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    Source: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
    Country: Mali, Switzerland

    Dans un contexte post-crise, la Suisse a su ajuster son soutien aux populations de Tombouctou, Youwarou et Niafunké avec un programme de transition entre les actions humanitaires d’urgence et celles de développement à long terme.

    Malgré un contexte sécuritaire tendu, la Direction du développement et de la coopération (DDC) a continué ses actions dans le Nord du Mali en 2014, toute en adaptant ses modalités d’intervention. Elle est l’une des rares coopérations internationales à avoir répondu aux besoins immédiats des communautés affectées par le conflit. Elle a ainsi renforcé les moyens et capacités des associations communautaires, des autorités locales et du secteur privé. Par le biais du programme de relance socio-économique au Nord (ARSEN), la Suisse a contribué au retour des services décentralisés de l’Etat. En effet, des infrastructures étatiques ont été réhabilitées et une vingtaine d’écoles ainsi qu’une radio communautaire rénovées. Les communautés disposent, aujourd’hui, de points d’eau et d’un marché à bétail. 70 projets économiques ont été réalisés, permettant à plus de 2’000 femmes, hommes et aux déplacés d’entamer des activités génératrices de revenus.

    ARSEN vient en soutien aux autres programmes de la DDC dans le domaine de l’agriculture, l’éducation et la gestion publique locale. Face aux difficultés institutionnelles, la DDC s’est appuyée sur les organisations non gouvernementales et les bureaux d’études locaux afin d’assurer une mise en œuvre effective des projets. Ces derniers ont réalisé des études de faisabilité, participé au processus de passation des marchés et mis en œuvre des projets en étroite collaboration avec les autorités locales. Cette approche a permis une gestion de proximité du programme garantissant ainsi la rapidité dans l’exécution. De la sorte, les collectivités et associations ont pu également renforcer leurs capacités.


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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Mali, occupied Palestinian territory, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Western Sahara, World, Yemen

    SC/11376

    2014 Round-up
    Security Council
    Round-up Release

    Seized with a succession of new crises in Europe, the Middle East and across Africa, the Security Council in 2014 tackled an expanding workload in a record number of meetings while seeking to defeat terrorism, prevent conflicts, protect civilians, and improve the effectiveness of sanctions and other tools to quell tensions and neutralize threats.

    In total, the Council this year convened 241 public meetings, up sharply from the 172 held in 2013. There were eight high-level meetings, including notably a September summit of Heads of State and Government on terrorism, as the unparalleled brutal tactics of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant/Sham (ISIL/ISIS) and other groups swept across Iraq and Syria and regions in Africa.

    In country- or region-specific situations, about 55 per cent of the Council's meetings related to Africa, compared to 2013, when 75 per cent concerned that continent. Europe was addressed in 28 per cent of meetings as political turmoil in Ukraine turned into full-blown conflict in the country’s east.

    Africa certainly remained a major concern with the situation in Sudan and South Sudan the subject of most of those meetings, after the political dispute in South Sudan devolved into factional violence that sent up to 100,000 people fleeing to United Nations bases. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa was deemed a new threat to international peace and security as it grew exponentially in three countries emerging from conflict; a resolution countering isolation of those countries and mobilizing aid had the most sponsors in the Council’s history.

    In addition, with last year’s political crisis in the Central African Republic spiralling into inter-community violence, the Council approved the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission there, known as MINUSCA. Council members visited Mali as the peacekeeping operation there suffered numerous attacks in the restive north. The body also addressed a new round of deep instability in Libya.

    In the Middle East, the Council ramped up its meetings on the Palestinian question as hope for negotiations faded and a war erupted between Israel and Hamas in Gaza, leaving thousands dead. With hundreds of thousands killed and little political progress in Syria, the humanitarian situation there was deemed a separate threat to international peace, resulting in actions on humanitarian access. The situation in Yemen was also newly deemed a threat with international import amid fresh assaults on the democratic transition, against which the Council targeted a new sanctions regime.

    Elsewhere, the situation in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea became its own agenda item, apart from considerations of its item on non-proliferation, after a horrifying human rights report was sent to the Council by the General Assembly, which urged referral to the International Criminal Court. On Afghanistan, the Council shepherded the end of the transition to national control of the security sector, as insurgent attacks again took a significant toll.

    Addressing these situations and dozens of others, the Council adopted 63 resolutions and issued 28 presidential statements. Once again it strove for consensus, with only three texts adopted through a vote, although a year-end draft requiring a lasting settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict within three years failed to obtain the needed majority.

    Two other texts — one that would have termed invalid a referendum in Crimea that preceded its joining the Russian Federation and one on referring gross human rights violations in Syria to the International Criminal Court — were vetoed by the Russian Federation, along with China in the latter case, again showing the divisions that constrained action on some of the most difficult situations.

    In the interest of improving effectiveness and transparency in those and all other areas, October’s day-long debate on working methods drew 55 speakers with much attention given to the current use of sanctions and referrals to the International Criminal Court. The first focused assessment of sanctions since 2006 was also conducted.

