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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    The UN refugee agency is concerned about the escalating violence in and around Nigeria and its impact on the situation of Nigerian refugees in surrounding host countries, including a shrinking humanitarian space in which they can seek asylum.

    UNHCR salutes the generosity and humanitarian spirit of Cameroon, Chad and Niger in opening their doors to tens of thousands of thousands of people fleeing conflict in their home areas in north-east Nigeria over the past two years.

    We share their commitment to ensuring the safety and protection of these people in need while at the same time ensuring the security of their own citizens and border areas. UNHCR has, for example, encouraged refugees to move away from front line border areas to camps deeper inland, where they can receive aid and protection.

    But amid the fluid military situation in border areas since Nigerian militants widened their campaign earlier this year, thousands of people have been deported or returned to Nigeria from Cameroon and Chad in July and August. These include 925 Nigerians sent home from Cameroon and Chad from July 9-11 and 50 Nigerians being screened by UNHCR at the Gourounguel transit camp on August 3.

    UNHCR is unaware at this time if they include refugees who may have gone back involuntarily, but we have been in close and regular contact with the relevant governments and have expressed our concern at the way these returns were conducted. UNHCR fears that such deportations lead to shrinking of the protection and humanitarian space and the agency reminds governments of their duty to protect asylum-seekers fleeing human rights violations and to respect the principle of non-refoulement (non-return).

    We have reiterated in our talks with government counterparts that certain principles and international standards should be respected, even in the face of serious security concerns. These include the right to apply for asylum and the need for joint screening with UNHCR for people in need of international protection as well as evacuation for those willing to go back after making an informed decision about the situation in areas of return.

    We are encouraged by the response, with the authorities in Cameroon assuring UNHCR that they will take the necessary measures to comply with international standards.

    UNHCR will continue to monitor the situation of refugees and returnees, while noting that protection and humanitarian assistance for returnees is becoming increasingly difficult due to security and access difficulties. UNHCR will also continue to be ready to offer advice and assistance, in areas such as screening, to Nigeria and the governments of Cameron, Chad and Niger.

    News contacts:

    In Cameroon, Djerassem Mbaiorem, on +237 70 40 18 41

    In Dakar, Simplice Kpandji, on +221 77 333 98 83

    In Geneva, Leo Dobbs, on +41 79 883 6347

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    MINAWAO REFUGEE CAMP, Cameroon, Aug 14 (UNHCR) – The UN refugee agency is working with the authorities in countries neighbouring Nigeria to maintain a shrinking humanitarian space as Nigerian insurgents have extended attacks in recent months to Chad, Niger and Cameroon.

    Much of the activity has been focused on the UNHCR-managed camp of Minawao, the largest formal refugee camp in the region for Nigerian asylum-seekers.

    Minawao camp in northern Cameroon was built for 30,000 people but is now home to nearly 45,000 and growing by the day. UNHCR Representative in Cameroon Khassim Diagne said overcrowding there is "unsustainable".

    "The insurgents call themselves Boko Haram", said Nigerian refugee Kulkwa Tatu, who was a teacher in Nigeria's north-eastern Borno State, bordering Cameroon, but has now sought refuge in Minawao. "Boko means 'western education' in the Hausa language", he explained; adding: "and Haram means 'forbidden' in Arabic".

    "When Boko Haram burned down my house, possibly because I was a teacher, I cried. Some of my family and I ran up to the hills to escape. But even the hills could not save us. So we ran and ran and then came down here to Cameroon. We thank the Cameroonian government so much for letting us stay."

    In recent weeks the Nigerian insurgents have also attacked Cameroon, using suicide bombers – a tactic never before seen in the country.

    On July 12 there was an attack on the far-northern Cameroonian town of Fotokol on the border with Nigeria.

    Two more major attacks followed in the northern Cameroonian city of Maroua and there have been others in northern Cameroon since.

    These attacks have raised fears and tension in Cameroon. They have led the Cameroonian authorities considerably to increase security patrols and other measures, which have inevitably limited freedom of movement for Cameroonians and Nigerian asylum-seekers alike.

    Zara Ousman, a woman of 38 who has lived in both Cameroon and Nigeria, fled for her life. "I walked for a day, then I took a motorbike taxi, then I took a car", she said, as she sat on the floor just outside Minawao camp;

    Many thousands of Nigerians live in the border areas inside Cameroon. Some are potential asylum seekers but others are economic migrants – or, simply, people living alongside their Cameroonian cousins in an area of porous colonial boundaries.

    For about a week earlier this month, increased Cameroonian security patrols and evacuations meant no potential asylum seekers could reach Minawao camp to seek protection. However, UNHCR has been working with Cameroon to try to mitigate this problem.

    "For a number of security officials directly involved in the border operations all Nigerians in the border areas are potentially complicit with the insurgents, including asylum-seekers", said UNHCR northern Cameroon head Mamady Fatta Kourouma;

    "So the authorities said that for security reasons there should be no more movement towards the camp," he added.

    "But we have negotiated some access to the camp to provide protection. I met the Governor of the Region, I met the Colonel in charge of operations. And between us we found common ground", he explained. "Now a reception centre for refugees is open [just outside the main camp] and some refugees are allowed to go there".

    Some new arrivals have therefore arrived in the reception centre over the past few days. On Wednesday (Aug 12), there were about 50 in the reception centre, just outside the camp-proper, according to Charles Gatoto, a senior UNHCR official.

    It is a very simple, basic place with plastic-sheeting structures to keep off some of the heavy sun and rain. But there is a water supply and basic toilets.

