Articles on this Page
- 02/01/15--07:29: _Malawi: Southern Af...
- 02/01/15--07:37: _World: Price Watch....
- 02/01/15--14:15: _Mali: Afrique de l’...
- 02/01/15--14:44: _Mali: Les réfugiés ...
- 02/01/15--16:54: _Mali: Mali : Ban Ki...
- 02/01/15--19:25: _Senegal: Sénégal Bu...
- 02/01/15--19:39: _Niger: Niger Bullet...
- 02/01/15--19:49: _Mauritania: Maurita...
- 02/01/15--19:55: _Mali: Mali Bulletin...
- 02/01/15--20:01: _Chad: Tchad Bulleti...
- 02/01/15--20:04: _Burkina Faso: Burki...
- 02/01/15--21:39: _World: 10th Meeting...
- 02/01/15--22:27: _Mali: In Mali, Soci...
- 02/02/15--08:22: _Cameroon: Rapport i...
- 02/03/15--01:42: _World: Crisis Watch...
- 02/03/15--04:58: _Mali: Construire la...
- 02/03/15--06:20: _World: Global Emerg...
- 02/03/15--10:26: _Mali: GIEWS Country...
- 02/03/15--09:47: _Senegal: Modern Pro...
- 02/03/15--13:49: _World: The Market M...
- 02/01/15--07:29: Malawi: Southern Africa Price Bulletin, January 2015
- 02/01/15--07:37: World: Price Watch. December 2014 Prices January 31 2015
In West Africa, markets were well supplied with staple foods in December as regional harvests progressed. Staple food prices were stable or declining, except in areas directly and indirectly affected by the conflict in northeastern Nigeria.
The Ebola outbreak has led to both official and voluntary restrictions on the movement of goods and people in affected Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, resulting in atypical market trends in some areas (Pages 3-6).
In East Africa, maize prices continued to decline in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, and surplus-producing areas of Ethiopia as harvests and regional trade flows improved market supplies. Sorghum prices declined in Somalia and Sudan, with the progression of average to above-average harvests. Staple food prices were high and variable in the Greater Upper Niles States of South Sudan. Conflict, insecurity, and seasonal road condition deterioration continued to disrupt markets in parts of South Sudan, Somalia, and the Darfur and South Kordofan States in Sudan (Pages 6-10).
In Southern Africa, regional staple food stocks tightened in December, but availability remains higher than previous years. Harvests from the 2013/14 production year were well-above average in the region’s surplus-producing countries.
Maize price trends varied throughout the region in December but were below their respective 2013 levels (Pages 10-13).
Market supplies increased with the recent Otoño harvests in Haiti and Postrera harvests in Central America between October and December. Red bean prices reached record-high prices in many areas of Central America in 2014, but began decreasing in November. Maize prices followed seasonal trends and declined in December, while local and imported rice prices remained stable throughout the region (Pages_14-15).
- International rice and maize prices were stable in December while wheat and soybean prices declined slightly. Global production for most key commodities reached record or near record levels in 2014, making for very well supplied global markets. Crude oil prices declined again in December and reached a six-year low (Pages 2-3).
- 02/01/15--14:15: Mali: Afrique de l’Ouest Bulletin Mensuel des Prix - janvier 2015
- 02/01/15--14:44: Mali: Les réfugiés urbains de Bamako
- 02/01/15--19:25: Senegal: Sénégal Bulletin des Prix - janvier 2015
- 02/01/15--19:39: Niger: Niger Bulletin des Prix - janvier 2015
- 02/01/15--19:49: Mauritania: Mauritanie Bulletin des Prix - janvier 2015
- 02/01/15--19:55: Mali: Mali Bulletin des Prix - janvier 2015
- 02/01/15--20:01: Chad: Tchad Bulletin des Prix - janvier 2015
- 02/01/15--20:04: Burkina Faso: Burkina Faso Bulletin des Prix - janvier 2015
On 1 February 2015, the United Nations (UN)–African Union (AU) Joint Task Force (JTF) on Peace and Security held its 10th consultative meeting at the AU Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on the margins of the 24th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the Union. The AU Commission and the UN Secretariat were represented respectively by Commissioners Smail Chergui (Peace and Security) and Aisha Abdullahi (Political Affairs) and the Under-Secretaries-General Jeffrey Feltman (Political Affairs), Hervé Ladsous (Peacekeeping Operations), and Haile Menkerios, UN Office to the AU. They were accompanied by other senior officials from the two organizations.
The JTF discussed issues of common interest and identified areas of collaboration in a number of countries, including in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Libya, Mali and the Sahel, South Sudan, Sudan and Central African Republic (CAR), and the efforts to address the threat posed by the Boko Haram terrorist group. The meeting also discussed forthcoming elections in Africa and agreed on how to coordinate UN-AU actions in support of regional and national efforts to ensure the holding of smooth, credible elections that contribute to the consolidation of peace and security. Furthermore, the JTF agreed to continue to cooperate in the area of peacekeeping based on the principles of shared responsibility, value addition and complementarity. In that regard, the meeting welcomed the ongoing UN review of peace operations and progress in the operationalization of the African Standby Force (ASF) and the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises (ACIRC).
