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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia (the), Mali, Mauritania, Niger (the), Nigeria, Senegal

    Note: map in 14 pages


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Malawi

    Drought in parts of Malawi spelled disaster for farmers like Saukila who live from harvest to harvest, surviving on what they can grow. Fortunately other areas of the country were spared, leaving a surplus that WFP and its partners are using to assist communities hit by the drought.

    LILONGWE--Beneath a clear blue sky, Saukila Black is bent double, hoeing the parched, dark earth of the small plot she farms near Phalombe in southern Malawi. The dry heat is intense at this time of year as farmers across Malawi wait for the rainy season to start. Tied snugly to her back as she prepares the ground for planting, is her nine month old daughter - one of five hungry mouths that she will have to feed until the new harvest arrives in March next year.

    As subsistence farmers, Saukila and her husband plant each year in the hope of growing enough food to last them through to the next harvest. But last year, the lack of rain spelled disaster. The maize they harvested barely lasted the family three months, and when it ran out, the hunger season began early.

    “For now, we have cut back and we only eat in the morning and at night,” Saukila says. “It’s always difficult for the children to go to sleep on an empty stomach, so we skip lunch and eat in the evening.”

    Devastated harvest

    Saukila is among almost 2 million people in southern and central Malawi whose crops from the last harvest were devastated by the drought. Around 1.8 million people are receiving monthly food rations from WFP, while just over 100,000 will get cash to buy food, delivered to them through mobile phones and local banks as part of a new programme that has been set up by WFP.

    Rising food prices on local markets and fuel shortages that are slowing the transportation of food to areas where the shortages are being felt, have exacerbated an already challenging situation.

    “We started in August, and we are increasing our assistance as we go further into the lean season,” says Marta Fontan, head of WFP’s sub office in Blantyre, on the frontline of the emergency. “We give them pulses for protein, cereals, corn soya blend and oil. It’s a family ration to help them survive and also to make sure that if they have one goat, they don’t sell the assets they have. We want to help them to avoid getting into a bad situation.”

    With the new rainy season due to start imminently, anxiety levels are rising in the smallholder farming communities of southern and central Malawi. The decision about when to plant their seed is a gamble. Get it right and they have a chance of avoiding another long hungry season. Get it wrong, and they will lose their investment in seed and fertiliser, and face another year of shortages.

    Erratic rains

    “The rains have been so erratic,” Saukila says, recalling the trials of the last planting season, “We planted for the first time, and the crops died due to the lack of rain. We then planted for a second time, and they didn’t survive. It was only at the third attempt that they finally grew.”

    Fortunately, the rains did not fail all over Malawi during the last planting season. In some areas of the country, farmers produced a healthy surplus and this is being moved to regions that have been worst affected by the drought. In an arrangement known as “twinning,” UKAID is paying for the transportation of 25,000 metric tons of maize donated by the Malawi government, from its Strategic Grain Reserve in Lilongwe.

    At the food distribution site in Phalombe, smallholder farmers queue patiently in the searing heat to register for food. Their monthly rations include bags of the maize that have been moved from the Strategic Grain Reserve in Lilongwe and rations of pigeon peas purchased in Malawi using UKAID funding, as well as Super Cereal - part of a US$20 million donation from the United States Agency for International Development.

    “The food that WFP is providing here in Phalombe is really making a difference,” says WFP Field Monitoring Assistant, Patricia Nyongopa. “They are now having breakfast, lunch and dinner, which they would not really manage without WFP’s help.”


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    Source: Government of Ethiopia
    Country: Ethiopia

    Addis Ababa November 23/2012

    The Addis Ababa University (AAU) on Friday launched a project aimed at scaling up agricultural production through research and capacity building. Project National Coordinator, Dr. Eyasu Elias said the project, Capacity Building for Scaling Up Evidence Based Best Practices in Agricultural Production in Ethiopia (CASCAP), will help to disseminate research based best agricultural practices among farmers. According to him, the project will be implemented in the coming five years in 30 selected woredas across the country. Dr. Eyasu said the project is expected to boost productivity per farmer by three fold through disseminating seeds suitable for the respective areas. It will be carried out with an outlay of 11 million Euros assistance from Wageningen University of the Netherlands. Apart from the AAU, the Universities of Hawassa, Jimma, Haromaya, Mekele and Bahir Dar will implement the project. Project Deputy Coordinator, Dr. Degefa Tolossa on his part said the aim of CASCAP is to support the efforts of the government to increase agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner in order to boost agricultural growth and ensure food security. Dr. Degefa said the project links researchers and farmers to seek solution to problems related to agricultural production at community and household level.


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    Source: Government of Ethiopia
    Country: Ethiopia

    W. Gojjam November 23/2012

    Preparations are finalized to construct 1670 safe water facilities, which have capacity to give service to over half a million people in West Gojjam Zone of Amhara State, the zonal water resource development department said. Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Expert with the department, Gebeyehu Tadesse said the facilities will be constructed with over 33.6 million Birr in the current Ethiopian budget year. The facilities include, among others, digging of water wells and installation of water pumping machines as well as development of springs. Upon going fully operational the facilities will help to increase safe water service coverage to 95 per cent from the present 83 per cent in rural areas and also to 98 per cent from the current 93 per cent in urban areas of the zone. The public will contribute labour, material and financial support valued at over 8.3 million Birr while the government and donor organizations will cover the balance for construction of the facilities, the Expert said.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Somalia

    Light to moderate rains resumed in most parts of southern and central Somalia

    Moderate Deyr rains fell across most of southern and central Somalia and across some parts of the northern regions between November 11 and 20 (Figure 1). In parts of Jowhar District in Middle Shabelle and Kurtunwary District in Lower Shabelle, localized floods were reported. In the northern regions, rains fell in a few areas, but most parts recorded little or no rain.

    In the North, the Hawd, Adun, and Coastal Deeh pastoral livelihood zones received moderate rains. The Nugal Valley in Togdher and Sool Regions received light to moderate rains. Both field reports and satellite imagery rainfall estimates indicate that most of Sanag, Bari, Awdal, Waqooyi Galbeed, and parts of Nugal Region remained dry. In addition, most of the Nugal Valley, the Golis Mountains, and the Sool Plateau remained dry. Water and pasture conditions improved considerably in areas that received rain, and these conditions sustained normal, opportunistic livestock migration.

    Three to four days of moderate intensity rains have continued in most of the cowpea belt, the Coastal Deeh and parts of Adun livelihood zones in Galgadud and Mudug Regions as well as most parts of Hiran Region. Rain gauges in Harardhere and Wisil (near Hobyo) in Mudug Region and Elder in Galgadud Region recorded 12.5 millimeters (mm), 20 mm, and 120 mm of rain, respectively, with three to five rainy days from November 11 to 20. These rains have also supported the establishment of the cowpea and sorghum crops. They have had a noticeable impact on pasture conditions and water replenishment in all water sources . In Hiran Region, rain gauges in Beletweyne, Jalalaqsi, and Halgan in Buloburte District recorded 37 mm, 41.8 mm, and 13 mm, respectively, with one to three rainy days. Rains have significantly improved crop establishment and pasture conditions and have replenished water sources. However, the Hawd and parts of Adun pastoral livelihood zones in Galgadud Region have reported poor rainfall performance.