    More emphasis on conflict prevention was urged at all opportunities for Council self-evaluation; signs of potential crises were increasingly discussed under the item “Other issues”. Prevention was also a central focus of a visiting mission to Europe on the 100th anniversary of the start of the First World War, after which Council members visited South Sudan, where the mandate of the peacekeeping mission was adjusted to better protect civilians seeking refuge at United Nations bases.

    The Council’s ability to adapt to changing challenges was also a focus in open thematic meetings on improving the deployment of police in United Nations peacekeeping operations, as well as on protecting and empowering women, children and other civilians in the context of massive displacement and the ever more brutal face of terrorism.

    In addition to its meetings on terrorism, the Council issued 138 press statements, at least 90 of which condemned particular terrorist acts around the world. It continued to monitor compliance with counter-terrorism resolutions through its subsidiary bodies, calling special attention to efforts to keep weapons of mass destruction out of the hands of terrorists on the tenth anniversary of resolution 1540 (2004).

    Aside from MINUSCA, the Council authorized no new peacekeeping operations in 2014. It did, however, terminate the mandates in four Special Political Missions: the peacebuilding offices in the Central African Republic (BINUCA), Burundi (BNUB), and Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL) and the Joint Mission with the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which completed its work of destroying declared materials in Syria.

    Public monthly wrap-ups of the Council’s work were held, for the first time since 2005, under Rwanda’s presidency. With the aim of analysing the month’s activities, the presidencies of the United Kingdom, Argentina, Australia and Chad followed suit.

    In its October elections this year, the General Assembly choose Angola, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain and Venezuela to serve two-year terms as non-permanent Council members, starting on 1 January 2015. They replaced Argentina, Australia, Luxembourg, Republic of Korea and Rwanda, which concluded their terms on 31 December 2014. Chad, Chile, Jordan, Lithuania and Nigeria will complete their terms at the end of 2015. China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and the United States are permanent Council members.


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    Source: Department for International Development
    Country: Malawi, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    In 2013-14, DFID spent £85 million reducing poverty in Malawi

    GIRLS AND WOMEN

    23,000 women have gained access to financial services by September 2014.

    13,000 girls were supported with secondary school bursaries by September 2014.

    406,000 women will be supported to have improved access to security and justice by the end of 2015.

    196,000 women had sustainable access to clean drinking water sources through DFID support by September 2014.

    350,000 additional women were using modern methods of family planning through DFID support by September 2014.

    HUMANITARIAN

    600,000 people were reached with emergency food assistance by March 2014.

    WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE

    750,000 people will benefit from safer water and improved sanitation by the end of 2016.

    HEALTH

    60,000 births have been attended by skilled health workers through DFID support by September 2014.

    GOVERNANCE

    5.2 million people voted in elections supported by DFID in May 2014.

    JOBS AND GROWTH

    33,000 people were supported with access to financial services by September 2014.


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    Source: Department for International Development
    Country: Nigeria, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    In 2013-14, DFID’s programme in Nigeria was £266 million

    GIRLS AND WOMEN

    1.4 million pregnant women and children received help with nutrition in 2013-14.

    4.7 million more pregnant women and children will have improved nutrition by the end of 2015.

    JOBS AND GROWTH

    In the last year we’ve helped 470,000 people increase their incomes by more than 15% and since 2011 we’ve helped over 7 million people gain access formal financial services.

    WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE

    2.3 million people have already benefitted from cleaner water and villages free from defecation in the street. By 2015 this will have increased to 5.5 million people.

    HEALTH

    Since 2011 4.5 million malaria bed nets have been distributed and 430,000 births have been attended by skilled health workers.

    GOVERNANCE

    We supported elections where 40 million people voted in 2011 and will support elections in 2015 when 55 million people are expected to vote.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    ABOUT THIS REPORT

    To project food security outcomes, FEWS NET uses scenario development. Commonly used by planners and researchers to forecast likely events, this methodology takes a set of informed assumptions about the future and compares their possible effects. Scenario development cannot predict exact outcomes but it structures the analysis and helps minimize uncertainty. This report, developed by FEWS NET analysts based on current evidence, outlines assumptions at the regional level. Analysts also develop assumptions at the country level, which are specific to that country and likely to be more detailed. Together, the regional and national assumptions are the foundation for the integrated analysis reported in FEWS NET’s Food Security Outlooks and Outlook Updates. Learn more about FEWS NET and scenario development at www.fews.net.
    FEWS NET’s Food Security Outlook reports for January to June 2015 are based on the following regional assumptions:

    Start of season (SOS) / Agroclimatology

    Since early November, parts of the region have experienced infrequent and below-average rainfall, leading to abnormal dryness in eastern and central Zambia, northern Mozambique, northern Malawi, and northeastern South Africa. This delayed and erratic onset of seasonal rainfall is likely to shorten the window of time needed for crops to grow and mature before the end of the season or before mid-season dry spells set-in, which can result in reduced crop yields. In addition, green and main harvests are expected to be slightly delayed.

