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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Mali

    BAMAKO, 4 mai 2015 (IRIN) - Ces dernières années n’ont pas été de tout repos pour le Mali, qui a connu une déclaration d’indépendance, un coup d’État, une mutinerie, une prise de contrôle du nord du pays par les groupes islamistes, une intervention militaire française, une crise d’otages, une guérilla, un accord de paix préliminaire et, enfin, un cessez-le-feu au mois de février.

    Compte tenu de l’ampleur des bouleversements, il n’y a rien d’étonnant à ce que ces deux derniers points – l’accord de paix et le cessez-le-feu – soient aujourd’hui gravement menacés.

    Les rebelles touaregs se battent de longue date pour l’indépendance - ou tout au moins l’autonomie accrue - d’un grand territoire du nord du Mali qu’ils appellent Azawad. Les séparatistes font traîner la ratification du dernier accord de paix en date, et des affrontements récents ont amené le secrétaire général des Nations Unies, Ban Ki-moon, à signaler que la situation menaçait de se dégrader.

    Voici un récapitulatif des événements ayant conduit à la situation actuelle, et de ce que l’on est en droit d’attendre de la suite :

    COMMENT EN EST-ON ARRIVÉ LÀ ?

    Depuis des décennies, le schéma habituel est le suivant : une rébellion touarègue suivie de pourparlers de paix, puis un mécontentement grandissant et une reprise du conflit. Les enjeux ont toutefois pris une nouvelle dimension avec la guerre civile libyenne de 2001, lors de laquelle de nombreux rebelles touaregs ont combattu comme mercenaires. Ils en sont revenus plus expérimentés et plus lourdement armés.

    Critiqué pour la manière dont il a géré la rébellion, le président Amadou Toumani a été écarté du pouvoir par un coup d’État en mars 2011, ce qui a donné l’occasion aux rebelles touaregs de s’emparer de plusieurs villes du nord avec l’aide d’un nombre croissant de groupes d’insurgés islamistes.

    Les Touaregs ont proclamé l’indépendance de l’Azawad, et les islamistes ont entrepris d’y imposer la charia. Le gouvernement provisoire a lancé un appel à l’aide, et l’armée française a pris l’initiative de l’opération Serval visant à bouter les combattants islamistes hors du nord du Mali. La mission a pris fin en juillet 2014, et a été remplacée par une opération antiterroriste couvrant toute la région du Sahel, conduite par la France depuis le Tchad.

    Pendant ce temps, les rebelles touaregs avaient repris la ville de Kidal, dans le nord, en mai 2014. Cette défaite, ainsi que l’avancée consécutive des rebelles vers le sud - en direction de la capitale régionale, Gao, et de Menaka, à la frontière avec le Niger - ont convaincu le gouvernement malien de lancer une nouvelle tentative de paix.

    Le président Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta et les observateurs institutionnels avaient bon espoir qu’un accord serait trouvé le mois dernier, au terme de huit mois d’intenses négociations.

    Mais la coordination des mouvements de l’Azawad (CMA) - une coalition de factions rebelles touarègues et de groupes séparatistes arabes et peuls - a refusé de signer en arguant que l’accord ne répondait pas à leurs revendications concernant « une entité géographique, politique et juridique ».

    QUELLES SONT LES QUESTIONS EN SUSPENS ?

    En substance, le dernier accord propose d’accorder davantage de pouvoir et de ressources au nord, sans toutefois aller jusqu’à lui garantir une autonomie politique complète.

    Plutôt que d’autoriser une entité indépendante composée des trois régions du nord (Gao, Kidal et Tombouctou), l’accord souligne la nécessité d’une réconciliation au sein du Mali, présenté comme une nation séculaire devant rester unie.

    L’accord propose de donner plus de pouvoir aux assemblées régionales élues et aux dirigeants du nord, ainsi que d’offrir une représentation accrue aux nordistes au sein des institutions gouvernementales.

    D’après les observateurs, l’emploi de l’expression « identité séculaire » viserait à tempérer les aspirations des rebelles.

    « C’est un compromis qui ne répond pas aux revendications des rebelles portant sur un Azawad indépendant ou un Mali respectant la charia », a dit Benjamin Soares, chercheur principal au Centre d’étude sur l’Afrique de Leyde, à IRIN.

    OÙ EN EST-ON EXACTEMENT ?

    Bruce Whitehouse, un anthropologue culturel de l’université Lehigh, en Pennsylvanie, est d’avis que l’écart entre le gouvernement et les rebelles n’a jamais été aussi grand.

    « Il y a des factions dans les deux camps qui sont opposées à la moindre concession », a-t-il dit à IRIN. « Nous avons toujours su qu’un grand nombre des militants séparatistes de base ne consentiraient jamais à moins que l’indépendance. Dans le même temps, l’opposition suscitée par l’accord s’est faite de plus en plus véhémente à Bamako. »

    Tandis que le gouvernement et les rebelles du nord tergiversent, la situation sécuritaire continue de se dégrader.

    « Tout nouveau retard dans la ratification et la mise en œuvre de l’accord de paix ne peut que profiter aux groupes terroristes, dont les menaces sur le terrain s’intensifient [avec] la population comme principale victime », a dit Radhia Achouri, porte-parole de la MINUSMA – l’opération de maintien de la paix des Nations Unies au Mali – à IRIN.