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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Senegal

    DAKAR, 25 novembre 2012 (IRIN) - Après cinq ans passés à l'étranger, un migrant sur quatre est rentré vivre au Sénégal, selon l'Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) basé en France. Bon nombre d'entre eux ont acquis de nouvelles compétences qui pourraient favoriser le développement, mais la plupart ne reçoivent pas suffisamment d'aide pour réintégrer leur famille ou cibler leurs compétences, ce qui signifie une perte de ressources, indiquent les organisations d'aide aux migrants du Sénégal.

    Selon les statistiques les plus récentes, l'Organisation internationale des migrations (OIM) estime que quelque 500 000 Sénégalais travaillent à l'étranger, principalement en Afrique de l'Ouest et en Europe. La plupart des migrants sénégalais s'installent en Gambie et les 45 pour cent restants partent pour la France, l'Italie et l'Espagne.

    La moitié des migrants seront de retour dans leur pays d'origine dans un délai de 30 ans, selon les estimations de l'INED.

    « Bon nombre de migrants ne sont pas conscients des connaissances qu'ils ont acquises. Ceux qui ont occupé des emplois non qualifiés ont eux-aussi appris des choses, comme le fait de travailler dans une grande entreprise formelle. Ils ont acquis des compétences dans des secteurs comme celui de la construction, qui a besoin de travailleurs qualifiés », a dit Federico Barroeta, coordonnateur du projet migrant en Afrique de l'Ouest de l'Organisation internationale du travail (OIT).

    Les compétences acquises par les migrants de retour peuvent stimuler l'économie locale, a noté Mame Mbargane Thiam, représentant national de la fondation CEPAIM, un organisme espagnol qui aide les migrants à préparer et à réussir le retour dans leur pays d'origine. Il a évoqué le cas d'un migrant qui s'est installé à Kaolack, une ville du centre-ouest du Sénégal, pour y ouvrir une usine de production de sel qui emploie jusqu'à 100 personnes. « Mais ils ne reçoivent pas l'aide que le gouvernement sénégalais ou d'autres partenaires devraient leur fournir ».

    Abandonnés

    Les migrants de retour partagent cette opinion et disent se sentir abandonnés par le gouvernement de leur pays d'accueil et par le gouvernement de leur pays d'origine. Tafsir Dia, un migrant âgé d'une quarantaine d'années qui a travaillé en Espagne pendant 16 ans, est aujourd'hui employé par une entreprise espagnole implantée au Sénégal. « C'est injuste, je n'aurais pas dû perdre mes droits en Espagne alors que je participais au développement de l'économie espagnole », a-t-il dit à IRIN, expliquant qu'il n'avait plus le droit d'accéder à l'argent qu'il avait versé au cours des deux dernières décennies pour financer sa retraite, son assurance santé et d'autres services.

    À leur retour au Sénégal, la plupart des anciens migrants cherchent du travail dans le secteur informel et créent de petites entreprises. Bon nombre d'entre eux font toutefois face à de graves difficultés financières au cours de la première année, et leurs entreprises sont bien souvent en situation d'échec en raison d'un manque de soutien à la formation, a indiqué M. Barroeta de l'OIT.

    Les emplois qui offraient sécurité et avantages sociaux en Europe sont mal rémunérés au Sénégal : ainsi, les ouvriers en bâtiment ne gagnent qu'entre 4 et 6 dollars par jour.

    Les migrants qui reviennent de France ont en général une meilleure situation que les migrants qui reviennent d'Espagne, car ils sont souvent plus âgés et plus instruits, ils ont vécu sur place plus longtemps et ont eu davantage de temps pour préparer leur retour, selon M. Barroeta.

    La récession qui secoue l'Espagne a mis un habitant sur quatre au chômage et forcé bon nombre de migrants à tenter de rentrer chez eux, bien souvent sans argent. Près de la moitié des demandes adressées à l'OIT par des migrants concernant la façon de rentrer chez eux venaient des Sénégalais qui sont sans emploi en Espagne.

    Retours forcés

    Il est difficile d'évaluer la proportion de retours forcés et de retours volontaires, car il n'y a pas de définition universelle de ces termes.

    La situation des migrants forcés au retour - en général, lorsque leur demande d'asile est rejetée - est plus difficile à gérer, car la plupart d'entre eux sont peu préparés, indique l'OIM. Bon nombre d'entre eux souffrent de dépression et sont rejetés par la société à leur retour chez eux, a ajouté l'OIM.

    Plusieurs organisations ou fondations ont lancé des projets, dont l'objectif est d'accorder des prêts et des bourses permettant aux migrants de se réinstaller, mais ils n'atteignent qu'une partie des migrants de retour, et le montant de ces subventions - bien que suffisant pour couvrir les dépenses du quotidien - ne permet pas de créer des entreprises viables, indiquent des critiques.

    Le ministère des Sénégalais de l'Extérieur a mis en place un fond d'investissement pour les migrants, baptisé FAISE [Fonds d'appui à l'investissement des Sénégalais de l'Extérieur], qui permet, par exemple, à quelque 30 migrants de retour de bénéficier de prêts de 9 540 dollars chaque année. Le CEPAIM accorde des bourses d'un montant de 1 907 dollars à des migrants sélectionnés qui ont réalisé un plan d'affaires, suivi une formation en gestion financière et signé un document dans lequel ils s'engagent à ne pas retourner en Espagne avant un délai de trois ans.

    Mais pour y arriver, les migrants ont besoin de plusieurs dizaines de milliers de dollars, une somme difficile à réunir, car les banques proposent des taux d'intérêt de 8 pour cent et exigent une garantie de 100 pour cent pour les prêts.

    La plupart des migrants qui arrivent à leurs fins réussissent en dépit du système de soutien inadéquat et non pas grâce au système. Mor Lo (39 ans) a quitté l'Espagne et est retourné au Sénégal pour une courte période en 2008, lorsque son père est décédé ; l'argent dont il a hérité lui a permis de faire un versement comptant et d'acquérir un magasin avant de repartir en Espagne pour trois ans. Lorsqu'il est revenu s'installer au Sénégal en 2011, le CEPAIM lui a versé 1 900 dollars supplémentaires qui lui ont permis d'acheter des moulins à café et à millet. Aujourd'hui, il réalise 190 dollars de bénéfices par mois. Mais il n'aurait pas pu y arriver sans apport personnel, dit-il.

    Information et planification

    Si les migrants ont besoin d'argent, ils ont également besoin d'informations et de temps pour préparer et planifier leur retour, indique Guité Diop de l'OIT, directeur des politiques au programme de migration du Sénégal. L'action de l'OIT porte sur une meilleure sensibilisation des migrants aux opportunités de travail dans leur pays d'origine par le biais des réseaux de migrants à l'étranger.

    Ils organisent également des ateliers de formation à destination des migrants et de leur famille, car 75 pour cent de l'argent envoyé au Sénégal est consacré à l'achat de produits de consommation quotidiens, a-t-il dit. Si les familles des migrants sont bien informées, elles comprendront les réalités de la migration et elles ne rejetteront par les membres de leur famille qui rentrent au pays, a-t-il dit.

    Des migrants ont également dit aux journalistes d'IRIN qu'ils auraient davantage de chances de réussir s'ils pouvaient lancer des projets dans leur pays d'origine tout en continuant de travailler à l'étranger.