    Current forecasts now indicate a 50 to 60 percent chance of an El Niño event occurring during the current rainfall season. The El Niño phenomenon is usually associated with below-average rainfall (40 percent chance or more) in many southern parts of the region. While El Niño generally increases chances of below-average rainfall, affected areas vary with every El Niño occurrence.

    Consistent with the El Niño probability forecast, national meteorological 2014/15 seasonal forecasts for many southern Africa countries, and the SADC regional forecast update, indicate a likelihood of normal to below-normal rainfall in the southern and central parts of the region during the second half of the season (January to March). These forecasts are consistent with several international forecasts (Figure 2), and with the expected impact of the negative subtropical Indian Ocean Dipole (SIOD) currently observed. This is likely to result in an overall below-average seasonal performance in the affected parts of the region.

    The national forecasts, as well as the SARCOF forecast indicate that January to March rainfall totals are expected to be near average in many of the central and northern parts of the region, including those that experienced a delayed start of season. If rainfall improves during the second half of the season, the cropping season will likely progress as normal and the impact on food security outcomes will be minimal. However poor rains during the January-March period, as predicted by several forecasts, will result in delayed and poor green harvest and will likely have adverse impact on household food security from January through March and during the 2015/16 consumption period.

    The January to March forecast for normal to above-normal rains in some areas may increase chances of flooding in several areas in the region, including parts of southern Malawi, central Mozambique, western Zambia, and northern Zimbabwe.


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    Source: Australian Red Cross
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    More than 25,000 people fleeing the violence in north-eastern Nigeria have sought refuge in neighbouring Niger, where Red Cross is providing food, blankets and other essential items.

    The violence in north-eastern Nigeria continues to drive people from their homes and force them to flee across the border to Niger's far south-eastern Diffa area. Here, they live under very difficult conditions.

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is working with Red Cross in Niger to provide food and other relief.

    "In addition to caring for wounded people, we urgently need to provide food, drinking water and basic household items to the thousands - mostly women and children - who continue to flee the violence," explained Loukas Petridis, head of the ICRC delegation in Niger.

    The clashes and resulting poor security have nearly emptied border towns and villages in north-eastern Nigeria, as people have fled to Niger.

    In November and December 2014, almost 21,000 people received food aid, and a further 1,000 families received household essential such as blankets, tarpaulins, clothes and kitchen utensils.

    Over the past three months, more than 25,000 people (residents, displaced people and returnees) have been aided by the ICRC, which worked closely with the Red Cross Society of Niger to deliver food aid for nearly 45,000 people last year.

    Some 50 wounded people have also received care at the Diffa regional hospital and the Bosso integrated health centre, two facilities supported by the ICRC. An ICRC surgical team spent three weeks at the Diffa hospital: working with the surgical department on surgical techniques, monitoring of patients, and treating gunshot wounds.

    "We are very concerned about the number of displaced people arriving in recent weeks and above all about their extreme vulnerability," Mr Petridis said. "Some are wounded, some sick, some have lost contact with their families. Most have been directly affected by the violence and have lost their belongings and their livelihoods."

    More than ever, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement remains poised to come to the aid of people fleeing the violence in north-eastern Nigeria.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone

    CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (CAR)
    10,000 FLEE VIOLENCE IN OUAKA PROVINCE TO DRC
    On 9 January, UNHCR reported that since 16 December, 10,000 people from CAR have fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) after violent clashes between ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka in Ouaka Province. There is an estimated total of 68,000 CAR refugees in DRC.

    REFUGEE RETURN TO BOCARANGA From 5 to 11 January, some 300 Central African families who had sought refuge in Cameroon returned spontaneously to their hometown, Bocaranga, requiring assistance in the reconstruction of destroyed houses.

    NIGERIA
    21 KILLED IN SUICIDE ATTACKS IN MAIDUGURI AND POSTIKUM
    On 10 January, at least 16 people were killed in a suicide attack in Maiduguri, Borno state. A day later, two simultaneously detonated devices at a market in Potiskum, Yobe state, killed at least five people.

    150,000 INTERNALLY DISPLACED AFTER BAGA ATTACKS
    Attacks on Baga and neighboring villages, in Borno State, have displaced an estimated total of 150,000 people, according to the State Emergency Management Authority (SEMA). The state capital, Maiduguri, continues to receive high numbers of IDPs, seeking refuge in both camps and host communities.

    CHAD
    11,320 CROSS FROM NIGERIA AFTER BAGA ATTACKS
    According to UNHCR, some 11,320 people have crossed the border to Chad following the 3 January attack on Baga town and surrounding villages. Some 2,000 people stranded on an island on Lake Chad are being transferred by UNHCR o the mainland.

    CAMEROON
    50,000 DISPLACED PEOPLE IN NORTHERN REGIONS
    Security continues to deteriorate in border areas with Nigeria, with new clashes between Boko Haram insurgents and Cameroonian forces reported on 12 January. The Government of Cameroon estimates that insecurity has displaced 50,000 people in the Far North, North and East regions.