South Sudan: The JTF expressed its serious concern at the prevailing situation in South Sudan. It urged the parties to demonstrate the necessary commitment to end the bloodshed in their country and respond to the aspirations of their people. The JTF reiterated its support to the mediation-led IGAD-led mediation and to the efforts of UNMISS on the ground and called on the South Sudanese government and other stakeholders to extend all the necessary cooperation to the Mission. It took note of the decision of the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) to establish a High-Level ad hoc Committee to enhance support to the IGAD mediation. The AU and the UN agreed to work together in support of the ad hoc Committee once it is operationalized. The JTF noted the decision of the PSC on 29 January 2015, to defer consideration of the report of the AU Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan (AUCISS) to a later date. The JTF reiterated that accountability for human rights violations and other abuses committed in the course of the conflict, healing and reconciliation among all South Sudanese communities will be critical for reaching a sustainable peace in South Sudan.
Sudan: The JTF stressed the importance of the successful, transparent and inclusive implementation of the National Dialogue Initiative announced by the Sudanese authorities in January 2014. It called on the Sudanese stakeholders to demonstrate the political will, create the required conditions on the ground and extend all the necessary cooperation to the AUHIP. The JTF exchanged views on the ongoing efforts by the AUHIP, with the support of the UN and other international partners, to achieve ceasefires in the Two Areas and in Darfur, with a view to paving the way for the participation of the armed movements in the envisaged National Dialogue. The JTF welcomed the continuing close cooperation between the AUHIP and the UN Special Envoy, and looked forward to their continued coordinated efforts in support of comprehensive and lasting solution to the multidimensional challenges facing the Sudan within the context of the National Dialogue.
In addition, the meeting expressed alarm about the ongoing hostilities in some parts of Darfur and the Two Areas their devastating consequences on civilians. It urged the Government of Sudan and the rebels to immediately cease hostilities and facilitate humanitarian access.
Libya: The JTF expressed its concern at the prevailing security and humanitarian situation in Libya, as well as at the continued political impasse in the country, with far reaching implications for Libya itself and the neighbourhood. It reiterated that only inclusive political dialogue would bring about lasting peace, security, stability and reconciliation. In this regard, the JTF expressed full support to the on-going UN-led mediation efforts and welcomed the outcome of the first round of the UN facilitated dialogue held in Geneva, from 14 to 15 January 2015, as well as the convening, since 26 January 2015, of the second round of the dialogue. The JTF also welcomed the efforts of the countries of the region, including the initiative by Algeria to convene a reconciliation conference bringing together all Libyan stakeholders, building on the outcomes of the Geneva process. The JTF welcomed the establishment of the International Contact Group for Libya (ICG-L), and the convening of two meetings to-date under joint AU-UN chairmanship. The AU and the UN agreed to work together to enhance the ICG-L, in line with the conclusions of its 28 January 2015 meeting, as well as to identify practical ways through which the AU can further contribute to the UN-led Mediation and assist in putting in place a ceasefire monitoring mechanism in Libya.
DRC and the Great Lakes Region: The JTF stressed the need to redouble efforts towards the effective implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation (PSC) Framework for the DRC and the Great Lakes Region. In that respect, the JTF welcomed the announcement made by the DRC Government to launch operations against the FDLR and looked forward to the urgent military and other measures to be taken by the DRC Government and MONUSCO to neutralize the FDLR, following the refusal of this group voluntarily to disarm within the timeline stipulated by the Security Council, the AU and countries of the region. The JTF urged all actors concerned to speed up the implementation of the Nairobi Declarations that concluded the Kampala Dialogue between the DRC Government and the M23. It welcomed the outcome of the first meeting of the PSC Framework Guarantors convened by the AU and the UN in Addis Ababa, on 2 December 2014, and encouraged the regular holding of such meetings. The JTF welcomed the close cooperation between the Special Envoys on the Great Lakes Region, and encouraged them to pursue their efforts and coordination. The JTF welcomed the outcome of the 5th meeting of the PSC Framework Regional Oversight Mechanism, held in Addis Ababa on 31 January 2015, and agreed to work together towards the implementation of the decisions adopted.
Mali & Sahel: The JTF expressed deep concern at the prevailing security situation in Northern Mali and recent tension on the ground. The JTF called on all parties to respect their ceasefire commitments by halting military operations and resolving any issues through the established implementation mechanisms. It reiterated its full support to MINUSMA, and called on all stakeholders in Mali to extend the necessary cooperation with the Mission to enable it to effectively carry out its mandate as set by the Security Council, particularly its efforts to support the implementation of the ceasefire. The JTF took note of the conclusions of the Niamey meeting of MINUSMA’s African countries troop contributors, held on 5 November 2014, as well as of the pronouncement of the matter made by the Summit of the member countries of the Nouakchott Process on the further enhancement of security cooperation and operationalization of APSA in the Sahelo-Saharan region, held on 18 December 2014. The AU Commission and the UN Secretariat agreed to work together to identify ways and means of further enhancing MINUSMA. The AU informed the UN of its plans to convene a meeting in Bamako, in early March 2015, to follow up on the recommendations made by countries of the region regarding the enhancement of MINUSMA. The JTF reiterated its support to the Algiers Process, and urged the Malian parties to demonstrate their good faith and make the compromises necessary to quickly conclude a comprehensive agreement with clearly defined implementation arrangements, on the basis of the document prepared by the Algerian-led Mediation and the principles of the respect of the unity and territorial integrity of Mali, as well as the secular nature of the State.