    Afin de répondre à cette demande, le PAISD [Programme D'appui aux initiatives de solidarité pour le Développement], un programme dont l'objectif est de soutenir les initiatives de développement en France et au Sénégal, fait pression sur les autorités françaises pour qu'elles accordent des « visas de circulation » aux migrants, ce qui leur permettrait de se déplacer d'un pays à l'autre plus facilement pour organiser leur avenir. « De manière générale, . l'idée est d'aider les migrants à jouer un rôle dans le développement de leur pays - que ce soit ici, ou depuis l'étranger », a dit Damien Bachau, conseiller technique du PAISD.

    cb/aj/cb-mg/amz

    [FIN]


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    11/25/2012 21:52 GMT

    ALGER, 25 nov 2012 (AFP) - Une rencontre regroupera "prochainement toutes les parties concernées" pour tenter de trouver une solution politique à la crise au Mali, dont le nord est occupé par des islamistes radicaux, a annoncé dimanche à Alger le ministre algérien des Affaires étrangères Mourad Medelci

    La solution politique "est celle fondée sur le dialogue entre Maliens qu'ils soient au nord ou au sud, rebelles ou au pouvoir", a déclaré M. Medelci, dont les propos étaient rapportés par l'agence de presse algérienne APS.

    "Peut-on imaginer une solution sans la rencontre de tous les Maliens ? " s'est interrogé le ministre algérien qui a annoncé "la tenue prochaine d'une rencontre entre toutes les parties concernées -sans les identifier- au Mali frère", en vue de trouver une solution politique à la crise dans ce pays, selon la même source.

    "Si une des parties concernées demandait à discuter avec l'Algérie pour impulser la solution politique et le dialogue, l'Algérie est ouverte au dialogue avec les frères maliens depuis 20 ans", a-t-il dit.

    "L'Algérie est pour le dialogue et elle a déployé des efforts dans ce sens avec plusieurs pays. Ces efforts ont donné leurs fruits en faisant de la solution politique la principale solution", a ajouté M. Medelci.

    La délégation du groupe islamiste malien Ansar Dine qui discutait depuis début novembre à Ouagadougou avec les autorités du Burkina Faso est actuellement en Algérie, l'autre pays médiateur dans la crise au Mali,

    L'Algérie, voisine du Mali où elle a plusieurs fois joué les médiateurs entre les Touareg et Bamako, a convaincu les rebelles touareg d'Ansar Dine d'entrer dans la négociation et de renoncer à ses alliés, Al-Qaïda au Maghreb islamique (Aqmi) et le Mouvement pour l'unicité du Jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest (Mujao), avec lesquels il impose la loi au Nord du Mali.

    Le 11 novembre, la Communauté économique des Etats d'Afrique de l'Ouest (Cédéao) a approuvé l'envoi au Nord du Mali, contrôlé par des groupes islamistes armés, d'une force militaire soutenue sur le plan logistique par des pays occidentaux.

    L'ONU doit encore donner son feu vert à une intervention militaire, avant mardi.

    abh/mr

    © 1994-2012 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    11/25/2012 11:45 GMT

    BAMAKO, 25 nov 2012 (AFP) - Quelques dizaines de djihadistes algériens sont arrivés ce week-end à Tombouctou (nord-ouest), ont indiqué dimanche à l'AFP des sources concordantes.

    "Quelques dizaines de djihadistes algériens sont arrivés ce week-end à Tombouctou, pour renforcer le camp d'Aqmi" (Al-Qaïda au Maghreb islamique), a déclaré à l'AFP une source sécuritaire régionale.

    "Tombouctou, devient de plus en plus le quartier général d'Aqmi dans le nord du Mali", a ajouté cette source.

    De son côté, une source sécuritaire malienne a confirmé l'information, précisant qu'il faut s'attendre "de plus en plus à l'arrivée de renforts d'islamistes sur place".

    "Nous, avons vu des gens à +la peau blanche+ venir samedi et dimanche rejoindre le camp militaire de Tombouctou", a ajouté cette source, qui "dénonce" par ailleurs, le durcissement de l'application de la charia, la loi islamique, à Tombouctou.

    "Maintenant, les islamistes passent dans les maisons pour confisquer les postes de télévision. Hier (samedi), ils ont pris au moins vingt-cinq téléviseurs à Tombouctou. Aujourd'hui (dimanche) ils ont commencé par fouiller les maisons vers la grande mosquée de la ville, toujours pour prendre les téléviseurs", a rapporté à l'AFP, un témoin.

    Il y a une dizaine de jours à Tombouctou, les jihadistes ont fait du porte à porte, pour procéder à l'arrestation de nombreuses femmes non voilées.

    Selon des recoupements de l'AFP, un jihadiste du nom de Mohamed Mossa, est à l'origine de ce durcissement de l'application de la charia à Tombouctou.

    Prêcheur, responsable d'une mosquée située à une trentaine de kilomètres de Tombouctou, Mohamed Mossa, est de nationalité malienne.

    Par ailleurs, il serait l'un des principaux recruteurs de jeunes maliens pour grossir les rangs d'Aqmi.

    sd/fb/ej/sba

    © 1994-2012 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Niger (the)

    FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT

    • Above-average cereal harvest is anticipated this year; rangelands have also recovered well

    • The food supply situation is expected to improve significantly during the 2012/13 marketing year (November-October)

    • However, the country’s recent successive severe food crises have had very adverse, longer-term impact on household assets, savings, levels of indebtedness, and the health and nutritional status of the population

    • Assistance needs to continue to improve access to food and protect the livelihoods of food insecure and vulnerable people


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    Source: US Department of State
    Country: Ethiopia, United States of America (the)

    November 17, 2012, Adama, Oromia – As part of President Obama’s Feed the Future Initiative in Ethiopia, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) launched a new five-year project called “Livestock Market Development” in support of the Government of Ethiopia’s Agricultural Growth Plan (AGP). State Minister of Agriculture Sileshi Getahun and USAID Ethiopia Mission Director Dennis Weller presided over the launch attended by federal and regional government officials, livestock industry representatives, and implementing partners.

    The AGP-Livestock Market Development Project will improve smallholder farmer incomes and nutritional status through investments in livestock value chains including beef, dairy, and hides. The project is expected to generate 2,600 new on and off farm jobs and improve the livelihoods of some 200,000 households.

    Through a focus on production and marketing, the project will improve animal feed systems, expand animal healthcare services and improve animal breeding while also linking producers to end markets, enhancing sanitary standards for animals and plants, and increasing market competitiveness.

    USAID Mission Director Dennis Weller asserted, “Through the AGP-Livestock Market Development Project, USAID, working closely with Ethiopia’s government and the livestock sector, will benefit small scale producers and rural communities by raising incomes, improving nutrition, creating livestock-related jobs and providing improved access to animal health services and to markets.”

    The project, valued at $38 million, will operate in selected districts in Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP) regions. CNFA (formerly the Citizen’s Network for Foreign Affairs) will lead implementation of the program for USAID along with other partners in each region: Organization for Rehabilitation and Development in Amhara (ORDA), Relief Society of Tigray (REST), Hundee, and Self Help Africa-Ethiopia. The U.S. President’s Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) contributed funding to the project to ensure benefits will also extend to livestock producers and laborers affected by HIV/AIDS.


