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    Source: World Vision
    Country: Niger

    In 2012, World Vision Niger Livelihood and Food Security program started a four-year project on the transformation of moringa. As part of the project the team in Tahoua organized a training of trainers (TOT) in 2014 on the various techniques of processing moringa leaves and seeds for 20 women.

    Moringa leaves are part of local diet in Niger. The main objective of the training is to teach women how to diversify it use and sell it to sustain their families. From 2012 to 2013, the women were trained on how to plant moringa trees. By last year, the trees were matured and had produced good leaves, so the team was able to start moringa transformation sessions.

    The women who participate in the training were either proposed by the community women’s group or are interested and willing to learn. The 20 women trained are expected to train their peers. Ramatou Saidou was one of the lucky women that got trained. After participating in moringa transformation training organized by World Vision Niger in 2014, Ramatou’s life has changed.

    “My name is Ramatou Saidou, am 42 years old mother of six children and I live in Tchinkaki village (11km away from the town of Tahoua). Before the training I use to prepare moringa with peanut paste, tomato and onion to give to the children. This is the common way we eat moringa. At the time I could never imagine that moringa can be use in so many different ways,” she says. “But today, thanks to this training I support my family without even waiting for my husband to send money. This activity is a blessing to me because I can earn between a 1000 to 1500 cfa (2.00 to 3.00 US dollars) per day through the sale of moringa biscuit and powder but when I sell the oil, I can earn up to 90.000cfa (165.00 US dollars). I also learn that moringa is a remedy that can cure diseases such as diabetes and ulcer. Mothers with malnourished children come often to buy moringa powder.”

    Ramatou explains how to prepare moringa biscuit and oil.

    “To prepare the biscuit, you need to have 250g moringa powder 1kg of wheat flour, 100g sugar, 100g butter. Mixing the ingredients and dividing the dough into small balls. Use your hands to flatten them and fried them. My children really love the biscuit.

    “To prepare the moringa oil, first you dissect the seeds, after you pound and sift them to get a flour. When you have the flour you continue to pound it, but this time you will add a small quantity of hot water and till you get oil.

    “I hope my instructions can help other women to transform moringa leaves and seeds for the benefit of their families,” Ramatou says smiling.

    Given the fact the Niger is a country known to be influenced by natural disasters such as flood and food insecurity, World Vision made a strategic decision to focus on resilience in 2013. Today the food security and resilience programme continues to improve the life of rural communities through its intervention by first acting on the root causes of food insecurity. All the activities are undertaken through a dynamic team of development facilitators which are focusing on improving food production and helping communities to have access to food and be able to utilise it throughout the year. This year World Vision is planning to train more women like Ramatou.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Chad, Nigeria

    DERNIERS DEVELOPPEMENTS

    Le 24 Mars 2015, l’Ambassadeur du Nigeria a procédé à la cérémonie de remise des dons humanitaires destinés aux réfugiés Nigérians au Tchad. Comme l’a rappelé le Secrétaire Général de la Nigeria Emer-gency Management Assistance (NEMA) et l’Ambassadeur du Nigeria, ce geste s’inscrit dans le cadre de la solidarité que le gouvernement et le peuple Nigérian éprouvent envers leurs compatriotes en exil. L’Ambassadeur a remercié le gouvernement Tchadien et les humani-taires pour la protection des réfugiés dans la Région du Lac et plus particulièrement d’avoir réussi à relocalisé les réfugiés de Ngouboua dans des zones sécurisées de Bagasola avant et après les attaques de Boko Haram. Le Représentant du HCR a ajouté que ce geste de solida-rité servait aussi à alléger le fardeau du pays d’accueil et toutes les organisations impliquées dans l’assistance humanitaire. Région du Lac: Le 20 mars 2015, le Gouverneur de la Région du Lac a procédé au lancement de la Campagne Nationale de Vaccination contre la Poliomyélite, sur le site de Dar Es Salam. D’après les données partielles, 768 enfants de 0 à59 mois ont été vaccinés sur le site de Dar Es Salam. Après la cérémonie, le Gouverneur a rencontré les humani-taires, les autorités locales et les commerçants de la ville de Bagasola pour les rassurer sur l’amélioration progressive de la sécurité dans la région y compris le renforcement des forces de défense et de la levée des mesures de restriction (circulation des motocyclettes et de la vente du carburant) dans les localités de Bagasola, Liwa et Daboua dans la

    Région du Lac. Néanmoins ces restrictions demeurent en vigueur dans les localités de Tchoukoutalia et de Ngouboua; de même que l’interdiction de circuler sur le lac. Il a enfin demandé aux forces de défense de prendre des mesures afin d’assurer la sécurité des agents chargés de ravitailler en carburant les antennes téléphoniques et les agents de vaccination.

    Protection de l’enfance: Aucun nouveau cas d’enfants séparés (ES) ou non accompagnées (ENA) n’a été détecté chez les nouveaux arrivants. 126 ES/ENA antérieurement identifiés sont intégrés dans les familles d’accueil du site de Dar Es Salam.

    768 enfants (442 garçons et 326 filles) fréquentent l’Espace Amis des Enfants du site de Dar Es Salam ; et 678 parmi eux ont reçu des vête-ments de la part de l’UNICEF (480 filles et 198 garçons).

    Retournés et déplacés internes: Après l’enregistrement des 2,670 déplacés internes (PDI) et 76 retournés Tchadiens de Bagasola, Le HCR, la CNARR et IOM ont pris des mesures pour un profilage conjoints HCR/CNARR/OIM afin d’ identifier les PDIs et les retournés dans princi-palement 6 localités du Lac; Tchoukoutalia, Tetewa, Ngouboua, Kaga-lom, Tchoua, Kenesserom, Forkolom et Liwa. Au 24 mars 2015, on compte 4,617 réfugiés enregistrés dans le site de Dar Es Salam et environ 18,131 dans la Région du Lac.


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    Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
    Country: Nigeria

    As a result of the fighting between Boko Haram and the Nigerian Army at the end of March, around 6,000 people were forced to flee their homes. They arrived in Maiduguri, Borno State’s capital. The authorities have opened a new camp, but there are currently no latrines, no water on site and insufficient shelter. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been working since 2013 in the Borno State. Our team assessed the needs and initiates emergency activities in this camp.

    The authorities have opened a new camp to accommodate the displaced in a large compound previously used as a training centre (“Federal Training Centre”: FTC), in Dalori, a suburb of Maiduguri.

    The number of displaced people residing in this large camp is estimated at 6,000, and they are mainly women, children and the elderly. More are on their way.

    The first displaced people arrived on 21 March, and the population influx skyrocketed the following weekend. MSF has been working in the Borno State since 2013, and evaluated the camp situation on 23 March.

