin mai où des hausses saisonnières normales pourraient s’observer de juin jusqu’en septembre suite à une augmentation de la demande de consommation.
La disponibilité du pâturage est équivalente à seulement 30 pour cent de la moyenne saisonnière entrainant des fortes dépenses pour l’entretien des animaux malgré une réduction des revenus des éleveurs suite à une baisse des prix engendrée par la dépréciation récente du naira nigérian.
L’insécurité alimentaire aiguë de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) va persister jusqu’au moins juillet dans certaines zones pastorales avant d’évoluer en situation Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) après la fin de la soudure pastorale.
En raison des sources de revenus et de nourriture en dessous de la moyenne suite aux effets du conflit sur l’économie, des déficits de consommation alimentaire sont observés chez les ménages pauvres et déplacés de la région de Diffa, autour du Lac Tchad et de la rivière Komadougou. Des formes d’insécurité alimentaire aiguë de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) ou de Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) vont persister dans ces zones au moins jusqu’en septembre 2016.
- Imminent action -
- IS link? -
- 04/30/16--23:21: Burkina Faso: Burkina capital hit by water shortage
- 05/02/16--01:10: Niger: WFP Niger Country Brief, March 2016
Limited funding has resulted in WFP reducing its assistance in the country. If no new contributions are received, WFP will be forced to reduce even further its food/cash assistance to vulnerable populations, school meals and nutrition activities.
Since the start of the year, WFP has assisted over 200,000 people through Food For Asset activities.
New Cash Based Transfers distributions are ongoing in the Diffa region. Over 27,300 people have been reached.
- 05/02/16--03:14: Mali: Mali: Shelter Cluster Factsheet, March 2016
The crisis that occurred in Mali in 2012 led to displacement in high numbers, both inside the country and in the sub-region, 350,000 persons were internally displaced, while 175,000 were refugees.
Even if the security situation is still volatile, some Malian refugees have been coming back home since 2013. As of March 2016, the government of Mali estimates that more than 40,000 Malian refugees have returned, while UNHCR verified some 21,003 returnees. Regarding IDP’s, the March DTM reported 52,163 persons still internally displaced in Mali.
In The HRP 2016 (Humanitarian response plan), the shelter cluster estimates, 450.000 people in NFI needs, and 167.000 people need of shelter assistance. The cluster targeted 91,000 persons to be assisted with NFI and 17.000 vulnerable persons will receive shelter assistance.
NFI : NFI distribution for vulnerable people living in return area,
Permanent shelter: Construction or rehabilitation of damaged houses for people who return in their area of origin.
Nomadic shelter: provide traditional shelter through shelter kits, composed by tool kit and construction material kit.
As of March 2016, Cluster partners (including ICRC) have assisted:
663 fleshly repatriated population in Tombouktu from Mauritania (M’bera camp)
1,069 people displaced in Menaka (Gao) following intercommunal conflict that occurred in January 2016.
For shelter assistance, partners still in the identification and technical evaluation phase.
Comparing the target and the population in need , only 20% of vulnerable people will be reached,
Limited number of active shelter actors,
Humanitarian access still remains a challenge in some areas, with constant attack on humanitarian workers,
Lack of regular shelter need assessment.
- 05/02/16--08:18: Senegal: Senegal: Humanitarian Overview (as of 27 April 2016)
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
Recurring natural disasters such as droughts and floods combined with the volatility of markets, pushed many households and communities into chronic vulnerability.
Conflict in northern Nigeria and CAR continue to displace refugees to Cameroon, and causes internal displacements. In addition, increasing insecurity in the far North of Cameroon and along the border of CAR hampers humanitarian access.
Poor coverage of sanitation and access to clean water remain the main causes of malnutrition and water-borne diseases
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
Food insecurity aggravated by chronic drought and negative coping strategies, in the context of limited capacity. Malnutrition is not only linked to food insecurity, but also caused by poor eating habits.
Recent and former population displacement due to conflicts in neighboring CAR, Libya, Nigeria, and Sudan (security volatility around Chad).
Lack of functional health facilities and qualified medical staff (only 450 doctors for 13.2 million people), poor sanitation and limited access to clean water and basic services.
A country prone to natural disasters such as drought, floods and crop enemies, which further undermine the already fragile livelihoods of the most vulnerable.
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
Endemic of food insecurity due to crop failure/ poor harvest, rising food prices and loss of livelihoods as a result of frequent natural disasters (droughts, floods).
