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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat
    Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Guinea, Iraq, Italy, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo, Tunisia, World, Yemen

    Mixed migration trend report for september 2015 covering mixed migration events in:
    ALGERIA,EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, LIBYA, MALI, MOROCCO, NIGER, SUDAN, TUNISIA, GREECE AND ITALY.

    MHub works on behalf of the North Africa Mixed Migration Task Force consisting of DRC, IOM, OHCHR, RMMS and UNHCR. It promotes a human rights-based approach to ensuring the protection of people moving in mixed and complex flows to, through and from North Africa.

    MHub produces knowledge on the human rights protection issues faced by people on the move in North Africa for use by policy makers agencies, donors, public and academia, with a view to inform advocacy, policy and program development.

    It fosters collaborative approaches among key stakeholders. Specifically, it holds the secretariat of the North Africa Mixed Migration Task Force.


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    11/8/2015 - 11:07 GMT

    by Hervé BAR

    In the poverty-stricken far north of Cameroon, the priority is the fight against the Nigerian militants of Boko Haram, but experts say a growing humanitarian crisis also needs urgent attention.

    Chased from their strongholds in northeast Nigeria by a multi-national army offensive, the insurgents of Boko Haram have increased the tempo of suicide attacks and bloody raids on neighbouring Cameroon despite the deployment of a huge military contingent along the border.

    "Since early 2015, there's been an intensification of attacks by Boko Haram that have had catastrophic consequences for the whole region," said Najat Rochdi, UN aid coordinator for Cameroon.

    In the town of Maroua, capital of the Far North region, a huge military presence has been deployed in a bid to stem the jihadists' attacks.

    Enjoying the last of the greenery as the dry season takes hold, locals try to lead normal lives in a town where motorbikes and mopeds fill the dusty roads and a few 4X4s pick their way through the potholes.

    But a humanitarian crisis is building.

    "Make no mistake -- Maroua is slowing down," said a local NGO worker. "The whole local economy is a disaster."

    The far north combines one of the biggest populations in Cameroon with some of its most inhospitable conditions -- a semi-arid, Sahel desert climate with little infrastructure and few jobs or schools.

    "This region has been abandoned by the government in the south for years," said the NGO worker.

    Most eke a living as small-scale farmers or artisans, but the violence is taking its toll. Whatever tourism existed has evaporated.

    "The closure of the border with Nigeria has literally suffocated an already very weak economy," said Rochdi.

    Prices for basic items have spiked, and markets are shutting down.

    "Near the border, farmers are no longer able to work, their cattle are stolen or even abandoned, villages are deserted, unemployment is through the roof," Rochdi added.

    • Roots of radicalisation - The local economy has also been hit by slowing traffic along the road from N'Djamena, a vital artery that cuts through the length of Cameroon and up to Chad.

    The last figures from the UN show the region was hosting nearly 60,000 Nigerian refugees, almost all (49,000) in a single camp in Minawao.

    There are also 92,000 internally displaced Cameroonians -- most of whom fled the violence along the border, but also others affected by recent floods.

    The UN says the number of people facing food insecurity has leapt from 900,000 to two million.

    "The entire social cohesion of the area is threatened, creating fertile ground for recruitment by Boko Haram," Rochdi said.

    "The root of radicalisation here is not jihadist, it's economic and social. It's the desperation and poverty that throws people into the arms of Boko Haram," she said, adding that there needed to be a greater focus on humanitarian aid and not just security issues.

    That means seed programmes and support for local markets, social programmes and conflict prevention, she said.

    Visiting the region last week, France's minister for the French-speaking world, Annick Girardin, supported that view.

    "We must support the NGOs, bring back economic activity to this region," she said.

    "The fight against Boko Haram requires a real assessment of the economic failure of this region and support for the young," she said.

    hba/er/ser


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Burkina Faso

    Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso | AFP | Sunday 11/8/2015 - 15:24 GMT

    Campaigning kicked off Sunday in Burkina Faso ahead of a crucial November 29 national vote, which interim leader Michel Kafando said will be key to "consolidating democracy" weeks after a foiled coup hit the west African country.

    The attempted overthrow was derailed within days by a popular uprising -- much as street protests toppled former strongman Blaise Compaore at the end of October 2014, angry at his bid to change the constitution in order to extend his 27-year rule.

    "Despite all the adversities, vicissitudes and numerous obstacles, we are finally within reach of the goal... the final target... of building a freer, more democratic society," Kafando said, less than two months on from the September 17 coup bid by elite troops.

    "What is essential today is for the election campaign to succeed and for a free, democratic and credible poll to be held," he said in a statement broadcast on public television on Saturday and Sunday.

    "By doing so, we will ensure that true democracy is consolidated in Burkina Faso," added Kafando, who like other members of the interim government, will not be running for office.

    In the most controversial decision ahead of the vote, the interim authorities have ruled that nobody who backed Compaore's bid to keep power can stand for elected office.

