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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria

    UN reports that armed militias are blocking the main roads used by Muslim civilians fleeing CAR for Cameroon, and attacking evacuees; an estimated 14,000 Muslims remain trapped in Boda, surrounded by anti-Balaka armed groups threatening the minority population; 540 Muslims previously trapped in Bossangoa were relocated to Chad through an inter-agency organized escorted convoy.

    Guinea-Bissau's former finance minister, Jose Mario Vaz will face Nuno Gomes Nabiam in a presidential run-off on 18 May. The President’s incumbent party won a majority in the 100-seat parliament with 55 seats; the opposition party came in second with 41 seats. Voter turnout was high at over 80 per cent.

    French forces freed five Malian aid workers kidnapped in February by insurgents in the north of Mali.

    130 Nigerian militant group, Boko Haram, has claimed responsibility for a bombing in the capital, Abuja, on April 14 that killed at least 75 people and injured 133. The next day, the group reportedly kidnapped 230 schoolgirls from a boarding school in Borno state in northeast Nigeria- a stronghold of the insurgents; the girls remain missing. The state of emergency in the northeast imposed since May 2013 expires in May 2014. President Goodluck Jonathan has not yet requested an extension, however, this is likely given on-going insecurity in the region. Reports continue to indicate that Boko Haram moves freely across the northeast’s borders into Cameroon and Niger.

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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Mali

    Security Council


    7158th Meeting (AM)

    While the restoration of constitutional order and the start of talks between the Government and armed groups were "signs of hope" for Mali to overcome its deep crisis, great difficulties remained, with serious consequences for security in the entire Sahel region, the country’s senior United Nations official told the Security Council today.

    "The window of opportunity to consolidate and sustain peace and stability in Mali stands wide open, but may also close unless sustained commitment by all stakeholders is upheld," said Albert Gerard Koenders, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Mali and Head of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).

    Such support was crucial in light of the fragile security situation in the country’s north, marked by shelling in Gao, Timbuktu and Kidal, and heightened terrorist activity, he said, noting that recent clashes between the Tuareg and Peuhl communities had killed 40 people in Gao. Such negative trends could thwart early recovery and development.

    Briefing the Council on developments in Mali since 16 January, he said the inauguration of a National Assembly and appointment of a senior Government representative to foster political dialogue among the warring parties in line with the June 2013 Ouagadougou Preliminary Agreement illustrated the nation’s determination to advance the peace process.

    “The peace train has definitely left the station,” he said. The Agreement, he stressed, must be fully implemented, with the participation of all sectors of Malian society. The Government, which in February had unveiled to Council members elements of a political road map out of the crisis, must fast-track that, as well as the reconciliation process.

    Mr. Koenders noted that at their recent conference in Yamoussoukro, Heads of State from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) had welcomed the signing of the General Principles of Cantonment and had called on all armed groups to abide by it. Regional coordination was also vital.

    MINUSMA had deployed troops and human rights teams to establish the facts and dissuade further violence, he said, expressing concern about food insecurity in the country and calling on donors to heed the United Nations humanitarian appeal intended to ease it. Intercommunal clashes were a stark reminder of the need to strengthen the presence of national and international forces on the ground, as well as begin the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme.

    He said that, next week in Bamako, officials would discuss the link between achieving security and reaching a final peace settlement and the effectiveness of development spending, as a follow-up to last May’s donor conference in Brussels aimed at supporting Mali’s development.

    Abdoulaye Diop, Mali’s Minister for Foreign Affairs, African Integration and International Cooperation, said after the briefing that his Government continued its efforts towards national dialogue and reconciliation, noting that considerable progress had been made on negotiations with armed groups in the reporting period. It held a series of workshops jointly with MINUSMA, including those on lessons learned from past peace processes and the reestablishment of State administration and basic social services.

    A workshop on the cantonment and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes had resulted in the adoption of a technical document, signed by the representatives of the Government, MINUSMA and armed groups, he said. It outlined necessary steps for those processes, including modality and timeline, drawing on Security Council resolution 2100 (2013), the Ouagadougou Agreement and the February 2014 visit to Mali by Council members.

    He agreed with the Secretary-General’s observation that some armed groups had shown a lack of coherence or declined to fully seize the opportunity presented by the informal discussions to shape the peace process. That had slowed down the process. Given the deteriorating security situation in the north, particularly the resumption of terrorist activities, he expressed his concern over the low level of force generation for MINUSMA, including the continued lack of military transport helicopters, and urged the Secretary-General, Member States and donors to increase their contributions to the Mission.

    Lastly, he stressed the importance of regional cooperation, noting that a platform devised at the first ministerial meeting on the Sahel held in Bamako on 5 November 2013 would enable better coordination of efforts by countries in the region.

    According to the Secretary-General's most recent assessment report on Mali (document S/2014/229), which covered developments during the first quarter of 2014, by mid-March 57 per cent of MINUSMA’s authorized strength of 11,200 personnel had been deployed.

    The meeting began at 9:35 a.m. and ended at 9:50 a.m.

    For information media • not an official record

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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Burkina Faso

    WASHINGTON, April 23, 2014 – The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors has approved support for Burkina Faso to cut poverty and hunger by laying the foundation of a national safety net system. The new credit will provide the initial investment in a cash transfer program which can be scaled up nationwide and eventually reach a large share of the country’s poor people.