The JTF reiterated the importance of the Bamako Ministerial Platform for the Sahel. The AU and UN, which provide the joint secretariat for the Platform, agreed to undertake consultations with Mali, as Chair, to enhance the effectiveness of this forum and its contribution to a coordinated implementation of the various Strategies on the Sahel. Furthermore, the JTF welcomed the convening of the Summit of the Nouakchott Process member states. The AU Commission and the UN Secretariat agreed to work together towards the implementation of the relevant provisions of the Nouakchott Declaration, in particular with respect to the planned meetings on joint patrols and mixed units. The AU welcomed the UN readiness to provide the necessary support towards the finalization of the related concept of operations and other documents.
Boko Haram: The JTF expressed its support to the efforts of the member states of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) and Benin, in particular the establishment of the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF), to combat the Boko Haram terrorist group, as well as the Regional Intelligence Fusion Unit. The JTF expressed concern at the humanitarian impact of the Boko Haram activities, in particular the displacement of populations in the affected areas and towards neighboring countries. It agreed to work together closely in the finalization of the MNJTF CONOPS and other related documents, in line with the conclusions of the Niamey ministerial meeting of 20 January 2015, as well as the Security Council presidential statement and the PSC communique of 19 and 29 January 2015, respectively, and in accordance with the UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy. The JTF underlined the need for a multi-dimensional response to the Boko Haram threat that, in addition to the military and security operations against Boko Haram and other terrorist groups, would include other measures aimed at facilitating the return of displaced populations and improving livelihoods, education and job creation, as well as protection of human rights. The JTF agreed to identify other practical ways of effectively supporting the efforts of the countries of the region, notably the operationalization of the MNJTF.
Central African Republic: The JTF noted the need for enhanced coordination and a unified approach among all stakeholders to promote peace in CAR in line with the outcomes of the conclusions of the 6th meeting of the ICG-CAR. The JTF called on all stakeholders to continue to lend support to the political process in the CAR, including the ongoing local consultation process and the Bangui Forum meeting, and the upcoming elections. They agreed to continue supporting jointly, including in the framework of the G8-RCA, efforts of all parties towards the implementation of the Brazzaville Agreement as well as the ongoing local consultation process and the Bangui Forum meeting 11. Lessons learned in transitions from AU to UN operations: The meeting welcomed the findings and recommendations of the Secretary-General’s Letter to the UN Security Council on lessons learned in transitions from AU peace operations to UN peacekeeping operations in Mali and CAR It further welcomed the spirit of cooperation between the UN and the AU in this process. The JTF agreed to develop jointly a transition toolbox to ensure a more coherent framework for AU to UN transitions and guide future transition processes. It also agreed jointly to conduct a lesson learned exercise to identify contextspecific benchmarks that could be used to determine the conditions under which a transition should take place, given the needs in the country and the situation on the ground, as well as to review and provide an assessment of the various mechanisms available to improve the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing AU peace operations authorized by the Security Council.
The JTF took note of the increasingly challenging realities facing UN peace operations, particularly asymmetric threats, transnational organized crime and an increasing trend of targeted attacks against peacekeepers, as well as stalled peace processes which have the potential to undo the hard-won gains made over the past years. In this regard, the JTF looked forward to the comprehensive review on peace operations that is being undertaken by the UN appointed High Level Panel chaired by former President Jose Ramos Horta and to the consultations with the AU, scheduled to take place in Addis Ababa from 9 to 13 February 2015.
ASF/ACIRC: The JTF welcomed the progress achieved to date towards the operationalization of the African Standby Force (ASF) and welcomed the full operational capability reached by the East African Standby Force Coordinating Mechanism (EASFCOM) in November 2014. The JTF also welcomed the steps taken towards the operationalization of the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises (ACIRC) and the ongoing process of harmonization of both concepts. The JTF encouraged all concerned to take the necessary steps to ensure that full operational capability for the ASF is achieved by 2015. It called for sustained and focused international support. It therefore agreed to work towards the successful holding of the Amani Africa II Field Training Exercise in South Africa in the course of 2015 and other related activities as well as intensify strategic and institutional engagement towards enhanced coordinated support.
Elections: The JTF reviewed the upcoming elections in Africa scheduled for the period 2015/16. The JTF observed that a considerable number of African countries are holding critical national and sub-national elections, as well as constitutional referenda. The JTF noted the polarized political environment in which some of these elections are likely to take place, including debates on term limits and inclusiveness. The JTF took note of the high risk for election-related violence, and consequently emphasized the need for joint and/or coordinated analysis and assessment of pre-election situations to provide the basis for coordinated preventive diplomacy initiatives by the two organizations in order to ensure that these elections contribute to the advancement of democracy, as well as to the promotion of lasting peace and security. It acknowledged that a good basis for cooperation already exists in the various initiatives currently being undertaken by the AU, Regional Economic Communities/Regional Mechanisms, and the UN. The JTF stresses the importance of the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance.
Follow-up: The JTF requested the relevant AU Commission and UN Secretariat Departments and offices to ensure follow-up on the conclusions of the meeting, including drawing up, within two weeks, an implementation plan with specific timelines. It agreed to convene regular meetings on the implementation of the agreed decisions as appropriate.