    Whoever wins the presidential race, which will be held concurrently with a legislative poll on November 29, will be poised to re-establish democracy in the poor, coup-prone nation.

    roh/pgf/ser/jm

    © 1994-2015 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad

    LES TITRES

    • Le Sahel, où le lac Tchad s'assèche, pourrait nourrir une nouvelle crise migratoire, selon l'ONU (AFP, 8/11/2015)

    • Health assistance to millions in violence-afflicted Lake Chad Basin hampered by lack of funding (WHO, 3/11/2015)

    • L’Etat relocalise les réfugiés du Lac (Le Progrès, 5 /11/2015)

    • Le PAM améliore la résilience des agriculteurs vulnérables au Tchad (PAM, 29/10/2015)

    • Une étude indexe des freins à l’éducation des filles (Le Progrès, 29/10/2015)

    • The Darfuri refugees in eastern Chad categorically refuse to join the voluntary repatriation programme in the current insecure climate (Radio Dabanga, 1/11/2015)


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania

    Nette baisse des niveaux de l’insécurité alimentaire dans la majeure partie du pays

    MESSAGES CLÉS

    • Après un démarrage tardif, une pluviométrique suffisante et bien repartie dans le temps depuis la fin-août a permis un bon développement des pâturages et des cultures pluviales. La production céréalière nationale sera moyenne à supérieure à la moyenne et les pâturages, à l’échelle nationale, seront nettement meilleurs que ceux de 2014. L’accès alimentaire des ménages pauvres va donc s’améliorer.

    • L’accès aux nouveaux produits agricoles et au lait, la stabilité des prix des denrées alimentaires et les revenus du travail agricole permettent aux ménages, dans la majeure partie des zones rurales, de consommer des aliments normalement et par conséquent, ils seront en insécurité alimentaire Minimale (Phase 1 de l’IPC). Leur sécurité alimentaire sera renforcée, entre janvier et mars, par les récoltes des cultures pluviales tardives et celles de la décrue ainsi qu’une hausse du prix des animaux.

    • Dans la zone de cultures pluviales, les moughataa d’Amourj et de Diguent sont très affectées par l’irrégularité des pluies. Leur production de court cycle est en nette baisse et sa récolte retardée de deux mois prolonge la soudure jusqu’en novembre. Une grande partie de ce déficit de production saisonnière sera comblée par celle des cultures de long cycle (récoltés cette année en décembre), mais les ménages pauvres resteront en situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) jusqu’en janvier.

    • Malgré des récoltes moyennes et des bonnes conditions pastorales, la diminution de taille des troupeaux et l’impact du remboursement des dettes suite aux difficiles années précédentes ainsi que des revenus saisonniers nettement plus bas qu’en année moyenne maintiendront les ménages pauvres des zones agropastorales du Tagant (la moughataa de Moudjéria) et du Gorgol (les moughataas de Monguel et le nord de celle de Kaédi) en situation de Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC) jusqu’en mars.


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    Source: UN Office for Project Services
    Country: Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Senegal

    ‘West African dwarf goat’, ‘Djallonké sheep’ and ‘N’dama cattle’ are not words that spring to mind when one thinks of food security, but these three species of livestock are vital to many local livelihoods.

    That is why UNOPS has helped local communities develop a sustainable and integrated approach to livestock management, helping to preserve the wellbeing of these species, in an effort to reduce food insecurity.

    Drought, demographic pressures and human activities, such as deforestation and agriculture, pose threats to many breeds of livestock in the region. Exotic livestock have increasingly invaded their natural habitat and large areas have been transformed into farmland to satisfy the high demand for wood, which is used for cooking.

    With funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the African Development Bank (AfDB), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) developed an eight-year project to strengthen the genetic characteristics of the three species of livestock, while increasing their productivity and preserving their natural habitat.

    Implemented by UNOPS, the project targets communities in four countries (The Gambia, Guinea, Mali and Sénégal) and represents a significant regional partnership between the AfDB, the GEF, UNDP and the Governments of these four participating countries.

    The project has benefited some 2,500,000 people in the four countries. As part of the project, which began in 2007, UNOPS managed the construction of 18 livestock markets, 15 meat-processing facilities, 12 dairies, one dam, 106 kilometres of trails and numerous water points. 18 solar panels were also installed to power pumps at the water points, to ensure a sustainable form of energy.

    The project developed capacity-building activities for local organizations and authorities, independent breeders, infrastructure management committees and business associations (producers, buyers and sellers). Over 5,100 breeders were trained on environmental and livestock management, while 154 women received training on dairy processing.

    In The Gambia, for example, UNOPS worked with the local community to find innovative ways to address food insecurity. Cheese production was identified as an opportunity to both reduce milk spoilage and create new jobs and, as a result, training sessions were organized to help local women produce cheese. Nearly 70 women formed a community association and together were able to open a small dairy, which has created a new source of income.

    "With my accumulated savings I have been able to buy two cows and five goats, thanks to what I learned through this project," stated one female participant trained under the cheese production initiative in The Gambia.