    The Ministry of Health set up a six-bed clinic in the FTC camp, and medical staffs from Bama have started working there. The patients have been suffering predominantly from malaria, gastroenteritis, malnutrition, diarrhoea and vomiting.

    In FTC camp, 10% only of the IDP population is under a roof, but in the dilapidated buildings of the previous FTC abandoned since 4 years; and the majority are being forced to sleep under trees. The National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) of Nigeria is to provide tents. A collective kitchen is being built in the camp, but for now those people with relatives outside the camp rely on them for food. Lack of sanitary facilities remains the major problem and people have to defecate in the open as there are no latrines. There is no water supply, and authorities have launched two boreholes diggings.

    Ministry of Health asked MSF to provide support. MSF, in collaboration with NEMA, has started deliveries. Up to 15 000 litres of clean water is being water is being trucked and this will continue until the two boreholes currently being dug are ready. More water and sanitation activities will be launched in the FTC camp, as well as in the other Borno camps.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    Lieu d’origine

    • Majorité de Borno et Yobe (villages Pulka, Wije, Bokko, Atagra, Maiduguri, Madagali, Banki, Bama, Djibrilli, Goshe, Gwoza, Kohum, Tchinene, Zamga, Agandjara, Arboko, Atagara, Ngoshe) et quelques-uns de Adamawa.

    Évènements clés

    • Jusqu’en août 2014, la population du camp de Minawao était autours de 6 068 refugies ; après la détérioration de la situation sécuritaire, les relocalisations des refugies près de la frontière, notamment des villages autour de Fotokol et de Kolofata commencent sous escortes militaires mis en place par le Gouvernement et le HCR.

    • En trois semaines, plus de 16,000 personnes arrivent au camp de Minawao.

    • De novembre 2014 à Janvier 2015 : Intensification des combats entre l'armée nigériane et Boko Haram sur le territoire nigérian ayant provoqué des nouveaux afflux de réfugiés. 31,222 ont été accueillis dans le camp de Minawao.

    • Dimanche, 1 Mars 2015, le HCR reçoit des informations de la part du Gouvernement qu’environ 24,000 refugies sont dispersés dans les villages autour de Makaria, Fotokol et Logone Birni. UNHCR dispatch une équipe, envoie des convois et re-ouvre un centre de transit a Kousseri pour accueillir les refugies avant qu’ils sont transportés au camp de Minawao. Cependant, une fois arrives au centre de transit, les 718 refugies désistent.

    • Apres les sensibilisations de la part de HCR et un screening sécuritaire par le Gouvernement 166 sont d’accord pour le transport au camp de Minawao.

    • 406 refugies restent actuellement au centre de transit. 176 refugies ont quitté le centre de transit sur leur initiative personnelle.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    Stressed levels of food insecurity in the North due to shortfalls in production and income

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Markets are well stocked with cereal crops owing to the good levels of overall crop production in all parts of the country for 2014. In general, millet prices are on par with or six to 24 percent belowaverage, giving households fairly good food access for this time of year.

    • The earlier than usual lean season currently underway in pastoral areas and the associated higher than usual animal mortality risk between April and May are triggering atypical herd movements, which are reducing milk production and prices for livestock. The resulting drop in income will limit the market access of poor agropastoral households, which will be facing Stressed (IPC Phase 2) levels of food insecurity as of April.

    • The longer than usual market dependence of poor households in agropastoral areas of Gao and Timbuktu is causing them to scale up their casual labor and borrowing, and cut back their nonfood spending in order to meet their food needs. As a result, they will face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) levels of food insecurity as of April and are likely to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) by July.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger

    Good household food stocks slow market demand and lead to declining prices

    KEY MESSAGES

    • Unlike the case in previous years, cereal access through market purchase still accounted for only a small share of household food needs in March 2015 owing to the continued availability of household cereal stocks. This is reflected in the low market demand and sustained downward trend in cereal prices.

    • Most households were able to meet their food needs in March 2015, except in certain localized areas of the Tillabéri, Tahoua, and Zinder regions where they do not have the financial means to cover essential expenses. Households in the Diffa region are facing food deficits as a result of the ongoing conflict, which is disrupting deliveries of humanitarian assistance to that area.

    • There will be growing numbers of food-insecure areas between April and June with the deterioration in conditions in certain other parts of the Zinder region, expanding the size of the area subject to Stressed (IPC Phase 2) levels of food insecurity. There will be an escalation in food insecurity levels in the Diffa region, producing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) conditions in pastoral areas and localized farming and agropastoral areas.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Millet, rice, and sorghum constitute the basic staple foods for the majority of the Malian population. Millet has traditionally been the most widely consumed, but since 2005 rice has become a popular substitute in urban households. Sorghum is generally more important for rural than urban households. Markets included are indicative of local conditions within their respective regions. Ségou is one of the most important markets for both the country and region because it is located in a very large grain production area. Bamako, the capital and largest urban center in the country, functions as an assembly market. It receives cereals from Koulikoro, Ségou, and Sikasso for consumption and also acts as an assembly market for trade with the northern regions of the country (Kayes and Koulikoro) and Mauritania. Markets in the deficit areas of the country (Timbuktu and Gao) receive their supplies of millet and rice from Mopti, Ségou and Sikasso.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Sorghum, millet, white maize, and local and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is most heavily consumed in the eastern and northern regions of the country. Local rice is another basic food commodity, especially for poorer households. Imported rice and white maize are most commonly consumed in and around the capital. The Marché d'Atrone in N’Djamena, the capital city, is the largest market for cereals. Moundou is an important consumer center for sorghum and the second largest market after the capital. The Abéché market is located in a northern production area. The Sarh market is both a local retail market and a cross-border market.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understanding market behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger,
    Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors trends in staple food prices in countries vulnerable to food insecurity. For each FEWS NET country and region, the Price Bulletin provides a set of charts showing monthly prices in the current marketing year in selected urban centers and allowing users to compare current trends with both five-year average prices, indicative of seasonal trends, and prices in the previous year.

    Millet, maize, and sorghum are the most important food commodities for household consumption. Millet is the staple of the most vulnerable households, while maize and sorghum also contribute to the food basket of a majority of all households. Sankaryare market is the largest and most important market in Ouagadougou and supplies other markets within the country and region. Koudougou is located in one of the most populated areas in the country, where a majority of households depend on the market for their food needs. Djibo is in the highly vulnerable Sahelian zone. Pouytenga is an assembly market for products from Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Togo. Solenzo is a rural market located in the middle of a surplus production zone. Bobo Dioulasso is important center for both consumption and production – it functions as both the economic capital of Burkina Faso and is located in an important cereal production zone.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Nigeria

    Conflict prolongs Crisis (IPC Phase 3) in the northeast

    Key Messages

    • Frequent skirmishes between Boko Haram and the Multinational Joint Task Force have resulted in numerous casualties and continued population displacements in northeast Nigeria. Conflict is preventing households from pursuing their typical livelihoods and interrupts market functioning. As food availability and access remains restricted, much of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa will continue to experience at least Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity through to the main harvest in October 2015.