Lack of integrated early warning systems to facilitate early response and assist affected populations to cope better with shocks.
Poor sanitation and access to clean water are main causes of waterborne diseases. Prevalence of epidemics, lack of access to adequate health services and poor health service delivery.
Lack of lasting peace in southern Senegal leading to sporadic inflow of refugees.
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS*
Continued forced displacement, killing and secuirty incidents due to insurgency situation.
An estimated 13.7 million people are affected by the food insecurity in the northern parts of Nigeria, including 7 million in the Northeast states of Adamawa, Borno, Yobe - out of which 2.5 million are in urgent need of food assistance.
Unproportionate resources to address the needs of displaced families such as shelter, health care, WASH, NFIs, education and psychosocial support.
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
Poverty, demographic pressure and recurrent shocks (droughts, floods, epidemics, and high food prices) are among the key causes of vulnerability amongst households and communities.
Insecurity in neighboring countries, notably Mali and Nigeria, has led to displacements to Niger. In addition, the country is experiencing internal displacement of people due to armed attacks by insurgents that have been occurring in Diffa since Feb 2015.
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
Chronic vulnerability: recurrent shocks (droughts, floods, epidemics, locust), increasing poverty and market instability have contributed to deterioration of livelihoods.
Limited access to basic social services and timid presence of State administration in certain parts of northern Mali increase the vulnerability of communities.
Population displacement caused by inter community conflict and sociopolitical factors. Continued insecurity and limited access to social services in Gao,Kidal,Timbuktu and parts of Mopti impede the durable return of displaced persons and refugees.
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
Food insecurity, malnutrition and overall vulnerability are results of recurring natural hazards (droughts, floods), increasing food prices and overall scarcity of resources.
The country continues to host Malian refugees, their returns are contingent on restoring peace and security in Northern Mali.
Diseases under epidemiological surveillance are likely to report increased number of cases as a result of poor access to health structures and water,sanitation, and hygiene facilities.
Brussels, 18 April 2016
The European Commission today announced the introduction of 20 new measures in the Sahel region and Lake Chad Basin, worth over EUR 280 million in total.
The European Commission today announced the adoption of 20 new measures to assist the Sahel region and the Lake Chad Basin under the 'Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa'.
These measures, with a budget of over EUR 280 million, correspond directly to the commitments made under the Action Plan adopted at the Valletta Summit (11‑12 November 2015). The aim of the measures is to improve the management of migration flows, create sustainable economic opportunities for young people and address the factors of instability and vulnerability. Under these measures, EUR 100 million are earmarked for the Lake Chad region, in particular to support those affected by the Boko Haram terrorist group.
EU Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, added: 'With these twenty new measures worth almost EUR 300 million, the Trust Fund is demonstrating once again its added value in swiftly launching projects to tackle the root causes of instability and irregular migration in the Sahel and Lake Chad Basin regions. We are focusing in particular on job creation, especially for young people, and the socio‑economic reintegration of vulnerable groups. These sections of the population are the main victims of instability and they should be the main beneficiaries of our projects.' The measures are targeted specifically at the areas of origin and transit of migrants and the main areas of instability. They are part of a comprehensive response by the European Union and are the result of an enhanced political dialogue with its partners on the question of migration.
Eight countries in the region will benefit from this assistance through an integrated approach which reflects the complexity of migration and the diversity of the challenges in the region:
Other measures more specifically aimed at combating migrant smuggling and human trafficking, supporting internal security forces, border management and governance of migration flows are currently being formulated and will be presented in the coming weeks.
Following the adoption of 10 measures in January 2016 worth EUR 100 million in addition to today's EUR 280 million, the Fund thus confirms its ability to respond swiftly and in a targeted manner to the specific challenges of the region, complementing other EU action.
For more information
MEMO/16/1426 : Factsheet on the 20 new measures adopted
Press release on the initial 10 measures adopted in January 2016: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-68_en.htm
Ten new measures adopted in January 2016: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-16-69_en.htm
Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights: Rupert Colville
Date: 29 April 2016
Subjects: (1) Mozambique
We have received worrying information about ongoing armed clashes in Mozambique between national security forces and members of Renamo, the former rebel group which became the main opposition party at the end of the 16-year civil war in 1992. Human rights violations, including cases of enforced disappearances and summary executions, have also been reported.
