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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria
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    Highlights

    UNICEF continues to be engaged in providing humanitarian response in four regions of Cameroon – Far North, North, Adamoua and East – which have been facing recurring emergencies such as increased food insecurity after the dry season, widespread epidemics like Cholera and Meningitis, and floods), and the continued influx of refugees from CAR and Nigeria.

    • CAR REFUGEES: With the deteriorating security situation in CAR since the past 12 months due to fighting between Seleka rebels and Anti Balaka militias, Cameroon is faced with many refugees and asylum seekers. As of 9th April 2014, over 65,132 people have are officially registered as refugees since January 2014 and about 84% of these are women or children. It is anticipated that the number of refugees could reach up to 100,000 people in Cameroon in 2014. For more details visit an online map accessible at http://carcrisis.unicef-gis.org. UNICEF is focused on providing an Integrated Emergency Response for CAR refugees as part of the coordinated humanitarian effort. Lack of sufficient funding is affecting the delivery of response to scale, impacting the ability to build partners’ capacities on the ground and the timely delivery of response to affected populations.

    • SAHEL NUTRITION CRISIS: In 2014, the four regions will have a targeted caseload of 48,778 severe acute malnutrition (SAM) children under five and 92,794 moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) children under five.

    • NIGERIAN REFUGEES: 5,289 Nigerian Refugees are verified and pre-registered in Far North region.

    • The office funding needs stand at USD 25.5 million for responding to these emergencies and the funding gap as of April 5 stands at 95%.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network, Johns Hopkins University
    Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia
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    Executive Summary

    Background

    For well over two decades, large numbers of the Somali population have been in flight— internally and externally—from violence and conflict, famine and severe food insecurity, and the impoverishment and uncertainty these bring in their wake. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Somalia have averaged over 1 million per year since at least 2007 (with numbers spiking to nearly 2 million during the early 1990s). The number of refugees averaged nearly 600,000 per year since 1990. As of 2012, about 1 million Somali refugees lived in 124 countries worldwide, with the largest numbers by far in Ethiopia (223,000) and Kenya (512,000). The world’s largest refugee camp, Dadaab in Northeastern Kenya, is home to the largest concentration of Somalis outside of Mogadishu. In recent years, the situation in Somalia has been described as among the worst humanitarian crises in the world.


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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Nigeria
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    Highlights

    UNICEF continues to be engaged in providing humanitarian response in four regions of Cameroon – Far North, North, Adamoua and East – which have been facing recurring emergencies such as increased food insecurity after the dry season, widespread epidemics like Cholera and Meningitis, and floods), and the continued influx of refugees from CAR and Nigeria.

    • CAR REFUGEES: With the deteriorating security situation in CAR since the past 12 months due to fighting between Seleka rebels and Anti Balaka militias, Cameroon is faced with many refugees and asylum seekers. As of 9th April 2014, over 65,132 people have are officially registered as refugees since January 2014 and about 84% of these are women or children. It is anticipated that the number of refugees could reach up to 100,000 people in Cameroon in 2014. For more details visit an online map accessible at http://carcrisis.unicef-gis.org. UNICEF is focused on providing an Integrated Emergency Response for CAR refugees as part of the coordinated humanitarian effort. Lack of sufficient funding is affecting the delivery of response to scale, impacting the ability to build partners’ capacities on the ground and the timely delivery of response to affected populations.

    • SAHEL NUTRITION CRISIS: In 2014, the four regions will have a targeted caseload of 48,778 severe acute malnutrition (SAM) children under five and 92,794 moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) children under five.

    • NIGERIAN REFUGEES: 5,289 Nigerian Refugees are verified and pre-registered in Far North region.

    • The office funding needs stand at USD 25.5 million for responding to these emergencies and the funding gap as of April 5 stands at 95%.


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    Source: Caritas
    Country: Senegal

    Caritas is launching an emergency project for Senegal to urgently help families who are hungry.

    Recent poor harvests, climatic factors, natural disasters and a sharp rise in food prices in 2007-2008 have edged poor families further into poverty and hunger.

    “Let us not forget our brothers and sisters who are suffering in this way and others around the world. Let us help them shoulder their burden and let us share with them our daily bread,” says Abbé Ambroise Tine, director of Caritas Senegal. “People who are malnourished need to have access to healthy and adequate food so they can live a dignified life.”

    The US$416,000 (300,000 euro) project will last for eight months.

    Almost a fifth of households in Senegal are going hungry. The situation is predicted to worsen over the next few months.

    Caritas Senegal wants to ensure that the most vulnerable families hit by hunger have enough nutritious food to eat.