    Community engagement plans were developed in pilot locations across all four countries, to help improve the management of natural resources and preserve the species' natural habitats. Among the four countries, Guinea, Mali and Sénégal have also committed to allocate budgets to consolidate results after the close of the project.

    "This is one of the most successful projects for the AfDB," said AfDB Environment and Natural Resources Division Manager, Ken Johm, adding that: "It was one of only two projects in Africa selected to be showcased in a video documentary produced by the AfDB, which was shown during the Rio+20 development conference."


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Burkina Faso

    As part of its school meals project in Burkina Faso, WFP uses locally-produced yoghurt to enrich children’s school meals and provide a market for vulnerable small-scale producers to earn an extra income. Students in fourteen schools have been benefitting from this initiative since May, when WFP introduced yoghurt into its school meals. In the 2015-2016 school year, the yoghurt initiative will expand to 20 schools, reaching 2,500 students. This school year, the overall school meals program will reach over 120,000 students in 955 schools in the Sahel region where food insecurity is high, and school enrollment rates are low. Not only the students, however, benefit from this initiative.

    Small-scale women producers

    Women-led milk processing units are taking the lead in producing the yoghurt for the schools. In Dori, the capital of the Sahel region, WFP works with Kossam N’aï Bodedji (KNB), a group of thirty women who purchases milk from small producers and turn it into yoghurt for the students.

    When the group began in 2010, they were only working with 22 liters of milk per day. Now, the partnership with WFP allows them to process 200 liters daily.

    Hadiatou Ba Koïta, a 36-year-old mother of five, is the group’s president. She says that the beginning was not easy.

    “We had many difficulties at first. Even our husbands did not believe in our adventure. But now, KNB allows us to be autonomous, to meet our needs and those of our families. Every day I had to rely on my husband for my needs and those of my children. Since our group has been working with WFP, I’m basically financially independent. My husband respects me more, and consults with me before making decisions. We now have more value in the eyes of our families and societies - more respect.”

    Thanks to WFP’s expertise, she says, their production and food quality have improved.

    Hadiatou is hoping to further expand so that within a year, KNB can have its own herd of dairy cows, and one day, a factory. They set aside a portion of their profits each month for future investments like these.

    “With the example of our groups’ success, more and more women in the region are coming to us for advice.”

    Teachers

    in a context where families struggle to provide two daily meals to their children, and malnutrition rates are some of the highest in the country, the school meals encourage parents to send their children to school.

    Estelle Bambara, a 27-year-old teacher in Kampiti, says that school meals have helped to improve attendance.

    Typically, during the harvest season, about a third of students (17 out of 47) skip school in order to help their parents in the field. But with the addition of the yoghurt to the school meals, she has seen attendance grow.

    Estelle says that parents of students in the region are beginning to understand the importance of schooling for both girls and boys. The school has enrolled the largest number of students this year – a hundred students.

    “Without programmes like these, it would be difficult to get children to attend school in the Sahel region,” she concludes.

    Students

    The importance of school meal programmes in a country like Burkina Faso is well established. In the Sahel region, WFP's school meals programme encourages enrollment and attendance, especially that of girls. Some schools now enroll more girls than boys - proof that programmes like these contribute to gradually closing the gender gap.

    One of these girls is Djeneba Hamadou Diallo, a bright 12-year-old (photo below), who is one of nine children. She works hard in school, and is one of the top five students in her class. Her favorite subjects are math and science.

    Like all 955 schools in the Sahel region, her school, in Kampiti, receives WFP food in school canteens, with breakfast at recess and lunch at noon.

    "I like going to school – I get to read, write, and eat good food! The midday meal is good, but I like the yoghurt especially because it’s sweet," she says with a big smile.

    At home, Djeneba’s family usually eats tô (corn flour dough or millet with vegetable sauce), millet porridge, beans, and occasionally rice and milk. But the milk she has at home is not as fresh as the yoghurt at school.

    Djeneba also receives take-home food rations for her and her family. WFP distributes food rations for girls so that they can take 10 kg of grains home each month, another aspect that encourages parents to enroll their daughters in school and keep them there.

    "My parents appreciate the food – they know that when I work hard at school, the family benefits.” Djeneba wants to do well in the entrance exams for high school next year and become a teacher rather than marry young, like many other girls in her community.

    "My dream is to one day become a teacher to teach children in my village to read, write, and count," she says.

    NOTE: WFP’s school meals programme in Burkina Faso would not be possible without the generous support of Canada, Luxembourg, and the Cartier Foundation.

    Text and photos by: Célestine Ouédraogo/WFP


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    Source: US Agency for International Development, Action Contre la Faim
    Country: Nigeria

    ACF started the Nigeria Mission in 2010 to respond the complex emergency situation caused by religious conflict, weak care practices, and malnutrition in the area, especially in Northern parts of the country. In Yobe state, Nigeria, ACF is implementing a one-year project with the overall goal of providing critical humanitarian assistance to victims of the complex emergency (e.g. Internally Displaced Persons, as well as families hosting IDPs), using market-sensitive and capacity building approaches.