    Under the 5-year, US$50 million Burkina Faso Social Safety Net Project supported by IDA*, the World Bank Group’s Fund for the poorest countries, about 40,000 poor households will benefit from direct cash transfers. Also community-level activities will encourage these households to invest in their children’s development and nutrition, as well as in their own productivity.

    Despite strong economic growth, nearly 47 percent of Burkina Faso’s rapidly growing population still lives in poverty and 58 percent cannot meet basic caloric needs. The project is designed help the country to work towards more inclusive economic development that does not leave poor people behind.

    An important element of any national safety net system is the methodical targeting of households that are most in need. In Burkina, this will begin with cash transfers in regions with the highest rates of chronic poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. With an average of nearly eight members in a rural household, about 316,000 people will directly benefit from the project in the East, North, and Center-East regions.

    “By setting up a strong safety net system, Burkina Faso is going beyond expensive food aid and aiming to reduce poverty and malnutrition in a more sustained way, while also giving poor families a chance to invest in their children’s health and education,” said Mercy Tembon, World Bank Country Manager for Burkina Faso. “Once the government has identified and registered the most vulnerable households, support can be systematically scaled up as needed during emergencies.”

    Social protection is a key pillar of Burkina Faso’s development strategy (Stratégie de Croissance Accélérée et de Développement Durable) for 2011-2015. In addition, the National Social Protection Strategy (Politique Nationale de la Protection Sociale) outlines the country’s vision for a national safety net system.

    “Burkina Faso’s new safety net system will help to use limited public resources to reach the poorest groups of people in as efficient a way as possible,” said Azedine Ouerghi, World Bank task team leader for the project, along with Victoria Monchuk. “Systematic planning for long-term poverty reduction and household resilience, and efficient management of the safety net system is a critical step forward.”

    “Safety nets are on the rise in Africa, especially after the global economic crisis, as governments have been looking for new ways to reduce poverty and manage risk,” said Monchuk, also author of a World Bank report, “Reducing Poverty and Investing in People: The New Role of Safety Nets in Africa”.

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    Source: Cash Learning Partnership
    Country: Kenya, Somalia, World

    Led by Oxford Policy Management (OPM) with support from Concern Worldwide, this research aims to answer the key question: Are electronic transfers more cost-efficient than traditional manual based cash delivery methods, and under what conditions?

    Cash is increasingly offered to households in humanitarian emergencies as an alternative to in-kind aid. Under certain conditions cash may have advantages over other instruments, such as greater acceptability, utility and flexibility for people affected by disasters. There is now widespread interest in the additional benefits from delivering cash using technology such as mobile phones or electronic bank cards-’e-transfers’-rather than manually. However, several barriers have impeded the take-up of the technology, of which one is their cost.

    The Cash Learning Partnership (CaLP) commissioned this research to find out more about the cost of using electronic payment mechanisms (e-payments) for emergency cash transfers. The research draws on case studies of two countries, Kenya and Somalia, analysing the cost-efficiency (and where possible information on cost-effectiveness) of seven emergency cash transfer programmes implemented between 2009 and 2013: four using mobile money, one using a smart card and two using a traditional manual distribution method. It shows the administrative cost of delivering the cash transfer, broken down by activity (designing the programme, registering beneficiaries etc.), and identifies the factors that improve or decrease overall cost-efficiency.

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    Source: World Food Programme, World Vision
    Country: Mali

    To assist communities in finding a lasting solution to the quasi-recurring food security problem that keeps them in a permanent state of vulnerability, WFP and World Vision have chosen the means of building resilience within communities. This remains the best way to help them become self-sufficient and responsible for their own future.

    In Kifosso village situated in Yorosso circle, communities used to fear the rainy season. Unlike other villages where the rain is associated with good harvest, Kifosso people knew that a heavy rainy season means destruction of their crops. The village farms are located in the lowlands and once the heavy rain starts, it devastates the crops. Zani Aboulaye, a village farmer recalls “last year was my worst harvest season. The rain destroyed all my crops, I only got 200 kg of grains from 1 hectare. This was just enough to feed my family of 17 people for less than a month and I had to beg for food for several months.”

    Through World Vision- WFP resilience program implemented with funding from the European Union Delegation to Mali, the villagers established a contour band for water to bypass the farms. The contour band is made of relatively big stones which are placed all around the farm to divert water from passing within the farm and destroy the crops. Kifosso is hoping for the best, as this technique has showed good results in surrounding villages.

    With the Food for Assets project, World Vision and WFP trained community members to construct those contour bands all over their farms. Today, they feel safer and proud because the stones will protect their crops and this is the results of their own efforts. “Thanks to this, the next rain will be a blessing, not a nightmare,” says Mr. Issa Dao, a farmer responsible to monitor the activities.

    Beside the contour band, the program implemented one hectare of gardening. More than 60 women and men are working on their plots, which have already produced the first crop of lettuce, tomato, cabbage, bean and carrot. Mrs. Fatoumata Kone told us with pride, “Our village has a big open place that serves as a market to surrounding villages. The problem is that though the market is ours; we were only buying food there from other people. Now, we are proud to sell our own vegetables in our market. The garden has changed our lives, others respect us now and women are making money.”

    Mr Zani, happily confessed, “before, I would go out the all day looking for food for my family and come home miserable during the lean season. Now even if I do not find something out, I do not fear because my wife can always get some cabbage, carrot, bean and tomato to cook for the children. I am proud to see her in this garden.”