    Almost 8000 people (1100 families) will be given food, including rice, millet and oil, for three months. The aim is to have families eating three meals a day.

    There will be a particular focus on boosting the nutrition of women and children and reducing the number who are malnourished.

    The creation of six cereal banks in villages will help 600 families (4,200 people) have regular access to food. Other projects will ensure farmers have seeds and tools.

    The emergency project will be focused on ensuring people have food in the dioceses of Saint-Louis (Matam), Ziguinchor (Bignona, Ziguinchor) et Kolda (Sédhiou, Goudomp, Vélingara).

    For more information, please contact Michelle Hough at hough@caritas.va or call +39 06 6987 9752 or +39 334 2344 136.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Groupe Urgence - Réhabilitation - Développement
    Country: Mali
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    La situation sécuritaire, politique et humanitaire qui prévaut actuellement au Nord du Mali et les difficultés opérationnelles liées à la diversité des acteurs qui travaillent sur le même espace - civils et militaires, nationaux et internationaux, ont conduit à l’organisation d’un atelier sur l’accès et l’espace humanitaire. Une quarantaine d’acteurs de différents horizons (Etat malien, ONG nationales et internationales, agences des Nations unies, MINUSMA, Forces de sécurité, CICR, bailleurs de fonds) ont participé à l’atelier afin de clarifier les enjeux liés à l’accès aux populations et à la préservation d’un espace humanitaire permettant aux acteurs d’agir en faveur de ces dernières et de déterminer les termes d’un plan d’action.

    Dans cet atelier sont ressortis cinq messages clés:

    Message clef n°1 : Améliorer et renforcer la connaissance mutuelle des acteurs dans un contexte où la « co-localisation » demande une compréhension et un respect effectif des Principes Humanitaires et des mandats des différentes institutions en présence. Tous les acteurs doivent être formés en amont ainsi que dès leur arrivée sur le contexte national, celui prévalant au Nord, les dispositifs institutionnels en place et les mandats de chacun.

    Message clef n°2 : Faciliter la présence humanitaire et l’accès aux populations par une gestion concertée de la sécurité qui prend en compte les enjeux du court et moyen termes. Dans un contexte à risque et évolutif, il est nécessaire de renforcer les mécanismes d’échanges sur l’évolution et l’analyse du contexte sécuritaire ainsi que la concertation multi-acteurs sur les zones prioritaires à sécuriser. Il faut aussi renforcer les systèmes de suivi des équipes sur le terrain. Enfin, il importe de réfléchir en amont sur la gestion des situations de crise aigüe pour identifier les solutions de derniers recours.

    Message clef n°3 : Optimiser la gestion des impacts spécifiques liés à la présence de la MINUSMA, notamment à travers l’Equipe Humanitaire Pays (EHP). Compte tenu des leçons tirées lors du déploiement d’autres Missions intégrées, les mécanismes de coordination entre l’EHP et la MINUSMA ainsi que la voix de la communauté humanitaire dans son ensemble doivent être renforcés.

    Message clef n°4 : Renforcer les mécanismes d’échanges et de coordination déjà existants. Dans un contexte où les besoins humanitaires et de reconstruction sont importants, il faut notamment veiller à la diffusion et à la mise en oeuvre d’orientations stratégiques choisies et renforcer davantage la mécanique UN-CMCoord dans les régions en favorisant la décentralisation des systèmes de coordination civil-militaire.

    Message clef n°5 : Renforcer les relations avec l’Etat malien, les autorités locales et les communautés, notamment pour améliorer la qualité de la réponse à court et moyen termes et prévenir les risques d’effets négatifs que pourraient avoir pour les acteurs de l’aide de mauvaises relations avec ledit Etat. Il est nécessaire de s’appuyer davantage sur les organisations communautaires et sur les institutions décentralisées et de renforcer les mécanismes de coordination déjà existants. De même, il faut développer une stratégie de plaidoyer auprès des bailleurs et des acteurs de développement pour le renforcement des capacités du gouvernement.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Mali, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, World, Yemen, South Sudan
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    Q1 2014 SUMMARY

    In the first quarter of 2014, CERF was crucial in supporting coordinated humanitarian action in most urgent crises worldwide. At the start of the quarter, three system–wide level 3 (L-3) emergencies were in effect: in the Central African Republic (CAR), the Philippines and Syria. In February, another L-3 was declared in South Sudan where conflict has displaced over one million people and left 5 million in need of humanitarian assistance.

    In response to these and other crises, the Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) allocated US$100.7 million from CERF in the first quarter of 2014. Although the demands for humanitarian action and how it should be delivered varied significantly in each situation, CERF played a key role in ensuring appropriate and timely funding for life–saving relief for millions of people.