Tensions have been rising in Mozambique over the past few months, after Renamo rejected the outcome of the 2014 legislative elections and announced its intention to seize power in six of the country's 11 provinces. Military operations by the army against Renamo have mainly affected Tete Province, but clashes seem to be spreading to other provinces, including Sofala, Zambezia, Nampula and Manica. According to UNHCR, some 10,000 people have left the country since December 2015.
Security forces have been accused of summary executions, looting, destruction of property, rape, ill-treatment, and other human rights violations. According to reliable sources, at least 14 local Renamo officials have been killed or abducted by unidentified individuals or groups since the beginning of the year. On 20 January, there was an assassination attempt on the Renamo Secretary General and MP Manual Bissopo.
Attacks against police and military forces have also been attributed to Renamo. Members of Renamo are also reported to have committed human rights abuses and violations against civilians perceived to be associated with the ruling party, Frelimo, or to be cooperating with security forces. They have also been accused of carrying out sniper attacks on some roads, which have resulted in a number of casualties, including civilians.
The lack of accountability for past human rights abuses and violations seems to be a key component of the deteriorating situation. We are particularly concerned about the killing on 1 April of Public Prosecutor Marcelino Vilankulo, and about the lack of progress in the investigation into the March 2015 murder of Gilles Cistac, a law professor who had denounced electoral fraud.
On a separate note, we are also alarmed by recent reports that human rights defenders calling for public demonstrations in favour of accountability and transparency in the management of public resources have been harassed and threatened.
The announcement by the Head of the Police on 25 April that any public protest will be repressed raises serious concerns. Ahead of demonstrations called for today, tomorrow and next week, we urge the Government to fulfil its obligation to guarantee that all citizens may exercise their rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly. We also call on law enforcement officials to show utmost restraint when maintaining public order and to comply at all times with international human rights obligations and international standards on policing*.
We have received reports of a deadly attack early Monday morning against several communities in the southern State of Enugu, Nigeria, by armed Fulani herdsmen and associated militia.
Although the increasing competition for natural resources between farming and herders communities has led to many incidents in the past, Monday’s attack appears to be among the most serious in recent years. The exact number of victims remains unknown but local sources say that at least 40 people may have been killed during what appears as a well-prepared raid carried out by some 500 men armed with guns, bows and machetes in the Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area. Many houses and a church were also set on fire by attackers.
We welcome the announcement by the Nigerian authorities that they have launched an investigation and also dispatched additional security forces to the area. However we are very concerned by reports that advance warning of a potential attack in the area had been received by the authorities, and was not effectively acted on.
We are also worried by the complete impunity enjoyed so far by perpetrators of previous attacks, including ones in Benue State in February, which reportedly led to the destruction of entire villages in 13 different Local Government Areas, killed more than 300 people and displaced over 20,000 others.
We call on the Nigerian Government to guarantee the security of all its citizens in full respect of international and national human rights standards and to ensure that justice is done for the very serious human rights violations which have been taking place. Holding perpetrators to account is all the more crucial as some communities under threat are now suggesting taking justice into their own hands.
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Sharp food price increases further limit food access for poor households in the Northeast
Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) et Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) persistent dans des zones localisées
N'Djamena, Chad | AFP | Saturday 5/1/2016 - 03:42 GMT
by Valérie LEROUX
With US and European support, African states threatened by Boko Haram are out to smash the militant Islamist group terrorising the region -- but a coordinated response is required if they are to succeed.
A regional offensive launched early last year against the group by Chad, and Nigeria under new President Muhammadu Buhari has seen Boko Haram driven out from numerous towns and villages that it controlled in northeastern Nigeria.
Two weeks ago, Nigeria's military said it would raid the group's Sambisa Forest stronghold on the Cameroon border. The group also has hideouts within nearby Lake Chad's huge maze of small islands and swampland.
Despite losing some ground in recent months the insurgents retain the capacity to launch attacks almost at will, notably via suicide attacks which require few resources.
British NGO Action on Armed Violence said earlier this week that Boko Haram attacks claimed three times as many victims last year as in 2014.
The group started wreaking havoc in Nigeria in 2009 and according to World Bank estimates has killed around 20,000 people, also sowing chaos and fear inside neighbouring Cameroon, Chad and Niger.
US and British troops will join the international coordination effort against the group, while Nigeria and France on Thursday signed an agreement on closer military cooperation, including intelligence sharing.