    • Outside of the northeast, most households are engaged in typical off-seasonal activities. They benefit from typical income earning opportunities, good off season harvests and favorable market prices. Consequently, these areas will remain in Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity through at least June 2015.

    • The Federal Department of Veterinary Services has reported the further spread of the avian influenza outbreak in 18 states across the country. Birds have been depopulated in 75 local governments across the 18 states affected by the virus.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mauritania

    Le riz local et le sorgho sont les produits alimentaires les plus consommés par les ménages pauvres de la Mauritanie suivis par le blé importé qui est l'aliment de substitution auquel ces ménages recourent le plus. Le riz local est cultivé dans la vallée du fleuve (dans le sud des régions du Trarza, du Brakna, du Gorgol et du Guidimakha). Le sorgho est produit dans toutes les zones de production (sorgho pluvial) et dans les walo et barrages (sorgho de décrue). Toutefois, une importante partie est importée du Mali et du Sénégal. La Mauritanie vit beaucoup plus de ses importations (70 % en bonne année agricole et jusqu'à 85 % en mauvaise année) que de sa production interne. Nouakchott est le principal marché de collecte pour les produits venant de l'extérieur et également le marché de distribution où viennent s'approvisionner les animateurs des marchés de distribution secondaire que sont les autres marchés référenciés. L'huile de cuisson est essentiellement consommée dans les zones urbaines.
    La vente des animaux est une mode d’existence dans toutes les zones et une importante source de revenus et de nourriture.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Mali

    33,000 families to benefit from new agricultural production rehabilitation programme - World Bank supporting activities

    1 April 2015, Bamako/Rome - The government of Mali and FAO have launched the implementation phase of a $5 million project aimed at restoring the livelihoods of households affected by the armed conflicts and climate change in the northern part of the country.

    The move was announced by Mali's Minister for Rural Development, Bokary Treta, and FAO-Director-General José Graziano da Silva during an official visit here.

    Agriculture in parts of Mali, particularly the north, has been seriously affected in recent years by civil strife and related impacts such as labor shortages due to population displacements, lack of agricultural support services and fragmentation of markets. Although last season's rains have been good, in recent years erratic weather, dry spells, and flooding have exacerbated these problems.

    This new project will seek to immediately restore production assets to families in the Goa, Mopti and Timbuktu regions. Activities will focus on assisting 25,000 households to restart food and horticultural production and providing 8,000 pastoralist families with feed and veterinary products for their cattle. Beneficiaries will also receive training in farming and nutritional good practices, with emphasis on the needs of women's groups engaged in horticulture.

    "This work represents a contribution to Mali's peace process, because without security there cannot be food security and where there's food insecurity, conflicts often erupt," said FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva.

    "Our goal is to feed 16 million Malians," added Minister Treta. "FAO has always stood with Mali -- in hard times as well as now, when we are seeing real progress in reducing the numbers of the hungry," he said.

    This project is part of a $100 million -World Bank Economic Recovery and Reconstruction Programme in Mali. FAO is implementing the agricultural component in the north of the country at the request of the government of Mali.

    "The partnership between the World Bank and FAO is win-win, because it allows for FAO's technical know-how to be deployed to support the investments that Mali so very much needs," Graziano da Silva noted.

    Strategic framework for the Sahel

    FAO is working with Mali and other countries in Africa's Sahel region to build the resilience of rural livelihoods and local food and nutrition security systems. FAO is working to combine humanitarian assistance and development actions in order to help the countries deal with threats and disasters that affect agriculture, food security and nutrition in a proactive and efficient way.

    In 2015, under the United Nations Strategic Response Plan for the Sahel region, FAO launched an appeal for $116 million in support of 5.4 million people. The FAO's $ 15.4 million strategic response plan for Mali aims at improving the living conditions of about 400,000 people facing food insecurity and to ensure a sustainable return of the displaced persons and refugees in the best possible conditions, while supporting host communities.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Mali

    33 000 familles bénéficieront de la relance de la production agricole

    1er avril 2015, Bamako – Le Gouvernement du Mali et la FAO ont lancé aujourd'hui la mise en œuvre des activités d'un projet de 5 millions d'USD pour la restauration des moyens d'existence des ménages vulnérables affectés par les récents conflits armés et les changements climatiques dans cette partie du pays.

    L'annonce en a été faite par le Ministre malien du développement rural, M. Bokary Treta, et le Directeur général de la FAO, José Graziano da Silva, en visite officielle au Mali.

    L'agriculture dans certaines régions du Mali, en particulier le nord, a été sérieusement affectée ces dernières années par la guerre civile et les impacts connexes tels que les pénuries de main-d'œuvre en raison de déplacements de population, le manque de services de soutien à l'agriculture et la fragmentation des marchés. Les pluies irrégulières, les périodes de sécheresse et les inondations ont exacerbé ces problèmes au cours des dernières années.

    Ce nouveau projet s'attèlera à la restauration immédiate des biens de production des familles dans les régions de Gao, Mopti et Tombouctou dans le Nord du Mali.

    Les activités du projet permettront de relancer la production vivrière et maraichère de 25 000 ménages vulnérables et d'appuyer 8 000 familles d'éleveurs vulnérables par des aliments et des produits vétérinaires pour leur bétail. En outre, le projet offrira une opportunité de formation sur les bonnes pratiques agricoles et nutritionnelles aux ménages bénéficiaires et il portera une attention particulière aux besoins des groupements féminins engagés dans la production maraîchère.

    «La mise en œuvre de ce projet est notre contribution au processus de paix car sans sécurité on ne peut avoir de sécurité alimentaire, et là où il y a insécurité alimentaire, les conflits éclatent», a déclaré José Graziano da Silva.

    «Notre objectif est de nourrir 16 millions de Maliens», a ajouté le Ministre Treta. «La FAO a toujours été à nos côtés pendant les périodes difficiles, jusqu'à l'obtention de ces bons résultats de réduction du nombre de personnes qui ont faim».

    Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre du Programme de relance et de reconstruction économique de la Banque mondiale au Mali s'élevant à 100 millions d'USD. A la demande du Gouvernement du Mali, la FAO sera en charge de la mise en œuvre de la composante agricole dans le nord du pays.

    «Le partenariat entre la Banque mondiale et la FAO est gagnant-gagnant; cela permet de mettre le savoir technique de la FAO au service des investissements tant requis dans le pays», a souligné le Directeur général de la FAO.