    L’Algérie (le principal médiateur), la MINUSMA, l’Union africaine, la France et les voisins du Mali envisagent tous l’accord de paix comme une étape indispensable vers un rétablissement de l’ordre et de la sécurité dans le nord.

    Le retard enregistré s’est traduit par une reprise des conflits entre les groupes d’insurgés et l’armée malienne, des affrontements intercommunautaires, le retrait des forces de sécurité de différentes zones, et une recrudescence des attaques visant les travailleurs humanitaires et les civils.

    Face à l’incapacité de trouver une solution à la crise, la frustration grandit et alimente l’extrémisme islamiste. D’après les sources sécuritaires de la région, des groupes comme Ansar Dine et Al-Qaïda au Maghreb islamique (AQMI) ont intensifié l’enrôlement de jeunes chômeurs exaspérés par la situation actuelle.

    QUE NOUS RÉSERVE LA SUITE ?

    Le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies a instamment enjoint les trois principaux groupes séparatistes à ratifier l’accord le 15 mai au plus tard, sous peine de s’exposer à des sanctions.

    Lundi dernier, un porte-parole de la CMA a dit que les rebelles étaient disposés à signer l’accord élaboré lors de réunions à Alger en février, mais qu’une poursuite des pourparlers était auparavant nécessaire.

    L’une des différences essentielles entre cet accord de paix et les précédents est la forte implication de la communauté internationale, qui a joué un rôle plus important dans la phase de négociations et s’est engagée à traduire tout cela dans les faits lors de la phase de mise en œuvre à venir.

    Gilles Yabi, du groupe de réflexion ouest-africain WATHI, a dit que la communauté internationale - en particulier les voisins du Mali – faisait clairement pression sur les différents camps. « Quiconque refuserait de signer l’accord négocié à Alger serait tenu pour responsable de l’échec du processus de paix », a dit M. Yabi à IRIN.

    Cependant, même si l’accord de paix devait être ratifié d’ici le 15 mai, il ne s’agit que de la première étape. Dans le passé, la mise en œuvre des accords a pris plus de trois temps, pour finalement se solder par un échec en raison d’une lutte d’influence entre différentes factions.

    « Parvenir à un accord est le plus facile, la difficulté résidera dans sa mise en œuvre et c’est pour cette raison que les accords de paix antérieurs ont échoué », a dit M. Yabi à IRIN.

    Le désarmement et la réintégration des combattants touaregs dans l’armée malienne pourraient contribuer à accélérer le processus. Cependant, les affrontements en cours et les tentatives du gouvernement de mobiliser les milices arabes et touarègues fidèles à Bamako ont gravement ébranlé la confiance entre les différents camps.

    « Même si les groupes armés signent l’accord, qui prévoit le désarmement sous un délai d’un an, il est peu probable que les rebelles rendent les armes avant que les réformes politiques soient en place », a dit M. Yabi, qui pense que les changements structurels élémentaires prendront à eux seuls jusqu’à 18 mois.

    Quel que soit le déroulement des prochaines semaines, le processus de paix au Mali a encore un long chemin devant lui.

    kh/jl/ag-xq/amz


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    Source: UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali
    Country: Mali

    A meeting of the Commission Technique Mixte de Sécurité (CTMS), chaired by MINUSMA, took place in Gao yesterday with representatives of the Government, the Plateforme and the Coordination.

    The findings of the Equipe Mixte d’Observation et de Vérification (EMOV), which is responsible for verifying the facts on the ground and reporting to the CTMS, were presented during this meeting.

    Two missions, to Ménaka and Timbuktu, were conducted on 29 April.

    The EMOV’s findings unequivocally establish that the protagonists, the Plateforme and Coordination, violated the ceasefire agreements.

    In its statement on 1 May 2015, the Security Council of the United Nations condemned the violations of the ceasefire, recalling that targeted sanctions could be imposed, as previously mentioned in the statement of the President of the Security Council on 6 February 2015 and the statement to the press on 10 April 2015.

    In line with the position of the Security Council and, more generally, that of the international community, MINUSMA strongly condemns the acts of violence committed in the north of Mali during the past few days.

    The mission stresses that the parties involved in hostilities on the ground absolutely and immediately have to cease all hostilities.

    In order to stabilize the situation in Ménaka, MINUSMA asks the Plateforme to withdraw from the town without delay.

    MINUSMA also asks the Coordination to withdraw from newly occupied positions without delay.

    MINUSMA’s role is to help Mali by impartially facilitating meetings between the protagonists, and the Comité de Suivi et d’Evaluation (CSE) falls within this framework.

    The CTMS has recommended that a meeting of the CSE be held soon to decide on the implementation of the security arrangements and take the necessary political measures to end hostilities.

    In any case, MINUSMA will take the necessary measures within the framework of its mandate to:

    • prevent the violation of human rights,

    • protect the population,

    • facilitate humanitarian assistance.