    The 50 people will be screened by a joint Cameroonian government/UNHCR team for possible entry into Minawao camp, Gatoto added.

    Hadidja Saleh, a woman of 20, is among them. She came on a motorcycle-taxi with three children, including her two-year-old twin boys, Abba and Malla.

    Camp managers at Minawao say that because of the overcrowding there are constant shortages of basic materials like wood to build shelters, and even nails.

    The wood shortage is serious because Minawao is in a relatively arid area of Cameroon. During the current precious rainy season, the plateau surrounding the camp is dotted with millet and cotton fields scoured from the stony ground by hand.

    The surrounding mountains are speckled green with grass. But in the dry season Minawao is extremely hot – up to 45 C. In this season the greenery all but disappears. Water for drinking and washing is hard to access.

    The UNHCR is negotiating with the Cameroonian government for a second camp to relieve the congestion, and water shortages, in Minawao.

    By Mark Doyle, Cameroon

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Situation Overview

    The North-East Nigeria is the host of around 24.5 million people, who represent 13.4 % of the Nigerian total population. The Region is made up of 6 states, four of which are directly affected by the insurgence and current serious humanitarian situation: Borno, Adamawa, Gombe, and Yobe.

    The conflict in North-East Nigeria has caused a serious humanitarian crisis, characterized by civilian deaths, sexual violence, violations of international humanitarian and human rights laws, and widespread destruction of essential civilian facilities. Overall, an estimated 4.6 million people have been directly affected by the current insurgence and are food insecure. An estimated 1.4 million people are now internally displaced within Nigeria,2 and a further 153,0003 people have sought refuge in neighbouring countries.

    The majority of the IDPs are living in and around the capitals of the four affected states. Around 10 percent of IDPs are living in official Government-run camps as well as spontaneous camps established by community and faith-based groups while the majority of the IDPs, around 90%, are living in urban and rural host communities in minimal or no assistance at all. Shelter, food, and protection are major challenges the IDPs, the majority of whom are children and women.

    The Government has focused its assistance on those IDPs staying in the official camps. The majority of assistance to community-based IDPs thus far has been from community members, few local and international NGOs, and Civil Society Organizations. Supporting such a large caseload of IDPs over a protracted period has severely depleted the already meagre resources of the host communities. However, international humanitarian agencies and organizations have been scaling up their delivery and should start to gradually relieve the burden on host communities. Of note, the ICRC is working with the Nigerian Red Cross Society to undertake large-scale distributions of food and non-food items in Adamawa and Borno.

    IDPs are facing serious protection concerns, especially for women and children. Many people have experienced traumatic events and urgently require psycho-social support. Most critically, many women and girls have been victims of, or are at risk of, sexual and gender based violence (SGBV), including rape, abduction, trafficking and forced marriage. Many children have been separated from their families and there is a growing risk of secondary separation as host communities find themselves unable to support these children.

    Food insecurity is one of the most urgent problems.

    FEWSNET has categorised food security in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe as Integrated Phase Classification (IPC) 4 (emergency) for the 2 million worst affected, and 2 (stressed) and 3 (crisis) for the remainder. Systematic screening conducted within IDP camps has found a high proportion of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). Data indicates that 1.5 million malnourished children under 5 years of age and pregnant and lactating women need assistance.

    With inadequate WASH facilities, there have been outbreaks of disease and illness, including diarrhoea, measles and meningitis. Less than 40 per cent of health facilities in conflict-affected areas are operational.

    Although some temporary health facilities have been established in IDP camps, most IDPs rely on the health facilities that serve the host communities. However, these charge fees that many IDPs cannot afford.

    The coming rainy season will affect humanitarian conditions. FEWSNET has forecasted IPC Phase 3 and 4 (emergency) over the coming six months for the worst affected households. It is estimated that, without well targeted humanitarian assistance, as many as 4 million people will be unable to meet their basic food needs by July 2015. Those IDPs without adequate shelter will suffer, and incidences of waterborne diseases may increase.

    Following the recapture of many LGAs from Boko Haram, a spontaneous IDP return process is already underway, especially in Adamawa. There is, as yet, no tracking system in place for returnee numbers but there are indications that the numbers of IDPs in camps and camp-like settings in Yola have been reducing.
    Due to access constraints, humanitarian agencies and organizations have only limited knowledge of conditions

    in the LGAs to which IDPs are returning. However, there are reports of very poor humanitarian conditions, with widespread destruction of homes and infrastructure and a complete lack of functional health facilities and schools. Consequently, a joint needs assessment is going to be conducted from the beginning of July in Adamawa (and later in Borno and Yobe) to:

    • Determine the humanitarian needs of people that have returned to communities affected by insurgency.

    • Establish the level of return and condition in areas of return in terms of access to food, livelihood, health, education, water, sanitation and hygiene, food security, nutrition, protection, shelter and NFIs.

    • Identify gaps in the services and relief provided and develop the most effective approaches to deliver relief to people returning as well as opportunities to strengthen the capacity of state governments and local partners to monitor returns, report, assess and coordinate delivery of relief.
    Furthermore, there are concerns over security in recaptured LGAs. Although Boko Haram’s capabilities have been degraded, by reverting to asymmetric attacks the insurgency still presents a considerable threat to civilians. Of note, attacks by Boko Haram in Yobe in early April caused a displacement of nearly 5,000 people.