- 02/03/15--01:42: World: Crisis Watch N°138, 1 February 2015
- 02/03/15--04:58: Mali: Construire la paix au Nord Mali
- 02/03/15--10:26: Mali: GIEWS Country Brief Mali 26-January-2015
In spite of erratic rains at beginning of cropping season, preliminary estimates for 2014 harvest point to an above-average cereal production
Increased supplies from new 2014 harvest have put downward pressure on cereal prices at the end of 2014
Humanitarian assistance still needed despite improved civil security situation
Most households in Southern Africa depend on maize as their main source of food and energy, given the high volumes and ease with which it is produced. Alternative food crops that are consumed as substitutes include rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, and tubers such as cassava and potatoes. Consumption of these substitutes occurs mainly when maize is not available or among those households in areas where such substitutes are more easily available (for example, cassava in northern Mozambique). The majority of rural households do grow the other cereals — especially sorghum and millet, which are more drought resilient — in relatively small quantities as a buffer in bad production years for maize.
Furthermore, wealthier households (especially in urban areas) with access to a variety of costlier cereals (such as rice and wheat) do consume them to diversify their diets. While wheat is widely consumed in the form of bread, it is produced in relatively small quantities in the region. South Africa is the only country that produces substantial amounts, but still in quantities insufficient to meet domestic requirements. South Africa is also the region’s major producer of maize and acts as a major supplier and exporter. In years of relative maize surplus, sizable amounts of both formal and informal cross border trade occurs between neighboring countries.
In Central Asia, wheat availability remained good in Afghanistan and Pakistan, while prices increased in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan over the last quarter of 2014 (Pages 16-17).
L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.
Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3)
Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.
Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2)
Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.
La capitale malienne compte actuellement plus de 2000 réfugiés urbains et 500 demandeurs d’asile, dont des centaines de centrafricains ayant fui leur pays au cours de l’année écoulée. En 2015, le HCR travaille avec ACTED pour venir en aide à ces personnes en grande vulnérabilité. Un appui multisectoriel sera donc apporté, pour leur faciliter l’accès aux soins, à l’éducation, à des activités économiques, à la prévention et à un appui psychosocial tout au long de l’année. Thérèse, une demandeuse d’asile centrafricaine gravement malade a été la première personne prise en charge par l’équipe d’ACTED qui a permis en urgence son accès aux soins.
31 janvier 2015 – A l'occasion d'une rencontre avec le Ministre malien des affaires étrangères, Abdoulaye Diop, en marge du Sommet de l'Union africaine à Addis-Abeba, le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies, Ban Ki-moon, a une nouvelle fois déploré samedi les incidents récents à Gao, dans le nord du Mali.
Lors de cette rencontre, M. Ban « a réitéré l'engagement des Nations Unies à travailler étroitement avec le gouvernement malien pour établir les faits entourant ces incidents », a indiqué son porte-parole dans une note à la presse.
Jeudi, le Secrétaire général avait déjà déploré les incidents qui ont eu lieu mardi 27 janvier lors d'une manifestation devant la base de la Mission multidimensionnelle intégrée des Nations Unies au Mali (MINUSMA) dans la ville de Gao et qui auraient fait au moins trois morts parmi les manifestants et de nombreux blessés.
« Le Secrétaire général a encouragé le gouvernement malien à continuer de montrer son leadership et son engagement constructif dans le processus de paix, avant la prochaine série de pourparlers inter-maliens à Alger, début février », a-t-il ajouté.
Le chef de l'ONU et le ministre ont convenu de la nécessité pour les Nations Unies et le gouvernement malien d'intensifier leurs efforts pour répondre aux défis du processus de paix. Le ministre a réitéré à cet égard le soutien de son gouvernement à la MINUSMA.
S'agissant de l'épidémie d'Ebola qui frappe plusieurs pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest, Ban Ki-moon a salué lesdirigeants maliens pour leur gestion de cette crise sanitaire dans leur pays et les encouragés à poursuivre et renforcer les efforts de prévention.
Au Sénégal, le riz, le mil, le sorgho et le maïs constituent la base de l’alimentation des ménages. L’arachide représente aussi bien une source importante de protéine et communément une culture de rente. Le riz importé est consommé quotidiennement par la grande majorité des ménages, particulièrement dans les centres urbains de Dakar et Touba. Le riz produit localement dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal y est consommé. St. Louis est le principal marché dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Le mil est consommé dans les régions centrales où Kaolack représente le marché régional le plus important. Le maïs est produit et consommé dans les zones autour de Kaolack, Tambacounda et dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Du maïs est aussi importé, principalement du marché international. Il existe une forte demande pour tous les produits à Touba et à Dakar. La récolte des céréales et celle de l’arachide débutent en Octobre et les stocks de céréales locales baissent de niveau tout au long de l’année de commercialisation qui s’achève en Octobre. Le Sénégal dépend plus des importations à partir du marché international, surtout le riz, que du commerce transfrontalier qui concerne essentiellement le bétail provenant du Mali et de la Mauritanie pour approvisionner Dakar.