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    Source: Global Hope Network International
    Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, China, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic (the), Tajikistan

    Afghanistan

    MUSHROOMS ADDRESS ISSUES OF FOOD SECURITY

    The food security situation has much improved thanks to good harvests this year, but pockets of food insecurity are predicted among poor households who lost livestock last year in northern Badakhshan and the Wakhan Corridor. GHNI is now expanding its mushroom project, working with widows to yield income by providing more mushroom spores as a small business opportunity.

    Mali to Burkina Faso

    GHNI SEEKS TO HELP REFUGEES IN POOR VILLAGES

    The Relief website is carrying a story of a young man of 35 who is a resident in northern Burkina Faso, Ahmid Ag Rali. He gave up his regular job with a foreign mining company and applied to work with UNHCR to care for the stream of Malian refugees fleeing the conflict in that country. He opened a camp which houses 6,000 refugees. He was struck by the high proportion of children among the refugees arriving at his village and moved by their common ethnic identity (Ahmid is himself a Toureg, raised inBurkina Faso). He provides a welcome, as well as food and shelter in keeping with Toureg traditions of hospitality. It is estimated that 35,000 Malians have fled toBurkina Faso. The irony is that the refugees are seeking help from one of the poorest countries in the world, where the residents have insufficient food and water for their own needs. GHNI has been partnering with poor villagers on health assessments for their children. We hope to expand opportunities to the Toureg’s who are in dire need. Funding is not yet available.

    Burma

    TCD PROJECTS INITIATE RECONCILIATION BETWEEN VILLAGES

    Attention has recently been focused on tensions between Buddhists and Muslims in Rakhine Province which have led to at least 82 deaths and more than 20,000 of the Rohingya people being forced from their homes. There is continued fighting between government troops and the Kachin Independence Army. Thankfully, reports from the southeast of the country indicate a declining level of conflict affecting Karen, Karreni, Shan andMonscommunities. Whereas, in previous years, the numbers of people forced from their homes averaged 75,000 per year, in the last year that number has fallen to around 10,000. GHNI is presently working with several minority groups in their villages with our Transformational Community Development (TCD) projects and two learning institutions have adopted our training program for their students who will work in villages. A key component of this effort is reconciliation between groups as a necessary component of village development.

    China

    AID LAUNCHES PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS

    The magnitude 8.0 earthquake which hit Sichuan Province in 2008 was a major disaster at the time, with upwards of 200,000 people being directly affected, but it focused attention on the needs of the area. The American Red Cross subsequently carried out a project to bring piped water to 19 villages, 11 clinics and 4 schools, reaching 13,650 people in difficult mountainous terrain where, previously, families had typically spent up to two hours per day collecting water. The project included an educational component to improve personal and home hygiene. GHNI has been involved there since the first day and we still have many volunteers working in the national partnership to help with village re-development.

    Ethiopia

    RELIEF EFFORTS OPEN DOORS FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Somali refugees continue to pour into neighbouring countries, although at a slower rate than in 2011. Between January and September this year, more than 25,000 arrived at the complex of refugee camps around Dollo Ado, taking its total population over 170,000, the second largest refugee complex in the world, prompting the Ethiopian government to authorise a sixth camp some 54km north of Dollo Ado town. The estimated cost of this camp including medical, educational and warehousing facilities will be US $5 million, of which $1.5 million is required immediately for site preparation, land demarcation and basic infrastructure. The Ethiopian government is now allowing GHNI to expand our work amongst the Somali population of East Ethiopia. We are focused on the poorest villages.

    Indonesia

    TCD CATCHING ON IN SULAWESI

    When Mt. Merapi erupted in 2010, it spewed out 77 million cubic meters of rock, much of which accumulated around the summit of this dangerous volcano which is surrounded by a dense rural population. The growing rural poor population is a target of GHNI in Indonesia, especially in Sulawesi. We have been invited by many villages to start TCD there.

    Jordan

    GHNI CONTINUES EFFORTS WITH REFUGEES

    A school in eastern Amman provides for refugees not only from Syria but other troubled spots throughout the region. Ashrafiyeh is a Greek Catholic School which operates as a regular public school in the mornings. In the afternoons and evenings it accommodates the Jesuit Refugee Service, which provides courses in English language and conversation, and computer studies taught by 30 volunteers, some of whom are refugees themselves. In the afternoons the students are mostly Syrians, Iraqis and Jordanians. In the evening, they are mostly Sudanese and Somalis, working during the day at informal sector jobs no-one else would wish to do. An atmosphere of mutual tolerance and respect is fostered, and the teachers are encouraged to socialise with the students. GHNI has passed out thousands of boxes of food for refugee families there and now is seeking more aid for the massive influx of refugees fromSyria.

    Kenya

    PARTNERSHIPS FUEL DEVELOPMENT IN ISIOLO

    A fledgling project to build a huge new port, oil refinery and transport hub at Lamu onKenya’s northern coastline promises to deliver thousands of jobs and is a pillar of the government’s long term development agenda. But critics fear displacement of population without adequate compensation and destruction of the mangrove forests which nurture the artisanal fishing industry on which 70% of Lamu’s population depend. Populations in the Isiolo area are also being displaced and GHNI is seeking to stabilize local villages there with community development partnerships with the villages and other NGO’s (non-governmental organizations).

    Lebanon

    REFUGEE RELIEF EXPANDING

    The number of registered Syrian refugees in Lebanon at the end of October was 74,720 with another 29,948 awaiting registration, for a total of 104,668 people, mostly in the north and in the BekaaValley. GHNI is positioning to expand our relief work from Jordan to Lebanon soon.

    Libya

    GHNI TRANSENDS TENSION

    There is continuing concern about unsecured weapons in the wake of the fall of the Gaddafi regime. It is reported that many have been exported to conflict centres in the region, including Boko Haram and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Within Libya, despite efforts by the government to disarm militias or incorporate them in the national army, there persist a number of heavily armed militias, some aligned to the government, some pursuing their own agendas, which pose a threat to civilians, foreigners and the authority of the national government. Despite problems with security, GHNI conducted several humanitarian outreaches there this summer.

    Nepal

    GHNI PILOTS EFFORTS AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

    The persistence of child marriage, despite a legal age of marriage at 20 years for both sexes, poses a threat toNepal’s attainment of MDG 2 (universal primary education), MDG 3 (gender equity), MDG 4 (infant mortality) and MDG 5 (maternal mortality) by taking girls out of school and subjecting them to early childbearing. There is a long tradition of early marriage inNepal, with 61% of currently adult females married before the age of 18. Many rural families marry off their girls as early as 11-13 because the older a girl becomes, the greater the dowry demanded. Legal enforcement is difficult because it means prosecuting the parents when their “crime” has economic roots. Although the earlier practice of sending child brides to their husband’s home is largely discontinued, as most stay with their mothers until they are 16, after marriage their lives change drastically and they rarely return to school. GHNI is sending an assessment team there in late November to seek village opportunities for a pilot project to educate young women and their families as to the dangers of human trafficking.

    Nigeria

    TCD LAUNCHED TO AID DISPLACED PEOPLES

    Since July, at least 1.4 million people have been displaced, 550,000 houses damaged, more than 431 fatalities have occurred and many more are missing in devastating floods affecting 30 of the 36 states in Nigeria. Torrential rains have caused the loss of houses, crops, livestock and property, as well as causing major damage to roads, bridges and other infrastructure. By mid October there were 36 camps established for internally displaced persons in the most affected area of the north-central region. Conditions in the camps were reported to be dire with shortages of food and clean drinking water. As a consequence of damage to the agricultural economy, food price inflation has taken off. GHNI has launched TCD in the village of Dogon Gada and surrounding villages to help with the water crisis and improve food growing for each village family.