    In Mali, 74% of energy needs are met by biomass. Deforestation negatively influences the level of rainfall and rivers, and accelerates the desert encroachment. Cutting down trees unbalances the ecosystem as trees emit elements needed for rain production, trees roots retain soil water and stabilize rivers water level. The people of Kifosso know this well—for decades they have relied on the wood from surrounding trees. Today they are willing to plant trees to restore a sustainable ecosystem for their children. The program took into account their need and helped them plant 380 baobab trees. The baobab produces fruits and edible leaves rich in nutrients; very much appreciated by the community.

    All these improvements the community manages through the local committees formed when the projects began. The committees collect annual fees worth 2,000 CFA from each villager working on the garden and the tree planting area. The fees help fund other projects and maintenance, such as deepening the wells, renewing the garden fence and buying seeds and tools. “In 10 years, Kifosso will no longer have malnourished children and we will have put in place a credit union to grant loans to our community members, the program has made us confident and strong”, says a joyful Mr. Dao

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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen, South Sudan

    The present report, which covers the period from January to December 2013, is submitted pursuant to paragraph 22 of Security Council resolution 2106 (2013) , in which the Council requested me to submit annual reports on the implementation of resolutions 1820 (2008) , 1888 (2009) , 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013) with regard to conflict - related sexual violence. The report presents information on parties to conflict credibly suspected of committing or being responsible for acts of rape and other forms of sexual violence. The term “ conflict - related sexual violence ” refers to rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, forced sterilization and any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity perpetrated against women, men or children with a direct or indirect (temporal, geographical or causal) link to a conflict. This link to conflict may be evident in the profile of the perpetrator, the profile of the victim, the climate of impunity or State collapse, any cross - border dimensions or violations of the terms of a ceasefire agreement. While conflict - related sexual violence may be present in several contexts not mentioned in the current report, the following outlines those countries in which credible information is currently available, including situations of emerging concern.

    The report highlights actions taken and challenges faced by States in conflict and post - conflict situations to protect women , men and children from such sexual violence; the implementation of the monitoring, analysis and reporting arrangements; the deployment of women ’ s protection advisers; the work of the Team of Experts on the Rule of Law and Sexual Violence in Conflict; the efforts of the United Nations system; and recommendations to strengthen efforts to combat this egregious crime.

    In the report, appropriate actions are recommended and a list of parties credibly suspected of committing or being responsible for patterns of r ape and other forms of sexual violence in situations of armed conflict on the agenda of the Security Council is contained in the annex.

    The report should be read in conjunction with my previous reports on the same topic (A/66/657-S/2012/33 and A/67/792-S/2013/149). Preparation of the report involved consultations with the 13 United Nations entities that are members of United Nations Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict, United Nations field missions and country teams, concerned Member States and non - governmental organizations. United Nations peacekeeping and political missions, as well as country teams, were the primary sources of information. In the present report , reference is made to the nature and scope of sexual violence in 20 countries.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Guatemala

    El maíz es la fuente más importante de calorías y proteína en la dieta guatemalteca. El maíz blanco es mayormente consumido que el maíz amarillo, pero este último es preferido en algunas regiones y es utilizado como alimento para aves. Todos los hogares guatemaltecos consumen frijoles negros: como fuente proteica es especialmente valioso como un complemento a los cereales en regiones donde los hogares tienen acceso limitado a los productos animales. Los hábitos de consumo están fuertemente ligados a la tradición y la cultura. El arroz es principalmente consumido por hogares urbanos y peri-urbanos, pero algunos rurales también lo consumen. Guatemala es altamente dependiente de arroz importado. El mercado de la ciudad de Guatemala es el más grande en el país y es esta ciudad la de mayor concentración de población.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama

    Los principales alimentos básicos que se producen y consumen en la mayor parte de Centroamérica y el Caribe son maíz, arroz y frijol. Este último constituye una fuente importante de proteína para los hogares pobres. En Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua, los favoritos son el maíz blanco, que se consume principalmente en forma de tortillas, y el frijol rojo o negro, mientras que en Costa Rica y Panamá el arroz es el que domina en producción y consumo. En Haití, los alimentos básicos son el arroz, frijol negro, y maíz.

    En Centroamérica, normalmente hay dos estaciones de cultivo: la Primera (de abril a septiembre) durante la cual se produce principalmente el maíz, y la Postrera (de agosto a diciembre) durante la cual domina la producción de frijol. La temporada de Apante (de noviembre a marzo) es una tercera temporada de cultivo, durante la cual se produce frijol en el centro-sur de Nicaragua, en el norte de Guatemala y en el norte de Honduras. En Haití, existen varias temporadas de cultivo. El maíz se produce durante la temporada de Primavera (de abril a septiembre). El frijol negro se produce en más de dos temporadas en las áreas húmedas y montañosas de Haití. La primera temporada se lleva a cabo de marzo a mayo y la segunda de julio a octubre. El frijol también se produce en las áreas con irrigación y montañosas húmedas del país durante la tercera temporada (en otoño) de diciembre a enero.