    Intervention logic suggested to bring about this objective with three specific objectives, which at the same time describe the three project sectors:

    • To prevent disease outbreaks and help those displaced by conflicts or disaster to carry out everyday requirements through the distribution of Non Food Items (NFIs)
    • To increase access to water and sanitation through emergency WASH interventions to victims of complex emergencies (Insurgency, natural disasters and waterborne/ communicable diseases.
    • To increase the affected population’s short-term purchasing power, protect and restore their livelihood.

    The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the adequacy of ACF’s intervention, as well as the level of effectiveness of the three sectors of the project, following a set of detailed evaluation question which are oriented by the international standard of the DAC criteria. The evaluation was carried out from 4 – 21 July 2015, both in Abuja and Damaturu, and including field visits to all three areas of project intervention. Direct beneficiaries interviewed included IDPs and host families, but also government institutions on local and state level were included in the evaluation.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger

    Why no body mentioned it?

    From 1 January to 31 October 2015, UNHCR Niger facilitated the voluntary repatriation of 1107 refugees.
    Despite these returns the number of new arrivals as well as the natural growth of the population has increased the overall refugee population by more than 10%.
    The overall figure in proGres now stands at 53,927 while around 3,000 persons are still awaiting verification and registration. This means that the number of Malian refugees in Niger has reached the highest ever.
    At the same time UNHCR Niger has seen a steady reduction of its operational budget which will continue in 2016. The departure of selffinancing NGOs, the phasing-out by Unicef, and the decision by WFP to discontinue the EMOP for the Mali situation, is severely straining the capacity by Niger to absorb this additional population. The 2016 COP, based on the assumption of stable beneficiary figures and geared towards self-reliance, risks to be overtaken by events.
    It is recalled that the internal emergency status for the Mali situation has been de-activated recently. Almost four years after the mass influx, and while the operation tends towards a protracted situation, the steady influx of Malians meets a UNHCR stretched to the limits.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Nigeria

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Most displaced populations prefer to reside with host families or communities rather than staying in organized IDP camps. Partly, this has to do with the fact that there may be important protection dividends for IDPs residing outside camps and this can be a very positive coping strategy for most IDPs. After all, there is a long-standing tradition in Northern Nigeria for communities to support neighboring communities in dire need as a result of conflict, draught, famine and the like. This positive practice by communities is commendable and should be viewed as a (sustainable) strategy towards addressing IDP issues.

    According to the DTM and IOM Round II Report of February 2015, there is 1,235,294 IDPs in northern Nigeria with the highest number of IDPs in Borno (672,714 IDPs), followed by Adamawa (220,159 IDPs) and Yobe (135,810 IDPs). In addition, 47,276 IDPs (5910 were identified in Plateau, Nasarawa, Abuja, Kano and Kaduna states (NEMA, 2015). The total number of IDP children (3-17 years of age) in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states is 452,620. Of these 387,287 (85.6%) live in host communities while 65,333 (14.4%) live in IDP camps (IOM/DTM, 2015). Although the focus is on the three states directly affected by the insurgency (i.e. Borno, Adamawa and Yobe), SSI activities in Gombe state have also been considered in the budget within this strategy, given the fact that SSI work has already started there.

    Social services in these host communities are overstretched by the influx of IDPs, many of whom are occupying community facilities and services such as schooling, water and sanitation, health and so on. Responding only to the needs of those hosted often causes spiralling tensions, which may end the peaceful co-existence between the IDP community and the hosting community. It is for this reason that this strategy emphasizes the point that even though the main goal is to serve those “without”, and even though there are only so many resources, there is need to avoid stigmatization. Therefore, ways and means need to be found of how to do this so that it is not at the expenses of focusing resources on those most in need.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Senegal

    Summary of WFP assistance

    WFP provides food and nutrition assistance in all 14 regions of Senegal. WFP increasingly aims to provide most vulnerable communities with an integrated assistance package for better results. WFP’s vision for Senegal is a country free of hunger, in which food access and availability is increased at household level and in local markets, and vulnerable populations are resilient to shocks and can rely on integrated food safety nets for adequate nutritious food at all times.

    Through its PRRO and CP, WFP maintains a twin track response, which ensures its capacity to respond to shocks and assist populations in their early recovery, while continuing efforts to build resilience in anticipation of shocks. The Country Office adopts multi-annual planning for its resilience interventions (Rural Resilience Initiative-R4, Food For Asset-FFA and Village Security Stock-VSS) with a focus on the same vulnerable communities over two to three years.