    Almost $58.1 million was allocated to help humanitarian partners kick-start critical relief work in 10 countries. Of the $95.5 million that was set aside to sustain emergency aid operations in 11 underfunded crisis, $42.6 million was allocated in the 1st quarter.

    The ERC’s capacity to respond to these crises with timely and substantial allocations was made possible by the early fulfilment of donor pledges. By the close of the first quarter of 2014, the donor community had contributed $220.7 million to CERF for 2014. That is over 50 per cent of total pledges and one of the largest amounts contributed since the launch of CERF in 2006.


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    Source: Croix-Rouge Française, Adventist Development and Relief Agency International, European Commission Humanitarian Aid department, World Food Programme, Action Contre la Faim, Solidarités International, Oxfam
    Country: Mauritania
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    Pour susciter les échanges entre intervenants et contribuer à harmoniser les interventions, Oxfam a initié une étude de capitalisation afin de produire un document de synthèse des approches des ONG utilisant l’outil cash transfert dans des programmes de sécurité alimentaire en Mauritanie. Le présent rapport qui fait office de document de référence sur le cash en Mauritanie est structuré en cinq (5) parties comme suit :

    Φ Une première partie introductive qui situe le contexte et présente les objectifs et résultats attendus ;

    Φ Une deuxième partie qui relate le processus méthodologique, notamment les outils méthodologiques, le calendrier et les difficultés rencontrées ;

    Φ Une troisième partie qui capitalise et analyse les références en matière de transferts monétaires en Mauritanie, comprenant les acteurs du cash, les approches développées, les conditionnalités et les mécanismes utilisés, les couts des transferts et les méthodes de ciblages rencontrées, les réinvestissements et redistributions et enfin les mécanismes de plaintes ;

    Φ Une quatrième partie qui fait le point de quelques bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises ;

    Φ Une cinquième partie enfin, présente les conclusions et recommandations.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad
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    Le sorgho, le mil, le maïs blanc et le riz local et d’importation sont les produits alimentaires les plus importants. La consommation de mil est la plus forte dans les régions est et nord du pays. Le riz local est un autre produit alimentaire de base, en particulier pour les ménages plus pauvres. Le riz importé et le maïs blanc sont le plus couramment consommés dans la capitale et ses environs. Le marché d'Atrone à N’Djamena, la capitale, est le marché le plus important pour les céréales. Moundou est un important centre de consommation pour le sorgho et le deuxième marché en importance après la capitale. Le marché d’Abéché est situé dans une zone de production au nord. Le marché de Sarh est à la fois un marché de détail local et un marché transfrontalier.


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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Mali

    17-04-2014 Communiqué de presse

    Genève / Bamako (CICR) – Les cinq membres de l’équipe du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR), enlevés le 8 février 2014 pendant une mission dans le nord du Mali, ont été libérés aujourd’hui. Deux d’entre eux sont légèrement blessés mais leur vie n’est pas en danger, et tous vont bientôt pouvoir rejoindre leur famille.

    Les membres de l’équipe du CICR, qui sont tous des Maliens, ont été libérés au hasard d’une opération militaire menée par les forces françaises dans le nord du pays.

    « Nous sommes soulagés de ce dénouement heureux pour notre équipe. Pour les familles qui ont été immédiatement informées, c’est la fin du calvaire », rapporte Christoph Luedi, chef de la délégation du CICR au Mali. « Nous remercions la population, les chefs communautaires et religieux, et tous ceux qui nous ont accompagnés dans ces moments difficiles, et nous remercions également les familles, pour leur patience et leur courage. »

    « Nous espérons que cette issue heureuse pour notre équipe va nous permettre de continuer à venir en aide aux personnes touchées par le conflit. Nous appelons une fois de plus au respect du travail strictement humanitaire du CICR et de la Croix-Rouge malienne », précise M. Luedi.

    Informations complémentaires : Valery Mbaoh Nana, CICR Bamako, tél. : +223 76 99 63 75 Jean-Yves Clemenzo, CICR Genève, tél. : +41 79 217 32 17 David-Pierre Marquet, CICR Genève, tél. : +41 79 536 92 48


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    04/17/2014 18:22 GMT

    PARIS, April 17, 2014 (AFP) - French forces have freed five Malian aid workers who were taken hostage in a February kidnapping claimed by one of the country's top jihadist groups, the presidents of France and Mali said Thursday.