    El maíz blanco y el frijol son comúnmente objeto de comercio entre Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, y Costa Rica en Centroamérica. El mercado de San Salvador en El Salvador se considera el mercado regional más importante para estos alimentos básicos y se encuentra bien integrado con el resto de la región. Debido a los altos niveles de intercambio comercial, mantiene relaciones tanto con los mercados regionales como con los internacionales. Otros centros comerciales importantes son Ciudad de Guatemala (Guatemala), San Pedro Sula y Tegucigalpa (Honduras), Chontales y Managua (Nicaragua), San José (Costa Rica), y Ciudad de Panamá (Panamá). La República Dominicana es la fuente principal para la importación de maíz, frijol y tubérculos de Haití. Haití depende en gran medida de los Estados Unidos para la importación de arroz, que representa cerca del 80 por ciento de sus necesidades de consumo

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    Source: Handicap International
    Country: Mali

    Responsable d'une équipe de démineurs de Handicap International, Adrien conduit dans le Nord du Mali des opérations de dépollution de restes explosifs de guerre pour permettre aux habitants de vivre en sécurité.

    Adrien, 31 ans, est chef d'une équipe de démineurs déployée dans le Nord du Mali depuis mai 2013. Leur mission consiste à dépolluer, c'est à dire repérer, neutraliser et détruire tous les restes explosifs de guerre. « Pour comprendre la pertinence de notre action, il suffit d'avoir en mémoire un accident intervenu en juin 2013 à Diabaly. Un berger a rapporté un engin explosif dans sa maison. Ses enfants ont joué avec et l'engin a explosé. Un petit de 4 ans a été tué sur le coup, trois autres enfants ont été blessés », raconte Adrien.

    Plus de 29 000 engins non explosées découverts

    Les résultats sont conséquents : sur 18 des 55 zones identifiées comme dangereuses, 28 827 cartouches, 262 grenades, 170 roquettes, 39 fusées et 28 obus de mortiers ont été trouvés.

    Quand il faut débarrasser le sol de la végétation, des reptiles et des gravats dans les bâtiments bombardés, la dépollution avance au rythme de 2 500 m² par jour. Mais sur un terrain plus désertique, la moyenne peut atteindre 5 000 m² par jour. « Ces opérations impliquent une attention sans faille. Il s'agit d'une approche visuelle, les restes explosifs de guerre n'étant pas enfouis dans le sol. Pour que les démineurs restent parfaitement concentrés, la journée démarre à 6 h 30, avec des plages de repos toutes les 50 minutes. Sur une journée, on peut trouver trois ou quatre munitions, et parfois beaucoup plus. 4 000 petites munitions ont été découvertes au cours d'une seule journée l'été dernier », souligne Adrien.

    Pour le jeune homme, c'est une vraie satisfaction de permettre aux habitants de se déplacer à nouveau librement dans leur village, de cultiver leurs terres ou de puiser de l'eau sans danger. « Les Maliens qui habitent ici ont connu la guerre. Ils ont souvent dû quitter leur maison et tout ce qu'ils avaient. Nous sommes dans un pays où l'équilibre économique est très précaire. Il est donc nécessaire de leur permettre de redémarrer leur existence là où ils ont toujours habité », explique t-il.

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Malawi


    • Most parts of Malawi experienced dry spells for more than 10 days in March 2014 with Karonga district in the northern region facing the worst effects of this dry spell so far. It is likely that yields for the current season will be seriously reduced in the worst affected areas because the maize crop was at the critical flowering stage.

    • Services for management of Acute Malnutrition are currently ongoing in 464 Outpatient Therapeutic (OTP) sites and 86 Nutrition Rehabilitation Units across the country. An additional 4,572 children were admitted in February 2014 bringing the cumulative number of admissions to 13,543.

    • UNICEF procured 9,177 cartons of RUTF for all the 29 districts and all the 3 central hospitals in the country for the period of January to March 2014. However, the districts have logistical challenges in terms of transporting the supplies to the facility level. UNICEF has supported delivery of the RUTF from the central warehouse to the District Health Office for 16 food insecure districts.

    • UNICEF is supporting the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Welfare in providing psychosocial support in the 24 food insecure districts. In these districts, Community Based Organisations are conducting community dialogue sessions where those that are in need of care and protection are being identified and linked to appropriate services such as Community Based Organisations, community based child care centres, children’s corners, community victim support units and police victim support units.

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    Source: Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict
    Country: Central African Republic, Mali, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen, South Sudan

    This month’s update highlights children and armed conflict concerns and provides recommendations for the protection of children in the situations of Central African Republic, Mali, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan (Darfur), Yemen and Syria. In particular, the update highlights the recruitment and use of children, including through youth mobilization, in South Sudan, and provides recommendations on the re-prioritizing of the UNMISS mandate.

    Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict is a network of local, national and international non-governmental organizations striving to end violations against children in armed conflicts and to guarantee their rights. Monthly updates are based on the experience of Watchlist and its member organizations in specific country situations and Watchlist’s expertise in over a decade of engagement with the Security Council’s children and armed conflict agenda.

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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Senegal


    • While improving water management and food security in Africa’s Sahel region, the Senegal River Basin Project is also helping prevent malaria and other dreaded diseases.

    • As a result of Phase I of the project, 3.1 million long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets—one of most cost-effective ways to decrease illness and death from malaria—were distributed in the area, protecting about 5.6 million people.

    • Phase II of the project aims to reach universal mosquito net coverage in the area, and also to protect 2.1 million people from neglected tropical diseases.