    COTE D’IVOIRE
    2,000 DISPLACED DUE TO INSECURITY IN THE WEST
    On 10 and 11 January, attacks by unidentified armed elements in western Cote D’Ivoire, near Grabo, have caused the displacement of approximately 2,000 people, mainly from the village of Dahioké, towards surrounding villages.

    REGIONAL / EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE (EVD)
    21,261 CASES AND 8,414 DEATHS
    As of 13 January, 21,261 confirmed, probable and suspected cases of EVD have been reported in the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone), with 8,414 reported deaths.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone

    REPUBLIQE CENTRAFRICAINE (RCA)
    10 000 FUIENT VERS LA RDC SUITE AUX VIOLENCES A OUAKA
    Le 9 Janvier, le HCR a indiqué que depuis le 16 Décembre, 10 000 personnes de la RCA ont fui vers la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) après de violents affrontements entre les ex-Séléka et anti-Balaka dans la province de Ouaka. Il est estimé qu’un total de 68 000 réfugiés centrafricains sont en RDC.

    RETOUR DES REFUGIES A BOCARANGA
    Du 5 au 11 Janvier, quelques 300 familles centrafricaines qui avaient trouvé refuge au Cameroun sont spontanément retournées dans leur ville d’origine, Bocaranga. Une assistance est nécessaire pour la reconstruction des maisons détruites.

    NIGERIA
    21 TUES DANS DES ATTENTATS SUICIDES A MAIDUGURI ET POTISKUM
    Le 10 Janvier, au moins 16 personnes ont été tuées dans un attentat suicide à Maiduguri, dans l’Etat de Borno. Un jour après, deux appareils ont simultanément explosé dans un marché de Potiskum, Etat de Yobe, au moins cinq personnes ont été tuées.

    150 000 PERSONNES DEPLACEES APRES LES ATTQUES DE BAGA
    Les attaques sur Baga et des villages voisins, dans l'Etat de Borno, ont causé le déplacement de près de 150 000 personnes, selon l'Autorité étatique de gestion des urgences (SEMA). La capitale de l'Etat de Borno, Maiduguri, continue de recevoir un nombre élevé de déplacés internes qui essayent de trouver refuge dans les camps et les communautés hôtes.

    TCHAD
    11 320 PERSONNES FUIENT AU TCHAD SUITE AUX ATTAQUES DE BAGA
    Selon le HCR, quelque 11 320 personnes ont traversé la frontière vers le Tchad suite à l’attaque du 3 janvier sur la ville de Baga et des villages environnants. Quelques 2 000 personnes bloquées sur une île du lac Tchad ont été relocalisées par le HCR.

    CAMEROUN
    50 000 PERSONNES DÉPLACÉES DANS LES RÉGIONS DU NORD
    La sécurité continue de se détériorer dans les zones frontalières avec le Nigeria, avec de nouveaux affrontements entre les insurgés de Boko Haram et les forces camerounaises survenus le 12 Janvier. Le gouvernement du Cameroun estime que cette insécurité a causé le déplacement de 50 000 personnes dans les régions de l’Extrême Nord, du Nord et de l'Est.

    COTE D’IVOIRE
    2 000 DÉPLACÉS EN RAISON DE L'INSÉCURITÉ À L’OUEST
    Les 10 et 11 janvier, des attaques par des éléments armés non identifiés dans l'ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire, près de Grabo, ont provoqué le déplacement d'environ 2 000 personnes, principalement du village de Dahioké, vers les villages environnants.

    REGIONAL / LA MALADIE A VIRUS EBOLA (MVE)
    21 261 CAS ET 8 414 DÉCÈS
    Au 14 janvier, 21 261 cas confirmés, probables et suspects de la maladie à virus Ebola ont été notifiés dans les trois pays les plus affectés (Guinée, Liberia et Sierra Leone). Un total de 8 414 décès a été enregistré


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger

    Operational Highlights

    In 2015, the operation will focus on the following areas: Ensure an active participation and an active participation and close involvement of refugees in programmes and activities that affect their lives; Seeking ivities durable solutions for refugees; Integration of basic programme's activities such as health and education into the national system.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger

    Situation overview

    In northern Mali, the security situation remains volatile. In addition, social and economic conditions have not yet been restored. The situation is not yet conducive for sustainable returns in safety and dignity. UNHCR continues to facilitate voluntary spontanous return for protection reasons following requests for assistance made by refugees.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Nigeria

    By Samuel Kaalu

    Once a long way from water and lacking proper hygiene and sanitation practices, a small community in Nigeria has benefitted noticeably from a multiyear project aimed at changing behaviours and reaching millions with clean water.

    BAUCHI, Nigeria, 15 January 2015 – As Jamila Nuhu, 25, replaces the cover of the plastic jug she has filled at a hand pump a few minutes’ walk from her home, she remembers how she used to walk long distances in search of water. A few years ago, she would have trekked hours in each direction. Today it takes five minutes.

    The borehole was constructed by UNICEF in 2012 with funding from the UK Department for International Development (DFID), as part of the Sanitation, Hygiene and Water in Nigeria project (SHAWN). Before then, the people of Tsohongarin Lukshi in Bauchi State, north-east Nigeria, had no borehole, and their nearest source of water was a stream three hours from the community.