    The new government administration has pledged to intensify counter-insurgency operations. In the short term at least, this may lead to new displacements and, in the longer term, an increase in the military operations could result in protracted humanitarian consequences.
    It is expected, therefore, that the majority of the 1.4 million IDP's will remain displaced for the foreseeable future. As the resources of the community-based organizations that have provided the most support are depleted, humanitarian assistance and support to the communities and first responders of the needs is urgently required so as to avoid deterioration in the humanitarian situation. The current 90 Day Plan, June to August 2015, is therefore focusing on assisting IDP's at their current placed of displacement.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    (Bamako, le 14 août 2015) - Le Coordonnateur humanitaire régional pour le Sahel, M. Toby Lanzer, termine une mission de cinq jours au Mali. A l’issue de sa première visite au pays depuis sa prise de fonction, M. Lanzer a souligné l’importance du maintien de l’engagement de la communauté internationale pour répondre aux besoins vitaux des communautés vulnérables tout en assurant le succès des efforts engagés vers la paix et le développement.

    « Les besoins humanitaires ne feront qu’augmenter au Mali s’il n’y a pas un plein engagement envers la paix et la stabilité», a dit Toby Lanzer. «La résilience des communautés maliennes et Ie dynamisme avec lequel la société civile s’efforce de promouvoir les valeurs de la tolérance et de la cohésion sociale sont inspirants. Ensemble, avec le Gouvernement et les partenaires de développement, nous devons être aux côtés des populations pour répondre à leurs aspirations en matière de dignité, développement et sécurité » a ajouté Toby Lanzer.

    M. Lanzer a rencontré des membres du Gouvernement et de nombreux partenaires humanitaires, dont des agences de l’ONU et des ONG. M. Lanzer s’est notamment rendu à Tombouctou où il a échangé avec des personnes affectées par la crise ainsi que des acteurs humanitaires de première ligne.

    En cette période de soudure, 3,1 millions de Maliens sont touchés par l’insécurité alimentaire, dont 410 000 en besoin d’aide immédiate. Les communautés pastorales dans le nord et le centre du pays sont dans une situation particulièrement précaire. D’importantes pénuries d’eau et un manque de fourrage mettent en péril leurs moyens de subsistance. À l’échelle du pays, plus de 715 000 enfants sont menacés par la malnutrition aigüe. La situation est particulièrement préoccupante dans la région de Tombouctou où le taux de malnutrition dépasse le seuil d’urgence. À cela s’ajoute des besoins importants en matière de protection, d’accès à l’éducation et aux soins de santé à travers le pays.

    «L’insécurité qui affecte certaines zones du pays freine l’accès des organisations humanitaires aux personnes les plus vulnérables au moment même où cette insécurité génère de nouveaux besoins pour les communautés touchées» a déploré la Coordonnatrice humanitaire au Mali, Mme. Mbaranga Gasarabwe. « La stabilisation sécuritaire est essentielle pour assurer l’accès des populations aux services de base et aux moyens de subsistance. Nous y travaillons ensemble conjointement avec les autorités nationales» a-t-elle ajouté.

    L’appel de fonds lancé cette année par les acteurs humanitaires au Mali pour répondre aux besoins identifiés est le deuxième plus élevé des neuf pays de la région du Sahel. Il s’élève à 377 millions de dollars. À ce jour, seul 33 pour cent de ces fonds ont pu être mobilisés.«La communauté internationale doit rester engagée pour que les organisations humanitaires aient les ressources nécessaires pour sauver des vies et pour améliorer l’autonomie des communautés les plus vulnérables», a souligné Lanzer.

    Pour obtenir des informations supplémentaires, veuillez contacter :
    Berenice Van Den Driessche, OCHA,, +221 77 333 91 95 (Dakar)
    Anouk Desgroseilliers, OCHA Mali,, Tel. +223 7599 5761(Bamako)
    Pour en savoir plus sur les besoins humanitaires au Sahel et sur la réponse en cours, visitez:
    Les communiqués de presse d’OCHA sont disponibles à

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    (Bamako, 14 August 2015) – The Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Sahel, Toby Lanzer, today completed a five-day visit to Mali. During his first visit to the country since he took up his assignment, Mr. Lanzer emphasized the necessity for the international community to sustain its engagement to meet the vital needs of the most vulnerable communities, whilst supporting ongoing efforts toward peace and development.

    “Humanitarian needs will only grow in Mali if there is no full commitment to peace and stability”, said Toby Lanzer. “I am inspired by the resilience of Malian communities and a vibrant civil society that strives to uphold values of tolerance and social cohesion. Together with the government and development partners, we must stand by the people to address their aspirations to a dignified life, development and security”, said Toby Lanzer.

    Mr. Lanzer met with Government representatives and several humanitarian partners, including United Nations agencies and NGOs. In Timbuktu, he met with communities affected by the crisis and frontline humanitarian aid workers.

    During this lean season, 3.1 million Malians are suffering from food insecurity, of whom 410,000 require immediate assistance. Pastoralist communities in the northern and central parts of the country face a particularly precarious situation, with severe water shortages and lack of fodder putting their livelihoods at risk. Across the country, the lives of 715,000 children are threatened by acute malnutrition. The situation is of particular concern in the Timbuktu region, where malnutrition rates exceed the emergency threshold. Significant needs in terms of protection and access to essential services -such as health and education- remain throughout the country.

    “The insecurity that prevails in parts of the country hinders humanitarian access, precisely to some of the most vulnerable communities where it is generating new needs”, deplored Mrs. Mbaranga Gasarabwe, the Humanitarian Coordinator in Mali. “Stabilization and security are essential to ensure people’s access to critical services and livelihoods. Together with the national authorities, we are working towards this goal.”