Nigerian Defence Minister Mansur Dan Ali saluted the deal as evidence of a "growing partnership" between Abuja and Paris.
An 8,500-strong multinational force has been drawn up to track the jihadists, but its deployment has been haphazard with little to indicate the extent of real progress.
Even so, the Nigerian general overseeing the force, Lamadi Adeosun, indicated Friday during a meeting with French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian that "much has been done and is still being done to win the battle and ultimately win the peace".
The Nigerian army is expected to launch an offensive in the coming days so as "to deny Boko Haram its traditional Sambisa sanctuary", according to Chad military sources in the capital N'Djamena.
Such an offensive has been in the offing ever since Buhari took office a year ago but has yet to materialise.
"The idea is to be able to announce at the next Abuja summit (on May 14) that this sanctuary no longer exists. That is a military and also a political imperative," says a source close to the president.
The summit will bring together leaders of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria -- allied neighbours in the fight against Boko Haram -- as well as French President Francois Hollande and representatives from Britain and the United States.
Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau appeared in a video late last month and "he still seems to be the leader and is hiding out in the Sambisa Forest," according to a French military source.
The group is thought to number somewhere between 100,000 and 30,000. Its exact strength is hard to evaluate but the French source says that experienced fighters who have returned from Mali or Libya are no more than a small hard core.
The multinational force is preparing its own offensive along the border with Cameroon, Chad and Niger but time is of the essence with the rainy season approaching.
The multinational force, whose HQ is at N'Djamena although each nation's contingent is under its own command, will have access to intelligence compiled by French and US drones and fighter planes -- but communications, transport and logistics hardware are in short supply.
Coordination is paramount.
"If they are not coordinated they will never be able definitively to curtail Boko Haram," a French military source warned.
General Adeosun says the international community should be doing more -- red tape has held up 50 million euros ($55 million) of EU aid -- and has asked for lifejackets and a consignment of flat-bottomed boats to take the fight to the enemy across the huge expanse of Lake Chad.
There are concerns Boko Haram may have received weapons via Libya from Islamic State through individual go-betweens, though Le Drian says that "for now we do not have proof of close links" between the jihadists.
On Saturday, Le Drian promised to do away with Boko Haram "barbarity" as he visited the Ivorian resort of Grand-Bassam, scene of a deadly March 13 attack blamed on an Al-Qaeda affiliate which killed 19.
"We are determined to fight together with the Ivory Coast authorities for our freedoms and against barbarity," said Le Drian a day after pledging to lift the French troop contingent in the country from 600 to 900.
© 1994-2016 Agence France-Presse
Ouagadougou, BURKINA FASO | AFP | Saturday 5/1/2016 - 05:31 GMT
Burkina Faso will impose restrictions on water supplies in the capital Ouagadougou next week to tackle a serious shortage in the city of two million, officials said.
The city has suffered a severe shortage over the past few weeks which has left some districts without water for three to five days.
"The government has decided to alternate water supply every 12 hours in the capital to address the shortage of drinking water," water and sanitation minister Niouga Ambroise Ouedraogo told reporters.
Hamado Ouedraogo, head of the national water and sanitation office, told AFP that from Tuesday supplies would be alternated between different parts of the city.
A water shortage that began in 2013 had worsened due to exceptionally hot weather this year, with temperatures up to 45 degrees Celsius (113 degrees Fahrenheit), and a growing population, Hamado Ouedraogo added.
The water office has also taken "emergency measures" to rehabilitate public wells in the city.
The government also intends to increase the production capacity of the Ziga dam 30 kilometres (20 miles) north of Ouagadougou, the main source of drinking water for the capital.
The poor and landlocked Sahel country is largely dependent on rainfall for agricultural needs and drinking water.
© 1994-2016 Agence France-Presse
Une insécurité alimentaire moyenne dans la majeure partie du pays
Des productions agricoles meilleures que celles de 2014 et 2015, l’approvisionnement satisfaisant des marchés, la stabilité des prix des denrées alimentaires importées, et les transferts maliens et sénégalais de céréales assurent une disponibilité alimentaire saisonnière suffisante à l’échelle nationale et favorisent l’accès des ménages pauvres à une nourriture régulière. La plupart des zones resteront en situation d’insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) au moins jusqu’en septembre.