    “The stream is very far away from our village. By the time we find water and return home, we are too tired to do anything for the rest of the day,” says Ms. Nuhu. “And it wasn’t exactly clean water we got, coming from the stream.”

    Changing behaviour

    Along with bringing water to Tsohongarin Lukshi, the SHAWN project also helped change behavior among the 807 residents of this farming community.

    In 2012, there was no latrine here, and open defecation was a common practice. Today there are 72 household latrines, and the community has been declared open-defecation free.

    The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Committee (WASHCOM), formed in the community in 2012 and made up of five men and four women, has helped raise awareness on hygiene practices and the importance of defecating in latrines. UNICEF and the Rural Water and Sanitation Agency (RUWASA) have also trained members on borehole maintenance, basic bookkeeping and general roles and responsibilities. The committee shares its messages with the community at social gatherings such as naming ceremonies and weddings.

    Ms. Nuhu, a beneficiary of the WASHCOM’s efforts, demonstrates her knowledge. Before entering her kitchen to start cooking, she washes her hands with soap. “Hand washing with soap before cooking keeps the food from contamination from dirty hands and protects my family from disease,” she says.

    Through monthly contributions, the committee also supports latrine construction and raises funds for the repair of boreholes, and it conducts house-to-house visits to ensure homes have the proper sanitation and hygiene facilities, with female WASHCOM members talking to women on personal hygiene.

    Improving health

    Istifanus Musa, 39, a health worker at Tsohongarin Lukshi Maternity Health Clinic, leafs through the clinic record book and reads out some statistics. “In 2012, we had 40 cases of diarrhoea, 20 cases of dysentery and 28 cases of typhoid reported at the clinic. In 2013, the numbers were 27 for diarrhoea, 22 for dysentery and 13 for typhoid fever. So I would say that the trend is on the decline,” he says.

    He attributes the declining cases of waterborne diseases at the clinic to safe water and improved sanitation and hygiene in the community. With the record from January to September 2014 showing 10 cases of diarrheoa, 19 cases of dysentery and 10 for typhoid, one is inclined to agree.

    Bioye Ogunjobi, UNICEF Water and Sanitation Officer, says the SHAWN project has brought about changes in the entire Dass Local Government Area (LGA) where the project is being implemented. “Before the intervention, there were 3,965 household latrines in Dass LGA. But we now have a total of 36,076 household latrines and 305 public toilets,” says Mr. Ogunjobi. “All the 351 communities in Dass LGA are no longer defecating in the open and are now open defecation free.”

    In terms of water supply, the project has provided 308 hand pumps and motorized boreholes, compared to 116 in 2010. The number of beneficiaries with improved access to water has also risen from 40,316 to 77,507.

    According to 2013 Nigeria’s National Demographic and Health Survey, only 49 per cent of households in rural areas have access to safe water, compared to 76 per cent in urban areas; in terms of sanitation, 25 per cent of rural households have access to improved sanitation, compared to 37 per cent in urban areas.

    With the SHAWN project spread over eight local government areas, Jamila Nuhu is one of the over a million people in Bauchi State it is expected to reach by 2018 with access to safe drinking water, improved sanitation and support for proper hygiene practices.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Mali

    Highlights

    The two-month November/December distributions are under way. The distributions, targeting 352,374 beneficiaries, were completed on 15 December.

    Situation Update

    • The security situation in northern Mali continues to deteriorate with an increase in IEDs, mortar attacks and other security incidents. This is having an overall impact on WFP’s activities and limits staff movement.

    In numbers

    The November “Cadre Harmonisé” identified 263,049 food insecure people that required immediate food assistance out of which WFP assists 219,884 beneficiaries through general food distributions.

    Funding Update:

    No additional contributions were received during the reporting period for the Mali Country Office’s projects: EMOP 200525, CP 105830 and SO 200521.

    Food Security Cluster

    In total, 3.3 million people have been assisted by Cluster activities since March 2014. During the 2014 agricultural season, approximately 1.26 million people received livelihood support through the Cluster.

    UNHAS

    Due to an acute funding shortfall, UNHAS has reduced services as of 29 September 2014. With only one aircraft available, seats have been reduced from 30 to 18 seats.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria

    Abuja, Nigeria, 15 January 2015, UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency in Nigeria has facilitated the return of some 400 Cameroon refugees who have freely chosen to return to their native villages in Akwaya sub-division of the South West region of Cameroon after six years of stay on Nigerian territory.

    The decision by UNHCR to assist the refugees was taken following a profiling exercise in 2010 in which an estimated 200 refugees opted for voluntary repatriation. Series of consultations were conducted with the Nigerian and Cameroonian authorities and UNHCR Branch Office in Yaounde to ensure that their areas of return are now conducive for a voluntary repatriation in safety and in dignity. From 27-30 October 2014; UNHCR conducted its last registration and assessment missions to ascertain the return conditions.