    “In spite of the current tensions, reason must prevail,” the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of MINUSMA, Mr. Mongi Hamdi, said this morning. “I make every effort to calm the situation and the tensions. MINUSMA does not take sides; in no way. It simply wishes for the protagonists to honour their commitments. All parties have to remain engaged in the process, which has to lead to the signature of a peace agreement on 15 May. MINUSMA cannot impose peace, but it will do everything to achieve it, for the benefit of all Malians,” he added.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Nigeria


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Niger, Nigeria, United States of America

    NIAMEY - The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) today welcomed in-kind and cash donations from USAID’s Food for Peace Program totalling US$40 million to support WFP’s assistance to very poor households and build community resilience to withstand recurrent shocks especially drought.

    “This is a very timely and significant contribution that will enable WFP to provide urgent food assistance to the most needy. It will also sustain WFP’s efforts to build the resilience of these vulnerable people. The contribution comes just when Niger is facing several crises connected with an absence of food and displacement due to conflict in neighbouring countries; it is evidence of the robust partnership between WFP and USAID,” said Benoit Thierry, WFP Niger’s Country Director.

    More than 2.5 million people are food insecure as this year’s harvest showed a cereal deficit of some 230,000 metric tons. Niger is also hosting around 150,000 refugees from Nigeria and Mali, placing additional strain on already stretched communities and services.

    “Food for Peace has a long history in Niger, and is committed to supporting the government’s humanitarian efforts to save lives and alleviate hunger. This is especially important in these times of extreme hardship, as a result of the recent influxes of refugees and poor harvests,” said Dina Esposito, the Director of USAID’s Office of Food for Peace during her visit to Niger this week, when she saw first-hand the challenging situation facing communities across Niger.

    WFP currently supports local communities by distributing monthly cash and food to poor families. Participants receive assistance for agricultural work including land rehabilitation, water harvesting and irrigation – all of which benefit their communities. WFP also provides nutritional support to young children under five and pregnant or breastfeeding women to fight malnutrition.

    WFP is also assisting more than 60,000 Nigerian refugees with life-saving food after they have fled violence in northern Nigeria following tension along the border in Diffa region.

    During the June to September lean season, WFP’s response will prioritise very poor and vulnerable households who will receive unconditional cash or food assistance together with an integrated nutrition response.

    WFP’s intervention in Niger aims to respond to emergencies and build community resilience in rural areas. However, the lack of funding is a big challenge to improving livelihoods, building resilience to future shocks and breaking the cycle of chronic poverty.

    The funding shortfall for 2015 is around US$200 million.

    WFP is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. Each year, WFP assists some 80 million people in around 75 countries.

    Follow us on Twitter @wfp_media, @WFP_WAfrica

    For more information please contact (email address: firstname.lastname@wfp.org):
    Vigno Hounkanli, WFP Niger, +227 91205585
    Adel Sarkozi, WFP West Africa Regional Bureau (Senegal), +221 776375964


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    Source: UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali
    Country: Mali

    Un projet à impact rapide (QIP), soutenu par la section des Affaires Civiles de la MINUSMA, a financé la réparation du camion à bac de la Mairie destiné au ramassage hebdomadaire des ordures ménagères dans la commune de Tombouctou.

    Endommagé par les occupants pendant la crise, il est redevenu opérationnel et c’est le 29 avril dernier, qu’il a repris ses activités. Ce projet, dont le montant s’élève à cinq millions neuf cent dix mille dix francs CFA (5.910.010 CFA), contribuera à l’amélioration des conditions sanitaires et d’hygiène de la population. Il pourra aussi éviter que les enfants, ne jouent avec les tas d’ordures, ce qui souvent entraine des maladies au sein des familles.

    Grâce à ce camion, le seul dont la Mairie dispose, les ordures seront transportées régulièrement vers la décharge finale pour y être traitées selon les normes environnementales. En effet, ce traitement est effectué dans un bassin qui se trouve à environs 4.5 km hors de la ville sur la route de Goundam, où les services techniques de la mairie repartissent les ordures selon leur nature. Certaines ordures, comme le papier, y sont brulées, tandis que d’autres, comme le plastique et la ferraille par exemple, sont achetées par une compagnie, qui les achemine sur Bamako pour les recycler.

    Il faut noter que la Marie organise périodiquement des activités de sensibilisation en partenariat avec la société civile par rapport au ramassage des ordures. Certaines ont été organisées en collaboration avec l’ONG allemande Ex Agro Action, l’ONG malienne AMSS (Association Malienne pour la Survie au Sahel), la CAFO (Coordination des Associations et ONG féminines) et les services d’assainissement de la mairie. Ceci afin de promouvoir et soutenir le changement de comportement des populations par rapport à l’évacuation des déchets solides et sur l’utilisation des dépôts de transit des ordures.

    Présent au redémarrage des activités du camion, le Maire de Tombouctou, M. Halley Ousmane, a remercié la MINUSMA pour l’accompagnement dans les actions visant à améliorer la cohésion sociale. Il a aussi rassuré que les autorités responsables de l’hygiène et de la voirie prendront des mesures appropriées pour assurer le suivi dans toute la chaine de collecte des ordures ménagères. Le camion servira toute la population de la ville de Tombouctou, estimée à environ 55,000 personnes, y compris celles qui s’occupent de l’assainissement de la ville.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    Food security and malnutrition remain major concerns in Mali. During the lean season (June - August), i.e. before the next harvests when grain stocks are depleted, it is estimated that nearly one out of every six households will need support for their livelihood. Among them, 410,000 people will require immediate food assistance. Countrywide, one out of every eight children suffers from malnutrition; including 181,000 who are affected by the most severe form and face a nine-fold mortality risk.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    L’insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition demeurent des préoccupations majeures au Mali. Pendant la soudure (juin-août) – période précédant les récoltes et où les réserves de grain sont épuisées – il est estimé que près d’un ménage sur six aura besoin d’aide pour assurer sa subsistance. Parmi eux, 410 000 personnes auront besoin d’aide pour se nourrir. À l’échelle du pays, un enfant sur huit souffre de malnutrition; 181 000 sont atteints de la forme la plus sévère et font face à un risque de mortalité neuf fois plus élevé.