    WASHINGTON, April 24, 2014—With the theme of this year’s World Malaria Day being “Invest in the Future, Defeat Malaria,” there is welcome news out of Africa’s vulnerable Sahel region. Millions of people living in Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, and Senegal are now being protected from malaria and a number of debilitating neglected tropical diseases. This is the result of better, more coordinated development efforts that cut across different sectors.

    While working with these countries to improve water resources management in the Senegal River Basin, the World Bank is also supporting disease control activities associated with water and how it is used to irrigate crops. Irrigation systems are needed to grow more food and fight poverty and hunger, but they can serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes that transmit malaria. Tackling this challenge requires focused efforts across the health and irrigation sectors.

    The distribution of 3.1 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets to cover about 5.6 million people during Phase I of the World Bank-financed Senegal River Basin project has produced striking results. The use of these nets to prevent mosquito bites has increased from 28% in 2009 to 46% in 2012, in an area largely populated by poor farmers and their families.

    More pregnant women and young children using mosquito nets

    Encouragingly, mosquito net usage has risen in the Senegal River Basin among those most vulnerable to the effects of the deadly disease. The share of young children sleeping under nets has risen from 58% in 2009 to 74% in 2012, while among pregnant women, net usage has doubled, from 33% to 65%, in the same period.

    This progress is significant because people living in the Senegal River Basin are highly at risk of malaria. At any point in time, about 14% of children and 9% of pregnant women in the area are infected with the disease, which takes a heavy toll on poor families. It can badly sicken or kill young children, cause severe anemia in pregnant women, and reduce productivity among working adults.

    Illness and death from malaria are expected to fall as these efforts continue through 2020. This is therefore a pragmatic investment in the future not only for the water sector but also for health.

    Project targets universal mosquito net coverage

    The current US$220 million Senegal River Basin project, which is Phase 2 of a 10-year program in the region, also includes a built-in $40 million health component.

    Alongside increasing water availability for agriculture and food production, supporting aquaculture and fisheries management, and other objectives, the project now aims to achieve universal mosquito net coverage. About 4.5 million people living in the area will be covered, most of whom were not covered in Phase I of the project.

    “With a growing population in the Senegal River Basin, much of which is already highly vulnerable to water-related diseases, new infrastructure for water and irrigation should be complemented with simultaneous efforts to reduce public health risks,” said Shelley McMillan, Senior Water Resources Specialist and task team leader for the Senegal River Basin project.

    Progress in tackling neglected tropical diseases and improving school health

    In addition to malaria prevention, the program has also made considerable headway with preventing a group of diseases called the “neglected tropical diseases” (NTDs). These diseases are included under the project as their transmission is also closely related to water or soil.

    During Phase I, the project has already administered over 2 million doses of praziquantel tablets to treat bilharzia, and 7 million doses of albendazole to treat intestinal worms. Over 80% of children in the area were protected from bilharzia and worms.

    In Phase II, the program will also tackle onchocerciasis (river blindness) and trachoma, both of which cause blindness, and lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis). Going forward, over 2.1 million school-age children and a million adults will receive preventive treatment donated by pharmaceutical companies every year for the NTDs.

    "The World Bank has a long and successful track record of working to prevent the neglected tropical diseases, and also of supporting malaria prevention efforts, so it makes a lot of sense to try to tackle these diseases simultaneously"
    John Paul Clark
    Senior Technical Specialist for communicable diseases at the World Bank

    Integrated development solutions for the Sahel

    In November 2013, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim traveled to the Sahel with other leaders, pledging US$1.5 billion in assistance to the region. Phase II of Senegal River Basin project is the first financing under this initiative.

    “We are redoubling our efforts both in the Sahel and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa to provide integrated solutions across sectors and countries,” said Colin Bruce, World Bank Director for Regional Integration in Africa. “This approach is helping to protect vulnerable people in the Senegal River Basin area from malaria and neglected tropical diseases while simultaneously improving their livelihoods.”

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Dans la région de Diffa, il n’existe pas de camp pour les populations ayant fui les violences dans le nord du Nigeria. Dans l’analyse du contexte et de la réponse qu’apporte l’UNHCR, cette situation est souvent relevée par les medias. La question qu’ils soulèvent est comment porter assistance aux personnes déplacées si elles ne sont pas regroupées. Dans la pensée globale qui dit UNHCR dit camps de réfugiés.

    Installer un camp est une des options qui se présentent pour appuyer les réfugiés. Elle a ses avantages et ses inconvénients. La stratégie hors camp en est une autre. Elle rend difficile la mise en place opérationnelle et logistique des interventions mais permet de ne pas inhiber les initiatives individuelles et les arrangements communautaires tout comme elle favorise, dès la phase d’urgence, l’intégration socio-économique des réfugiés. La ville de Bosso située à quelques pas du Nigéria et du Lac Tchad en est un exemple intéressant.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali

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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

    This Briefing Note provides a crisis overview highlighting key findings, and analysing main sectoral issues, response capacity and information gaps.

    Crisis Overview

    • Conflict: A State of Emergency (SoE) was declared in the northeastern states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa on 14 May 2013 (due to expire in May 2014), following an escalation of violence between Nigerian government forces and Boko Haram (BH) Islamist insurgents. Six million people are directly affected by the conflict, which is half of the population.