Les bonnes conditions pastorales éliminent les dépenses destinées à l’achat de l’aliment bétail (excepté quelques poches du Tagant, de l’Inchiri, et de l’Adrar), favorisent de nouvelles mises-bas qui aident à la reconstitution des cheptels, améliore la disponibilité en lait et rehausse les prix des animaux. Ces facteurs feront évoluer les zones agropastorales du Brakna vers une insécurité Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC) dès juillet suite à la fin de soudure pastorale.
Dans certaines parties de quelques wilayas (Akjoujt en Inchiri, Aoujeft en Adrar, Moudjéria et Tidjikja au Tagant, et Monguel au Gorgol), des déficits de pâturages et/ou de productions agricoles de trois années consécutives et les difficultés d’accès à l’eau accentuent la pression sur le moyen d’existence principal (l’élevage) des ménages pauvres déjà réduits par les deux précédentes années difficiles entrainant ainsi une situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) jusqu’en septembre.
Weekly trends can fluctuate due to security conditions in the region, the political climate in Niger and neighbouring countries, presence of migrants at the flow monitoring points and availability of transport and opportunities. For more detailed analysis see the flow monitoring survey reports.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Niger is a West African country located in the heart of the African meningitis belt, which stretches from Senegal to Djibouti. The hot and dry climate is favourable to the outbreak of meningitis epidemics generally between November and May. In April 2015, following an escalation in meningitis cases (from December 2015) an epidemic was officially declared by the Ministry of Public Health. At the same time, measles outbreak was also confirmed in the Northern region of the country: Agadez, Maradi and Zinder being the worst affected.
On 2 May 2015, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released 100,428 Swiss franc from the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) to support the Red Cross Society of Niger (NRCS) respond to the needs of the affected population. The DREF operation was intended to support 210,000 people (30,000 households) in Dosso and Niamey (meningitis response) and Agadez and Zinder (measles response) over 6 weeks period.
On 2 June 2015, an Operations Update was issued to extend the timeframe by 2 weeks and an additional allocation of 102,770 Swiss franc to expand the planned activities in response to the meningitis epidemic into 8 additional districts.
In total, 10 districts Niamey I, II III, IV, and V, Doutchi, Gaya, Fillingué, Kollo, Ouallam with awareness raising/ sensitization campaigns, as well as preparedness for response in 10 other districts that had not been affected, but were at high risk. Following the stabilization of the measles epidemic, and indications that the number of cases was reduced, it was agreed that the planned activities in Agadez and Zinder would be cancelled.
On 10 July 2015, an Operations Update was issued to extend the timeframe by 3 weeks (New end date: 31 July 2015) to enable the completion of a lessons learned workshop.
The DREF operation was replenished by the Belgian Red Cross / Government and Canadian Red Cross / Government. The major donors and partners of the DREF include: the Red Cross Societies and governments of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the USA, as well as DG ECHO, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) the Medtronic and Zurich Foundations and other corporate and private donors. The Niger Red Cross Society would like to extend many thanks to all partners for their generous contributions.
Integrated resilience programme: Activities are ongoing in targeted areas including food assistance for assets, with the realization of mechanical structures for land regeneration as well as pond deepening and land development activities. A strong partnership with FAO and IFAD ensures complementarities and synergies which ensure the development of the regenerated land through the distribution of improved seeds and planting of trees on more than 4,000 hectare and fish stocking in 24 ponds. Beyond the two sites already started, the joint WFP-FAO Watershed project also began activities in Toughfini (Tillaberi region) and Sahiya (Tahoua region) with the goal to raise the water table levels to enable very poor households to ensure agricultural production throughout the year. Additionally, purchases from smallholder farmers’ continued with 1,600 mt purchased between January and March and 1,800 mt planned for end of May. In March, special attention was given to the development of an action plan to improve coverage rates for the treatment of acute malnutrition in the Maradi region following a community based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) survey conducted by WFP in late 2015.
Humanitarian assistance: WFP has continued to assist 58,880 Malian refugees through unconditional assistance (food/voucher modalities) in the camps (Tabarebarey, Abala and Mangaize) and hosting sites (Intikane and Tazalit). WFP and partners continue to respond to populations affected by insecurity in northern Nigeria in the Diffa region. Assistance was provided to 120,000 refugees and displaced populations as well as host communities through the different modalities (unconditional assistance, cash based transfers, and Food Assistance for Assets).