    "An operation by the French armed forces" freed the five workers -- four Red Cross employees and a veterinarian from another aid organisation -- after "a terrorist group" kidnapped them on February 8 in Mali's restive north, the presidents said in a joint statement.

    ha/jhb/hmn


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    Source: Missionary International Service News Agency
    Country: Mali

    Mali’s Prime minister Moussa Mara at the conclusion of a first cabinet meeting in Bamako announced the “prompt” appointing of a chief negotiator for political talks “with all communities on the territorial statute of the northern regions”.

    Another novelty regarding the dialogue with the movements of Azawad is the decision to organize the talks “in the national territory” and no longer abroad.

    A first accord was signed between the Malian government and rebel groups in Ouagadougou in June 2013, ending an 18-months armed crisis. A crucial step that allowed Mali to go to the polls, though since the peace process came to a standstill. The key northern cities of Kidal and Gao remain highly unstable. [VV/BO]


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    Source: Groupe Urgence - Réhabilitation - Développement
    Country: Afghanistan, Haiti, Kyrgyzstan, Mali, Myanmar, World
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    Editorial

    After special issues on the Sahel, Resilience and the Environment, the 13th issue of Humanitarian Aid on the move returns to its initial format, with a number of different topics and contributions from external authors who are close to Groupe URD. Their analysis, like ours, is rooted in operational reality and explores less common terrain. Arnaud Dandoy's artile on the security management methods used by humanitarian organizations, which he has studied in connection with our Haiti Observatory, and Laurent Saillard's article on the application of humanitarian principles in Afghanistan, which he has been following for a number of years, recall discussions that we have facilitated in Chad, Mali and Somalia and which need to be explored further, questioning things that are taken for granted in the dominant narrative. An experience sharing article looks at the experience of MSF in prisons (Jean-Marc Biquet) while another on the quality of aid focuses specifically on the quality of medical equipment projects (Barbara Comte and Cathy Blanc Gonnet). Finally, François Grünewald analyses the challenges for aid in the particularly complex Malian context.

    All these articles are based on continuous to-ing and fro-ing between field experiences and attempts to share knowledge, and are therefore in keeping with the main objective of this review: to facilitate learning and the sharing of lessons drawn from experience. This objective is consistent with what our readers are looking for; a survey conducted during the first quarter of 2014 showed that they want information and analysis from action research in the humanitarian sector and are particularly interested in new trends and the quality of aid.

    Véronique de Geoffroy


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad
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    HIGHLIGHTS

    • Over 93,000 people have fled the Central African Republic for Chad since December 2013.

    • The impending rainy season requires improved shelter and sanitation in transit sites to prevent the outbreak of diseases.

    • The Government of Chad has extended the maximum duration of stay for returnees in transit sites from ten days to one year. It is identifying more appropriate sites to host them during this time.

    • More measles cases have been reported in the first quarter of 2014 than in all of 2013.


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    Source: Government of the United States of America
    Country: Senegal

    Korka Diaw, who chairs a women’s rice production and processing group in Senegal’s River Valley, is an ambitious and organized leader – and she means business.

    Diaw’s group, Malal Yero Gueye, began as a tontine – or traditional women’s savings group – in 1991. The group decided in 1999 to try its hand at cultivating rice, and borrowed 1.5 hectares of land from the local mayor’s office to do so.

    Today, Malal Yero has 26 members – 18 of whom are women – and at least 40 workers that the group employs seasonally. Over the years, under Diaw’s leadership, Malal Yero has acquired 100 hectares of land, and its processing center is still the only one of its kind in the area, with a daily production capacity of up to 16 tons. In addition to processing their own rice, the women of Malal Yero strategically began offering milling services to other customers and supporting their community by buying rice from other growers to process themselves.

    As of last year, Malal Yero’s land was yielding an average of five to six tons of rice per hectare. Like much of the potentially fertile River Valley region, the group’s land was poorly developed, and more than half of it was not being used for rice cultivation. That is quickly changing thanks to Diaw’s continued leadership and a $182,000 Feed the Future grant from the U.S. African Development Foundation (USADF) awarded to Malal Yero to help the group reach its full potential in agriculture.

    Over the next four years, Malal Yero will use this grant money to rehabilitate existing rice fields; construct a 400 ton storage warehouse so there is enough rice to eat throughout the year; purchase a tractor, motor pump and agricultural inputs such as seeds and fertilizer; and provide training to members in technical, financial and organizational management.

    With Diaw at the helm, Malal Yero has already exceeded expectations since being awarded the grant in June 2013. While the average new USADF grantee tends to disburse funds slowly, making three or four purchases in its first year, Malal Yero has wasted no time investing the funds in the business, making 11 purchases within its first six months as a grantee for new equipment, warehouse construction, training, marketing and other needs. The group already has contracts with the World Food Program, among others, and is taking advantage of market segmentation, selling four distinct rice variations. At a current revenue of nearly $153,000, Malal Yero is well on its way to surpassing its first year revenue target of $212,000.