    • Displacement: Over 300,000 people, mainly women, children, and the elderly, have moved within Nigeria or sought refuge in neighbouring Niger, Cameroon or Chad. Key figures as of March 2014 include:

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    Source: UN Country Team in Guatemala
    Country: Guatemala

    Situación encontrada

    El municipio de Purulhá presenta alto riesgo a inseguridad alimentaria y nutricional categorizado por la Secretaría de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional-SESAN. Es vulnerable por la deficitaria producción y su exposición a sequias, inundaciones y problemas estructurales como la falta de tierras para cultivos agrícolas, pobreza y extrema pobreza. Las familias que poseen café, su producción les permitía sostener a sus familias por algunos meses. El resto del año, se convierten en cortadores de café para complementar sus ingresos. Las poblaciones visitadas no poseen agua y les toma una hora recolectar el agua.

    La pequeña producción de café se destinada a la comercialización (para el caso de la comunidad Caoba Panchisivic) y en otras zonas en temporada alta contribuye a la generación de empleo (para la comunidad Monte Alegre). Los grupos comunitarios de la comunidad Monte Alegre dependen en un 90% del café y cardamomo como medio de vida donde las familias a y un 10% de producción de maíz y frijol en pequeñas parcelas. En las fincas grandes de café, a donde estos grupos migran, principalmente a Esquipulas, municipio del departamento de Chiquimula fronterizo con Honduras, la mano de obra es utilizada para realizar limpias y cosecha de café. El cardamomo proporciona empleo al jefe de hogar y a la familia y también ha sido afectado por plaga, hongo y “trips”. La producción para consumo familiar es maíz y frijol con considerables pérdidas debido al bajo rendimiento (5 quintales por manzana de maíz) y gorgojo.

    En la comunidad Monte Alegre las familias informaron que poseen reservas de alimento para una semana, y no logran conseguir trabajo como jornaleros. El PMA estará apoyándoles para cubrir sus necesidades alimentarias por tres meses. La alternativa que tienen es inmigrar hasta el mes de Octubre a buscar trabajo en mantenimiento de café.

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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    DAKAR, 27 avril 2014 (IRIN) - Il y a désormais plus de rapatriés et de réfugiés dans la région de Diffa, au sud-est du Niger, à la frontière avec le Nigeria, que de réfugiés maliens dans l'ouest du Niger. Cette présence fait peser une pression sur les populations hôtes qui sont parmi les plus pauvres de la planète, selon les autorités locales.

    Selon le HCR, environ 40 000 personnes ont trouvé refuge dans la région de Diffa suite au regain de violences perpétrées par Boko Haram au Nigeria. D'autres ont fui vers le Cameroun et le Tchad.

    « Le nombre de réfugiés qui arrivent ici augmente presque chaque jour », a dit Mamouni Hawna, chef du quartier d'Afnori, à Diffa. « Mais à l'heure où nous parlons, personne n'a reçu d'aide ».

    Les chiffres sont « inquiétants », a dit Benoit Thiry, directeur du Programme alimentaire mondial (PAM) au Niger. « Nous sommes très préoccupés par la situation qui crée une pression énorme sur la communauté hôte qui souffre déjà d'insécurité alimentaire ».

    Il n'y a pas pour l'instant de camp de réfugiés dans la région de Diffa, alors les réfugiés sont hébergés par des familles d'accueil dispersées dans 21 villages. Bon nombre d'arrivants sont des femmes qui ont perdu leur mari ou des enfants qui ont été séparés de leurs parents, selon M. Hawna. Leur première priorité est de trouver un abri et de la nourriture.

    Les familles d'accueil ont faim

    Les populations locales sont déjà extrêmement vulnérables ; elles sont exposées à de nombreux risques, y compris des phénomènes de sécheresses chroniques et d'inondations, combinés à une pauvreté profonde, à l'endettement, à la qualité insuffisante des services de base, au mauvais état des routes et à un niveau élevé d'insécurité alimentaire et de malnutrition. En raison des mauvaises récoltes de 2013, les réserves de nourriture sont faibles et bon nombre de foyers n'ont plus de nourriture.

    « La population de la région de Diffa était déjà très vulnérable, même avant l'arrivée des réfugiés », a indiqué Mahamadou Guidé Amadou, responsable de l'équipe du HCR à Diffa. « Maintenant, on retrouve deux ou trois familles vivant sous le même toit et essayant de se partager un repas. C'est inquiétant ».

    Le PAM fournit de l'aide alimentaire aux réfugiés et aux populations locales, offrant ainsi de l'assistance à 25 000 personnes, mais son directeur a indiqué « les ressources sont très limitées et, alors que la saison de la faim s'apprête à commencer, nous avons besoin de fonds pour pouvoir venir en aide à ces personnes vulnérables ». Le PAM apporte également une aide nutritionnelle aux enfants jusqu'à l'âge de 23 mois, aux femmes enceintes et aux femmes allaitantes, et il espère pouvoir étendre son projet de bons d'achats alimentaires aux réfugiés et aux populations hôtes à partir de septembre.

    Le HCR assure la coordination de la réponse avec le gouvernement et d'autres partenaires. Toutes les parties concernées font de leur mieux pour que les réfugiés obtiennent l'aide dont ils ont besoin et qu'ils méritent à leur arrivée. Pour l'instant, les agences d'aide humanitaire ont distribué des produits de première nécessité tels que des tapis de sol, du savon, des ustensiles de cuisine, du gaz en bouteille, des pastilles de purification d'eau et des médicaments ainsi que de l'aide alimentaire.