Le mil, le maïs, le niébé et le riz importé sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants consommés au Niger. Le mil est consommé aussi bien par les ménages ruraux que les ménages pauvres urbains dans l’ensemble du pays. Le maïs et le riz importé sont plus importants pour les ménages urbains, tandis que le niébé est principalement consommé par les ménages pauvres des régions rurales et urbaines en tant que source de protéine. Niamey est le marché national le plus important et un centre du commerce international ; elle approvisionne en outre les ménages urbains. Tillaberi est aussi un centre urbain approvisionnant les localités environnantes. Le marché de Gaya est le principal marché urbain pour le maïs avec des liens transfrontaliers. Maradi, Tounfafi et Diffa sont des marchés de regroupement régionaux et des marchés transfrontaliers pour le Niger et d’autres pays de la région. C'est dans ces marchés que vont régulièrement acheter leur nourriture les ménages et les éleveurs des régions déficitaires en céréales du nord. Agadez et Zinder sont également d’importants marchés nationaux et régionaux. Nguigmi et Abalak se trouvent dans des zones pastorales, où la population dépend largement des marchés céréaliers pour leur approvisionnement alimentaire. Ces deux marchés sont particulièrement importants pendant la saison des pluies, lorsque les éleveurs sont confinés dans la zone pastorale.
Le riz local et le sorgho sont les produits alimentaires les plus consommés par les ménages pauvres de la Mauritanie suivis par le blé importé qui est l'aliment de substitution auquel ces ménages recourent le plus. Le riz local est cultivé dans la vallée du fleuve (dans le sud des régions du Trarza, du Brakna, du Gorgol et du Guidimakha). Le sorgho est produit dans toutes les zones de production (sorgho pluvial) et dans les walo et barrages (sorgho de décrue). Toutefois, une importante partie est importée du Mali et du Sénégal. La Mauritanie vit beaucoup plus de ses importations (70 % en bonne année agricole et jusqu'à 85 % en mauvaise année) que de sa production interne. Nouakchott est le principal marché de collecte pour les produits venant de l'extérieur et également le marché de distribution où viennent s'approvisionner les animateurs des marchés de distribution secondaire que sont les autres marchés référenciés. L'huile de cuisson est essentiellement consommée dans les zones urbaines. La vente des animaux est une mode d’existence dans toutes les zones et une importante source de revenus et de nourriture.
Le mil, le riz et le sorgho constituent les aliments de base de la majorité de la population malienne. Le mil est l'aliment le plus consommé traditionnellement, mais depuis 2005 le riz est devenu un substitut populaire chez les ménages urbains. Le sorgho est généralement plus important pour les ménages ruraux que pour les ménages urbains. Les marchés inclus sont révélateurs des conditions locales dans leurs régions respectives. Ségou est l’un des marchés les plus importants tant pour le pays que pour la région, dans la mesure où il se trouve dans une très vaste zone de production de céréales. Bamako, la capitale et le centre urbain le plus étendu du pays, fonctionne comme un marché de regroupement. Elle reçoit des céréales de Koulikoro, Ségou et Sikasso destinées à la consommation et fait également office de marché de regroupement pour les échanges avec les régions nord du pays (Kayes et Koulikoro) et avec la Mauritanie. Les marchés des régions déficitaires du pays (Tombouctou et Gao) reçoivent leurs approvisionnements en mil et en riz de Mopti, Ségou et Sikasso.
Le sorgho, le mil, le maïs blanc et le riz local et d’importation sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants. La consommation de mil est la plus forte dans les régions est et nord du pays. Le riz local est un autre produit alimentaire de base, en particulier pour les ménages plus pauvres. Le riz importé et le maïs blanc sont le plus couramment consommés dans la capitale et ses environs. Le marché d'Atrone à N’Djamena, la capitale, est le marché le plus important pour les céréales. Moundou est un important centre de consommation pour le sorgho et le deuxième marché en importance après la capitale. Le marché d’Abéché est situé dans une zone de production au nord. Le marché de Sarh est à la fois un marché de détail local et un marché transfrontalier.
Le mil, le maïs et le sorgho sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants pour la consommation ménagère. Le mil est le produit de base des ménages les plus vulnérables, tandis que le maïs et le sorgho contribuent aussi au panier alimentaire de la majorité des autres ménages. Le marché de Sankaryare est le plus vaste et le plus important de Ouagadougou; il approvisionne d’autres marchés du pays et dans la région. Koudougou se trouve dans l'une des régions les plus peuplées du pays, où une majorité des ménages dépend du marché pour son ravitaillement alimentaire. Djibo se situe dans la zone sahélienne, hautement vulnérable. Pouytenga est un marché de regroupement pour les produits du Nigeria, du Ghana, du Bénin et du Togo. Solenzo est un marché rural situé au milieu d’une zone de production excédentaire. Bobo Dioulasso est un important centre tant pour la consommation que pour la production : elle fait office de capitale économique du BurkinaFaso et se trouve dans une importante zone de production céréalière
Feed the Future | Blog
In 2013, Salif Romano Niang and his brother, Mohamed Ali Niang, met President Obama in Senegal at Feed the Future’s Agricultural Technology Marketplace. The Niang brothers are the brains behind Malô, a Malian social enterprise that produces high-quality, fortified rice to address poverty and malnutrition among smallholder farming communities.
This month, Feed the Future caught up with Salif to hear about Malô’s progress since 2013 and how he envisions the private sector continuing to advance food security in Mali.