    “Last year, we were sitting in a hut,” says Diaw. “Today, we are in a functional office. We can purchase more paddy rice and our rice mill is fully occupied.”

    Diaw and her group are an example of how investing in women can be one of the most effective ways to combat hunger and poverty in agricultural communities around the world. With her continued vision and support from Feed the Future, Malal Yero is solidifying its place in the community as one of the River Valley’s most successful agricultural enterprises.

    Under Feed the Future, USADF makes targeted investments through direct grants to Africans to expand economic activities in rural communities and build the capacity of smallholders employed in the agriculture sector, laying the groundwork for better nutrition and food security among increasing numbers of men, women and children across Africa.


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    Source: Médecins Sans Frontières
    Country: Mali

    Aissami Abdou, épidémiologiste nigérien, coordonne depuis six mois le projet MSF d’Ansongo, dans le nord du Mali. Arrivé en fin de mission, il résume ses expériences et explique les difficultés qu’il a rencontrées en travaillant dans un tel contexte.

    « Ansongo est l'une des quatre zones administratives de la région de Gao, au nord du Mali. Même s'il est difficile d’obtenir des chiffres exacts, on estime qu’environ 146 000 personnes vivent dans cette région, dont 30 000 pour la seule ville d’Ansongo. Celle-ci, située sur la rive gauche du fleuve Niger, est traversée par la route qui relie Gao à Niamey, au Niger et qui est une des rares voies en bon état dans cette zone. »

    MSF a commencé à travailler à Ansongo en septembre 2012, neuf mois après le déclenchement du conflit dans le nord du pays opposant les forces de sécurité aux groupes touaregs et islamistes. À l’époque, les autorités de la région se sont réfugiées dans le sud du pays, le personnel de santé a lui aussi fui les violences et le système sanitaire s’est complètement effondré.

    La situation a commencé à changer début 2013, lorsque les armées française, tchadienne et malienne ont lancé une offensive contre les groupes rebelles qui abandonnèrent alors les principales villes du nord qui étaient sous leur contrôle (Tombouctou, Kidal, Gao et aussi Ansongo). En avril, la mission de l’ONU au Mali (MINUSMA) a été déployée dans toute la zone, et des élections générales se sont tenues en juillet.

    « Pour l’instant, il n’y a pas, à proprement parler, de situation de guerre, même si les groupes d’opposition armés lancent régulièrement des attaques asymétriques, comme des attentats suicides. Bien que de manière limitée, la population a accès aux soins, mais les communautés de la région continuent de s’affronter de manière permanente. C’est pour cela que notre présence ici est si importante. »

    Actuellement, MSF travaille à l’hôpital central d’Ansongo qui dispose de 31 lits. En février dernier, l’équipe MSF a effectué plus de 4 900 consultations. Par ailleurs, 302 patients ont été admis à l’hôpital, dont 25 ont été transférés à Gao pour y recevoir des soins spécialisés. Le service de maternité a enregistré 432 consultations prénatales et 46 accouchements, dont 4 césariennes.

    « À Ansongo, le profil épidémiologique n’est pas spécifique. Parmi les pathologies courantes, on retrouve le paludisme, les infections respiratoires et les troubles gastro-intestinaux. Les besoins les plus pressants de la population de la région sont les soins médicaux de base. Si nous n’étions pas là, il n’y aurait personne pour offrir des soins adaptés aux femmes enceintes qui accouchent.

    De plus, le système sanitaire au nord du Mali souffre d’un manque cruel de ressources humaines, d’infrastructures, de médicaments, et la population doit payer pour recevoir des soins médicaux. L’« initiative de Bamako », lancée au Mali par l’OMS, et selon laquelle les coûts du système de santé étaient partagés par l’ensemble de la communauté, doit être relancée. Elle devait être un modèle de gestion, mais le système s’est effondré entre-temps à cause de la crise. »

    À la mi-mars, il y a eu une flambée épidémique de rougeole à Ansongo. La réponse à ce type d’urgence fait partie des objectifs de MSF pour le nord du Mali. Toutefois, les problèmes de sécurité n’ont pas permis à MSF de mener une campagne de vaccination qui pourtant, aurait bien été nécessaire.