    WFP continues to encourage the Government’s leadership in food security and nutrition, and partners with national counterparts on food and nutrition analysis, early warning, and the expansion of rural development and social safety nets. WFP also invests in communities’ ownership and strengthening of monitoring and evaluation activities to ensure the quality and performance of programmes.
    Overall, activities include targeted food assistance, supplementary feeding, school feeding and food-for-assets. WFP is also prioritising: local procurement through the PAA partnership with FAO and Brazil; cash and voucher transfers; piloting the R4 - Rural Resilience Initiative, jointly with Oxfam, which mobilises rural communities around building agricultural assets with elements of insurance, credit and savings.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Niger, Nigeria

    Summary of WFP assistance:

    WFP's assistance focuses on the vulnerable and very poor populations affected by food insecurity and high malnutrition. WFP’s innovative integrated response comprises of food assistance for asset projects (through food and cash modalities), coupled with nutrition prevention and treatment activities, school meals and related programmes (such as school vegetable gardens and local milling and processing initiatives). Activities are implemented in the pre-and post-harvest period to assist rural communities in revitalising infrastructure, improving agricultural production and diversifying rural incomes. Activities are also linked to the promotion of local production and purchases.

    The joint government and WFP programming is geographically targeted and aimed at supporting the same vulnerable beneficiaries through a flexible combination of conditional and unconditional food assistance all year round. The sequenced assistance is necessary to protect achievements during the most difficult period over the year and build resilience over time.

    The Regional emergency operation (EMOP) supports Malian refugees and returnees in camps and hosting sites in areas of Niger which were already chronically food insecure. WFP provides Targeted Food Assistance (TFA), through food and voucher modalities and Blanket Supplementary Feeding (BSF) to children 6-59 months.

    Another EMOP provides flexible assistance through targeted food distributions and nutritional supplements for children aged 6-59 months and pregnant women and nursing mothers to an increasing number of refugees and returnees fleeing insecurity in northern Nigeria. WFP is providing a mixed flexible response assisting refugees in camps and to the displaced populations (refugees and returnees) and vulnerable host communities residing outside the camps.

    The United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) provides safe, efficient, and effective air transport to UN agencies, NGOs and donors. This enables implementation and oversight of humanitarian activities in areas affected by insecurity and poor road infrastructure.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali

    Summary of WFP assistance:

    The three year Protracted relief and recovery operation (PRRO) responds to the complex crisis in Mali, WFP is assisting up to 1.1 million people this year through targeted distributions (food and cash), specialised nutritional products, and both blanket and targeted supplementary feeding programmes for children and pregnant and nursing women. Asset promotion supports recovery of local communities, and local purchases are increasing market access for smallholder farmers. Nutritious fortified foods are provided as a safety net for vulnerable schoolchildren to address short term food insecurity and reduce micronutrient deficiencies. The Purchase for Progress (P4P) pilot continues to be funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for a fifth and final year to support the marketing capacities of 21 farmers’ organisations, with a strong gender component. The project is not only increasing smallholder farmers’ productivity and income but is also reducing producer losses of food.
    The Country Programme (CP) assists 106,921 individuals through a pilot stunting prevention project focused on maternal and child health and nutrition within the first 1000 days; it continues with the MSF supported operational research on an integrated health and nutrition prevention strategy using nutritious product Nutributter and continues resilience activities to measure the impact on communities’ food security and livelihoods.

    Both these programmes are aligned with Strategic Objectives 1, 2 and 4, Sustainable Development Goal 2, the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2015–2019) and national policies and programmes.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Innovative livelihood strategies assist integration of IDPs into host communities in Gombe.

    • Over 100,000 people have been displaced by flooding in 11 states nationwide.

    • Over 2.2 million displaced, according to the latest round of the Displacement Tracking Matrix.

    • Displaced teachers play a prominent role in continuing education in IDP camps and host communities.

    **Spotlight on Gombe: life and livelihoods in the host communities **

    There are some key differences in the lives and livelihoods of many IDPs in Gombe, in comparison to their counterparts in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe.

    For starters, Gombe has no IDP camps. The only one was closed down in February 2015 because it was believed by the authorities to have become a target for Boko Haram.

    The authorities considered that it would be safer for IDPs to be in host communities.

    Host communities in Gombe State are currently housing IDPs from Adamawa, Benue,

    Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe. According to Round 6 of the Displacement Tracking Matrix, 76 per cent of the IDPs are from Borno, and 20 per cent from Yobe.

    The Gombe State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) has identified four categories of IDPs in the state:

    1. Those who at the onset of violence in Maiduguri left their homes, taking with them their means of livelihood and possessions. Members of this group are largely traders.

    2. Those who, as problems began to escalate, left their homes before they were directly attacked. They were able to flee with their means of livelihood.

    3. Those who fled following direct attacks. This group comprises mostly civil servants, artisans and tradesmen. As they had to leave at speed they could take little. This group reported to SEMA to be registered, and receive assistance.

    4. Those who lost everything. In Gombe, this group largely comes from Goza, Damboa and Bama LGAs in Borno. Their communities were attacked and destroyed, and they arrived in Gombe with nothing. They also reported to SEMA to be registered, and were relocated to the IDP camp prior to its closure in February 2015.