    Cadre stratégique pour le Sahel

    La FAO travaille au Mali et dans les pays du Sahel au renforcement de la résilience des moyens d'existence ruraux et des systèmes de sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle. La FAO met en œuvre de manière combinée l'assistance humanitaire et des actions de développement afin d'aider les pays à prévenir et à faire face de façon plus dynamique et plus efficace aux menaces et aux catastrophes qui affectent l'agriculture, la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition.

    En 2015, dans le cadre du Plan de réponse stratégique des Nations Unies pour le Sahel, la FAO a lancé un appel de 116 millions d'USD en faveur de 5,4 millions de personnes. Le plan de réponse stratégique de la FAO pour le Mali – qui s'élève à 15,4 millions d'USD – vise à améliorer les conditions de vie de près de 400 000 personnes en insécurité alimentaire et à assurer un retour durable des populations déplacées et réfugiées dans des conditions optimales tout en soutenant les communautés qui les accueillent.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Senegal

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    Au Sénégal, le riz, le mil, le sorgho et le maïs constituent la base de l’alimentation des ménages. L’arachide représente aussi bien une source importante de protéine et communément une culture de rente. Le riz importé est consommé quotidiennement par la grande majorité des ménages, particulièrement dans les centres urbains de Dakar et Touba. Le riz produit localement dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal y est consommé. St. Louis est le principal marché dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Le mil est consommé dans les régions centrales où Kaolack représente le marché régional le plus important. Le maïs est produit et consommé dans les zones autour de Kaolack,
    Tambacounda et dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Du maïs est aussi importé, principalement du marché international. Il existe une forte demande pour tous les produits à Touba et à Dakar. La récolte des céréales et celle de l’arachide débutent en Octobre et les stocks de céréales locales baissent de niveau tout au long de l’année de commercialisation qui s’achève en Octobre.
    Le Sénégal dépend plus des importations à partir du marché international, surtout le riz, que du commerce transfrontalier qui concerne essentiellement le bétail provenant du Mali et de la Mauritanie pour approvisionner Dakar et les marchés environnants.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Niger

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    Le mil, le maïs, le niébé et le riz importé sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants consommés au Niger. Le mil est consommé aussi bien par les ménages ruraux que les ménages pauvres urbains dans l’ensemble du pays. Le maïs et le riz importé sont plus importants pour les ménages urbains, tandis que le niébé est principalement consommé par les ménages pauvres des régions rurales et urbaines en tant que source de protéine.

    Niamey est le marché national le plus important et un centre du commerce international ; elle approvisionne en outre les ménages urbains. Tillaberi est aussi un centre urbain approvisionnant les localités environnantes. Le marché de Gaya est le principal marché urbain pour le maïs avec des liens transfrontaliers. Maradi, Tounfafi et Diffa sont des marchés de regroupement régionaux et des marchés transfrontaliers pour le Niger et d’autres pays de la région. C'est dans ces marchés que vont régulièrement acheter leur nourriture les ménages et les éleveurs des régions déficitaires en céréales du nord. Agadez et Zinder sont également d’importants marchés nationaux et régionaux. Nguigmi et Abalak se trouvent dans des zones pastorales, où la population dépend largement des marchés céréaliers pour leur approvisionnement alimentaire. Ces deux marchés sont particulièrement importants pendant la saison des pluies, lorsque les éleveurs sont confinés dans la zone pastorale.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux

    Le mil, le riz et le sorgho constituent les aliments de base de la majorité de la population malienne. Le mil est l'aliment le plus consommé traditionnellement, mais depuis 2005 le riz est devenu un substitut populaire chez les ménages urbains. Le sorgho est généralement plus important pour les ménages ruraux que pour les ménages urbains. Les marchés inclus sont révélateurs des conditions locales dans leurs régions respectives. Ségou est l’un des marchés les plus importants tant pour le pays que pour la région, dans la mesure où il se trouve dans une très vaste zone de production de céréales.
    Bamako, la capitale et le centre urbain le plus étendu du pays, fonctionne comme un marché de regroupement. Elle reçoit des céréales de Koulikoro, Ségou et Sikasso destinées à la consommation et fait également office de marché de regroupement pour les échanges avec les régions nord du pays (Kayes et Koulikoro) et avec la Mauritanie. Les marchés des régions déficitaires du pays (Tombouctou et Gao) reçoivent leurs approvisionnements en mil et en riz de Mopti, Ségou et Sikasso.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    Le sorgho, le mil, le maïs blanc et le riz local et d’importation sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants. La consommation de mil est la plus forte dans les régions est et nord du pays. Le riz local est un autre produit alimentaire de base, en particulier pour les ménages plus pauvres. Le riz importé et le maïs blanc sont le plus couramment consommés dans la capitale et ses environs. Le marché d'Atrone à N’Djamena, la capitale, est le marché le plus important pour les céréales. Moundou est un important centre de consommation pour le sorgho et le deuxième marché en importance après la capitale. Le marché d’Abéché est situé dans une zone de production au nord. Le marché de Sarh est à la fois un marché de détail local et un marché transfrontalier.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    Le Réseau de systèmes d’alerte précoce contre la famine (FEWS NET) surveille les tendances des prix des aliments de base dans les pays vulnérables à l'insécurité alimentaire. Pour chaque pays et chaque région couvert par FEWS NET, le Bulletin des prix fournit un ensemble de graphiques indiquant les prix mensuels de l’année commerciale en cours pour certains centres urbains, et permettant à l’utilisateur de comparer les tendances actuelles à la fois aux moyennes quinquennales, qui indiquent les tendances saisonnières, et aux prix de l'année précédente.

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3)
    Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.
    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2)
    Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.


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    Source: UN Human Rights Council
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia

    MORNING

    1 April 2015

    Speakers Pay Tribute to Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari of Somalia, Killed in a Terrorist Attack in Mogadishu

    The Human Rights Council today opened its twenty-third Special Session in light of terrorist attacks and human rights abuses and violations committed by the terrorist group Boko Haram.

    The Special Session was convened at the request of the African Group and called for by 21 Members States of the Council and eight Observer States, said Ambassador Joachim Rücker, President of the Human Rights Council.

    At the beginning of the meeting, the Council held a minute of silence in honour of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari, Permanent Representative of Somalia to the United Nations Office at Geneva, who was a victim of a deadly terrorist attack in Mogadishu, Somalia on Friday, 27 March.

    In his opening statement, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, took a moment to honour Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari, a strong defender of human rights who had cared deeply about violence against women and the protection of people with albinism.