You and your brother spent much of your youth in Ethiopia and came to the United States to attend American universities [Salif attended Purdue and Mohamed attended Temple]. Since your father studied at Purdue and went on to pursue a career as an international food security and sustainable development expert, you both have roots in the U.S. university system as well as agricultural development. Now that you’re pioneering a new model of rice processing and distribution with Malô in your home country, how are you seeing your company help advance Mali’s agriculture sector?
It’s funny, because our relatives in Mali told us we were crazy when we left the United States to start Malô and work with rural rice farmers! But Mohamed and I saw a real opportunity in our home country, and our American-based family members were more supportive because they recognize that launching a startup can have big potential. It’s also clear to us that momentum is building behind African countries’ agriculture sectors, and we wanted to be a part of that.
We’re really excited about the progress we’re seeing in Mali’s rice value chain. One of the biggest challenges in this country is sourcing: farmers want to know that they’re getting a fair price for the rice they’re selling, and processors want to know that the rice they’re buying is high-quality. To help build that trust, Malô is pioneering a partnership model where we purchase rice from farming cooperatives instead of individual rice farmers. This transaction helps reduce risk and control costs in order to create a stable market model.
The benefit of this system for smallholder farmers is that, assuming their rice quality meets the standards we’ve set in advance, Malô is a guaranteed buyer committed to purchasing rice at a fair, agreed-upon price at harvest time. When they have access to a fair and reliable buyer, we’ve found that farmers will spend the time and mobilize the resources to improve the quality of their harvests.
When we last heard from you in 2013, Malô was preparing to launch its first rice processing and fortification facility, with the capacity to meet the needs of more than 25,000 people per year. Can you tell us about the importance of that facility and how fortification links an agricultural product like rice with nutrition outcomes?
This facility is actually not just a first for Malô; it is also Africa’s first rice fortification facility. The launch has been delayed due to various constraints, but once it is fully operational it will be a model for how to add economic and nutritional value to rice.
In Mali, 80 percent of all rice is milled on inefficient, diesel-powered machines. Milling needs to be more modern and specialized. Once we reach that point, it will improve the quality of rice products, but it will also create much-needed jobs for young men and women who are educated but struggle to find meaningful work.
One of the things we’ve come to realize is that, in Mali, sprinkling nutrients on rice doesn’t work very well in terms of improving nutrition due to this country’s socio-cultural norms. It works in the United States because there is a robust food safety system in place that people trust, so they can forego rinsing. But in Mali, washing rice before cooking it is essential and customary, so cleanliness and fortification go hand in hand. Increasingly, people are more likely to buy rice because of proper packaging, taste and, of course, price. At Malô, we’re working toward a more modern, sophisticated process for fortification while also developing products that will be culturally appealing to our consumers.
Are there any exciting new products you’re helping bring to the market in partnership with the farming cooperatives you’re working with?
We see great export potential for Timbuktu rice, which is an indigenous, organic heirloom variety. High-value crops like these can be a game changer for smallholder farmers. Connecting farmers to export markets has significant potential to encourage existing farmers and new farmers/entrepreneurs to invest and view farming and food processing as a serious, viable career.
In your mind, what does it mean to be a social entrepreneur? How do you think the private sector can advance agriculture and food security in a profitable but also sustainable way that reduces poverty and hunger?
We see social entrepreneurship as existing at the nexus between a deep challenge and a powerful opportunity, and we’re working to address multiple challenges at one time. If Malô’s model succeeds and is replicated and taken to a larger scale, it will have an impact on food availability, nutrition, employment, education and the environment (e.g. energy production from biomass).
Our business philosophy is rooted in partnership with communities and our strategy is to work from short-, medium- and long-term goals, always with the vision of sustainable agricultural growth and food security in mind. We strongly believe in the power of food – from farming to grocery stores to fine dining – to drive countries like Mali forward.
What’s next for Malô? How are you expanding your operations as this new guaranteed buyer model takes off in Mali?
We expect to see additional financing in 2015 that we’ll use to expand our capacity, including acquiring new equipment and production space. This expansion will coincide with the counter-season harvest in June this year.
Our facility will also have a boutique which will carry fortified rice as well as fruits, vegetables and poultry products from our family farm and farming partners. Above the boutique we designed an open workspace that will be open for local and visiting social entrepreneurs.
We’re working to be at the forefront of innovation by constantly studying trends in technology and business and seeing how they can be applied at the grassroots.
49 813 Réfugiés recensés par les autorités
39 716 Réfugiés vérifiés et préenregistrés par le HCR depuis Mai 2013
29 682 Réfugiés vivant au camp de Minawao
10 034 Réfugiés pré-enregistrés dans les zones frontalières de la région de l’Extrême Nord et en attente du transfert vers le camp de Minawao
1130 Nouveaux arrivés au camp de Minawao au cours de la période en revue
Malgré la situation sécuritaire volatile, le HCR a pu, avec l’appui des autorités locales, organiser la semaine passée, le transfert de 332 réfugiés de la ville de Mora au camp de Minawao. Une évaluation de la situation est en cours pour organiser le même exercice pour relocaliser quelques 2000 réfugiés de la localité de Mozogo.
The year opened with a worsening of the ongoing conflicts in Yemen, Nigeria and Ukraine, each with potentially major regional implications. Violence escalated in Sudan, as well as in Lebanon's Tripoli and along its southern border with Israel, and a deadly clash between police and militants in the southern Philippines threatened to derail the peace process there. In South Asia, both Bangladesh and Nepal saw political tensions intensify. On a positive note, the Sri Lanka elections resulted in a peaceful transition of power from long-time President Mahinda Rajapaksa to Maithripala Sirisena, despite initial fears of election-related violence.