    This year’s humanitarian appeal for Mali calls for US$ 377 million to address the most pressing needs throughout the country. It is the second highest appeal of the nine countries of the Sahel region. To date, only 33 percent of its financial requirements have been met.

    “The international community shall remain engaged to ensure aid agencies have the resources they need to save lives and boost self-reliance of the most vulnerable communities”, said Mr. Lanzer.

    For further information, please call:
    Berenice Van Den Driessche, OCHA,, +221 77 333 91 95 (Dakar)
    Anouk Desgroseilliers, Public Information Officer,, +223 7599 5761 (Bamako)
    To learn more about the humanitarian needs in the Sahel and how humanitarian teams plan to respond, visit:
    OCHA press releases are available on

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone


    Des pluies torrentielles ont provoqué des crues soudaines dans la région du centre, inondant le quartier Bissighin à Ouagadougou et le village de Tanghin Dassouri, à 30 km de la capitale. Au total, quelques 1 240 maisons ont été détruites. Le Gouvernement et les partenaires fournissent une assistance pour les besoins primaires en nourriture et nutrition, santé et assainissement. Les autorités signalent que les fortes pluies et les vents violents de cette année ont abouti jusqu'ici à 3 669 personnes ayant perdu leurs maisons et leurs moyens de subsistance.


    Dans la nuit du 3 au 4 août, des combattants présumés de Boko Haram ont attaqué le village de Kangaleri, près de la frontière nigériane, dans la région de l'Extrême Nord. Environ 20 personnes ont été tuées et plusieurs enfants enlevés. Une autre attaque attribuée à Boko Haram a eu lieu dans le village de Tchakamadje, environ 25 km au nord de Maroua. Plus de 100 personnes ont été blessées suite aux récentes attaques. Les services de santé de la région manquent de ressources suffisantes pour faire face à la situation.


    Le 4 août, le HCR a lancé un pont aérien pour rapatrier plus de 600 réfugiés en RDC, six ans après avoir fui la RCA. Les réfugiés ont choisi d'être rapatriés en raison de la persistance de l'insécurité en RCA. À leur arrivée, les rapatriés recevront une subvention pour couvrir le voyage de retour vers leurs villages respectifs et faciliter leur réinsertion.


    Des milliers de personnes continuent de fuir leurs villages dans la région du lac Tchad dans la crainte d'attaques. Beaucoup dorment sous des abris de fortune en manque de nourriture et de services de base. Le nombre total de tchadiens déplacés dans la région du Lac atteint maintenant plus de 40 000 personnes. Leur enregistrement est en cours et les partenaires humanitaires fournissent des articles non alimentaires, des vivres et des articles WASH, dans les trois sites de Kafia, Dar Al Nahim et Kousseri.


    Le 7 août, une attaque à Sévaré, près de Mopti, ciblant les forces de sécurité et un hôtel où résident des étrangers et contractuels de l'ONU, a causé la mort de 13 personnes et fait plusieurs blessés. Quatre travailleurs associés à la Mission de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies au Mali, MINUSMA, ont été tués et quatre autres secourus après s’être cachés durant le siège, selon la MINUSMA.

    Les 7-8 août, de fortes pluies à Ménaka, dans la région de Gao, ont provoqué des inondations causant cinq morts et affectant 1 000 personnes, dont 750 ont trouvé refuge dans les écoles avoisinantes. Des matériaux WASH et de la nourriture ont été distribués aux personnes dans le besoin. Des provisions supplémentaires ont été pré-positionnées dans la région en prévision de nouvelles inondations.


    Environ 12 000 Nigérians rentrant du Cameroun et bloqués à la frontière Nigéria/Cameroun de l'État de l’Adamawa ont un besoin urgent d'une assistance supplémentaire. L'Agence nationale de gestion des urgences (NEMA) a indiqué que 650 personnes ont déjà été transportées dans l'État de Borno. La NEMA fournit de la nourriture, des articles non alimentaires et du soutien médical.


    La semaine dernière, un total de trois cas MVE confirmés a été signalé: deux en Guinée et un en Sierra Leone. Le Liberia n’a rapporté aucun nouveau cas et se rapproche des 42 jours sans nouveau cas pour être déclaré exempt d’Ebola.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone


    Torrential rains triggered flash floods in the Central Region, flooding the Bissighin neighborhood in Ouagadougou and the village of Tanghin Dassouri, 30 km from the capital. Overall, some 1,240 houses were destroyed. Government and partners are providing assistance, primary needs including food and nutrition, health and sanitation. Authorities report that heavy rains and high winds this year so far have resulted in 3,669 people losing their homes and livelihoods.


    During the night of 3 - 4 August, suspected Boko Haram fighters attacked the village of Kangaleri, near the Nigerian border in the Far North region. About 20 people were killed and several children kidnapped. Another attack attributed to Boko Haram occurred in the village of Tchakamadje about 25 km north of Maroua. More than 100 people have been injured following recent attacks. Health services in the region lack adequate resources to deal with the situation.


    On 4 August, UNHCR launched an airlift to repatriate more than 600 refugees to DRC six years after they fled to CAR. The refugees opted to be repatriated due to persisting insecurity in CAR. Upon arrival, the returnees will receive a grant to cover travel to their respective villages and facilitate their reintegration.