    Sri Lanka

    GHNI ENCOURAGES RECONCILIATION

    More than three years after the end of fighting, 470,000 internally displaced people have returned home. But at the end of September 2012, 115,000 remain in camps with host communities or in transit sites or have been relocated, often against their will, to areas other than their places of origin. Among those registered as having returned, many continue to face difficulties in accessing basic necessities such as shelter, food, water and sanitation, in rebuilding their livelihoods and exercising their civil rights. GHNI has launched two villages for Transformational Community Development (TCD) and one is in a mixed village, thus helping with reconciliation and unity to go forward.

    Syria

    SYRIAN RELIEF COMMITTEE FORMED

    The UN estimates that at least three million people are badly affected by the current conflict. At least 1.2 million have taken shelter in public buildings, in parks, or with hosts. At least 350,000 refugees have already leftSyria, though this may be an underestimate as many do not register to avoid reprisals against remaining family members. Thousands are still leavingSyriaevery day, three quarters of them women and children, and the UN estimates the total may reach 710,000 by year end. Despite the conflict, the UN system has supplied food and medical supplies. The UN calls on all parties to the conflict to avoid targeting civilian areas. GHNI is providing relief in Jordan and Lebanon and has just formulated a partnership called the Syrian Relief Committee in Switzerland to help meet the present relief and future re-development needs for this country.

    Tajikistan

    PARTNERSHIPS INSPIRE GLOBAL HAND WASHING DAY

    October 15 was Global Hand Washing Day. InTajikistan, UNICEF collaborated with the Ministry of Education in a campaign with the slogan “Clean hands save lives.” Diarrhea accounts for 23.3% of deaths in the population of children under five inTajikistan, second only to respiratory infections. It has been shown that simple hand washing with soap can reduce diarrhea in children under five by almost 50% and respiratory infections by nearly 25%. “Although people around the world wash their hands with water, very few wash with soap at critical moments such as after using the toilet, cleaning a child or before handling food.” GHNI is hoping to launch Community Health Education lessons as part of their TCD efforts in Tajikstan next year. GHNI launched a self sustainable micro loan animal loan program last year.


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    Source: Inter Press Service
    Country: Senegal

    By Koffigan E. Adigbli

    DAKAR, Nov 26 2012 (IPS) - Watering cans in hand, men and women move back and forth between the wells and water storage tanks and the crops they’re watering: carrots, onions, tomatoes, cabbage, and potatoes, as well as fruit trees like palm, coconut, papaya and banana trees.

    Growers like Ahmadou Sene are working tirelessly to produce vegetables in and around the Senegalese capital. Sene, in his forties, has a one-hectare plot. For three months of the year, he has a dozen young people to hoe and weed the garden, and for four months a group of 20 women work to harvest and sell his produce.

    “Vegetables make up more than 80 percent of my crops,” he said, gesturing towards his garden. He cultivates his field year round, and harvests nearly 12 tonnes of vegetables each quarter.

    According to the 2011 census conducted by the Regional Office for Statistics and Demographics (SRSD), some 3,200 people work in horticulture in the Dakar region, spread across 113 production sites.

    Around 6,000 people work in horticulture, which supports more than 40,000 people in the capital, and a million people across the country.

    The SRSD’s report for last October showed that between 2010 and 2011, the cultivated area in the Dakar region grew from 5,098 hectares to 8,700 hectares. Horticultural production in the area rose from 750,000 to 860,000 tonnes during the same period. This year, the area being cultivated in and around Dakar is 11,300 hectares, and production, accounting for all crops, is estimated at 1,780,000 tonnes.

    According to the same report, urban agriculture in the Dakar region alone generated 450 million dollars in 2011, supplying 45 percent of the city’s food supply.

    But while urban farming is growing, farmers are facing difficulties linked to access to land, the marketing of vegetables, the recycling of water for irrigation, and access to financing.

    Even as the cultivated area is growing, some farmers are struggling to find land to expand their operations.

    “In 2010, I had an 800 square metre field. I was able to turn a profit of 600,000 CFA (about 1,200 dollars). But this year, I’ve only got 350 square metres to farm, because the government has taken over a large portion of my land for a dam to hold water,” said Cheikh Mor Ndiaye, a grower at Cambérène, one of the sprawling suburbs on the outskirts of the capital.

    The president of the administrative council of the Federated Cooperative of Horticulturalists of Senegal (CFAHS), Cheikh Ngane, told IPS that while garden farming provides livelihoods for a good number of Senegalese, it is undermined by the recurring problem of access to land.

    “Most horticulturalists are working with land that belongs to the state. To develop horticulture, it’s important to resolve the problem of land,” he said, adding that the problem is aggravated by competing claims from developers working on residential housing developments.

    The issue of land ownership can also lead to problems obtaining credit. “For example, if someone has their own plot, assigned to them by the rural community, bankers are not confident when they ask for a loan,” said Cheikh Ngane.

    Ababacar Sy Gaye, director of horticulture at the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Infrastructure, said “We have outlined measures to ensure the promotion of horticultural crops, particularly with regard to inputs and good agricultural practices.”

    His department is responsible for implementing the national policy for development of horticultural production.

    Despite these difficulties, the farmers are passionate about their work — no surprise, given the profitability of market gardening. “With my little plot, I put away at least 400,000 francs per year (around 800 dollars) after covering costs like buying inputs,” said Cheikh Mor.

    According to Jean-Marie Sambou, a grower at Patte d’Oie, wholesalers have some advantages in buying their produce when compared to retailers. “We sell a kilo of onions to the wholesalers at 150 CFA, and they later re-sell this to retailers at 250 francs or more, and in the market, the same kilo sells for 350 CFA (68 U.S. cents),” he said.

    “Buyers from hotel and restaurant kitchens in Dakar regularly come out to my field to buy produce,” Ahmadou told IPS. “On average, I sell three tonnes of vegetables (every quarter) to women who resell them in local markets. I earn one million CFA francs per year after the sale of my produce and paying out the people who work for me.”


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania (the), Yemen

    UNHCR Operation highlights

    Somalia is the country generating the third highest number of refugees in the world, after Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Somali people are facing one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world today. One in three Somalis is in urgent need of humanitarian assistance and one in every three children living in the South-Central region is malnourished.

    UNHCR leads protection and emergency relief interventions targeting 700,000 IDPs out of a total IDP population estimated at 1.1 and 1.36 million and over 2,100 refugees in Somalia.

    General Situation

    Somalia generates the third highest number of refugees in the world (after Afghanistan and Iraq). As at 13 November 2012, there were 1,011,068 Somali refugees in the region, mainly hosted in Kenya, Yemen, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Tanzania and Uganda and almost 1.36 million Somalis internally displaced within the country, settled mainly in the South-Central region.

    66,227 Somalis have so far sought refuge in neighboring countries in 2012. As of 22 November 2012, 2,500 people were internally displaced while in October alone, another 9,600 were internally displaced, mainly in South Central Somalia, in particular from the coastal city of Kismayo.