Yemen’s downward spiral took yet another dramatic turn. President Hadi and the government resigned on 22 January after Huthi rebels consolidated control over Sanaa and put Hadi under virtual house arrest. The entire political process established with the signing of a UN-backed peace and power-sharing agreement in September has been thrown into question, raising the prospect of territorial fragmentation, economic meltdown and widespread violence – as outlined in our Conflict Alert. There is little external actors can do at this point, except possibly Saudi Arabia and Iran, to influence Yemen’s internal political dynamics. The Huthis have set a 4 February deadline for all parties to reach a power-sharing agreement or they will assume control of the state through a “revolutionary leadership”. Yemen again made international headlines for its connection with global terrorism as al-Qaeda on the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Yemen’s local branch, claimed responsibility for the 7 January Charlie Hebdo attack in Paris.
The significant increase in Boko Haram attacks in Nigeria’s north throughout 2014 was compounded by what may have been the insurgent group’s deadliest attack yet. Reports suggest in early January they killed anywhere between 150 and 2,500 civilians in Borno state. As the February elections loom, there is a danger that ongoing insecurity in the north could worsen potential political violence and undermine the credibility of the polls, as discussed in our recent report on violence and the elections.
The most intense fighting for many months in eastern Ukraine resulted in heavy civilian and military casualties and a significant increase in internally displaced civilians, and further undermined peace talks. It also led to heightened concern in Western capitals that Russia has not abandoned the idea of open military intervention. The stated aim of the separatists is to seize the totality of Donetsk oblast, but there is so far no conclusive change in the balance of military power in the east. The possibility of a resumption of full-fledged hostilities, and the risk of a humanitarian crisis during winter, were discussed in our recent report. Without immediate and forceful international intervention to end the fighting, the current offensive could herald the beginning of a new and very costly military conflict.
As anticipated last month, violence once again increased in Sudan following the collapse of peace talks between the government and rebel groups in Darfur, Blue Nile and South Kordofan, as both sides launched major offensives in the disputed areas. (See our new report). In late January, a Hizbollah attack on an Israeli military convoy along Lebanon’s southern border – retaliation for an Israeli airstrike that killed six of its fighters in the Golan Heights – caused fears of an impending all-out confrontation, although both parties said they wanted to avoid a costly escalation. Earlier in January, a deadly suicide attack in Tripoli shook the relative calm that had prevailed in the city for months. In the southern Philippines, 44 police and at least seven civilians were killed in a clash between police and MILF militants, undermining support for last year’s historical peace agreement between the government and the longstanding rebel group at a critical time in its implementation.
In South Asia, the first anniversary of Bangladesh’s disputed January 2014 elections saw dozens killed in clashes between government and opposition groups, and marked the start of a new phase of the political deadlock between the ruling Awami League and opposition Bangladesh National Party. Tensions between Nepal’s political parties worsened when they failed to reach consensus on a draft constitution before a self-imposed 22 January deadline. Sri Lanka’s long-time President Mahinda Rajapaksa surprised many observers when he conceded defeat to opposition candidate Maithripala Sirisena in the 8 January presidential election, following a largely peaceful election day. Sirisena has promised reform, including more meaningful devolution of power and accountability. However, international pressure and support will be needed for those promises to be met and the political transition to succeed (as discussed in our recent briefing).
Réapprendre à vivre ensemble et reconstruire l'économie locale
Ce conflit qui sévit depuis 2012 a aggravé une situation déjà difficile pour les populations locales et notamment celles de la région de Gao. Insécurité alimentaire omniprésente du fait d’un climat hostile nuisant à la qualité des récoltes, malnutrition répandue à l’ensemble de la population, défiance entre les populations retournées et celles restées malgré les conflits, sont autant de fléaux qui ravagent les populations et qui nécessitent une action à la mesure de leur importance. Réapprendre à vivre ensemble pour ces communautés et contribuer à reconstruire l’économie locale forment ici l’engagement d’ACTED au Mali.
Transmettre les savoirs techniques et financiers
3790 ménages vulnérables à Menaka ont accès à leurs besoins de base avec un projet que nos équipes mettent en place depuis octobre 2014, avec le soutien de la Coopération Suisse. Outre la fourniture d’une aide alimentaire aux ménages les plus fragilisés, la fourniture d’une aide monétaire permet également une restauration de leurs moyens d’existence.
Afin que cet appui soit durable, les communautés doivent développer l’autonomie et les compétences nécessaires pour assurer la pérennité de ces projets de relèvement. C’est pourquoi ACTED travaille avec 20 groupements de femmes et de jeunes pour transmettre des savoirs techniques et financiers pour que ceux-ci puissent créer des activités génératrices de revenus dans les divers secteurs de l’économie locale (agriculture, élevage, commerce, etc…). ACTED accompagne également 100 jeunes en leur proposant de suivre une formation professionnelle de qualité auprès d’un maître-artisan.