    Thousands of people continue fleeing their villages in the Lake Chad region in fear of attacks. Many are sleeping under makeshift shelters with insufficient food or any basic services. The total number of Chadian IDPs in the Lake region has now reached more than 40,000 people. The registration is ongoing, and humanitarian partners are providing non-food items, WASH and food supplies in the three sites of Kafia, Dar Al Nahim and Kousseri.


    An attack in Sevare, near Mopti, on 7 August, targeting security forces and a local hotel often used by foreigners and UN contractors, resulted in 13 dead and several more injured. Four workers associated to the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali, MINUSMA, were killed and four rescued after hiding during the siege, according to MINUSMA.

    Heavy rains on 7-8 August in Ménaka, Gao region, resulted in flooding causing five deaths and affecting 1,000 people, of which 750 took shelter in nearby schools. WASH materials and food have been distributed to those in need. Additional materials have been pre-positioned in the area should more flooding occur.


    About 12,000 Nigerians returning from Cameroon and stranded at the Nigeria/Cameroon border in Adamawa state, are in urgent need of further assistance. The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) reported that 650 people have already been transported to Borno State. NEMA is providing food, non-food items, and medical support.


    Last week, a total of three confirmed Ebola cases were reported: two in Guinea and one in Sierra Leone. Liberia reported no new cases and is closing in toward the 42 days without a new case to be declared Ebola-free.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Niger

    Faits saillants:

    • La campagne agricole se poursuit dans toutes régions du pays mais suscite des inquiétudes liées aux prévisions pluviométriques.

    • Environ 800 000 personnes en insécurité alimentaire sur 1, 4 million planifiées ont reçu une assistance alimentaire en juin.

    • Le nombre d’enfants à risque de malnutrition aiguë sévère a été revu à la hausse pour la région de Diffa.

    • Plus de 20 000 personnes sont touchées par les inondations au Niger. La région de Zinder est la plus touchée, selon les données disponibles.

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    Source: Fund for Peace
    Country: Kenya, Nigeria

    As a result of ongoing and deep-seated conflicts – particularly those in the Middle East and Africa -- internal displacement is at the highest level the world has ever seen. With over 11 million newly internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 2014, there were a reported 38 million IDPs globally by the end of the year, compared to less than 20 million refugees who have fled beyond their borders. Of the world’s IDPs, 77% are to be found in just ten countries, all but one of which are located in the Middle East and Africa. Perhaps somewhat unsurprisingly, of those ten countries, eight of them are to be found among the 15 most fragile countries in The Fund for Peace’s Fragile States Index. In many of these cases, such as Nigeria and Kenya, displacement – both of refugees and IDPs – can be linked to the heightened security threats by insurgency groups, particularly Boko Haram and al Shabaab in these cases.

    A 1992 United Nations report defined IDPs as “persons who have been forced to flee their homes suddenly or unexpectedly in large numbers, as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, systematic violations of human rights or natural or man-made disasters, and who are within the territory of their own country." While refugees have crossed international borders, IDPs are displaced within their home countries. Despite the fact that governments are at times the cause of displacement due to violence, under International Humanitarian Law IDPs remain under the legal protection of these administrations.

    The governments of Nigeria and Kenya, as well as international organizations protecting IDPs, are faced with the challenge of balancing the short-term basic needs of the IDPs while also combatting the underlying structural issues that have created the situation. Another limitation is that in conflict-ridden areas, collecting data is difficult in the first place. Additionally, because there are few consistent methods of data collection of IDPs, data can easily vary from source to source.

    In Nigeria, particularly in the Northeast region, Boko Haram has carried out consistent attacks on civilians, as well as abductions, abuses, and other terrors. Kenya faces the threat of al Shabaab, and in addition to direct terror threats within their borders, the influx of refugees from neighboring countries affected by the violence perpetrated by the militant group. Both countries have seen heightened insecurity resulting in migration and displacement at internal and external levels.

    Africa in particular faces challenges when dealing with IDPs. The Kampala Convention, which came into effect in 2012, is a continent-wide agreement which legally binds governments to take responsibility for IDPs within their own countries, to protect them from human rights abuses, and to provide them with basic necessities. Additionally, its legal definition of an IDP allows for clearer guidelines for governments to act upon. In recent years, Nigeria and Kenya have faced particularly complex and worsening situations regarding IDPs as a result of spikes in communal violence, natural disasters, and consistent terrorist violence within their borders and in neighboring countries.

    Currently, Nigeria has the third largest population of IDPs in the world, after Syria and Iraq. The majority of these displacements are a result of significant conflict within the country. It has been reported that up to three quarters of the displacements stem from Boko Haram insurgency violence, while the last quarter is due to increases in communal conflicts. In 2013, as the insurgency worsened and the Nigerian government declared a state of emergency, thousands were displaced within the country’s three northern-most states, Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa - the epicenter of Boko Haram’s violence. This trend continued into 2015, with a surge in numbers of IDPs in the first half of the year. The majority of displacements in Nigeria are caused by violence, but between October 2012 and October 2015, an estimated 66,000 Nigerians were displaced due to flooding, as the country is particularly prone to such natural disasters. Thousands more have been displaced due to desertification.

    According to a 2015 report by the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights, Nigeria currently has over 1.5 million IDPs within its borders, while over 90,000 Nigerian refugees have fled the country. While Nigeria is currently struggling to support all of these people, it is important to recognize that in 2006, it hosted one of the first conferences focusing on IDP rights and national responsibilities in Abuja, a conference that played a crucial role in subsequently fostering the Kampala Convention in 2009.