    Somalia is the most affected country within the Horn of Africa by the ongoing drought, widely regarded as the worst in 60 years. Consecutive seasonal rain failures have led to sky-rocketing food prices,in a country already devastated by two decades of civil war.

    An estimated 3.7 million Somalis are now in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Increasingly, Somalis are leaving their homes, walking thousands of kilometres in search of food, most of them ending up in IDP settlements within Somalia and refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia, in extremely malnourished conditions.

    With the term of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) having ended in August 2012, a new parliament has since been created, electing Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as President. President Hassan then named Abdi Farah Shirdon as Prime Minister. Since the fall of the Siad Barre’s regime in 1991, Somalia fell into the hands of armed opposition groups , who divided the country along clan lines, and still continue to control large parts of the county.

    Most of Somalia continues to be in security level 5 (high), with Mogadishu and other areas on level 6 (extreme). Ongoing conflict continues to restrict humanitarian access and hamper delivery of life- saving assistance. Distributionof emergency / temporary shelter materials and other relief items and protection cum livelihood interventions are the activities carried out by UNHCR in favour of IDPs.

    As of 09 November 2012, UNHCR has distributed 36,100 emergency assistance packages (EAPs) for 216,642 people in Mogadishu and other districts within southern Somalia. These EAPs include kitchen sets, sleeping mats and plastic sheeting that would aid the most vulnerable population in crisis.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Somalia

    Between 1stSep and 23rd Nov 2012, displacements were mainly recorded in South Central with approximately 34,000 out of a total 36,000 displacements recorded in all three zones. 18,900 displaced people reported insecurity as the major cause of displacement in South Central followed byCrossborder movement (4,800), IDP temporary return(3,200), Eviction(3,100). The movements originated mainly from Juba Hoose (17,000), Banadir (4,000), Shabelle Hoose (1,800) and Gedo (1,500) regions. Thetop three regions people moved to were, Juba Hoose (12,000), Banadir (8,200), Gedo (6,500) among other regions.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Somalia

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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic (the), Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the), Democratic Republic of the Congo (the), Djibouti, Dominican Republic (the), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger (the), Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines (the), Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan (the), Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic (the), United Republic of Tanzania (the), World, Yemen, Zimbabwe, South Sudan (Republic of)

    More than 140,000 have been displaced in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after rebel group M23 gained control over the regional capital Goma and surrounding areas. Heavy fighting between rebels and the military continues to rage nationwide in Syria, primarily in Aleppo, Damascus and Deir al-Zor governorates. A recently published WFP assessment revealed that about 1.3 million people (25% of the total population) are considered food insecure in Kyrgyzstan, due to high food prices.

    Global Emergency Overview web interface


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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (the), Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Mali, Myanmar, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan (the), Syrian Arab Republic (the), Uganda, Yemen, South Sudan (Republic of)

    JOHANNESBOURG, 26 novembre 2012 (IRIN) - Les crises de réfugiés semblent commencer et se terminer. En 2011, tous les yeux étaient tournés vers le complexe de réfugiés de Dadaab, dans le nord du Kenya, alors qu’il accueillait des centaines de milliers de Somaliens qui fuyaient la famine et le conflit. Cette année, c’est l’exode des réfugiés syriens qui a attiré l’attention du public, même si la majorité des Somaliens qui sont arrivés à Dadaab l’an dernier y sont toujours.

    En réalité, la plupart des crises de réfugiés et de déplacés se poursuivent longtemps après que l’attention du public et l’intérêt des bailleurs de fonds se sont affaiblis, et d’autres ne sont jamais médiatisées. Dans ce contexte, le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés (UNHCR) et les organisations d’aide humanitaire héritent souvent de la difficile tâche de venir en aide à de vastes populations de réfugiés, de migrants forcés et de personnes déplacées à l’intérieur de leur propre pays (PDIP) sans bénéficier d’un financement, d’une volonté politique ou d’un soutien suffisant de la part de la communauté internationale.

    IRIN examine ci-dessous certaines des crises de réfugiés et de déplacés les plus négligées au monde.

    1. Les réfugiés soudanais au Tchad : Près d’une décennie de conflit dans la région occidentale soudanaise du Darfour a entraîné le déplacement de quelque 1,8 million de Soudanais. Plus de 264 000 d’entre eux ont fui au Tchad voisin, où ils vivent toujours dans 12 camps situés le long de la frontière orientale avec le Soudan. Le Tchad est l’un des pays les plus pauvres au monde, selon le HCR, et l’environnement de travail est « extrêmement difficile » en raison du manque d’infrastructures et de ressources naturelles de la région. Les femmes qui vivent dans les camps racontent qu’elles doivent parfois marcher pendant toute une journée pour trouver du bois de chauffage. Par ailleurs, le manque d’accès aux terres arables a rendu les réfugiés presque totalement dépendants de l’aide humanitaire pour satisfaire leurs besoins essentiels. Les accords de paix qui ont été conclus par le passé entre les rebelles du Darfour et le gouvernement soudanais n’ont pas réussi à calmer l’instabilité de la région, ce qui explique la réticence des réfugiés à rentrer chez eux. Les travailleurs humanitaires estiment par ailleurs que la nature prolongée de la crise a provoqué la lassitude des bailleurs de fonds.

    2. Les réfugiés érythréens dans l’est du Soudan : Les réfugiés érythréens installés dans l’est du Soudan ont quitté leur pays pour fuir les combats de la guerre d’indépendance contre l’Éthiopie, dans les années 1960 et, plus récemment, pour échapper à la politique érythréenne de conscription militaire illimitée. À l’heure actuelle, environ 66 000 Érythréens vivent dans des camps de réfugiés dans les États de Gedaref, de Kassala et de la mer Rouge, qui sont parmi les plus pauvres du Soudan, et 1 600 autres traversent la frontière chaque mois. Les nouveaux arrivants sont nombreux à considérer le Soudan comme un pays de transit et à poursuivre leur chemin vers le nord dans le but d’atteindre l’Europe ou Israël. Ils sont dès lors souvent la cible des passeurs et des trafiquants d’êtres humains. Ceux qui restent au Soudan ne peuvent légalement posséder des terres ou des biens et ont de la difficulté à trouver du travail dans le secteur formel. En 2002, le statut de réfugié de ceux qui avaient fui la guerre d’indépendance et le conflit qui a suivi entre l’Éthiopie et l’Érythrée a été révoqué, mais les rapatriements ont cessé en 2004 lorsque le pays a été vivement critiqué par la communauté internationale pour son bilan en matière de respect des droits de l’homme.

    3. Les réfugiés soudanais au Soudan du Sud : Au cours des 18 derniers mois, environ 170 000 personnes ont fui le conflit qui oppose les forces du gouvernement soudanais et l’Armée populaire de libération du Soudan (SPLA-branche nord) dans les États soudanais du Nil bleu et du Kordofan du Sud, et qui déborde dans les États sud-soudanais du Nil supérieur et d’Unity. Les organisations d’aide humanitaire se préparent à un nouvel afflux de réfugiés à la fin de la saison des pluies, lorsque les routes seront de nouveau praticables. Les travailleurs humanitaires craignent que le nombre croissant de réfugiés, les inondations et les maladies n’aggravent la crise et le HCR lance un appel urgent pour réunir 20 millions de dollars supplémentaires afin de répondre aux besoins essentiels des populations des camps. Le mauvais état des infrastructures au Soudan du Sud rend à la fois difficile et onéreuse la fourniture d’une aide d’urgence.