    Le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) a installé des pompes pour offrir un accès à l'eau potable à quelque 12 000 familles de Bosso, au sud-est du Niger. Jusqu'à présent, les populations utilisaient l'eau de la rivière. L'organisation fournit également une aide alimentaire ainsi que des produits de première nécessité à 1 400 ménages chaque mois ; elle forme des médecins locaux pour qu'ils puissent soigner les blessures liées aux violences et travaille avec ses partenaires pour éduquer les communautés en matière de santé et d'hygiène.

    L'Agence d'aide à la coopération technique et au développement (ACTED), une organisation non gouvernementale (ONG) internationale présente à Diffa, indique qu'elle a commencé à collecter des données cartographiques recueillies à l'aide de smartphones afin de créer une carte interactive de tous les villages accueillant des réfugiés. Le projet inclura l'élaboration d'une cartographie des écoles et des centres de soins de santé, mais aussi l'identification des réfugiés les plus vulnérables pour permettre aux agences d'aide humanitaire de prioriser leur réponse. Cela facilitera également la documentation.

    Des comités d'action communautaire ont été mis en place dans la région de Diffa pour accueillir les réfugiés et les rapatriés, servir d'intermédiaire entre eux et les autorités et garantir qu'ils obtiennent des papiers. Malgré ces efforts, bon nombre de personnes indiquent qu'elles n'ont pas reçu suffisamment d'aide pour l'instant.

    « Il y a beaucoup de femmes accompagnées de jeunes enfants ici », a dit Mamadou Bako, le maire de la ville de Bosso, dont la population a doublé suite à l'arrivée des rapatriés et des réfugiés. « Elles ne disposent pas de leurs propres abris. Elles dépendent des familles d'accueil pour se nourrir et se vêtir. Nos [réserves] de nourriture commencent à s'affaiblir. Il faut plus d'aide ici », a-t-il dit.

    M. Hawna, chef du quartier d'Afnori de la ville de Diffa, a dit à IRIN : « Au début, les ONG étaient ici pour nous aider, mais beaucoup d'autres [réfugiés] sont arrivés entretemps, et il y a beaucoup de problèmes, car ils n'ont pas été enregistrés officiellement ». C'est notamment le cas des réfugiés et des rapatriés de Diffa, par opposition aux personnes qui ont fui vers les villages situés de l'autre côté de la frontière nigérienne.

    Le logement

    En collaboration avec la Croix-Rouge (les sections étrangères et locales), le HCR a entamé la construction d'abris semi-durables, fabriqués avec des matériaux traditionnels, pour les personnes déplacées.

    Ils travaillent également sur les questions de propriété foncière pour organiser la redistribution des terres une fois que les rapatriés et les réfugiés commenceront à construire leurs propres logements. M. Amadou du HCR a dit à IRIN qu'il espère voir des réfugiés s'installer sur leurs propres parcelles d'ici à la fin mai ou au début du mois de juin.

    M. Bako a indiqué que le logement était la priorité. « Depuis maintenant plusieurs mois, les réfugiés vivent avec nos familles locales. Ces familles les ont accueillis, mais cela n'est pas facile. Cela ne peut pas continuer comme cela indéfiniment ».

    Les travailleurs humanitaires indiquent que les gens doivent juste faire preuve de patience. « Cela a été difficile d'atteindre toutes les personnes qui avaient besoin d'aide », a dit Abdourahame Idi Issa, directeur du projet d'ACTED à Diffa. « Mais je peux vous assurer que tous les acteurs engagés ont fait de leur mieux . Les difficultés sont nombreuses ».

    Un enregistrement complexe

    En décembre, le Niger a accordé le statut de réfugié temporaire à une partie des Nigérians qui avaient fui les violences. Mais plusieurs mois plus tard, beaucoup n'ont pas encore obtenu de documents officiels.

    En février 2014, une campagne a été mise en place pour enregistrer les réfugiés, mais des difficultés d'ordre logistique ont entraîné des retards et l'enregistrement biométrique des réfugiés nigérians et des rapatriés nigériens ne commencera qu'en mai.

    A la mi-avril, 75 pour cent des personnes déplacées étaient des rapatriés, selon le décompte officiel - des Nigériens qui vivaient au Nigeria avant de fuir de l'autre côté de la frontière. Les autorités indiquent que ces chiffres pourraient être plus élevés.

    « Une personne venant du Nigeria peut s'installer chez une famille [à Diffa] et passer quelques jours sur place avant même que l'on s'en rende compte », a dit à IRIN Guidé Amadou. Cela veut dire qu'un réfugié peut ne pas recevoir d'aide pendant plusieurs semaines.

    « La situation est compliquée par le fait que la région Diffa est assez difficilement accessible », a-t-il dit. « Le terrain est difficile, et donc oui, nous sommes installés ici, mais il y a des villages qui sont situés à plusieurs centaines de kilomètres [du bureau de terrain]. Certains [villages] ne sont même pas accessibles par la route ».

    Compte tenu de la proximité de Diffa avec le Nigeria et de la porosité de la frontière, il est difficile de se tenir au courant des dernières arrivées, a dit M. Guidé. « Nous avons l'habitude de travailler comme dans les camps [de réfugiés]. Mais ici les réfugiés sont dispersés sur une vaste zone. Cela complique la logistique et nos opérations ».