    High Commissioner Zeid said that the appalling atrocities committed by the Boko Haram insurgency had created a critical human rights situation in northern Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. Since 2009, at least 15,000 individuals had been killed, women and girls had been subjected to horrific abuse, including sexual enslavement and abduction of hundreds of schoolgirls; more than a million people had been displaced in Nigeria, and at least 168,000 had fled to neighbouring countries. The authorities and international community should step up their efforts to respond adequately to the needs of victims, while the responses to massive violations of human rights had to be strong, coordinated and principled, and must uphold the values of democracy and human rights. The High Commissioner called for thorough and transparent investigations into credible reports of serious human rights violations by the security forces of Nigeria and other countries in their responses to Boko Haram.

    Mireille Fanon Mendes France, Member of the Coordination Committee of Special Procedures, in a keynote address, extended sincere condolences to the people of Somalia for the loss of Ambassador Bari-Bari and all other victims of terrorist attacks.

    The Coordination Committee expressed deepest concern at the human rights and humanitarian crisis caused by continuing violence and appalling atrocities of Boko Haram in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria, and expressed support for efforts by States to combat terrorist acts. All measures taken should be conducted in full conformity with international law, because the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms was not incompatible with security. The Coordination Committee reminded delegations of certain absolute and non-derrogable rights, including the right to life, freedom from torture, and the principle of legal certainty and non-retroactivity in the application of the criminal law. The Special Procedures were ready to continue assisting States, which should use their advice and expertise in designing appropriate responses to the challenges posed by Boko Haram.

    In a keynote statement, Pierre Buyoya, High Representative of the African Union for Mali and the Sahel, expressed sadness due to the loss of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari, and conveyed condolences to his family and the people of Somalia.

    Mr. Buyoya said the terrorist threat in Africa had augmented during the previous decade and variants of transnational organized crime had become closely linked with the activities and funding of terrorist groups. The principal terrorist groups operating in Africa today were Al-Qaeda in northern Africa, Boko Haram and Ansaru in western and northern Africa, Al-Shabab in eastern Africa, and the Lord’s Resistance Army in eastern Africa and the Great Lakes region in central Africa. Recently, a group called Ansar Al-Charia appeared in some countries of northern Africa. In order to coordinate their efforts to combat Boko Haram, the countries of the Lake Chad Basin had decided to form a combined multinational force, said Mr. Buyoya, stressing the crucial importance of financial, technical and logistical aid of the United Nations.

    Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria spoke as concerned countries.

    Pierre Moukoko Mbonjo, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Cameroon, said that it was abundantly clear that Boko Haram had committed massive human rights violations in Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad. Despite those horrible crimes, Cameroon was firmly committed to respecting international humanitarian law and international human rights law. The only incident had occurred recently, whereby 75 Boko Haram militants had been killed in one of the prisons; this incident was being investigated and those responsible would be prosecuted.

    Mahamat Issa Halikimi, Minister of Justice and Human Rights of Chad, noted that Boko Haram had become a relentless enemy that aimed to destabilize the countries of western and central Africa. It prospered on the fertile ground of poverty and inaction of local authorities, and it was becoming more organized and professional. African countries had to strengthen their voice in the global fight against terrorism, and this required better coordination among African Governments. Chad remained convinced that the involvement of civil society could improve the security of States.

    Danjuma Nanpon Sheni, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria, said that the high level of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment had contributed to the rise of Boko Haram, and underlined that this threat could not be addressed by a single country, but by a coordinated effort of affected countries. Support was also needed to address the plight of 1.5 million internally displaced persons and 650,000 refugees. The international community should be concerned about the networks that Boko Haram had created with other international armed groups, such as with Al-Shabab and the Islamic State.

    Speakers in the discussion strongly condemned the continued atrocities committed by Boko Haram which had led to extreme human suffering, including targeted killings and attacks on civilians, abductions, and sexual and gender-based violence. The transnational and evolving character of Boko Haram posed a threat to regional peace and security, speakers said and welcomed the establishment of the Multinational Joint Task Force and the regional efforts from Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon to contain and fight back the attacks by Boko Haram on civilians. Military operations alone were not sufficient to affectively address the problem or defeat Boko Haram; it was critical to address the root causes of this terrorism, remove sources of funding of this militant group, and bring to justice anyone who sought to support their terrorist activities. Counter-terrorism measures and activities must respect the provisions of international humanitarian law and international human rights law, while the Governments of affected countries should ensure that all alleged crimes were investigated and perpetrators brought to justice.

    Speaking in the discussion were Latvia on behalf of the European Union, Denmark in a Nordic statement, Morocco on behalf of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, Algeria on behalf of the African Group, Ethiopia on behalf of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, Tunisia on behalf of the Arab Group, Zimbabwe on behalf of the Southern African Sub-region, Netherlands, United States, Estonia, Morocco, Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Argentina, Russia, Germany, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Montenegro, China, Republic of Korea, and Saudi Arabia.

    At the beginning of the meeting, the Council held a minute of silence in honour of Ambassador Bari-Bari, who lost his life in a terrorist attack in Mogadishu, Somalia, on Friday, 27 March.

    Delegations expressed shock and deep sadness at the death of Ambassador Bari-Bari in a cowardly terrorist attack by Al-Shabaab in Mogadishu, and praised the late Ambassador for his passion for many human rights issues, and his commitment to the protection of human rights and the rebuilding of Somalia. This attack was a reminder of the role of the Human Rights Council in the fight against terrorism.

    Taking the floor to pay tribute to Ambassador Bari-Bari were the United States, the European Union, Guatemala on behalf of the Latin American and Caribbean Group, Algeria on behalf of the African Group, Sierra Leone, and Ethiopia.

    The Council will resume the discussion at 2 p.m. today, 1 April, before taking action on a draft resolution on terrorist attacks and human rights abuses and violations committed by the terrorist group Boko Haram.

    Tribute to Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari

    Tunisia, speaking on behalf of the Arab Group, asked that a minute of silence be observed due to the assassination of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari, Permanent Representative of Somalia to the United Nations Office at Geneva.

    United States expressed shock and sadness at the murder of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari by Al-Shabab terrorists. He had played an important role on numerous issues at the Council, and was praised for his commitment to the protection of human rights.

    European Union joined colleagues in expressing deepest condolences to the family of Ambassador Bari-Bari and the people of Somalia. He had been an exemplary friend and colleague. His commitment to the protection of human rights and the rebuilding of Somalia had been unwavering.

    Guatemala, speaking on behalf of the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries, condemned any form of terrorism and the terrorist attack in Mogadishu on 27 March 2015 which killed Ambassador Bari-Bari, and expressed condolences to his family and the people of Somalia. Ambassador Bari-Bari’s links with Latin America and the Caribbean had been close and Guatemala supported Somalia in these moments of grief.

    Algeria, speaking on behalf of the African Group, said that all knew Ambassador Bari-Bari as a kind and very professional person and a real human rights defender. The African Group had lost a great friend and someone who had greatly contributed to how the Group operated. The African Group expressed condolences to Somalia and to the Ambassador’s family and friends.