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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Iraq, Liberia, Mali, Serbia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen

    SECURITY COUNCIL
    PRESS CONFERENCE

    The Security Council in May would consider the growing threats faced by journalists around the world in addition to focusing on foreign terrorist fighters, small arms and a raft of ongoing situations of concern, the Permanent Representative of Lithuania, President of the body for the month, said this afternoon.

    “The last resolution on protection of journalists was adopted in 2006 and the situation has changed considerably since then,” Raimonda Murmokaitė told correspondents at Headquarters in the monthly briefing on the Council’s programme of work. “We’re exploring the possibilities of how we can carry the issue forward.”

    She said that a ministerial-level open debate on the issue was planned for 27 May, to be presided over by Lithuania’s Foreign Minister, Linas Linkevičius, and briefed by Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson among others.

    An open debate on small arms, planned for 13 May, would hear briefings by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein. Council members were working on possible texts to result from both debates.

    For an open briefing on foreign terrorist fighters planned for 29 May, she said, the Council had invited national officials responsible for counter-terrorism to attend, including interior and justice ministers. Mr. Linkevičius was expected to chair that meeting as well, and briefings were anticipated from Mr. Eliasson, Secretary-General Jürgen Stock of International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and chairs of counter-terrorism committees.

    Ms. Murmokaitė said that the briefing would follow up on issues and actions discussed at September’s summit, focusing on practical issues in implementation of resolutions on the matter — “what needs to be done, what gaps exist”.

    Also on the schedule, she said, were the periodic considerations of the situations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, South Sudan, the Middle East, the Central African region, Iraq and other areas.

    Issues that could also be considered, depending on developments, she said, included the Democratic Republic of Congo, for which Under-Secretary-General Hervé Ladsous had requested time to discuss a number of issues, and Mali, which had seen continued fighting.

    Meetings could also be called on Ukraine if the situation deteriorates, she said, noting the continued violations of the Minsk agreements. In response to questions she said that the next human rights report on Ukraine was due on 29 May. Speaking in her national capacity, she added that border insecurity and the annexation of Crimea — which she related to violations of the United Nations Charter — as well as the situation of the Tatar minority, were matters of concern to her country.

    The situation in Yemen was also increasingly critical, she said, noting that it might demand more attention than the scheduled consultations that had been scheduled for 20 May with the new Special Envoy. To questions on Yemen, she added that, as Chair of the Sanctions Committee, she desired as early as possible a meeting with the Envoy to coordinate all United Nations mechanisms. She did not know how much he would want to change the strategy on the ground. She doubted, though, that he would want to start again from scratch.

    In addition, she said, the Council was closely following the situation in Burundi given the unrest related to the elections and the outflow of refugees. Council members might not reach consensus on that country, as has happened in the past, but must remain seized of it as it faces the current challenges.

    There was also the possibility of a briefing next week by the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) on smuggling of migrants in the Mediterranean. “It’s not just a European issue,” she stressed, relating it to transnational organized crime and other issues on the Council’s agenda. Sahelian States have to be involved, as many of the migrants originated there.

    Asked about Council action to counter the use of weaponized chlorine and barrel bombs in Syria, Ms. Murmokaitė said that the issues would continue to be discussed and noted that attacks on civilians had been condemned in previous resolutions. Now it was important to push for implementation of safe passage for civilians who wanted to leave conflict zones, as well as for the safety of those who chose to stay.

    Asked if support for Iraq’s unity would be reconsidered by the Council and if she could envision support for Kurdish independence given the developments during the war with extremists, she stressed that Iraqis had to decide for themselves what kind of a country they wanted.

    On allegations of sexual abuse by French forces in the Central African Republic, she reiterated the Council’s position of zero tolerance for such abuse. She commented that, given the fact that action by the troop providers was most important in such cases, France’s strong response to the allegations was welcome.

    For information media. Not an official record.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration, Government of Nigeria
    Country: Nigeria

    DISPLACEMENT HIGHLIGHTS

    • 1,491,706 IDPs (194,145 households) were identified in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe states. (DTM)

    • The highest number is in Borno (939,290) followed by Adamawa (222,882) and Yobe (139,591).