    Groups 1 and 2 are living independently, and are not being assisted by the Government or humanitarian partners. Some rent houses; many have bought houses. They are believed to be living by their original livelihood strategies, and are integrating into Gombe society.

    As such, the official numbers of IDPs in Gombe State cover only IDPs in groups 3 and 4: those who have registered with SEMA, and who are currently living in host communities.

    IDPs in groups 1 and 2 have also fled the insurgency, but are not in need of assistance.
    The registration of IDPs is self-selecting, and only those who are in need of assistance will register with the authorities. In Nigeria, registered IDPs are from groups 3 and 4.

    Registration is a result of having no other option and, according to SEMA and humanitarian partners on the ground, group 4 constitutes the majority of the IDPs receiving humanitarian assistance. The official figure for the state in DTM Round 6 is 27,025 people, all of whom are in need of assistance.

    Given the fact that only groups 3 and 4 are registered, this figure is not representative of how many individuals fled the violence in the North-East, but rather how many displaced individuals in the state are vulnerable, and in need. The total number of people who fled their homes is unknown, not just in Gombe but for the whole crisis.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger

    This is a summary of what was said by the UNHCR spokesperson at today’s Palais des Nations press briefing in Geneva. Further information can be found on the UNHCR websites, www.unhcr.org and www.unhcr.fr, which should also be checked for regular media updates on non-briefing days.

    Geneva, 10 November 2015
    BRIEFER: Leo Dobbs, UNHCR Spokesperson

    The number of Malian refugees in Niger has reached its highest level since conflict erupted in 2012 in the West African nation, with thousands fleeing eastern Mali in recent weeks despite the signing of a peace accord last June between the government, a loyalist militia and a Tuareg-led rebel coalition.

    The signing of the Algiers Accord has brought significant steps towards peace in parts of Mali, but it has not stemmed the flow into Niger and this is a concern and unexpected development that is putting a strain on our operation in Niger.

    Those arriving in Niger say they are fleeing because of lawlessness, extortion, food shortages, inter-tribal rivalry, fighting between herders and farmers, and a power vacuum in the absence of a strong government and military presence in the east.

    The number of Malian refugees in Niger stood at around 50,000 at the height of the 2012-2013 civil war, which ended when French and Malian troops defeated rebel forces. After presidential elections in 2013, UNHCR helped repatriate some 7,000 Malian refugees from Niger.

    At the start of this year, there were 47,449 registered Malian refugees residing in Niger, with about 5,000 of them urban refugees in Ayorou and the capital Niamey and the rest in five camps in the Tillabéri and Tahoua regions.

    But the numbers of arrivals started rising during the year, spiking in October and early November, when an estimated 4,000 Malian refugees crossed to Niger from the sparsely populated east. This brought the total number to a record high of 54,000 registered refugees in early November with a further 3,000 awaiting registration.

    The majority of the new arrivals have come from rural areas in the regions of Menaka and Anderaboukane. At Inates, where more than 2,000 Malians have recently arrived, female refugees said they fled to escape fighting between the Idourfane and Daoussak tribes. She said their animals had been stolen, their children could not go to school and public infrastructure had been damaged in the absence of national authorities.

    The persistent insecurity in the rural zones around Menaka and Ansongo also negatively impacts the food security of the population. For those dependent on livestock, limited access to grazing land threatens their means of subsistence. Coming to Niger to seek assistance may also be a survival strategy.

    In the camps in Niger, people who used to live in tents have started replacing them with homes made from mud, indicating they no longer expect a quick return. Some people do want to go back, but their numbers are dwarfed by those heading to Niger. In the first 10 months, we facilitated the voluntary repatriation of 953 refugees. Despite these returns, the number of new arrivals as well as the natural growth of the population has increased the overall refugee population by more than 10 per cent.

    The new influx and unprecedented numbers of Malian refugees presents major challenges for UNHCR, which has seen a steady reduction in its operational budget. The evolving situation is the opposite of what we predicted and had prepared for.

    As the situation evolves from an emergency into a protracted situation, funds are being decreased from US$300 per capita in 2013 to less than US$150 in 2016. The departure of self-financing NGOs and the phasing-out of support by other UN agencies, is severely straining the capacity of Niger to absorb this additional population.

    The latest influx comes as a time when UNHCR had planned to be repatriating people or helping them to become self-sufficient. Achievements in the camps, including high school enrolment, good nutritional status and comparatively low poverty levels, are now under strain because of the new arrivals and shrinking budgets.

    For more information on this topic, please contact:

    In Dakar (Regional), Helene Caux on mobile + 221 77 333 1291

    In Niamey, Benoit Moreno on mobile +227 92 1919 03

    In Geneva, Leo Dobs on mobile +41 79 883 6347


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Gambia

    Summary of WFP assistance: The School Meals Project, “Establishing the Foundation for a nationally owned, Sustainable School Feeding Programme”, focuses on strengthening the overall institutional and policy framework for a national school meals system and consolidating and improving the gains achieved in access to pre-primary and primary education. This is accomplished through direct support for school meals in the most vulnerable regions and districts. Key activities include the provision of daily mid-morning meals, nutrition education, improving household and community nutrition practices, a pilot initiative on local procurement, which links school meals to local agricultural production.