    « Le ministère de la Santé a officiellement demandé à MSF de lui apporter un soutien, puisque nous sommes l’une des seules organisations internationales présentes sur place. Nous avons assuré des formations et une aide logistique pour le transport et la chaîne du froid. La campagne a bien eu lieu, mais malheureusement le taux de couverture a été très faible. Avant la crise de 2012, le nord du Mali était déjà une zone oubliée en ce qui concerne activités de vaccination de routine. »

    En plus des poussées épidémiques, MSF est prête à répondre aux pics de violence. En février dernier, MSF a traité à l’hôpital d’Ansongo neuf personnes blessées par balles. Par ailleurs, 30 personnes sont mortes au cours d’affrontements entre les communautés nomades Fula et Touareg installées aux abords d’Ansongo ; elles se déchirent depuis des années en raison de conflits d’intérêts et de règlements de compte. MSF a assuré les premiers soins aux blessés qui ont ensuite été transférés à l’hôpital de Gao, qui est doté d’installations de radiographie et de chirurgie lourde.

    « Lorsque nous avons accueilli ces blessés, nous avons décidé de monter au village de Tin-Hama, qui se trouve à 60 km d’Ansongo, pour voir s’il y avait d’autres personnes ayant besoin d’attention médicale. Lorsque nous sommes arrivés, les villageois nous ont expliqué que certains blessés avaient décidé de partir au Niger, distant d’environ 100 km, pour se faire soigner, et que les communautés Fula étaient parties encore plus loin, trop loin pour que l’on puisse les rattraper.

    À Tin-Hama, nous avons trouvé un enfant de moins de deux ans qui souffrait de neuro-paludisme aigu et qui était sur le point de mourir. Notre médecin lui a porté les premiers secours et nous l’avons ramené à l’hôpital d’Ansongo. Cela n’a pas été facile de convaincre sa famille de nous accompagner, car se sont des nomades. Et cela n’a pas été évident non plus de persuader les soldats à l’entrée de la ville de laisser passer la famille pour qu’elle puisse se rendre à l’hôpital. Finalement, tout s’est bien terminé, nous avons pu convaincre tout le monde et l’enfant a été sauvé. Il est clair que notre déplacement à Tin-Hama a valu la peine, parce que ce jour-là, nous avons sauvé la vie de ce petit garçon de deux ans. »

    La crise de 2012 a creusé encore davantage le fossé qui sépare les différentes communautés du nord, ainsi que les populations du nord et du sud du pays.

    « Pour la plupart des populations, la crise a été une période très difficile et elles se sont senties négligées. MSF a été présente à Ansongo pendant toute la durée de la crise, et c’est pour cela que la population apprécie notre travail. »

    En 2013, les équipes MSF étaient présentes dans le nord du pays où plusieurs milliers de personnes ont été prises en charge et ont reçu des soins primaires curatifs et préventifs. MSF a également assuré les urgences médicales chirurgicales et obstétriques dans les régions de Kidal, Tombouctou, Mopti et Gao.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal
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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad
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    FAITS SAILLANTS

     Plus de 93 000 personnes ont fui la RCA au Tchad depuis décembre 2013.

     L’imminente saison des pluies requiert une amélioration des abris et de l'assainissement dans les sites de transit pour empêcher l'apparition de maladies.

     Le gouvernement du Tchad a prolongé la durée maximale de séjour dans les sites de transit de dix jours à un an.

     Plus des cas de rougeole ont été signalés au premier trimestre de 2014, comparé à toute l’année 2013.


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    Source: Government of the United States of America
    Country: Mali

    As part of the Mali Compact, MCC invested $252.9 million in the Alatona Irrigation Project to build irrigation infrastructure—but that’s not the whole story. Designing a comprehensive package of complimentary activities to ensure the physical canals would have broad and lasting impacts beyond the compact is the rest of the story.

    Though much smaller than the construction in dollar terms, these complementary investments will mean the difference between a well-maintained system that operates decades into the future and a short-lived one that falls into disrepair within a few years.

    Integrating various activities was critical to sustainability. Infrastructure without effective land allocation can leave beneficiaries with insecure property rights, reducing the chances people will invest in their property. Allocation of secure land rights without good training in agronomy and farm management could mean production levels that do not reach their potential. And water delivery without organizations in place to manage water flow, collect fees for its use and maintain the system can lead to rapid system degradation. Extensive outreach during the implementation helped beneficiaries understand what they were receiving and their responsibilities for ensuring sustainability.

    The project adopted an approach different than the typical “top-down” management of irrigation systems in Mali. Traditionally, a centralized agency would fix water prices and dictate how farmers would use their land.