    Sierra Leone said that the taking of the life of Ambassador Bari-Bari by a terrorist group was a reminder of the role of the Human Rights Council in the fight against terrorism. The Ambassador had been passionate about many human rights issues, including the rights of people with albinism.

    Ethiopia expressed deep sadness at the killing of a dear friend in a cowardly terrorist attack carried out by Al-Shabaab. The Ambassador had been a man of conviction, principle and commitment to human rights and his country, Somalia.

    Opening of the Twenty-Third Special Session of the Council

    JOACHIM RÜCKER, President of the Human Rights Council, opened the twenty-third Special Session of the Human Rights Council, “In light of terrorist attacks and human rights abuses and violations committed by the terrorist group Boko Haram”, by saying that the request for the Special Session had been received on 26 March. The request was supported by the following States Members of the Council: Algeria, Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Ethiopia, France, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Russian Federation, Sierra Leone, South Africa and Venezuela. The request was also supported by the following observer States: Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal and Togo.

    Opening Statement by the High Commissioner for Human Rights

    ZEID RA’AD AL HUSSEIN, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, took a moment to honour Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari, noting that he had been a strong defender of human rights, who had cared deeply about violence against women and the protection of people with albinism.

    The appalling atrocities committed by the Boko Haram insurgency had created a critical human rights situation in northern Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. Since 2009 when the Boko Haram group began massive violence, at least 15,000 individuals had been killed. Women and girls had been particularly targeted and subjected to horrific abuse, including sexual enslavement. Villages and towns had been looted and destroyed. Boko Haram had a specific animus against schools and had destroyed at least 300 schools, killed numerous students and abducted hundreds of schoolgirls. More than a million people were displaced in Nigeria, and at least 168,000 had fled to neighbouring countries. It was thus essential that the authorities and the international community step up their efforts to respond adequately to the needs of victims. Since the farms of northern Nigeria provided produce across the Sahel, the actions of Boko Haram had given rise to a sharp increase in prices of basic foods across the region.

    What was initially a localized crisis was fast growing to very disturbing regional dimensions. In Nigeria, Boko Haram had been operating across broad swathes of territory in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states. The current dry season had also intensified its incursions into neighbouring Cameroon, Chad and Niger, spreading bloodshed and desolation even more widely. In recent weeks, military offensives by Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger had led to the recapture of several towns in northeast Nigeria. This had brought to light gruesome scenes of mass graves and further evident signs of slaughter by Boko Haram. The High Commissioner’s Office had also received multiple reports that Boko Haram fighters who were retreating from the advance of the joint forces murdered their so-called “wives” – in fact, women and girls held in slavery – and other captives as Government troops advanced.

    High Commissioner Zeid said responses to massive violations of human rights had to be strong, coordinated and principled. It was vital that strategies to combat violent extremism upheld the values of democracy and human rights. Strategies that were not fully grounded in human rights norms would feed the grievances that often motivated extremist movements. Also, thorough and clear-sighted consideration of the possible root causes of conflict should be carried out, as deep-seated discrimination and sharp inequalities often underlined internal armed conflicts. It was noted that the perpetration of human rights violations was not limited only to Boko Haram. There were also persistent and credible reports of serious violations by the security forces of Nigeria and other countries in their response to Boko Haram activities. Those alleged violations by security forces had to be subject to thorough and fully transparent investigations by the relevant authorities. The growing ethnic and sectarian dimensions of the conflict were also worrying. Christian communities were targeted, but the majority of the victims of Boko Haram were Muslims. As Boko Haram’s original leader was from the Kanuri ethnic group, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights had received reports that Kanuris were now considered suspect by some military personnel, resulting in arbitrary arrests and abuse. Accordingly, there was a high risk of escalating ethnic and religious violence, which could only be stopped by principled leadership and clear instructions to military personnel, with appropriate accountability.

    The High Commissioner urged that wide-ranging and action-oriented dialogue regarding the right to development of the people of the region be held, including greater participation in decision making, improved services and broader economic, social and political opportunities.

    Keynote Statements

    MIREILLE FANON MENDES FRANCE, Member of the Coordination Committee of Special Procedures, extended sincere condolences to the people of Somalia for the loss of Ambassador Bari-Bari and all other victims of terrorist attack.

    The Coordination Committee of Special Procedures expressed deepest concern at the human rights and humanitarian crisis caused by continuing violence and appalling atrocities of Boko Haram in Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. It was extremely alarmed at the extent and nature of human rights abuses and the heavy price paid by civilians, and found the use of children as human shield particularly appalling. The Coordination Committee expressed support for efforts by States to combat terrorist acts and stressed that all measures taken should be conducted in full conformity with international law. When countering terrorism, the first duty of any State was to protect the lives of its citizens and all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction. The protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms was not incompatible with security and this had been the spirit of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy adopted in 2006.

    Certain rights were absolute and could not be derogated under any circumstances, including the right to life, freedom from torture, freedom from slavery or servitude, the principle of legal certainty and non-retroactivity in the application of the criminal law, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, and the freedom from return to a country where there was a risk of torture. Other non-derrogable rights were defined by the customary international law also considered. Yet, counter-terrorism measures often posed serious challenges to economic, social and cultural rights, which was particularly important as the promotion of those rights should be seen as a means of addressing conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism and hence of preventing acts of terrorism. Counter-terrorism policies or measures should also address the root causes and conditions that were conducive to the emergence and spread of terrorism, including poverty, marginalization, political oppression, and polarization of ethnic and religious characteristics. The Special Procedures were ready to continue assisting States and strongly encouraged them to make use of Special Procedures’ advice and expertise in designing appropriate responses to the challenges posed by Boko Haram.

    PIERRE BUYOYA, High Representative of the African Union for Mali and the Sahel, expressed sadness due to the loss of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari, and conveyed condolences to his family and the people of Somalia.

    The terrorist threat in Africa had augmented during the previous decade. Several variants of transnational organized crime had become closely linked with the activities and sources of funding of terrorist groups. Those were trafficking of drugs and arms, maritime piracy, ransoming of hostages, unlawful proliferation of arms, and money laundering. According to the latest report of the President of the African Union Commission, terrorist menace in Africa took on several forms, such as terrorist attacks against African interests, attacks against Western interests in Africa, the use of African territories as sanctuary or source of recruitment, and the use of Africa as a transit zone for terrorists and collection of funds for unlawful activities. The principal terrorist groups operating in Africa today were Al-Qaida in northern Africa, Boko Haram and Ansaru in western and northern Africa, Al-Shabab in eastern Africa, and the Lord’s Resistance Army in eastern Africa and the Great Lakes region in central Africa. Recently, a group called Ansar Al-Charia had appeared in some countries of northern Africa. In Somalia, Al-Shabab continued to attack civilian populations and the forces of the African Union Mission in Somalia. Al-Shabab was financed through different activities, such as illegal trade of coal, a complex system of taxes, and maritime piracy.