    • The IDP population is composed of 52% of female and 48% of male

    • 57% of the IDP population are children and 28% are less than 5 years old

    • 94.05% were displaced by the insurgency

    • The majority of the current IDP population was displaced in 2014 (64.5%)

    • The IDPs come mainly from Borno (68%), Adamawa (15%) and Yobe (11%)

    • 89.9% of IDPs live in host families while 10.1 live in camps


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania, Senegal

    Extended pastoral lean season and fewer labor opportunities likely if rainy season is poor

    Below-average 2014/15 crop production levels and poor pastoral conditions are contributing to reduced food access for poor households in the agropastoral zones of south-central Mauritania and in northern and central Senegal. Under current conditions, approximately 1.25 million people are expected to face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or higher food insecurity between May and September 2015, with additional households experiencing Stressed (IPC Phase 2) outcomes. Several meteorological centers (ECMWF, IRI, UK MET) are currently projecting a poor June to September 2015 rainy season which, if it were to occur, could negatively impact income generating opportunities for pastoral and agropastoral households and contribute to worsening food security outcomes. While rainfall projections are still uncertain, early contingency planning is needed in order to mitigate higher assistance needs between now and September 2015 under this scenario.

    In areas of Mauritania and Senegal that experienced poor rainfall last year, 2014/15 crop production was between 30 and 80 percent below average, causing household food stocks to deplete earlier than normal and prolonging the period of time that households depend on market purchases to meet their food needs. Below-average incomes from crop sales and reduced milk availability are also limiting food access. To cope, households are selling additional livestock, increasing debt levels, engaging in increased levels of wage labor, migration, fishing, and forestry product sales (charcoal, wood, etc.), and reducing the quantity and quality of their meals. Even if the coming June to September rainy season is relatively normal, affected areas will face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) or Crisis (IPC Phase 3) food insecurity between now and the start of new pasture growth in July in pastoral areas or early crop harvests in September in agropastoral areas. A small number of very poor households will also face Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity, particularly in Mauritania.

    Projected food security outcomes are, however, partially dependent on the performance of the next rainy season and medium-range seasonal rainfall models are currently showing mixed forecasts. More specifically, the April 2015 North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) forecast is showing no anomalies, while the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the UK Met Office, and Columbia University’s International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) are all indicating an increased probability of below-average rains. The UK Met and ECMWF, in particular, are indicating a more than 50 percent probability of well below-average rainfall in certain localities (Figure 1).

    Though forecasts are still uncertain, a poor start of season could lead to a fairly immediate deterioration in food security outcomes between June and September 2015. For households that rely on livestock products for food and income, the pastoral lean season could be prolonged if pastures and water points do not regenerate normally. Likewise, labor opportunities could be atypically low if poor rainfall disrupts cropping activities, providing less income for poor agropastoral households to purchase food. Under this scenario, a significantly larger number of households in the agropastoral and pastoral zones of south-central Mauritania and northern and central Senegal could decline into Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or higher food insecurity between July and September compared to current estimates.

    Free or subsidized food and animal feed distributions, and malnutrition prevention and treatment programs are planned but are not expected to adequately meet projected needs between May and September, even under a scenario of normal rainfall. Given the possibility of a below-average rainy season, response agencies should begin to develop contingency plans to mitigate the potential impacts on livestock mortality, food security and nutrition. The reliability of seasonal forecasts will also improve with the approach of the rainy season so updates to current climate models should be closely monitored.


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    Source: International Organization for Migration
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad

    Chad - Three years since the conflict in the Central African Republic (CAR) began, IOM is continuing to help stranded Chadian migrants in Cameroon, who fled CAR and wish to return home. Over the weekend of May 2nd and 3rd, IOM transported 179 Chadian migrants from Cameroon to Chad by road.

    The migrants were accommodated at the Djako transit site in the south of Chad. The site is managed by IOM. WFP provides food, UNICEF provides Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services, and the International Rescue Committee (IRC) provides medical services.

    As the result of the CAR crisis in December 2013, hundred thousands of migrants were forced to flee for their lives, either by returning to their countries of origin, or by seeking refuge in neighboring countries, including Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Congo Brazzaville.

    Migrants of Chadian origin were the most affected by the crisis. Many succeeded in returning to Chad independently, while others were assisted by the Chadian government or by IOM.

    At the request of various governments, IOM has also been facilitating the return home of their stranded nationals from countries neighboring CAR, mainly Cameroon and Congo Brazzaville.

    “Throughout last year we ensured the safe transportation and return home of hundreds of migrants back to their countries of origin either by road or by air,” said Dr. Qasim Sufi, IOM Chief of Mission in Chad.

    “It took longer for the Chadian authorities to approve this group’s request for repatriation because of security concerns due to the Boko Haram insurgency in the sub-region, which has forced the Government of Chad to officially close all its borders with the neighbouring countries.”

    In December 2014, IOM Cameroon received additional funds from the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to facilitate the return of 600 Third Country Nationals (TCNs) and migrants from Chad, Mali, Senegal, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who had fled the CAR crisis. The TCNs and migrants were stranded in Kentzou, Libongo, Bela, Yokadouma and Garoua Boulai in the East of Cameroon.

    IOM, the Chadian Embassy in Cameroon, the Cameroonian and the Chadian authorities worked together to ensure the safe return of the migrants back to Chad.

    The Government of Chad and the humanitarian community are seeking to reintegrate and stabilize the tens of thousands of returnees who fled CAR and have since returned to Chad. The majority of more than 100,000 Chadians who returned from CAR are currently hosted in temporary sites in N’Djamena and in the south of the country. Some 30,000 have returned to their homes in Chad.

    IOM is still looking for additional funding to address the ensuing mid- and longer term needs of returnees in Chad, including reintegration, community stabilization, social cohesion, psychosocial support and family reunification.