    In the Alatona zone, a federation of nine water-user associations now has the legal authority to set water prices, use proceeds to operate and maintain the secondary and tertiary systems and pay the government irrigation agency to operate and maintain the primary system and deliver water to the perimeter. With the project’s support and USAID providing post-compact assistance, the federation is operating, managing and maintaining the secondary and tertiary systems of the Alatona Perimeter, while the Malian government is responsible for only the primary canal and drain. The beneficiaries now have an active voice in governing the system that provides them with water.

    To maximize outcomes, the project was built on incentives and transparency. MCC built upon the Government of Mali's broader goal of decentralizing government to establish a revenue authority responsible for collecting the Alatona farmers’ mortgage payments and using the proceeds to benefit the entire region.

    MCC’s investments to build the capacity of the water-user associations and their federation, improve land tenure security, establish the revenue authority, and build irrigation infrastructure work together to sustain economic benefits for farmers in Alatona. USAID’s follow-on support for these critical institutions developed local skills and help the region toward its goal of self-sufficiency.

    What are your experiences building local, bottom-up institutions to manage large works that were previously centrally managed? Have you experienced success with water-user associations? What lessons can you share with us to improve the effectiveness of comprehensive, bottom-up approaches to financing irrigation systems?


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    04/18/2014 21:55 GMT

    BAMAKO, 18 avril 2014 (AFP) - Les cinq humanitaires maliens, libérés par l'armée française après plus deux mois aux mains de jihadistes dans le nord du Mali, ont été remis vendredi aux autorités maliennes à Gao (nord-est), a rapporté la télévision publique malienne ORTM.

    Les ex-otages, qui avaient été enlevés le 8 février, tous des Maliens, dont quatre sont des employés du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR), n'ont pas fait de déclaration, selon les images diffusées par l'ORTM.

    Selon la télévision, "la joie et le soulagement étaient visibles sur leurs visages" au cours de la cérémonie au siège du gouvernorat de Gao en présence notamment de trois ministres maliens et de l'ambassadeur de France à Bamako.

    Les cinq personnes libérées "n'avaient d'autre ambition que l'humanitaire au profit de leurs concitoyens en leur apportant secours et assistance. (...) Elles se sont engagées à servir leurs prochains et c'est sur le chemin de ce sacerdoce que leur destin a croisé le chemin de gens sans foi ni loi", a déclaré le ministre de l'Intérieur et de la Sécurité, le général, Sada Samaké, qui a présidé la cérémonie.

    "Pendant plus de deux mois, presque dans l'anonymat, elles ont subi la faim, la soif et l'humiliation (de la part) de leur geôliers", a ajouté M. Samaké, qui était accompagné de ses homologues Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga (Défense et Anciens combattants) et Hamadou Konaté (Solidarité, Action humanitaire et Reconstruction du Nord).

    Les quatre membres du CICR et un vétérinaire d'une autre organisation humanitaire faisaient le trajet entre Kidal (extrême Nord-Est du Mali) et Gao lorsque la Croix-Rouge a perdu le contact avec leur véhicule le 8 février.

    Le 11 février, un responsable du Mouvement pour l'unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest (Mujao) a affirmé à l'AFP que son groupe avait enlevé les cinq hommes.

    Le Mujao fait partie des groupes liés à Al-Qaïda qui ont occupé le Nord du Mali pendant près de dix mois entre 2012 et 2013, avant d'en avoir été en partie chassés par une intervention militaire internationale lancée début 2013 à l'initiative de la France, et toujours en cours.

    Jeudi, les présidences française et malienne ont annoncé la libération des cinq humanitaires. Le CICR a précisé qu'ils avaient été délivrés "au hasard d'une opération militaire menée par les forces françaises dans le nord du pays".

    "Le CICR, malgré ces événements, ne va pas (réduire) ses efforts au Mali", a affirmé son responsable dans le pays, Christophe Luedi, également présent vendredi à Gao.

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    © 1994-2014 Agence France-Presse


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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, United Republic of Tanzania, World

    LONDON, 18 April 2014 (IRIN) - With a certain amount of fanfare, Nigeria has just officially become a middle income country. It is not the sort of country associated with widespread hunger, or a country where people normally get, or expect to get, food aid. And yet around a quarter of small children in Nigeria are underweight, and around 40 percent are stunted; they do not get enough nutritious food to reach their full physical and mental potential. In a nation of 170 million people that is a huge number of children, far too many to be reached by any feeding scheme. You do not have to be an ideological cheerleader for the power of free markets to believe the best way to reach these children - in Nigeria and elsewhere - would be by getting more nutritious food into the normal, private sector distribution chain and into the small shops and local markets which serve the poor.