    4. Les PDIP dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) : Les défections de l’armée congolaise, qui ont donné lieu à la création du groupe armé M23, ont entraîné une résurgence de la violence dans la province du Nord-Kivu au cours des six derniers mois. Selon le Bureau de la coordination des affaires humanitaires des Nations Unies (OCHA), plus de 260 000 personnes ont été déplacées à l’intérieur du pays jusqu’à présent et 68 000 autres ont fui en Ouganda et au Rwanda voisins. Les PDIP vivent dans quelques dizaines de camps de fortune répartis dans l’ensemble de la province. Les organisations d’aide humanitaire leur fournissent abri, protection, vivres et soins de santé en dépit d’une grave pénurie de financement et d’attaques récurrentes à l’encontre des travailleurs humanitaires. Le nouvel afflux de PDIP vient s’ajouter au 1,7 million de personnes déjà déplacées dans le pays, selon le HCR.

    5. Les réfugiés Rohingyas au Bangladesh : Les Rohingyas, une minorité ethnique musulmane originaire de l’État de Rakhine, dans l’ouest du Myanmar, sont victimes de mauvais traitements et d’une discrimination systémique depuis 50 ans. Ils se sont même vus privés de leur citoyenneté par une loi passée en 1982. Au cours des 50 dernières années, des milliers d’entre eux ont fui le pays, la vaste majorité pour le Bangladesh. Le HCR n’a as été autorisé à enregistrer les nouvelles arrivées depuis la mi-1992, mais il estime que plus de 200 000 Rohingyas vivent dans le sud-est du pays. Seulement 30 000 d’entre eux sont enregistrés et vivent dans l’un des deux camps gérés par le gouvernement dans le district de Cox’s Bazar, où ils bénéficient de l’aide du HCR. Les organisations internationales, incluant le HCR, se sont vu interdire par le gouvernement bangladais de venir en aide aux réfugiés qui ne sont pas officiellement enregistrés, dont la plupart vivent en périphérie des camps du gouvernement. Officieusement, plusieurs organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) internationales offrent des services à ces réfugiés, mais on ignore jusqu’à quand elles seront autorisées à le faire.

    6. Les réfugiés tamouls en Inde : Plus de trois ans après la fin de la longue guerre civile qui a sévi au Sri Lanka, plus de 100 000 Sri Lankais tamouls vivent toujours dans l’État indien méridional du Tamil Nadu, dont 68 000 dans 112 camps gérés par le gouvernement. La plus importante vague de réfugiés est arrivée dans les camps entre 1983 et 1987, et nombre d’entre eux sont restés et ont eu des enfants. On estime en effet que plus de la moitié de la population de réfugiés actuelle est née en Inde et ne sait pas grand-chose de la vie au Sri Lanka. Le HCR n’a pas accès aux camps, mais quatre ONG sont présentes pour offrir des services aux réfugiés. Depuis la fin de la guerre, seuls 5 000 d’entre eux ont officiellement été rapatriés au Sri Lanka avec l’aide du HCR. La grande majorité éprouve encore une certaine réticence à y retourner en raison des rumeurs faisant état de violations des droits de l’homme et du manque d’opportunités d’emploi.

    7. Les réfugiés afghans en Iran : L’Afghanistan est à l’origine de l’une des plus importantes et des plus longues crises de réfugiés au monde. Les Afghans ont été nombreux à fuir le pays à la suite de l’invasion soviétique de 1979, durant le régime taliban dans les années 1990 et, finalement, pendant le conflit de la dernière décennie entre les insurgés talibans et les forces de la coalition dirigée par les États-Unis. Si on a beaucoup écrit au sujet des 2,7 millions de réfugiés afghans au Pakistan, la présence de quelque 900 000 réfugiés enregistrés et de 1,4 million d’Afghans non enregistrés en Iran voisin n’a pas reçu la même attention. La plupart d’entre eux vivent dans des zones urbaines et leurs enfants sont exclus du système éducatif régulier. Le régime actuel a par ailleurs exacerbé l’intolérance des populations des villes envers les réfugiés. Les promesses de naturalisation de certains d’entre eux sont restées lettre morte, et ils sont souvent les victimes de déportations de masse. Les experts croient qu’un retour massif forcé en Afghanistan pourrait déstabiliser encore davantage le pays, dont la capacité à fournir emplois, services essentiels et protection aux personnes retournées est limitée.

    8. Les réfugiés de la Corne de l’Afrique au Yémen : Le Yémen a longtemps été un pays de transit pour les migrants qui tentaient d’atteindre l’Arabie saoudite dans le but d’y trouver du travail. Depuis 2006 toutefois, le pays accueille aussi un nombre croissant de réfugiés somaliens, éthiopiens et érythréens. Malgré le conflit, la pauvreté et une certaine xénophobie, 103 000 réfugiés et migrants – un chiffre record – ont afflué au Yémen en 2011, faisant passer le nombre total de réfugiés enregistrés à 230 000, en plus des quelque 500 000 migrants. Leur présence a été largement éclipsée par le soulèvement et la crise politique survenus l’an dernier, qui ont entraîné le déplacement de centaines de milliers de Yéménites et contribué à l’accroissement de la pauvreté dans un pays qui était déjà le plus pauvre de la région. Les réfugiés qui vivent dans les milieux urbains doivent faire concurrence aux populations locales pour les rares emplois disponibles et les ressources limitées, une situation qui a aggravé les tensions et accru la vulnérabilité de nombreux réfugiés. Une pénurie de financement d’environ 30 millions de dollars a contraint le HCR à limiter son aide.

    9. Les PDIP et les réfugiés maliens dans les pays voisins : La prise de contrôle du nord du Mali orchestrée en avril par les rebelles touaregs, qui ont rapidement été supplantés par les groupes islamistes, a poussé quelque 34 977 Maliens à fuir au Burkina Faso, 108 942 en Mauritanie et 58 312 au Niger. Quelque 118 000 Maliens ont été déplacés à l’intérieur de leur propre pays, dont 35 300 dans le Nord, soit dans les régions de Kidal, de Gao et de Tombouctou. Le HCR doit composer avec de graves pénuries de financement au Mali et dans chacun des pays hôtes, et l’insécurité croissante limite l’accès humanitaire aux populations qui ont besoin de protection. Pour les gouvernements des pays hôtes et les organisations d’aide humanitaire, l’afflux de réfugiés vient aggraver la crise alimentaire et des moyens de subsistance qui affectait déjà la région du Sahel. L’intervention de la Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO), si elle a lieu, risque de faire augmenter encore davantage les populations de réfugiés.