    The refugees are supported with transportation through designated and agreed routes, luggage allowance of 50kg per individual from Agbatse in Benue State of Nigeria to Lagos (in Akwaya), on the Cameroon border, free vaccination against yellow fever, polio and meningitis and voluntary return cash grant of USD 150 per adult refugee or USD 75 per minor refugee.

    The refugees fled into Nigeria in January 2008 following violent clashes between the Olitis and Oyive communities over a longstanding chieftaincy dispute. The clashes resulted in the death of people and destruction of properties, forcing the two communities to cross into two different states in Nigeria-Cross River and Benue States (The Oyives into Benue and Olitis into Cross River State).

    Despite the fact that refugees lived in remote and inaccessible rural communities, UNHCR regularly provided them healthcare, livelihood sustenance activities, education and other forms of assistance throughout their stay in Nigeria. Following a screening mission conducted by UNHCR and the National Commission for Refugees, majority of the case load hosted in the Cross River State was closed by the Eligibility Committee because many had either returned on their own or benefitted from dual nationality to remain in Nigeria.

    The exercise is coordinated by National Commission for refugees, NCFR, and UNHCR with the participation of representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Cameroon High Commission in Nigeria, Benue State Government, Obalinku Local Government Area, LGA, of Cross Rivers State and security agencies (Nigerian Immigration, Nigerian Police, State Security Services and Nigerian Security and Civil Defence).


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

    PRINCIPAUX PROBLÈMES HUMANITAIRES

    Accès aux services sociaux de base

    L’analyse des clusters montre que l’accès aux services sociaux de base demeure encore limité dans les domaines de la santé, la nutrition, l’eau/l’hygiène et l’assainissement, l’éducation et la protection particulièrement dans les zones de retours des déplacés et refugiés. Cette limitation d’accès est principalement liée à l’insécurité, à l’absence de personnel étatique dans certains domaines, au manque de ressources et de capacités humaines et financières ainsi qu’aux infrastructures publiques endommagées ou non encore fonctionnelles. Cette insuffisance d’accès aux services sociaux de base accroit la vulnérabilité des populations notamment en matière de malnutrition, de santé, de scolarisation et de risques épidémiques.

    Problèmes de protection découlant du conflit

    Environ 230 000 personnes étaient toujours déplacées en octobre 2014 suite au conflit armé de 2012, soit une estimation de 86 000 PDIs (chiffres CMP) et 143 500 réfugiés dans les pays voisins (chiffres UNHCR). Malgré une stabilisation progressive enregistrée en 2013, la situation politique, sécuritaire et humanitaire s’est détériorée à partir de mai 2014 suite aux incidents survenus à Kidal. Près de 600 000 personnes, dont 67,5% sont des retournés et des rapatriés, des déplacées internes et des réfugiés maliens ont toujours besoin de protection. Parmi ces populations, les femmes et les enfants constituent la majorité. La destruction, dans certains cercles, voire l’effritement, dans d’autres, du tissu social causé par le conflit a exacerbé les tensions inter et intra communautaires déjà existantes impactant par là-même le tissu économique. Cette situation a été aggravée par la prolifération des armes ainsi que l’insuffisance de l’accès aux services sociaux de base dans les régions du nord. Des violations et abus des Droits de l’Homme aggravés par les difficultés d’accès à la justice continuent d’être enregistrés dans tout le pays et particulièrement dans le nord - arrestations et détentions arbitraires, atteintes à la liberté de mouvement, recrutement d’enfants au sein des forces et groupes armés, violences basées sur le genre, exécutions sommaires et disparitions forcées etc.

    Les affrontements armés, les risques liés à la présence de Restes Explosifs de Guerre (REG) et les tensions sociales dans les régions du nord du pays continuent d’avoir un impact sur l’accès humanitaire et la situation des droits de l’homme en général et la protection des civils en particulier. Bien que n’étant pas directement lié au conflit, la maladie à virus Ebola présente au Mali depuis octobre 2014 (avec 5 décès et plus de 400 cas suspects ou suivis en novembre 2014) risque d’avoir un impact sur les problèmes de protection, aggravant ainsi ceux résultant du conflit et déjà existants.

    Forte prévalence de la malnutrition et de l’insécurité alimentaire

    Les résultats de la dernière enquête nutritionnelle utilisant la méthodologie SMART démontrent que les taux de malnutrition aigüe globale (MAG) et de malnutrition aigüe sévère (MAS) demeurent élevés au Mali – avec des prévalences qui dépassent les seuils d’urgence dans certaines zones du pays. Selon l’exercice du Cadre Harmonisé de novembre 2014, se référant en partie à l’ENSAN d’octobre 2014, le secteur de la Sécurité Alimentaire au Mali est actuellement marqué par une diminution du nombre de personnes nécessitant une assistance alimentaire immédiate et par une situation d’insécurité alimentaire essentiellement modérée en cette fin d’année dans les régions du nord du Mali (phase 2 : « sous pression »). Cette situation est surtout liée à l’assistance humanitaire menée durant l’ensemble de la période de soudure auprès des populations les plus vulnérables de la zone nord. Malgré une saison pluviale perturbée, la majeure partie des régions du Mali à l’exception de celles du Nord présentent des résultats de campagne agricole plutôt bons selon les prévisions agricoles du Ministère du Développement Rural (à confirmer avec les résultats de l’enquête de conjoncture agricole). Cependant, la zone Sahélienne du pays est cette année aussi affectée par des épisodes de perturbations pluviométriques ayant entrainé des pertes de cheptels dans les zones d’élevage et favorisé la non reconstitution des stocks agricoles familiaux.