    Following a SABER exercise in December 2014, a school feeding masterplan was prepared and validated. A cash transfer feasibility study was conducted, resulting in the selection of 24 schools to pilot two cash transfer models, namely: community decentralised local procurement and caterer system. Training is being planned for November. Other major activities being planned include the development of a signed transition agreement with the government, institutional capacity assessment and school feeding cost benefit analysis. Support was provided for the development of a social protection minimum package, through the UN Social Protection Working Group, which was finalised in April 2015, which includes school feeding. Assistance is underway to finalise an assistance programme with the WFP Centre of Excellence in Brazil.

    Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): WFP is currently assisting the National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA), within the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding for DRR. As the Chair of the UN Disaster Management Group, WFP assists in coordinating a harmonised disaster preparedness and response plan.

    The Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation: seeks to provide assistance to food insecure and vulnerable households, particularly malnourished children with moderate acute malnutrition including pregnant and nursing women and children 6-23 months especially during the lean season. Approximately 105,000 people are targeted for support.

    WFP is participating as part of the UN country team (UN agencies, Government and other development partners) in the formulation of the humanitarian response plan (HRP) under the coordination of UN – OCHA. The HRP addresses thematic humanitarian crises including Food Security, Nutrition, WASH, Health, Education and Protection. A three year plan 2014-16 is currently in place for The Gambia.


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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Ukraine, World, Yemen

    Snapshot 4–10 November 2015

    Nepal: Crossings on the India–Nepal border have been closed since late September as a result of protests, leading to fuel shortages that are severely hampering humanitarian assistance. Of particular concern are 400,000 people living in remote areas who cannot be reached during winter and need winterisation supplies. Hospitals in Terai region are reporting acute shortages of medicine, while food and cooking-gas shortages are reported across the country.

    Somalia: More than 90,000 people have been affected by floods since 23 October, mainly in south-central Somalia. Over 42,000 have been displaced. In some areas, access to affected populations is hampered by impassable roads. Several cases of cholera have been confirmed in Kismayo, Lower Juba.

    Iraq: Heavy rains and flooding have affected 84,000 IDPs in 40 settlements, predominantly in Baghdad and Anbar province. 58 people have died from electric shocks as floodwaters met with unsafe electricity supply infrastructure. Floodwaters have been contaminated by sewage in areas affected by an ongoing cholera outbreak, heightening the risk of further transmission.

    Sudan: An outbreak of suspected dengue haemorrhagic fever has been declared in all five Darfur states. Between late August and November, 210 suspected cases have been reported and 104 people have died, indicating a case fatality rate of 50%. 83 people have died in West Darfur.

    Updated: 10/11/2015. Next update: 17/11/2015

    Global Emergency Overview Web Interface


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger


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    Source: African Development Bank
    Country: Niger

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Programme Overview

    Country: Niger
    Programme Name: Financial Reforms and Food Security Support Programme (PAREFSA I)
    Overall Implementation Schedule: December 2015 – December 2016
    Operational Instrument: General Budget Support – Programme-Based Support Operation
    Programme Cost: UA 30 million (UA 20 million in 2015 and UA 10 million in 2016)
    Sector: Economic and Financial Governance, and Food Security

    Programme Outcomes

    The main expected programme outcomes are: Component A: (i) increase in the tax to GDP ratio from 15.9% in 2014 to 17.2% in 2016; (ii) increase of the budget execution rate to 85% in 2016, against an average of 72% during the 2011-2014 period, (iii) establishment of a National Gender Promotion Observatory to ensure compliance with the quotas allocated for women by the Law of 27 October 2014; and (iv) enhancement of transparency and the fight against corruption. Component B: (i) restoration of 1 200 hectares of degraded grazing land; (ii) 20% and 25% increase in meat and milk production, respectively, in 2016; (iii) a 12% increase in the livestock sub-sector’s contribution to GDP in 2016; (iv) better coverage of livestock water points by constructing 430 cemented wells for livestock and 43 pumping stations in 2015; and (v) adoption of the agricultural framework law and operationalization of the Niger Small-scale Irrigation Strategy (SPIN) in 2016.

    Alignment with Bank Priorities

    PAREFSA I is in line with the orientations of the Bank’s CSP (2013-2017) based on two pillars, namely: (i) building resilience to food insecurity; and (ii) strengthening governance, particularly that of natural resources. It is also consistent with the Bank’s Ten-Year Strategy 2013-2022 for Africa’s Transformation as well as the Governance Action Plan (GAP II 2014-2018), which seeks notably to strengthen inclusive economic growth and effective public action by improving economic, financial and sector governance in regional member countries.
    The planned reforms is also consistent with the second pillar of the Bank’s Gender Strategy for the 2014 -2018 period aimed at improving the legal status of women and their right to own property.