    The political and security situation in Libya was also of serious concern, due to intense conflicts among armed military groups and parallel Government systems in Tobrouk and Tripoli. However, the most concerning was the apparent presence of the Islamic State in Libya. As for Boko Haram, it was necessary to analyse the context that gave rise to it. Several theories of its origin existed. According to some theories, it was a manifestation of difficult economic conditions in the region, whereas according to some other theories, it was a result of extreme criminality, combined with political instrumentalization. Since 2014, Boko Haram has expanded its activities beyond Nigeria’s borders into Cameroon, Niger and Chad. There was no doubt that Boko Haram had committed grave human rights violations. In its efforts to combat terrorism, the African Union was guided by a normative and institutional framework adopted in the past two decades. In order to coordinate their efforts to combat Boko Haram, in late 2014 and early 2015 the countries of the Commission of the Lake Chad Basin had decided to form a combined multinational force. Financial, technical and logistical aid of the United Nations for the combined multinational force would be of crucial importance. The current session of the Human Rights Council should send a clear message that the odious acts of Boko Haram would not go unpunished. Member States were encouraged to adopt the proposed resolution.

    Statements by Concerned Countries

    PIERRE MOUKOKO MBONJO, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Cameroon, thanked the President of the Council and the African Group for convening this Special Session and expressed condolences to Somalia for the loss of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari. It was abundantly clear that Boko Haram had committed massive human rights violations in Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad. Cameroon had been attacked for the past 11 months; at first it was a collateral target and now it was a principal target. This transformation came about because Boko Haram was searching for a safe haven and food, and because of their intention to build a caliphate which would encompass a part of the national territory. The military stood firmly alone against the attacks of Boko Haram for about eight months, and had been successful in defending the national territory. The national army was a professional army which insisted on always respecting the law and human dignity. Currently, about 1,000 Boko Haram combatants were held in prisons in Cameroon, at great expense of the State, and they were treated humanely. Despite the horrible crimes committed by Boko Haram, Cameroon was firmly committed to respecting international humanitarian law and international human rights law. The only incident in the past months had occurred recently, whereby 75 Boko Haram militants had been killed in one of the prisons; this incident was being investigated and those responsible would be prosecuted. Cameroon did not have a bilateral agreement with Nigeria and could not cross the border in the context of anti-terrorist operations. There should be no confusion, stressed the Minister: Cameroon, which was being attacked, and this terrible terrorist group could not be put on the same level.

    MAHAMAT ISSA HALIKIMI, Minister of Justice and Human Rights of Chad, conveyed condolences to the family of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari and to the people of Somalia. He thanked the Council for holding a Special Session on Boko Haram, noting that terrorist attacks on civilian populations and hostage taking had demonstrated how vulnerable the region was. Boko Haram had become a relentless enemy that aimed to destabilize the countries of western and central Africa. It prospered on the fertile ground of poverty and inaction of local authorities, and it was becoming more organized and professional. The crisis went hand in hand with widespread human rights violations. The affected countries faced constant shortage of commodities and rise of food prices, due to the reduced volume of agricultural production. Because of Boko Haram’s atrocities, thousands of villagers in the Lake Chad region had fled. Thousands of refugees had ended up on Chadian soil in the past several months, and the Government was not ready for that situation. The Government was focusing on providing direct food assistance, improving the protection of human rights, fighting against gender based violence, and strengthening public administration structures. African countries had to strengthen their voice in the global fight against terrorism. To achieve that, better coordination among African Governments was needed. The Government of Chad remained convinced that through the involvement of civil society, States could improve their security.

    DANJUMA NANPON SHENI, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria, joined the Council in expressing heartfelt condolences to the Government of Somalia and to the family of late Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari. His death should be regarded as a catalyst to fight and defeat terrorism. The African Group was praised for its efforts to convene the Special Session of the Council. The Boko Haram insurgency had dominated discussions at various international fora, due to the grave human rights violations and vicious crimes that it had committed. High levels of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment had contributed to the rise of Boko Haram. The Boko Haram threat could not be addressed by a single country, but by a coordinated effort of affected countries. The number of internally displaced persons was estimated at 1.5 million, while another 650,000 were refugees. Support was needed to address the plight of those people. Nigeria had already set aside funds to renovate destroyed homes. The growing number of cross-border attacks by Boko Haram highlighted the need for regional and global action. The international community should be concerned about the networks that Boko Haram had created with other international armed groups, such as with Al-Shabab and the Islamic State. The decision of the Nigerian Government and of the neighbouring countries to deploy troops to fight Boko Haram was a legitimate one, and any unlawful conduct of the deployed troops was being promptly dealt with. All ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria were committed to the fight against Boko Haram. The Government placed great importance on the protection of human rights in the fight against terrorism and had thus invited representatives of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit the country.

    Discussion

    Latvia, speaking on behalf of the European Union, condemned in the strongest terms the widespread abuses and violations by Boko Haram in Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad. Those increasingly violent and indiscriminate attacks had targeted civilians and caused displacement of half a million persons within Nigeria, while hundreds of thousands had fled across the border. The European Union was horrified to learn about another possible abduction of 400 women and children in Damasak and reiterated its support to Nigeria and all States in the region in addressing the challenges posed by Boko Haram.

    Denmark, speaking in a Nordic statement on behalf of Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, condemned in the strongest terms the continued atrocities committed by Boko Haram, including targeted killings and attacks on civilians, abductions, and sexual and gender-based violence. The Nordic countries welcomed efforts to provide humanitarian assistance to internally displaced persons and refugees, and awaiting the operationalization of the Multinational Joint Task Force, welcomed the regional efforts from Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon to contain and fight back the attacks by Boko Haram on civilians.

    Morocco, speaking on behalf of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, expressed condolences to the country and family of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari and said that the threat of terrorism by Boko Haram called for strong and coordinated action by the international community. The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie welcomed the recent decision by heads of African States to establish a Multinational Joint Task Force and welcomed the adoption by central African States of a regional strategy to combat Boko Haram.

    Algeria, speaking on behalf of the African Group, said it was necessary to build regional and international partnerships capable of facing terrorist threats which were complex, transnational and evolving. To that end it was necessary to reinforce the security capacities of the threatened countries, improve information sharing, restrict the regional movement of terrorists, identify their safe havens, tap into their sources of funding, and fight against impunity.

    Ethiopia, speaking on behalf of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, welcomed the convening of the Special Session of the Council and condemned the terrorist attack on 27 March 2015 which killed Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari. Great concern was expressed about the growing attacks carried out by Boko Haram, which had resulted in the killing of innocent civilians and the destruction of public and private property. Criminal activities, such as abduction, sexual and gender-based violence, targeting of religious and ethnic groups, recruitment of children, and promotion of hate speech and propaganda by Boko Haram were condemned.