    Nigeria’s National Commission for Refugees, Migrants, and Internally Displaced Persons has recently announced a new policy which will focus on the rehabilitation and reintegration of IDPs into society. Additionally, the country’s National Policy on Internal Displacement discusses the rights of IDPs as well as the responsibility of the host country, international humanitarian agencies, and communities. These steps will create a framework for the nation to support its IDPs as the violence in Nigeria continues to escalate.

    In contrast to the vast number if IDPs in Nigeria, Kenya faces a very different problem: a constant flow of refugees across its borders, particularly from Somalia, with an estimated half-a-million refugees currently living in Kenya.

    Following the April 2015 attacks carried out by al Shabaab at a university in Garissa, Kenya’s President Uhuru Kenyatta threatened to close down the Dadaab refugee camp, which is one of the oldest and largest refugee complexes in the world. Currently, the camp holds over 350,000 Somalis, despite its intended capacity of just 90,000. Some have claimed that Al Shabab members are often recruited in the Dadaab camp. UNHCR representatives have urged President Kenyatta to keep the camp open, as forcibly repatriating refugees may create larger international humanitarian crises. Because of this massive number of refugees, the IDPs within Kenya are often overlooked, and there is a lack of applicable and accurate data surrounding their situation.

    As much of the focus in Kenya has been on displacement of neighboring countries’ populations into Kenya, there has been much less attention paid to the displacement of Kenyans themselves within the country. In 2008 and 2009, pre-existing tensions were severely aggravated by violence surrounding elections. The displacement of a significant number of Kenyans was a result of the post-election violence during this period. As this particular grievance has subsided, people nevertheless continue to be displaced by violence between communal groups, stemming from deep-seated tensions often involving competition over land. According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, the spike in the northeastern region of Kenya has a three primary causes: the large quantity of pastoralists have been negatively affected by recent droughts, floods, and increased exploitation of natural resources. These causes have resulted in an array of tensions and conflicts. There has been a surge in violent competition over scare resources and land. Increases in small-arms proliferation as well as external terrorist threats have heightened a sense of insecurity in the region. Additionally, ancient and deep-seated communal grievances have become increasingly tense – particularly local peoples’ grievances towards the Kenyan authority due to a perceived lack of accountability, a poor infrastructure, and a lack of basic services.

    Due to the fact that refugees pose an assumedly more imminent international threat, IDPs are often looked over by both domestic administrations and the international community. Kenya, for example, has not maintained any information on their IDPs, and has no centralized data collection system to monitor their needs and ever-changing populations. In Nigeria, the fixation on combatting Boko Haram and other communal violence has overshadowed the challenges that IDPs continue to face. In both countries, as is the case with IDPs around the world, displacement and its causes result in a breeding ground for greater international humanitarian crises. In many cases, the "cycle of violence" is perpetuated as IDPs are denied basic necessities, marginalized, and made increasingly vulnerable to violence and recruitment by insurgent groups. Because many people are displaced due to shortage of resources – whether that be from conflict or natural disasters – their migration may create resource strain in their adopted place of residence, thus exacerbating any existing conflicts. While all the existing tensions and problems are ongoing, Kenya and Nigeria must find durable solutions that will address the heightening challenge of IDPs.

    Both Nigeria and Kenya have large security threats to address, and the administrations have dealt with this resulting migration in different ways. As Nigeria forms commissions and policies, newly elected President Muhammadu Buhari must put these ideas into action. Land competition is rampant throughout the country, and migration will only heighten these tensions. While the Kenyan administration battles internal displacement, it must also balance its international responsibility as it aids incoming refugees. Taking definitive action and maintaining the strength of refugee and IDP camps throughout the country will have long-term positive effects, specifically preventing an even larger humanitarian crisis.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Niger

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Algeria, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria

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    Source: Inter-Agency Standing Committee, UN Population Fund, International Organization for Migration, World Health Organization, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, World Food Programme, UN Children's Fund, Food and Agriculture Organization, UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    Faits saillants

    • Plus de 40 000 nouveaux déplacés internes dans la région du Lac entre le 21 juillet et le 10 août 2015, portant le nombre total de réfugiés, déplacés internes et retournés à plus de 75 000 personnes dans la région depuis janvier 2015.

    • Le manque de financements impacte fortement la réponse humanitaire. Dans un contexte sécuritaire difficile, cette dernière tarde à se mettre en œuvre pour les quelques 40 000 nouveaux déplacés internes du mois de juillet, dont la majorité vit dans le plus grand dénuement.

    • Des combats ont lieu entre un groupe armé et l’armée nationale tchadienne qui mène des opérations de ratissage. Des attaques sporadiques continuent d’avoir lieu sur les îles.

    • Le camp de Dar es Salam continue d’accueillir 7 131 réfugiés nigérians et nigériens, tandis que 7 000 autres réfugiés sont répartis dans des familles d’accueil dans plusieurs localités dans la région du Lac.

    • Le Gouvernement prévoit de relocaliser les populations d’une soixantaine d’îles vers Bol et Baga Sola pour des raisons sécuritaires.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

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    Source: Norwegian Refugee Council
    Country: Mali

    The security situation in Mali is making it difficult to reach out to civilians in need. Roads are subject to attacks and improvised explosive devices (IED). “There are large areas in Mali that we are struggling to reach,” says Country Director Muriel Tschopp. “The insecurity lays heavy restrictions on our movement of emergency aid and personnel,” says Country Director for NRC Mali, Muriel Tschopp. “Even if humanitarian organisations are not the target, roadside bombs do not discriminate.”