L'importance de la cohésion sociale
Nos équipes soutiennent également les populations dans le renforcement de la cohésion sociale, en sensibilisant la population au « vivre ensemble » par différents moyens (séances de sensibilisation, diffusions de spots radios, etc…) et tout particulièrement par la formation des populations aux techniques de résolution pacifique des conflits.
Conscients que ces besoins ne se limitent pas à la seule région de Gao mais s’étendent à tout le Nord du Mali, nous avons décidé de travailler avec le Conseil Danois pour les Réfugiés pour répandre ces activités dans la région de Mopti.
Snapshot 28 January – 3 February 2015
DRC: 30,000 refugees have fled CAR for Equateur province since December. In North Kivu, 18,000 new IDPs need humanitarian assistance; another 21,000 are in need in South Kivu. Nationwide, food security is worsening: over one-third of territories are in Crisis or Emergency phases.
South Sudan: The number of Sudanese refugees arriving in Yida is more than double that of the same time last year, and 15,000 could arrive by June. In Unity state, 9,000 new IDPs registered in Bentiu Protection of Civilians site in less than a week due to renewed clashes.
Sudan: Attacks by the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces in North Darfur and fighting between government and opposition forces in Jebel Marra has resulted in up to 92,000 newly displaced. Further heavy bombing has since been reported in Jebel Marra.
FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT
Cereal production is estimated to increase in 2014
Harvesting of the 2014 cereal crops is about to conclude. Most parts of the country witnessed erratic and below-average rains until mid-July that resulted in replanting in some areas. However, precipitation improved significantly since the last dekad of July over the main producing areas, thus replenishing water reserves, providing relief to stressed crops and improving crop conditions in most parts of the country. As a result, the National Agricultural Statistics Service has forecasted an above average harvest for 2014.
In agriculture, good seeds make good harvests. And in Senegal, good harvests make for better incomes for farmers and improved food security for all.
To this end, Feed the Future is helping farmers in the Senegal River Valley access more and better seeds by upgrading the infrastructure for seed processing and introducing new models for management of these facilities. One seed processing plant has since doubled its annual output of certified quality seeds to better meet demand.
“With a modernized facility and a new, innovative business model, we can meet our targets for high-quality, certified seeds across the entire valley region – and on time,” says Ousseynou Ndiaye, president of the region’s primary farmers’ union. “Certified seeds can increase yields by up to 25 percent.”
On the edge of the Senegal River Valley, a focus region for the U.S. Government’s Feed the Future initiative given its high food security needs and potential, Senegal’s Regional Directorate for Rural Development had been operating the seed treatment center since 1997. The center developed seeds for the entire valley.
But with infrastructure dating back to the French colonial era and equipment consisting of just two, old processing lines, the center struggled to meet the demand of seed business operators and farmers as the country grew and the economy expanded. With a capacity of just 3,500 tons a year, the center’s antiquated infrastructure fell far short of meeting demand for quality seeds year after year.
In line with the priority given to seed availability in Senegal’s national rice self-sufficiency program, Feed the Future invested in modernizing and rehabilitating the center by adding a new sorting line that increased capacity by 3.5 tons per hour. This upgrade has enabled the center to double annual production from 3,000 to 6,000 tons. A new generator keeps the center operating despite frequent power outages.
After completing the renovation, Feed the Future brought the Ministry of Agriculture together with the Northern Seed Cooperative union, representing 90 percent of the Rift Valley’s farmers, to allow the private sector organization to manage and improve productivity of the government-owned facility.
“We will manage the center more efficiently with this partnership,” Ndiaye says. “The improved capacity at the center will allow us to purchase additional equipment such as a weigh bridge and mobile seed treatment units to cover remote areas to the south and east.”
Center director Mamadou Diop added that not only can the revitalized facility help the government meet higher demand for certified seeds, but it also improves working conditions for staff.
Feed the Future also facilitated the construction of a second, new seed processing plant in the region through another public-private partnership, helping Senegal boost its annual rice and other cereal seed processing capacity by 11,000 tons.
While public-private partnership negotiations can be long and arduous, Senegal’s Ministry of Agriculture believes Feed the Future has helped pave the way for it to further expand seed processing and storage capacity across the country to help achieve Senegal’s goal of agricultural self-sufficiency. It all starts with good seed.
· During Q4-2014, FAO’s global cereal price index decreased by 7% year-on-year, but on average, it remained at the level of the previous quarter.
· Real prices of maize have fallen by 14% since Q4-2013. They are up 1% from Q3-2014 after the low in September/October.
· On average, real prices of wheat remained constant between Q3 and Q4-2014. Global wheat supplies for 2014/15 are up thanks to increased production and beginning stocks; thus price levels in Q4-2014 are 17% lower than a year ago.
· Real prices of rice fell and they are down an average 2% since Q3-2014. Global export supplies are at a record high, as are consumption projections for 2014/15.
· In Q4-2014, real prices for crude oil dropped by a third compared to the year before.
· Despite the low global price levels for staple foods, the cost of the minimum food basket increased severely (>10%) during Q4-2014 in Armenia, Chad, Guinea-Bissau, the Kyrgyz Republic, South Sudan and Syria. High increases (5-10%) were seen in Burkina Faso, Honduras, Kenya, Liberia and Northern Nigeria.
· Price spikes, as monitored by ALPS (Alert for Price Spikes), are evident in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Sudan and Sudan (see the map below). These spikes indicate crisis levels for the most important staple in the country.