Air support: Air transport activities are ongoing without any complications. The installation of a high frequency communication radio antenna at the Diffa airport has improved aviation safety for humanitarian flights as well as all other flights serving the airport.
Following the HCT strategy, the cluster response is based on vulnerability of the affected population, not on the status of the beneficiaries. The shelter response focuses on three main topics:
GAPS / CHALLENGES
KEY DRIVERS OF THE CRISIS
The approaching lean season, as well as low and late funding, continue to increase the overall chronic vulnerability and erode communities' resilience, many of which resort to negative coping strategies.
The nutritional situation is critical, with several regions and departments exceeding the WHO threshold of 15%. The north east of the country is particularly affected by the nutritional crisis, requiring an urgent intervention in the coming months.
Recurring floods during the rainy season could affect over 210.000 persons. The provision of hygiene kits and WASH-in-Nut programmes will be essential to avoid a further deterioration of the nutritional situation and to strengthen communities’ resilience.
CILSS and FAO reinforce impact of support initiatives and tools for resilience measurement
2 May 2016, Ouagadougou/Dakar - The Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with the technical and financial support of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has launched a technical Platform for the analysis and measurement of resilience of populations in the Sahel and West Africa (PTMR-SAO). The two organizations have signed a Memorandum of Understanding, which marks the beginning of joint activities in March 2016.
This platform represents a unique opportunity for producing harmonized and consensual information and analysis at national and regional levels. Those analyses will contribute to better guide investments oriented to reinforce populations’ resilience, and to assess the impact of ongoing policies as well.
Furthermore, this platform represents the basis of a more global and inclusive process for the construction of a harmonized and consensual tool to measure resilience in the Sahel and West Africa in the framework of the Global Alliance for Resilience Initiative (AGIR), as it was recommended by the Food Crisis Prevention Network (RPCA), after its meeting of December 2013 held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
According to the Executive Secretary of CILSS, Dr Djimé Adoum, the launching of the platform gives a new impulse to the efforts driven by the governments in the region: “To develop a methodology and tools, both consensual and adapted to the regional context, is crucial for decision makers. Our objective is to provide the necessary information to adequately guide the policies aiming to reinforce population's resilience in the Sahel and West Africa.”
Both organizations would like through this platform, to promote the synergies among regional and international partners active in the field of resilience.
Mr. Vincent Martin, FAO Representative in Senegal and Head of the sub-regional resilience Team for West Africa/Sahel (REOWA), adds: “In the context of repeated shocks faced by the most vulnerable populations, this multi-sectoral and inclusive approach will allow to better orientate the interventions aiming to guarantee food security and nutrition in a sustainable manner.”
A series of consultations will soon be organized at national and regional levels to identify the necessary data to undertake analysis and measurement of resilience at all levels, as well as, to define the analytic framework for measuring resilience in the region.
To ensure a genuine ownership of the new tools and methods, this initiative will focus on reinforcing the skills of the countries’ institutes of statistics, the national units in charge of food security analysis, the ministries of agriculture, the universities, research centers and inter-governmental and international organizations. These different actors will play a key role in conducting the national exercises of resilience measurement and analysis in Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Chad in an initial phase, as all countries from the CILSS-WAEMU-ECOWAS region should be covered. Nigeria has already shown interest in being part of the group of the six (6) countries, and beyond the Sahel and West Africa region, Cameroon has also shown interest in the topic of measuring resilience taking into account the importance of the crisis which currently affects the Lake Chad basin.
The signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between CILSS and FAO, marking the launch of the platform, follows a regional workshop organized in Dakar which brought together delegations from the six countries mentioned above directly targeted by the platform, as well as Cameroon and Nigeria which have increased their awareness on the methodology used to analyze resilience. The workshop has enabled to finalize the programming of resilience measurement and analysis exercises at country level.
The launching of the platform marks another step forward in the longstanding collaboration between FAO and CILSS, centered on the analysis, prevention and mitigation measures for food insecurity in West Africa and the Sahel. In this respect, the development of the Cadre Harmonisé for the analysis and identification of zones and populations facing food and nutrition insecurity in West Africa and the Sahel represents an example of joint success.
Developed progressively in the region since 2004, it allows a regular follow-up of food and nutrition security in seventeen countries of the CILSS, WAEMU and ECOWAS. The FAO-CILSS collaboration falls under the European Union – FAO partnership programme: Information for Nutrition Food Security and Resilience for Decision Making (INFORMED).
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