    For more information, please contact Dr. Qasim Sufi at IOM Chad, Tel: +235 62900674, Email: qsufi@iom.int. Or Roger Charles Evina at IOM Cameroon, Tel: +237 652 23 46 40, Email: revina@iom.int


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    Source: International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies
    Country: Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal

    Overview

    This report covers the period from 1 January to 31 December 2014. The Operational Plan for 2014 has been implemented with some adjustments to some planned activities due to the limited funding available.

    The Sahel region of West Africa includes some of the poorest countries in the world, lacking the capacity for minimum service delivery and harbouring very low nutrition, health and livelihoods indicators. The recurrent crises in the region include: slow onset and recurring food crises linked to recurrent droughts, floods affecting fertile and often highly populated areas; encroachment on coastal areas vital for biodiversity and fishing communities; conflicts with population movement crises, with thousands of uprooted people seeking refuge in fragile environments.

    Millions of people are facing food insecurity and malnutrition in the Sahel region due to primarily poor rainfall. Food security conditions of people affected by recurrent food crisis during the last years have not improved. Based on Government and UN agencies reports, over 1,000,000 persons in the country are food insecure and still depend on food aid. Ebola came to add on the already heavy toll of affected populations in the region.

    Despite the improvement of the security situation in Northern Mali, thousands of people are still refugees in Niger, Burkina Faso and Mauritania. They live in precarious conditions and need lifesaving assistance. In Nigeria, violence continues to displace thousands, both internally and into neighbouring countries. Chad also has been affected by population movements and now harbours over 264,000 Sudanese refugees in the East, 30,000 Central African refugees in the South and 2,000 Nigerian refugees in North-West. In addition to these refugees, Chad has received 100,000 nationals who fled the conflict in Central Africa Republic (CAR) in late 2013. An assessment mission was undertaken in Chad in four regions. A plan of action has been elaborated and the Federation is working with the National Society to seek for funding to implement it.

    The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of the number of cases, deaths and its geographical spread. As of 8 December 2014, the total number of cases was over 17,000 with 6,500 confirmed deaths. The EVD Outbreak spread to Senegal, but the country was fortunately declared Ebola free in October 2014. Cases in Mali occurred in November and as of 8 December; Mali had no more new confirmed cases of EVD. While the efforts to stop the ongoing spread and bring the epidemic to an end have gained in commitment and capacity; the risk of further spread, both within the affected countries and more widely beyond the region is also a real threat and still needs to be planned for appropriately. If not contained and eliminated, not only is there a risk that the EVD becomes endemic to the region, it could potentially spread beyond the West part of Africa and threaten peace and stability in the affected countries. There has already been repeated riots and attacks of Red Cross teams and humanitarian teams, and it is feared that the volatile situation in the affected areas e.g. in Liberia and the Guinea Forest Area could be driven into violent conflict if the disease outbreak is not controlled within a foreseeable timeframe.

    This is the first time an outbreak of this size has been experienced in West Africa. In the past, outbreaks have been seen in remote forest regions of Africa, which has meant they have been self-limiting and controlled within a contained area. In addition, the current outbreak is no longer just a public health emergency of international concern, but a much broader humanitarian crisis – the Ebola outbreak has resulted in the suspension of other critical humanitarian services in the areas affected, including food security and nutrition programmes, water and sanitation activities, health services, and other community development programmes. There is a looming discontent amongst the affected population, and outbreaks of violence and violent attacks on humanitarians are on the increase. Furthermore, as provided by the September 2014 IASC Gender Alert, women are proportionately more affected by the disease1. (See the IASC Gender Alert issued by the IASC Reference Group on Gender and Humanitarian Action, of which the IFRC is a co-chair).


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali, Niger, Nigeria, United States of America

    NIAMEY - Le Programme alimentaire mondial des Nations Unies a reçu ce jour une donation financière et en nature de la part du Programme «Des Vivres pour la Paix» d’USAID. Cette contribution, qui s’élève à 40 millions de dollars US, permettra au PAM de fournir une assistance vitale aux familles en situation de grande pauvreté et de renforcer la résilience des communautés face à des chocs récurrents tels que les sécheresses.

    “Cette importante contribution qui arrive au moment opportun, permettra au PAM de fournir une aide alimentaire d’urgence à ceux qui en ont le plus besoin. Elle soutient également les efforts du PAM pour construire la résilience de ces personnes vulnérables. Nous sommes à un moment critique pour le Niger, qui est confronté à plusieurs crises urgentes–liées à la fois à l’insécurité alimentaire et aux déplacements de populations dus aux conflits dans les pays voisins. Cette contribution prouve à nouveau le lien de coopération solide qui existe entre le PAM et USAID», affirme Benoit Thiry, Directeur du PAM au Niger

    Plus de 2,5 millions de personnes sont en situation d’insécurité alimentaire alors que la production céréalière du pays pour l’année en cours connait un déficit de 230 000 tonnes. En outre, le Niger accueille plus de 150 000 réfugiés venus du Nigéria et du Mali, dont la présence exerce une pression supplémentaire sur des communautés et des services déjà fragilisés.