    Needs Assessment and Rationale

    Despite the positive outlook, Niger still faces two major challenges, namely:
    Accelerating the reform of the public finance management system to correct the weaknesses identified by PEFA 2012. Most of these weaknesses concern the non-operationalization of WAEMU Directives on the Harmonized Public Finance Management Framework. Although these directives were transposed into national laws in 2012 and 2013 under the previous budget support (PACIRSA 2012-2014), the Government has not yet adopted the related implementing instruments. Furthermore, despite Niger’s sustained efforts, the mobilization of domestic resources remains low in light of the development objectives of the Economic and Social Development Plan (PDES) with a tax to GDP ratio of 15%, against the community norm of 19%.

    Continuing the fight against food insecurity. Despite measures taken by the Government, in general, and the reforms implemented under PACIRSA, in particular, food insecurity still affects 21% of Niger’s population. To address recurrent food crises, Niger opted to implement the 3N Initiative, “les Nigériens nourrissent les Nigériens” (Nigeriens Feed Nigeriens). The aim of the initiative is to continue the transition to irrigated farming and secure grazing systems particularly by solving the problem of livestock water supply in order to make economic growth less vulnerable to the effects of recurrent climatic shocks and to guarantee substantial income for rural dwellers. It is essential to meet this challenge given the importance of the rural sector to the national economy. The rural sector is the main engine of economic growth, accounting for nearly 45% of total export earnings and 40% of GDP on average (27% for agriculture, 9% for livestock and 4% for forestry and fisheries). This sector, however, is still characterized by low productivity. In particular, the growth of the livestock sub-sector is seriously jeopardized by livestock watering problems in almost all grazing zones (62 000 000 hectares) due to the low coverage and insufficiency of water points, decreasing water tables and poor maintenance of the facilities constructed.

    Harmonization

    The Government involves TFPs in the National Technical Committee to monitor PDES implementation. Sector committees have also been established based on the five PDES strategic thrusts. However, this mechanism was handicapped for a long time for want of an operational framework for coordinating and monitoring the implementation of budget support iv reforms due to the jurisdictional conflicts that existed between the former Ministries of Planning, and Finance. In addition, TFPs could not obtain a joint matrix or framework for evaluating the performance of reforms. The recent merger of both ministries into the Ministry of Economy and Finance should improve the coordination and harmonization of budget support design and monitoring. This issue is the focus of the agenda of the policy dialogue between the Bank and the other TFPs, on the one hand, and between the Bank and the top authorities of Niger, on the other.

    Bank’s Value Added

    In recent years, the Bank has acquired expertise in enhancing financial governance and rural development through its interventions in various countries. In Niger, in particular, the Bank has developed an integrated approach for improving public finance management and strengthening the governance of real economic sectors to promote strong, sustainable and inclusive economic growth. The strategies of almost all agricultural sub-sectors were developed under the previous budget support, PACIRSA 2012-2014. The Bank therefore enjoys comparative advantage in promoting dialogue on the operationalization of such strategies, which is one of the main objectives of PAREFSA I. In addition, the Bank’s proven expertise in rural development project design will be used to assist the Government in formulating new specific projects to support institutional reforms implemented under PAREFSA.

    Contribution to Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment

    Increased domestic resource mobilization and enhancement of public finance management efficiency will contribute to improving the living conditions of the people, in general, and women, in particular. Specific programme measures will help to: (i) establish the National Gender Promotion Observatory to monitor/evaluate the National Gender Policy (PNG) and apply the quotas provided for women by the Law of 27 October 2014; (ii) implement gendersensitive budgeting in the agricultural and livestock sector, thus enhancing upstream the mainstreaming of the concerns of rural women who are affected by structural poverty and insecurity. In addition, the implementation of the sector strategies already adopted to support I3N (SPIN and SDDEL) while focusing on livestock water supply, will improve agro-pastoral sector production and productivity whose primary beneficiaries are women.

    Policy Dialogue and Related Technical Assistance

    PAREFSA I will help to strengthen dialogue with the Government and consultation with the other TFPs mainly on issues relating to: (i) the broadening of the tax base; (ii) the control of tax exemptions; (iii) the operationalization of WAEMU directives, capacity building, the autonomy of control entities and the fight against corruption; (iv) the consolidation of the fight against food insecurity particularly by strengthening the leadership and coordinating role of I3N. In addition, PAREFSA I will enable the Bank to promote dialogue on key issues of gender promotion, sustainable environmental management and civil society participation.
    Lastly, the discussions already initiated will be continued between the Bank and Niger with regard to the need to establish a dynamic framework for monitoring and evaluating the performance of budget support operations and reform programmes. To boost strategic thinking in the long term in order to formulate coherent policies and reforms for mainstreaming the aforementioned key issues, the Bank has supported the establishment of a high-level technical assistance to enable the Government to develop the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy (SDDCI) “Niger 2035”.


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