    Last year, two NRC employees were killed when a roadside bomb exploded on the road between Timbuktu and Goundam.

    The security situation is forcing NRC and other aid organisations to transport emergency personnel by airplane to many locations, which increases the cost significantly and renders many places with no airstrip inaccessible. The distances that have to be covered by airplane are considerable: Mali is twice the size of France.

    “There are large areas in Mali that we are struggling to reach. We are currently in the middle of lean season in Mali, and food insecurity is high. The consequences of this lack of access is that NGOs like NRC are often unable to distribute regular food rations, leaving vulnerable families struggling to cover their needs. This is the same for medicine and other lifesaving responses. While jihadist actions in Mali target mainly state and military target, their actions have grave consequences for the civilian population ,” says Tschopp.

    The town of Méneka was completely flooded this past weekend, and 4000 displaced people have been affected by floods. Over 185 families are currently seeking refuge in schools. The road to Méneka is a prime target for roadside bombs, and trucks who take this road face great risks, forcing humanitarian agencies to restrict assistance to the bare minimum.

    3.1 million people in Mali are estimated to be food insecure, meaning they do not have secure access to food. More than 700,000 children are acutely malnourished.

    On June 20, a peace deal was signed between the government and armed groups fighting for the independence of northern Mali, providing much needed hope for an improvement for the civilian population. However, implementation of the accord has this far been slow, and jihadist groups are attempting to destabilise the peace process. Just a few days ago, 13 people were killed in an attack on an old hotel in Sévaré.

    “The Sévaré attack is very tragic. Unfortunately many more terrorist attacks take place in Mali which do not make the headlines. The week of the Sévaré attack two other attacks took place, killing 11 people. There are security incidents every week, reminding us of just how fragile the peace is. People are nervous and where there should be a sense of hope there is often a sense of fear,” says Tschopp.

    She worries that the presence of a peace deal may be contributing to the illusion that the need for aid is less urgent. Only a third of the humanitarian appeal for Mali is currently funded and many donors are abandoning emergency relief for development projects which may not be implemented until security has returned, leaving populations in the north with a gap in assistance.

    “The existence of a peace deal is misleading, because the security situation in Mali has not improved. The need for humanitarian aid to support civilians is just as severe as before the peace deal was signed and while we hope peace will return, lifesaving assistance remains today essential in Mali ,” Tschopp explains.

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Niger

    Niamey, Niger | AFP | Saturday 8/15/2015 - 02:52 GMT | 266 words

    At least four people have died and more than 20,000 have been affected by floods in Niger caused by weeks of heavy rain, the United Nations said Friday.

    The bad weather has destroyed 2,170 homes and flooded nearly 545 hectares of agricultural land, the UN's Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said in a statement.

    Around 3,100 displaced victims are currently living in schools or have been taken in by host families, the agency said citing Niger's emergency civil protection services.

    The bad weather is showing no sign of abating as the rainy season continues in the impoverished sub-Saharan country, which has often faced severe food crises due to flooding or drought.

    Since late July, local media have reported repeated floods, particularly in central and southern Niger.

    In the capital Niamey, the authorities have asked residents living near the edge of the Niger River to leave their homes because of the flood threat. The water level is at 580 centimetres (19 feet), well above the "alert" threshold of 530 centimetres, according to the Niger Basin Authority (NBA).

    Of the eight regions of Niger, only Diffa in the east, which is home to more than 100,000 refugees who have fled violence in neighbouring Nigeria, has not been affected by the bad weather.

    In 2014, floods have killed dozens of people and affected hundreds of thousands, according to official figures.

    The Niger River, the third largest in Africa, has a flood basin of over two million square kilometres (770,000 square miles) which is home to more than 100 million people from Guinea to Nigeria.


    © 1994-2015 Agence France-Presse

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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Mali

    14 août 2015 – L'insécurité alimentaire au Mali ne fera que croître si les parties prenantes au conflit ne parviennent pas s'engager sur la voie de la paix et de la stabilité, a prévenu vendredi le Coordonnateur humanitaire régional des Nations Unies pour le Sahel, Toby Lanzer.

    Dans un communiqué de presse publié à l'issue d'une visite de cinq jours dans le pays, M. Lanzer a souligné la nécessité que la communauté internationale continue de répondre aux besoins vitaux des communautés les plus vulnérables du Mali, tout en soutenant les efforts actuels pour la paix et le développement.

    « Je suis encouragé de voir la résilience des communautés maliennes et une société civile dynamique qui cherche à défendre les valeurs de tolérance et de cohésion sociale », a ajouté M. Lanzer. « En collaboration avec le gouvernement et les partenaires de développement, nous devons nous tenir aux côtés des gens pour répondre à leurs aspirations à une vie digne, au développement et à la sécurité ».

    Le Bureau des Nations Unies pour la coordination des affaires humanitaires (OCHA) a averti que quelque 3,1 millions de Maliens continuent de souffrir d'insécurité alimentaire, dont 410.000 ont besoin d'une assistance immédiate.

    En outre, à travers le pays, près de 15.000 enfants sont menacés de malnutrition aiguë. La situation est particulièrement préoccupante dans la région de Tombouctou, où les taux de malnutrition dépassent le seuil d'urgence, selon OCHA.

    La situation humanitaire désastreuse dans le pays est aggravée par l'instabilité politique et l'insécurité actuelles au Mali.

    « L'insécurité qui règne dans certaines parties du pays entrave l'accès humanitaire, précisément auprès de certaines des communautés les plus vulnérables, ce qui génère de nouveaux besoins », a averti Mbaranga Gasarabwe, la Coordonnatrice humanitaire des Nations Unies au Mali.