    “Even people living in rural areas and working on farms rely on markets to purchase food for some or all of the year,” says John Humphrey at the UK Institute of Development Studies (IDS), “and when we talk about market provision we are in effect talking about the private sector. We are not just talking about Nestlé and Unilever and the big multinationals; we are talking about a broad range of private sector operators.”

    Humphrey and his Overseas Development Colleagues colleagues are among a growing number of nutritionists and academics who have been worrying away at the problem of how best to harness the power of the private sector to deliver not just enough calories, but the vitamins, minerals and micronutrients that children need.

    Working with the market

    There are precedents for successfully delivering micronutrients through commercially available foodstuffs. The widespread addition of iodine to salt has almost eliminated goitre and other iodine deficiency symptoms in many countries. But the difficulties faced by Ethiopia in trying to enforce the iodization of salt show some of the problems of this approach.

    Poor people buy their salt in small quantities from the market, and most of it comes from artisanal producers. Adding iodine at small scale is more difficult and more expensive, yet the resulting salt looks the same and tastes the same as untreated salt which can be sold at a lower price.

    In Ethiopia's arid Afar region rock salt producers lobbied hard against compulsory legislation. But the government persisted. The UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and other organizations helped introduce easier methods for small producers to treat their salt, and the country's network of village health workers now has the job of testing the salt on sale in their areas. Even so, universal coverage has still not been reached.

    The problem, says Humphrey, is that the value of fortified foodstuffs is what is known as a “credence” good. “If you say to somebody, 'this product is rich in vitamins,' you can eat as much as you like but you are still not going to know if it really is rich in vitamins; you are simply going to have to believe it. So this is a massive problem, especially for the case of nutrient-rich food.”

    The classic ways of establishing belief, through brand promotion, packaging and advertising, raise the price. In fact a higher price can in itself help persuade customers that it must be good. It is - in the words of a well-known beer advertisement - “reassuringly expensive”. A study of weaning foods in Mali found that the imported baby food Cerelac outsold similar local products, even though it was three times more expensive, and many mothers could not afford to buy enough of it to derive much benefit.

    Challenge of regulation

    IDS has studied attempts to use local manufacturers and commercial distribution systems to reach undernourished children in Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. All three countries have mandatory fortification of wheat flour with iron and zinc. This kind of scheme works best when there is centralized production; in Nigeria, for instance just five big companies supply most of the wheat flour in the country. And because fortification is mandatory, there should be no issues of consumer choice, or competition from cheaper, unfortified flour.

    But IDS's Ewan Robinson, who worked on the case studies, says: “In Nigeria, even though fortification has been mandatory for 10 years now, and there has been huge investment poured in by donors... a recent survey that looked at products in the marketplace rather than at factories, when they took samples and tested them, they found that only 25-30 percent met the required standard, so even in this context of very high support and investment, they still have not managed to motivate manufacturers to fully comply. It requires very strong monitoring.”

    So-called “complementary” foods - baby cereals and other weaning foods - are particularly important since newly weaned infants are at risk of undernutrition. They just cannot physically eat enough ordinary, unfortified porridge to get all the nutrients they need. Many mothers do buy weaning foods, big international brands like Cerelac, locally respected brands like Gold's Custard in Nigeria, or unbranded cereal mixes, often produced on a small scale by women in their own homes.

    These mixes are sold in local markets, in small packages, and do reach the rural poor. “These small enterprises are extremely vibrant,” says Robinson, “But the quality varies hugely. There's been a study done in Ghana which sampled some of these products and found that while some were mixes of different flours, like soya and other beans, and were actually equivalent to international products in nutrition, others were completely inadequate. And there was no way to tell the difference.”

    So the challenge is to find a way of introducing some kind of quality control. The good news which came out of the work in Mali was that mothers, even poor and less educated mothers, were prepared to pay a premium for foods which they knew were better for their babies, and that that premium would be large enough to pay for some kind of certification scheme signalling which mixes really were nutritious. Or perhaps there could be a franchising system which would guarantee standards.

    But the problem remains enforcement. Ghana is a generally law-abiding and well organized country, but Humphrey told IRIN: “In Ghana the capacity of the state to regulate any part of the food industry - even to inspect factories - is very limited. They have very limited ability to analyse products for content. We don't say that states can't do anything, but we have come across so many cases of state failure to regulate, that we are a little bit sceptical about their ability to do it.”

    eb/cb

    Case studies

    The Role of Businesses in Providing Nutrient-Rich Foods for the Poor: Two Case Studies in Nigeria
    The Role of Business in Providing Nutrient-Rich Foods for the Poor: A Case Study in Tanzania
    Mapping value chains for nutrient dense foods in Ghana


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