    Il peut être difficile d'enregistrer les réfugiés, car bon nombre de Nigériens essayent de se faire passer pour des Nigérians, indiquent les autorités. « Certaines personnes ne disent pas qui elles sont, alors il est difficile d'être exact. Quand elles s'enfuient, elles ont peur de dire qui elles sont vraiment. Alors cela complique la tâche ». Les autorités indiquent qu'il est souvent difficile de faire la différence entre les Nigérians et les Nigériens dans cette région.

    « Ce sont pratiquement les mêmes personnes. Elles parlent la même langue ; elles pratiquent la même religion ; elles ont la même culture. Elles appartiennent un peu à la même famille », a dit M. Guidé.


    Si aucun incident de sécurité majeur n'est survenu au Niger depuis la mi-février - et aucun pour l'instant à Diffa - la situation sécuritaire reste incertaine et bon nombre d'habitants des villages frontaliers ont peur.

    Une série d'incidents - dont une tentative d'enlèvement de responsables - ainsi que la saisie d'armes et l'arrestation de militants laissent penser que l'organisation extrémiste Boko Haram pourrait se servir du sud-est du Niger comme d'une base arrière et d'une cible potentielle, selon Reuters. Un responsable gouvernemental de Diffa a indiqué que la région était sur « le front » du terrorisme.

    M. Issa d'ACTED a dit que les agences d'aide humanitaire se préparaient à de nouvelles arrivées. « Chaque fois qu'il y a une attaque, nous pouvons être certains que de nouveaux réfugiés arriveront, et ils s'installeront probablement dans la région de Diffa », a-t-il dit à IRIN. « Nous devons non seulement aider ceux qui ont déjà fui les violences, mais aussi nous préparer à venir en aide à ceux qui pourraient bientôt prendre la fuite ».

    jl/aj/cb-mg/amz [FIN]

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    04/27/2014 19:07 GMT

    BAMAKO, April 27, 2014 (AFP) - Mali launched a plan on Sunday to revive stalled talks between the government and armed separatist groups, announcing a regional diplomatic tour to entice exiled rebel leaders back into the peace process.

    The west African nation has been mired in ethnic violence since the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) launched a rebellion in 2012 claiming the country's vast desert north as an independent state.

    "On the instructions of the president of the republic of Mali, anxious to make peace, we have developed a plan to resume dialogue and negotiations between all the sons of Mali," National Reconciliation Minister Zahabi Ould Sidy Mohamed told AFP.

    The minister will travel with former prime minister Modibo Keita -- recently appointed as the president's representatives in the dialogue -- to Ouagadougou, Nouakchott and Algiers, according to an outline of the plan seen by AFP.

    No date has been set for fresh negotiations but Mohamed said that once the first steps in the process had been taken, the goal would be to hold talks in Bamako within 60 days.

    Al-Qaeda-linked Islamist groups seized on the chaos created by the MNLA's rebellion and a coup in Bamako to take control of northern Mali, known by its Arab and Tuareg populations as Azawad.

    The extremists ruled under a brutal vision of Islamic law until former colonial ruler France sent in troops to flush them out in January 2013.

    The MNLA and other groups including the High Council for the Unity of Azawad are still calling for autonomy for the north, and say the government has not fully implemented a June 2013 peace deal that paved the way for elections aimed at restoring stability.

    The plan said that leaders of armed groups would be invited to a meeting in Algeria ahead of any talks with the government, so that they would have the opportunity to "harmonise their points of view".

    "We obviously rely on other key partners such as France, the UN mission in Mali, the European Union, Morocco, Algeria, Burkina Faso and other countries to play a facilitating role to support the peace process," Mohamed said.


    © 1994-2014 Agence France-Presse

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    Source: UN Security Council
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen, South Sudan


    1. Le présent rapport, qui couvre la période allant de janvier à décembre 2013, est soumis en application du paragraphe 22 de la résolution 2106 (2013) du Conseil de sécurité, dans laquelle le Conseil m’a prié de lui faire rapport chaque année sur l’application des résolutions 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1960 (2010) et 2106 (2013) et de recommander des mesures visant à combattre les violences sexuelles liées aux conflits. On trouvera ici des informations sur des parties à un conflit armé qui, selon des indices graves et concordants, se seraient rendues responsables de viols ou d’autres formes de violences sexuelles. L’expression « violences sexuelles liées aux conflits » recouvre des actes tels que le viol, l’esclavage sexuel, la prostitution, la grossesse et la stérilisation forcées, ou toute autre forme de violence sexuelle de gravité comparable, perpétrés contre des femmes, des hommes ou des enfants, et ayant un lien direct ou indirect (temporel, géographique ou causal) avec un conflit.
      Ce lien peut se manifester dans le profil de l’auteur ou de la victime, le climat d’impunité ou l’effondrement de l’État, les aspects transfrontaliers du conflit ou le fait qu’il y ait violation d’un accord de cessez-le-feu. Il se peut, certes, que le présent rapport n’aborde pas certaines situations de conflit où des violences sexuelles sont commises; il ne sera question ici que des pays pour lesquels on dispose actuellement d’informations crédibles, notamment sur les situations qui commencent à être préoccupantes.

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