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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Nigeria

    Intensifying violence in north-east Nigeria has led to a deterioration in the humanitarian situation. Thousands of people have fled to other parts of Nigeria and into neighbouring countries. Others need urgent medical treatment for their injuries. The ICRC is distributing emergency aid and treating the sick and wounded. But access to certain areas remains difficult and the needs are enormous, so the ICRC has to focus on helping the most vulnerable people. An interview with Beat Mosimann, deputy head of the ICRC delegation in Abuja, Nigeria.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Sudan

    PRINCIPAUX PROBLÈMES HUMANITAIRES

    Insécurité alimentaire et malnutrition

    Au Tchad, près de 2.4 millions de personnes sont en insécurité alimentaire (20%) parmi lesquelles 428 000 personnes (3.6%) sont en situation d’insécurité alimentaire sévère. La situation nutritionnelle es t également alarmante, avec 350 000 cas de malnutrition aiguë globale attendus en 2015 pour les enfants de 6 à 59 mois, parmi lesquels 96 000 en situation de malnutrition aigüe sévère.

    Mouvements de populations

    Le pays accueille, depuis 2003, un large nombre de populations déplacées, en raison de conflits internes et externes. Actuellement, le Tchad compte plus de 700 000 personnes déplacées, composées de refugiés et retournés Tchadiens venus du Soudan, de la RCA, du Nigeria et de la Lybie. Compte tenu de l’instabilité continue dans leurs pays de provenance, leurs perspectives de re tour ne sont pas immédiates. Les communautés qui accueillent ces personnes, estimées à 597 000 personnes, sont également vulnérabl es et ont besoin d'assistance.

    Urgences sanitaires

    La forte prévalence des maladies à potentiel épidémique, telles que le cholera (172 cas en 2014) et la rougeole (10 000 cas en 2014), entraine une morbidité et de nombreux décès parmi la population, particulièrement chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Le paludisme , qui est la première cause de mortalité infantile, a affecté plus de 660 000 personnes en 2014, et ce chiffre devrait atteindre 1 million de cas à la fin de l’année. Le taux de mortalité maternelle au Tchad est le troisième plus élevé au monde (1 084 décès maternels pour 100 000 naissances).

    Catastrophes naturelles

    Des catastrophes naturelles récurrentes affectent le Tchad, principalement des inondations et des sécheresses qui rendent encore plus vulnérables des populations viv ant déjà dans la précarité. En 2014, 39% de la population s’est déclarée touchée par un choc, dont 15% pa r la sécheresse (772 000 personnes), et 9% par les inondations (206 000 personnes).


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal

    Contexte

    La malnutrition est reconnue comme la menace la plus importante pour la survie des enfants, et comme étant responsable de 45% de la mortalité infantile dans le monde chaque année. La mauvaise alimentation occasionne aussi une perte de 11% du potentiel de productivité économique des pays d’Afrique et d’Asie, ayant un fort impact dans le développent cognitif des enfants et la capacité de travail des adultes. La région du Sahel présente un des taux de mortalité infantile (enfant de moins de 5 ans) les plus élevés du monde avec le Burkina, le Mali, le Niger et le Tchad parmi les 15 pays les plus touchés. La malnutrition reste au-dessus des seuils d’urgence même dans les années de bonne production, avec des taux de malnutrition aigüe globale entre 9% au Mali et 18% au Tchad. Les taux de retard de croissance varient entre 23% en Mauritanie et 44 % au Niger. Avec l’actuelle croissance démographique en Afrique, les nombres absolus augmentent chaque année. De plus, les crises (comme les sécheresses, la hausse des prix et les conflits) se succèdent dans la région et la pauvreté ainsi que le manque d'accès à l'eau potable et aux services de santé sont quelques-uns des défis qui détériorent aussi l'état nutritionnel dans la région. Ce constat contraste avec le fait que le Sahel est une région riche en production de bétail, qui représente en moyenne 40% du PIB agricole (80% dans le cas de la Mauritanie). Au Niger par exemple, 79% des ménages élèvent des animaux. L’élevage joue donc un rôle clé en tant que source de revenus pour la majorité des foyers. Les produits animaux représentent aussi une source de protéines de très bonne qualité et fournissent des micronutriments essentiels à la nutrition humaine (ex. fer, calcium, vitamine B12, zinc, etc.) d’une plus haute biodisponibilité que ceux d’origine végétale.