    10. Les PDIP en Colombie : Depuis le début du conflit entre le gouvernement colombien et les guérillas armées marxistes au milieu des années 1960, la menace de la violence a poussé des millions de personnes à abandonner leur foyer. Les populations indigènes et afro-colombiennes des régions rurales et isolées ont été particulièrement affectées. Le gouvernement estime à 3,6 millions le nombre de PDIP, mais plusieurs ONG font remarquer que de nombreux déplacés n’ont pas été officiellement enregistrés et que le chiffre est probablement plus proche de 5 millions. La plupart d’entre eux vivent en périphérie des villes colombiennes. Ils ont souvent de la difficulté à s’adapter à la vie urbaine et sont régulièrement victimes de discrimination dans leur recherche d’emplois et d’opportunités. Nombre d’entre eux n’ont pas accès aux soins de santé publics parce qu’ils n’ont pas de documents d’identité. Malgré les récents pourparlers de paix entre le gouvernement et les guérillas, la plupart des PDIP ne peuvent pas rentrer chez eux en toute sécurité. Dans ce contexte, l’amélioration de l’intégration dans les communautés hôtes est devenue une priorité.

    ks/rz- gd/amz

    [FIN]


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Ethiopia, South Sudan (Republic of)

    Food Prices Update

    In October, the food consumer price index (CPI) exhibited a mild decline at national level in contrast to seasonal expectations of a mild increase (based on the five-year average). Overall, however, food prices remain at elevated levels, again compared to the five-year average. The decrease was based on a moderate decline in the cereal CPI, which – although sharper than seasonal expectations – is roughly in line with seasonal trends. Regionally, Gambella recorded a strong decline in cereal prices, following on from an extremely sharp fall in prices between August and September. SNNPR also saw a strong decline, reversing the steady upward trend since January 2011. Tigray also observed a moderate decline in cereal prices, as did, to a lesser extent, Afar, Amhara, and Oromia Regions. Contrary to the general trend, there were mild and moderate cereal price increases in Somali Region and Beneshangul Gumuz respectively. Globally, FAO’s cereal price index dropped by 1.2 per cent (mild) from September to October as a result of slightly lower wheat and maize prices on international markets. Slowing demand from the livestock and industrial sectors contributed to a mild decrease in the price of maize, while rice prices remained fairly stable. All else equal, this implies that import parity prices will also exhibit mild declines for wheat and maize. Meat prices, meanwhile, remained stable compared to September and have, in fact, remained unchanged since October 2011, offering a stable market for meat exports. Looking ahead, the five-year average of seasonal trends suggests that cereal prices should continue falling moderately until January 2013. Given that meher rains were largely adequate for crop production, the seasonal trends offer a reasonable guide on the direction of prices in coming months. For more information, contact: infodrmfss@dppc.gov.et& FAO-Ethiopia@fao.org


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    Source: British Red Cross
    Country: Kenya, Uganda, World

    Across the planet, in every society, from the personal to the political, climate change poses a formidable challenge. It’s about restraint; producing and consuming less, sharing more.

    This week the UN’s annual conference on climate change gets underway in Doha, Qatar. How we get a global collective commitment to meet necessary carbon reduction targets is a question I hope is keeping our world leaders up at night. But regardless of any political outcome, community action is more important now than ever: there may not be time to wait for a legal mandate before we start taking climate change seriously.

    The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is working with communities across the globe to strengthen their ability to adapt to the challenges of climate change. This includes a focus on: preparing for and reducing the risk of disasters; securing people’s access to food; and protecting livelihoods. This work is supported by the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, which celebrated its tenth anniversary this year.

    Increasing climate-related disasters

    In 2011, there were 300 climate-related disasters, which affected 207 million people. By 2015, this figure is expected to rise to 375 million people.

    When I read that, I had to stop and check I’d done my maths properly. Because it means that in just three years, there will be around a 75 per cent increase in the number of people affected by climate-related disasters.

    What didn’t come as a surprise, however, is that developing countries are estimated to bear 75-80 per cent of the costs of damages related to climate change as a result of droughts, floods, strong storms and rising sea levels.

    Floods and landslides

    Uganda is one such developing country, where around 25 per cent of the population live in poverty, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts an increase in erratic and intense rainy seasons, as well as longer drier spells. Combined with a rapidly growing population and environmental degradation the situation for thousands of people already struggling to survive, has the potential to get a lot worse.

    Elgon is one region of Uganda particularly at risk, where the majority of families depend on the land to make a living and feed their families, which is putting pressure on limited natural resources. Over the last few years intense rains have led to more frequent floods and landslides, resulting in loss of lives and livelihoods. However, a new programme that includes tree-planting and a range of other risk reduction activities has been launched by the Uganda Red Cross, and supported by the British Red Cross, is helping reduce the risk of future floods and landslides.

    This project is part of a wider programme which is about building resilience in communities – an approach that increases people’s skills and knowledge to deal with disasters – and is fundamental to all the British Red Cross’ overseas work.

    Climate-smart food security

    Another aspect of the change in global weather patterns means farmers can no longer just rely on their local knowledge in order to plant, grow and harvest their crops.

    Across the Sahel and in east Africa, survival is particularly tough for subsistence farmers and pastoralists with droughts and floods destroying crops and pasture for grazing animals.

    In this context, the Red Cross is increasing its focus on ‘climate-smart’ programmes, which help address the issues of communities who struggle to get enough food and water.

    Kenya Red Cross

    The Kenya Red Cross launched a project this year, which involved the construction of a new irrigation system feeding six large greenhouses and fields, along with three wells equipped with solar pumps and storage tanks. The project is in Wajir East District, where at least 30 per cent of the population relies on food aid, and it was rolled out using community volunteers as well as Red Cross staff and experts.

    Another Kenya Red Cross ‘climate-smart’ project is in Machakos district, southeast of Nairobi, where communities are planting drought-resistant cassava – a variety developed by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.

    “KARI is one of the largest research centres in Africa, but its innovations often get stuck in the laboratory,” said James Kisia, Kenya Red Cross deputy secretary general. “Our unique partnership with the research institute, in effect, brings university to village.”

    British Red Cross support

    Last year, drought in Kenya left around 4 million people struggling to get enough food. The British Red Cross launched an emergency appeal to provide emergency relief.

    In the aftermath of this crisis, it has continued to provide support to people in Dadaab, the world’s largest refugee camp. In addition, working with the Kenya Red Cross, it has just completed a scoping assessment in South Turkana, one of the areas worst-affected by recurring drought and where food insecurity is an ongoing issue.

    A programme to help communities increasingly at risk of climate-related food insecurity is currently being developed.

    Karen Peachey, British Red Cross east Africa representative, said: “Environmental degradation, changing weather patterns, conflict and disease are just some of the many problems faced by people in the arid and semi arid lands of Northern Kenya. Even in a good year, life is difficult – when drought happens the situation can quickly turn into a crisis.

    “We are working with communities to help them cope better when disasters strike – only by increasing community resilience can we break the dependency on food aid which has become part of life for many communities in that part of the country.”

    Visit our website for more information on preparing for disasters: http://www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-do/Preparing-for-disasters


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (the), Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan (the), Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania (the), South Sudan (Republic of)

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Improved food security and nutrition conditions in Eastern Africa

    • More than 60,000 people displaced in the north of Goma as M23 takes over

    • More than 11,000 former Burundian refugees voluntarily repatriated from Tanzania

    • Kenya’s Department of Refugee Affairs allows a two-week refugee registration in Dadaab refugee complex

    • Water trucking operations stopped in Dawe Sarar woreda (Oromia) and Somali Region due to increased rain

    • The Kenyan Parliament and Human Rights activists call for investigation of military deployment to Garissa and Samburu districts

    • One in four children in camps outside the Somali capital malnourished, amidst spread of suspected malaria, cholera and whooping cough

    • Sudan begins a 10-day vaccination drive as yellow fever claims 116 lives

    • 10 cases, including 5 deaths of Ebola, and 20 cases including 9 deaths of Marburg in Uganda


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