    “Le programme “Des Vivres pour la Paix” a une longue histoire au Niger, et est engagé à soutenir les efforts humanitaires du gouvernement pour sauver des vies et éradiquer la faim. C’est particulièrement important en ces temps d’extrême précarité qui font suite à des récents afflux de réfugiés et à de mauvaises récoltes» a déclaré Dina Esposito, Directrice du programme «Des Vivres pour la Paix» de l’USAID lors de sa visite cette semaine au Niger, où elle a vu de première main la situation difficile que vivent les communautés.

    Le PAM soutient actuellement les communautés locales au travers de distributions mensuelles de vivres et d’argent aux familles pauvres. Les participants reçoivent une aide pour la réalisation de travaux agricoles bénéficiant à leur communauté, tels que des travaux de réhabilitation de terres, de collecte d’eau, ou d’irrigation. Le PAM fournit également un soutien nutritionnel aux enfants de moins de cinq ans et aux femmes enceintes et allaitantes afin de lutter contre la malnutrition.

    Le PAM fournit une assistance alimentaire vitale à plus de 60 000 personnes ayant fui les violences dans le nord du Nigéria et des déplacés dans la région de Diffa.

    Durant la saison de soudure qui s’étend de juin à septembre, le PAM ciblera les ménages en situation de grande pauvreté et de vulnérabilité. Ceux-ci recevront une assistance financière ou alimentaire non-conditionnelle couplée à une prise en charge nutritionnelle.

    L’intervention du PAM au Niger vise à répondre aux situations d’urgence et à renforcer la résilience des communautés dans les zones rurales. Cependant, le manque de ressources constitue un grand défi pour l'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des populations pauvres et le renforcement de la résilience face aux chocs futurs pour briser le cycle de la pauvreté chronique.

    Le manque de financement pour l’année 2015 s’élève à environ 200 millions de dollars US.

    #

    Le PAM est la plus grande agence humanitaire qui lutte contre la faim dans le monde en distribuant une assistance alimentaire dans les situations d'urgence et en travaillant avec les communautés pour améliorer leur état nutritionnel et renforcer leur résilience. Chaque année, le PAM apporte une assistance à quelque 80 millions de personnes dans près de 75 pays.

    Suivez- nous sur Twitter: @wfp_media, @WFP_WAfrica

    Pour plus d’informations, veuillez contacter (adresse email : prenom.nom@wfp.org) :
    Vigno Hounkanli, WFP Niger, +227 91205585 Adel Sarkozi, WFP West Africa Regional Bureau (Senegal), +221 776375964


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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Afghanistan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, Ukraine, Vanuatu, World, Yemen

    Snapshot 29 April–5 May 2015

    Nepal: The death toll from the earthquake has reached 7,250, with more than 14,000 injured. Aftershocks are still occurring, and some villages have still not been reached. 300,000 homes are estimated to need rebuilding or repair.

    Yemen: The estimated number of IDPs has doubled since 17 April to reach 300,000, as conflict continues. Food distribution, health, and WASH systems are on the verge of collapse, due in large part to severe fuel shortages.

    Nigeria: 9.7 million people are living in the areas worst affected by the Boko Haram insurgency, and 300,000 new IDPs have been recorded since February. In Damasak, Borno state, hundreds of people have been found dead following Boko Haram attacks.

    Updated: 05/05/2015. Next update: 12/05/2015

    Global Emergency Overview Web Interface


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    Alger, Algérie | AFP | mardi 05/05/2015 - 15:51 GMT

    Le ministre malien de la Réconciliation nationale a affirmé mardi à Alger que la "transgression" du cessez-le-feu dans son pays ne devrait pas avoir d'influence sur la signature de l'accord de paix entre le gouvernement et les rebelles du nord, prévue le 15 mai.

    "La transgression du cessez-le-feu et les violences à Menaka et Léré ne devraient pas influer sur le processus de paix au Mali, la solution définitive à cette situation consistant en l'accord de paix et de réconciliation nationale qui sera signé le 15 mai prochain à Bamako", a déclaré Ould Sidi Mohamed Zahabi, cité par l'agence algérienne APS.

    Des affrontements meurtriers ont opposé, cette semaine et la semaine passée, l'armée à des rebelles dans des localités du nord et du centre du pays.

    La Mission de l'ONU au Mali (Minusma) a exhorté dimanche tous les protagonistes à cesser les hostilités et à évacuer les positions nouvellement occupées.

    "Le gouvernement du Mali condamne toutes ces violations (du cessez-le-feu) et ce qui arrive dans ces villes, ce sont des affrontements entre mouvements et entre groupes armés", a observé M. Zahabi.

    Le ministre s'est entretenu avec le chef de la diplomatie algérienne, Ramtane Lamamra, dont le pays a conduit la médiation qui a abouti au processus de paix.

    "Chaque processus (de paix) est émaillé d'embûches. De ce fait, nous essayons de relativiser tout cela de manière à ce que les partisans de la paix, qui sont majoritaires, fassent triompher la raison", a ajouté M. Zahabi.

    Le ministre malien a lancé un appel pour que "tout le monde soit présent le 15 mai et qu'il y ait un cessez-le-feu définitif sur l'ensemble du territoire malien".

    Il a affirmé que "la majorité des acteurs ont répondu par la positive quant à leur présence au rendez-vous du 15 mai", précisant à ce propos que les "messages" lui parvenant de la Coordination des mouvements de l'Azawad (CMA) le laissent "optimiste" quant à sa présence à la cérémonie de signature.