    « La stabilisation et la sécurité sont essentielles pour assurer l'accès des populations aux services essentiels et aux moyens de subsistance », a-t-elle ajouté. « En collaboration avec les autorités nationales, nous travaillons à cet objectif ».

    « La communauté internationale doit continuer à faire en sorte que les agences humanitaires ont les ressources dont elles ont besoin pour sauver des vies et accroître l'autonomie des communautés les plus vulnérables», a conclu M. Lanzer.

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Niamey, Niger | AFP | samedi 15/08/2015 - 15:24 GMT

    Le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) a annoncé samedi avoir distribué, dans le sud-est du Niger, des vivres et biens essentiels à près de 160.000 réfugiés qui ont fui les exactions de Boko Haram au Nigeria voisin.

    "Depuis février, près de 160.000 personnes ont reçu une aide alimentaire d'urgence, dont plus de 17.500 ont reçu" des équipements ménagers pour préparer leurs repas, a indiqué à l'AFP, Daddy Rabiou Oumarou, le responsable Communication du CICR à Niamey.

    Sur ces personnes assistées, le CICR a pu fournir de l'eau potable à quelque 75.000 d'entre elles grâce au forage de plus de 30 points d'eau dans cette zone aride, précise un communiqué du CICR transmis à l'AFP.

    En outre, le CICR a soigné "plus de 380 blessés de guerre" (ndlr: civils, soldats nigériens comme combattants de Boko Haram) avec du matériel, des médicaments et du personnel spécialisé qu'il a déployés à l'hôpital régional de Diffa, la capitale provinciale du sud-est nigérien, indique le communiqué.

    Le CICR dit également avoir "visité plusieurs centaines de détenus" en lien avec le conflit en cours dans la zone. "C'était pour nous assurer de leurs conditions de détention et veiller à ce que ces prisonniers soient traités de manière adéquate", a commenté Daddy Rabiou Oumarou qui a récemment séjourné dans la zone.

    Le CIRC ne précise pas les identités des prévenus, mais assure que "certains ont pu échanger (par lettre, ndlr) avec leurs familles".

    La région de Diffa, déjà fragilisée par des années successives de sécheresse et d'inondations, abritait déjà plus de 100.000 réfugiés ayant fui depuis avril 2013 les violences au Nigeria. Elle a subi début février ses premières attaques meurtrières de Boko Haram, notamment dans le bassin du lac Tchad, un cours d'eau entre le Niger, le Nigeria et le Tchad.

    Les armées du Nigeria, du Tchad, du Niger et du Cameroun luttent ensemble contre les insurgés désormais affiliés à l'organisation Etat islamique (EI), auxquels elles ont infligé de sérieux revers ces derniers mois. Mais les violences et les attentats du mouvement armé n'ont pas cessé.

    Ces quatre pays et le Bénin ont mis en place une Force d'intervention conjointe multinationale (MNJTF) composée de 8.700 hommes, et chargée de combattre les insurgés islamistes de Boko Haram.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, REACH Initiative
    Country: Niger

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    Source: Fund for Peace
    Country: Nigeria

    Patterns and Trends, January 2012 — June 2015

    By Nate Haken and Patricia Taft

    Imo state has a population of approximately 3.9 million people, according to the 2006 census. The population is predominantly Igbo (98%). The capital city of Owerri is the largest in the state. Imo is made up of 27 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Natural resources include palm oil, mahogany, crude oil, and natural gas.

    Owelle Rochas Okorocha has been the governor of Imo since May 2011. In 2011, he left the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) to run for governor with the All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA). The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) initially declared the election inconclusive due to reports of irregularities but later confirmed Okorocha’s win. After being elected, Governor Okorocha fired all 27 local government chairmen and replaced them with a transition committee. In a politically risky move, Okorocha later switched from APGA to APC, but nevertheless emerged victorious in the second round of the 2015 elections, the first round of which were initially declared inconclusive.

    Violence per capita in Imo is among the lowest in the region, as is the number of fatalities per capita. Incidences of violence largely occurred in the LGAs surrounding the capital city of Owerri, many of which were inter-personal in nature. Between January 2012 and December 2013, incidents reported included criminality, abductions and vigilante/mob justice. There were also a number of fatalities associated with public unrest and reports of ritual killings in the state. The first half of 2014 was the most violent of the two-year period with a communal clash and a separate cult clash that reportedly killed dozens.

    This Conflict Bulletin provides a brief snapshot of the trends and patterns of conflict risk factors at the State and LGA levels, drawing on the data available on the P4P Digital Platform for Multi-Stakeholder Engagement ( It represents a compilation of the data from sources listed below, not necessarily opinions of FFP or any other organization that collaborated on the production of this bulletin.

    The screenshot of the heat map on this page shows the relative geographic distribution of incidents between 2012 and 2014. The bar chart below shows the relative violence from one Niger Delta state to the next. The trend-line on the next page shows the number of incidents and fatalities over time. The second bar chart shows the trend of incidents of insecurity by LGA per capita. The summaries draw on data collected by FFP’s UNLocK, the Council on Foreign Relations’ NST, WANEP Nigeria, CSS/ETH Zurich, NEEWS/TMG, Nigeria Watch, and ACLED integrated on the P4P platform. They also draw on data and information from “Violence in Nigeria: Patterns and Trends,” by Patricia Taft and Nate Haken (Springer Press, April 2015).

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