    Tunisia, speaking on behalf of the Arab Group, reiterated its unshaken commitment to fight terrorism. In light of the criminal acts perpetrated against innocent civilians, and in the face of the real threat posed by Boko Haram, the Arab Group welcomed the Special Session of the Council and condemned the crimes and human rights violations committed by Boko Haram. The dangers posed by terrorist groups should be addressed through strengthened regional and international coordination. A multifaceted approach was necessary to fight terrorism, including investment in human development and sustainable economic development. Funding for those groups had to be cut off.

    Zimbabwe, speaking on behalf of the Southern African Sub-region, strongly and unreservedly condemned the widespread and systematic violations and abuses of human rights by Boko Haram and remained disturbed by the dire humanitarian situation and displacement of victims. The transnational character of Boko Haram posed a threat to regional peace and security and defeating this group was of paramount importance. This required combined national and regional efforts robustly supported by the international community at large.

    Netherlands condemned in the strongest possible terms the continued violence and abuses against civilians, which had led to extreme human suffering, and expressed concern about the humanitarian situation of internally displaced persons and refugees. The Boko Haram activities were a threat to peace and stability in the region and the Netherlands welcomed the increased cooperation between Nigeria, Chad, Niger, Cameroon and Benin to face this threat and underlined that the fight against terrorism should be fully in line with international humanitarian law and international human rights law.

    United States joined in condemning the shocking atrocities by Boko Haram which showed total disregard for the sanctity of human life. Its inhumanity would unite the world community and the United States was ready to continue to support the people and Governments of this region in the face of this threat. Lasting stability and real security required the protection of human rights, including independent judiciaries that upheld the rule of law, and police and security forces that respected human rights.

    Estonia expressed concern about the human rights situation in Nigeria, in particular about the appalling abuses committed by Boko Haram. It stressed the importance of an urgent and comprehensive response to the insurgency and to combat terrorist and criminal acts perpetrated by Boko Haram. It welcomed and supported the decisions of the States of the region to deploy a multinational task force. All persons responsible for severe human rights violations had to be held accountable and there could be no impunity for such acts.

    Morocco recognized the urgency for collective action in order to support the countries affected by Boko Haram. Morocco had for years drew the attention of the international community to the security risks of the proliferation of non-state actors in the Sahel and Saharan region of western Africa. The assassination of Ambassador Yusuf Bari-Bari had demonstrated that terrorism could hit anywhere and anytime. It was noted that the security and military approach to the problem of terrorism should not eclipse due attention to its underlying causes.

    Côte d’Ivoire welcomed the Special Session of the Council and noted that massive human rights abuses of all kinds had reached such a scale that it was essential for the international community to respond appropriately. It was high time to stop Boko Haram. As a country where several religious groups co-existed, Côte d’Ivoire remained convinced that Boko Haram did not represent any religion or belief. The Human Rights Council should play a key role in the fight against the proliferation of terrorist groups.

    Sierra Leone said that for the past six years, the extremist religious group Boko Haram had carried out violent attacks and waged terror on the villages in northern Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon. Military operations alone were not sufficient to effectively address the problem or defeat Boko Haram. Sierra Leone stressed the critical need to address the root causes of this brand of ideologist terrorism and to uncover and stifle the sources of funding of this militant group and bring to justice anyone who sought to support their activities.

    Argentina condemned all terrorist acts and practices, and reaffirmed the need to continue to strengthen United Nations mechanisms to fight effectively against this serious threat. Argentina called upon all to cease financing terrorism and called on the international community to support the countries in the region to address root causes of terrorism. The fight against terrorism would be successful if it ensured larger participation of society, and the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

    Russia was seriously concerned about the fate of Christians in the region and commended the African Group for developing a comprehensive approach to combat terrorism in Africa. It was not to be forgotten that unscrupulous foreign interventions gave rise to terrorism in the continent, as were the attempts to replace regimes in the Middle East with the help of militias. The international community should assist States in the region to combat terrorism in accordance with international law.

    Germany condemned the actions by Boko Haram in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger in the strongest possible terms. The instruments provided by the Human Rights Council had to form part of the international community’s response. The Special Session had to give rise to an analysis of all violations and abuses of international human rights and humanitarian law in Nigeria and the region. That could be credible only if all violations and abuses were investigated. It was thus of utmost importance that true and full accountability was brought about.

    United Kingdom expressed grave concern about the ongoing terrorist attacks by Boko Haram in northern Nigeria and neighbouring countries. More than 4,000 people were killed and at least 900 abducted last year. Around 1.5 million people were displaced and at least 3 million were adversely affected by the insurgency. It was essential that the international community continued to support Nigeria and its neighbours. It was also essential that efforts to tackle Boko Haram were fully compliant with international human rights law.

    United Arab Emirates noted that the Special Session was being held in the alarming context of terrorist acts and human rights violations perpetrated by Boko Haram. The terrorists considered that women and girls had no right to learn, which led to attacks on schools. Those terrible acts were abject and unprecedented. Terrorism was an ongoing threat not only in Africa, but throughout the world. The international community should join forces and support the multinational task force of the African Union.

    Montenegro condemned all abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law by Boko Haram, and expressed deep concern about the dire situation in Nigeria and neighbouring countries, particularly the deteriorating humanitarian situation in northern Nigeria. International humanitarian efforts should be appropriately coordinated by the United Nations. Boko Haram posed a growing threat to peace and stability in the region and an urgent and comprehensive response to prevent further activities of Boko Haram was needed.

    China expressed condolences for the unfortunate death of Ambassador Bair-Bari of Somalia and added that terrorism was universal scourge, with the growing activity of extremist terrorist groups. The international community should, with respect for national sovereignty, support regional efforts to combat terrorism and support the concerned States to address the root causes of terrorism. China was ready to continue to vigorously support African countries in their counter-terrorism efforts.

    Republic of Korea strongly denounced the inhumane crimes, and all forms and manifestations of terrorism, and said that the gravity of human rights abuses by Boko Haram underlined the threat that this group posed to fundamental human rights. The Governments of affected countries should ensure that all alleged crimes were investigated and perpetrators brought to justice, while the international community should support those countries in their efforts to address the threat of terrorism and provide humanitarian support to the affected.

    Saudi Arabia said that acts of Boko Haram had exceeded all limits and its malice had impacted the whole African continent. It was unfortunate that this group was hiding behind the pure principles of Islam, and this had led to hatred and manifestations of anti-Islamism worldwide. Saudi Arabia was fully ready to promote and protect human rights, as witnessed by the establishment of the Centre to Fight Terrorism, to which it had contributed $ 10 million.


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