    La rébellion a récemment donné son accord pour parapher l'accord de paix, près de deux mois après sa signature le 1er mars par Bamako et ses alliés.

    amb/ao/cco

    © 1994-2015 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Syrian Arab Republic

    HIGHLIGHTS

    679 Persons who have approached UNHCR Office to apply for asylum in 2015

    987 Persons of concern who have been auditioned and/or regularised by the ad hoc Commission on Regularisation

    141 Vulnerable households benefitting from regular cash assistance since January 2015

    160 Refugees having benefitted from a vocational training or support to develop an income generating activity in 2014


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Chad, Niger

    (New York, 5 May 2015): OCHA Operations Director John Ging said today that Niger and Chad are making heroic efforts to cope with the impact of turmoil in the region but the international community is failing in its responsibility to share the burden.

    Speaking after his return from the two countries, Mr. Ging noted that between them, they host more than 850,000 refugees and returnees from neighbouring countries, the majority of whom are living with host families.

    “These two countries constitute a fragile island of stability in a region of conflict. Impoverished as they are they show us their exemplary humanity in opening their borders to hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing their war-torn neighbours: Nigeria, Central African Republic, Mali, Libya and Sudan,” said Mr. Ging.

    “While these two countries languish at the very bottom of the Human Development Index, they lead the world in their generosity and in their humanity,” said Mr. Ging. “I witnessed people in some of the world’s poorest communities open their homes and share the very little they have with those in need. It is truly humbling, and an inspiring example in a world where humanity is in short supply.”

    Beset by multiple, overlapping crises driven by a harsh and worsening climate, acute poverty and minimal infrastructure, Niger and Chad now face large-scale population inflows, cross-border attacks and the economic impact of closed borders.

    “Of the many countries I have visited over the past year, Niger and Chad offer the clearest examples showing that urgent action is required to meet basic needs and shore up stability to prevent these fragile countries from tipping into crisis,” said Mr. Ging.

    Niger is ranked last on the UN’s Human Development Index, while Chad falls fourth from last. 2.4 million people in Chad and 2.6 million in Niger are food insecure. Niger’s population, with two thirds of its citizens aged under 25, is one of the fastest-growing in the world, and the population is set to double every 18 years, expected to reach 200 million in 2050 from 18 million currently.

    “While it is critical that lifesaving assistance continues for those in desperate need, what is also needed is to support these countries in building a more hopeful future for their people, investing in education, job creation and public infrastructure,” said OCHA’s Operations Director. “This is important not only for the people of Niger and Chad, but for the long term stability of this troubled region.”

    Both countries’ humanitarian appeals are woefully underfunded, at 17 per cent for Chad and 25 per cent for Niger, and contributions are declining both in absolute terms and as a proportion of need year-on-year.

    “It is shameful that we, as the international community, are not doing more to shoulder our part of this responsibility,” said Mr. Ging. “In a world in crisis, it is imperative that we do not allow these two countries to be forgotten. Both for the sake of their generous, resilient but suffering people, and for the stability of the region, it is imperative that we do more, and that we do it urgently.”

    For further information, please call:
    Michelle Delaney, OCHA New York, delaneym@un.org, Tel + 1 917 367 4568, Cell +1 917226 6308


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    Since the beginning of the year, OCHA has recorded significant access constraints (31 compared to 22 for the whole of last year). From February to April, all reported access constraints were linked to violence against humanitarian personnel, assets or facilities (50%) or to the conduct of hostilities or military operations (50%). The reporting period was marked by the deadly attack against ICRC in March in Gao region and the sudden outbreak of violence in Gao and Timbuktu regions after fighting erupted anew in Menaka on 27 April. Meanwhile, insecurity continued to prevail in Tenenkou and Youwarou areas, hampering humanitarian access and the delivery of humanitarian assistance. As a consequence, over the past three months, at least fourteen humanitarian organizations have had to temporarily suspend their activities and/or relocate part or all of their staff. Finally, it has to be noted that Kidal airstrip has not yet been repaired. Humanitarian air services are de facto interrupted in the region.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    Depuis le début de l'année, OCHA a enregistré d’importantes contraintes d’accès (31 contre 22 pour toute l'année 2014). De février à avril, toutes les contraintes d'accès signalés étaient liées aux violences contre le personnel humanitaire, leurs biens ou leurs infrastructures (50%) ou à la conduite des hostilité s ou des opérations militaires (50%). La période considérée a été marquée par l’attaque meurtrière contre le CICR en mars dans la région de Gao et par la soudaine flambée de violence dans les régions de Gao et Tombouctou faisant suite aux combats qui ont éclaté à Ménaka le 27 avril dernier. Pendant ce temps, l'insécurité a continué à prévaloir dans les zones de Tenenkou et Youwarou entravant l'accès humanitaire et l'acheminement de l'aide. En conséquence, au cours des trois derniers mois, au moins quatorze organisations humanitaires ont dû suspendre temporairement leurs activités et / ou relocaliser une partie ou la totalité de leur personnel. Enfin, il est à noter que la pi ste d'atterrissage de Kidal n'a toujours pas été réparée. Les services aériens humanitaires sont donc de facto interrompus dans la région.


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