    Dans une zone où la production végétale est limitée tandis que le bétail est abondant, les produits d’origine animale ont un énorme potentiel pour diversifier les régimes alimentaires et combattre la malnutrition et la pauvreté. Toutefois, les projets d’élevage et de nutrition humaine ont souvent été déconnectés. La majorité des interventions dans l’élevage au Sahel a été destinée à améliorer la production (ex. augmenter la production animale, éviter les maladies et diminuer la mortalité des animaux à l’aide de la vaccination ou l’utilisation de races bien adaptées au milieu sahélien) ou à sauvegarder les moyens d’existence. Ces projets ne cherchaient pas souvent à identifier de synergies entre l’élevage et l’état nutritionnel des ménages pauvres. En outre, des expériences concrètes ont démontré qu’une amélioration de la production ne se traduit pas nécessairement par une augmentation de la consommation, et peut même résulter en une diminution, quand l’autoconsommation est remplacée par la vente par exemple. Le fait que les animaux soient gardés pour des raisons autres que la consommation et les revenus (par exemple pour l’épargne, l’assurance ou l’échange social) complique encore plus la compréhension des liens avec la nutrition humaine, dont les interventions se basent plus souvent sur la production végétale. Une meilleure connaissance des voies par lesquelles l’élevage peut contribuer à réduire la malnutrition (chemins d’impact) est fondamentale pour la capitalisation du potentiel du bétail. Pour maximiser l’impact nutritionnel, les interventions en élevage devraient être conçues avec une approche « sensible » à la nutrition et la nutrition considérée comme un point d’entrée pour les programmes de renforcement de la résilience.

    L’engagement politique pour la nutrition est illustré par le nombre croissant de pays adhérant au Mouvement de Renforcement de la Nutrition (SUN: Scaling Up Nutrition ). Les initiatives d’amélioration de la résilience (ex. AGIR) priorisent aussi l’amélioration de la nutrition. Toutefois des efforts importants sont encore nécessaires pour établir avec succès des synergies opérationnelles entre la nutrition et les interventions en élevage, et pour formuler des stratégies intégrées pour réduire la malnutrition. Le succès de ces programmes nécessite une compréhension, un langage commun et une approche partagée entre experts de la production animale et de la nutrition, ainsi que des capacités sur le terrain pour planifier de manière multisectorielle et mesurer les effets des interventions conjointes.

    Afin de répondre à ces besoins, le Bureau Régional de la FAO pour la résilience, les urgences et la réhabilitation en Afrique de l’Ouest/Sahel (REOWA) a organisé en étroite collaboration avec l’Ecole vétérinaire de Londres (RVC), l’Institut internationale de recherche sur l’élevage (ILRI) et les institutions humanitaires travaillant dans l’élevage et la nutrition, un Atelier Régional de Formation pour le Sahel et l’Afrique de l’Ouest, intitulé « Elevage, Moyens d’Existence et Nutrition ».
    L’atelier s’est déroulé à Dakar, Sénégal, entre le 5 et le 7 novembre 2014.


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    Source: UN News Service
    Country: Chad, Mali

    17 January 2015 – United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has today strongly condemned a terrorist attack on a UN base in the town of Kidal, which killed a Chadian peacekeeper and wounded four others.

    “These attacks will not alter the determination of the United Nations to support the Malian people in its search for peace,” said a statement released by the Spokesman for Secretary-General following the latest in a series of armed assaults against UN personnel and contractors in the Kidal and Gao Regions. “This latest attack only highlights the urgency of reaching a political settlement to end the conflict and enable the full restoration of State authority across the entire Malian territory.”

    The Deputy Special Representative in Mali, Arnauld Akodjenou, echoed Mr. Ban's sentiments, stressing that the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) would remain determined to fulfil its Security Council mandate.

    “Such violence against the UN peacekeeping forces is a serious crime and those responsible will be brought to justice,” he said.

    In a press release, the Mission said the base was attacked shortly before 7.00 am, when a suicide vehicle was detonated near a MINUSMA checkpoint about a kilometre away, killing a peacekeeper and wounding another from the Chadian contingent.

    A second vehicle then exploded at one of the base's entrances, while the camp was simultaneously bombarded with at least eight rockets or mortars, two of which landed inside the camp, causing significant damage.

    Both the Secretary-General and the Mission offered condolences to the family of the peacekeeper who was killed, as well as their sympathies to the Government and people and Chad, and wished speedy recoveries to those injured.

    MINUSMA's statement added that the Mission would continue monitoring developments in close cooperation with Malian security forces and Forces working under Operation Barkhane, saying it would support regional and local authorities in their response to the attack, in line with its mandate to protect populations

    The Mission also reiterated its urgent appeal for all parties to stick resolutely to the path of dialogue in the search for lasting peace in the country.


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Malawi

    FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT

    • Delayed and subsequently below-average cumulative rains since October 2014 impeded planting of 2015 cereal crops

    • National maize supplies are favourable, following bumper 2014 harvest

    • National average maize price declines throughout 2014 in response to improved supply situation

    • Overall, food security conditions improved in 2014, but areas where production declines were recorded remain a concern


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