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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru
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    Highlights

     CHILE: 900,000 people evacuated for a tsunami alert after an 8.2 earthquake.

     BOLIVIA: More than 337,100 people affected by rains.


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru
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    Destacados

    • CHILE: 900,000 personas evacuadas por alerta de tsunami atrás terremoto.

    • BOLIVIA: Mas de 337,100 afectados por lluvias.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Guatemala

    La roya del café sigue causando estragos en la economía de las familias en La Conquista. Una de ellas es la de Iliana. Su esposo migra a México a buscar trabajo. Ella ha intentado producir y vender plátano y banano, pero no rinden igual que el café. Su hija mayor dejó de ir a la escuela para “ahorrar”. Entre mayo y octubre, el PMA y el Gobierno apoyarán con alimentos y asistencia técnica a las familias de La Conquista para paliar esta crisis.

    Iliana Miranda Alvarez vive en la comunidad La Conquista en la boca-costa del Departamento de San Marcos. Tiene 31 años, está casada y tiene cinco hijos: dos niñas y tres niños. El menor de ellos tiene un año y cinco meses. Al igual que para sus vecinas, la principal fuente de ingreso familiar para Iliana es el café.
    Con su esposo tienen un terreno de seis cuerdas (0.26 hectáreas), en el que cultivan café y un poco de banano. El terreno es pequeño y para que la familia pueda cubrir sus gastos básicos, completan sus ingresos con trabajo de jornaleo.

    Una plaga silenciosa que comenzó hace dos años

    La Conquista ha sido afectada por la roya del café desde 2012. En consecuencia, durante los ciclos de cosecha entre los meses de octubre a septiembre de los períodos 2012-2013 y 2013-2014, la producción se ha reducido drásticamente. Prácticamente no ha generado ingresos para los hogares dedicados al cultivo. Al mismo tiempo, las oportunidades de trabajo en las fincas de café cercanas se han reducido, pues han sido igualmente afectadas por el hongo. El esposo de Iliana solía trabajar para la finca “La Unión”, que a su vez había sido fuente de trabajo para muchos otros pobladores. En esas circunstancias, se ha visto obligado a migrar a México mensualmente en búsqueda de otras posibilidades de empleo. A pesar del sacrificio adicional, los ingresos son un 10 por ciento menos que en años anteriores. A la disminución de ingresos debemos restarle además los gastos de alimentación y transporte derivados de la migración. El ingreso máximo mensual de la familia es de 450 quetzales (US$58), lo cual no cubre ni la cuarta parte del costo de la canasta básica alimentaria guatemalteca, que para enero de 2014 rondaba los 2 mil 900 quetzales (US$376) por mes.

    La venta de banano y plátano no reemplaza al café

    A pesar de que intentan comercializan otros cultivos, como el banano y el plátano, las mujeres de La Conquista sienten con dureza el impacto de la roya del café ya que no encuentran alternativas a su principal medio de vida. La producción simplemente no alcanza para remplazar el ingreso del café. Para enfrentar la situación, Iliana busca formas de ahorro. Este año decidió no matricular a su hija mayor en la escuela para ahorrar los gastos del uniforme y de los cuadernos. La situación empeorará entre mayo y octubre, cuando comience la escasez de alimentos. En ese momento los precios de los granos básicos subirán en el mercado. Esto emporará la situación de las familias ya duramente golpeadas por la roya.

    La Conquista recibirá asistencia del PMA

    La Conquista es una de las comunidades seleccionadas por el PMA para su proyecto de asistencia por activos. A cambio de los activos construidos, las familias recibirán alimentos para complementar sus ingresos entre mayo y octubre, el período crítico de carestía. Las familias vulnerables recibirán raciones alimentarias con maíz, frijol y aceite vegetal para cubrir el 50 por ciento de sus necesidades kilo-calóricas básicas durante seis meses. El PMA trabaja en alianza con el Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Alimentación que también brindará a las familias asistencia técnica para realizar obras de conservación de suelos con el fin de mejorar la productividad de sus tierras. Iliana, al igual que muchas de sus compañeras, ya empezó a construir barreras vivas en su terreno, lo que previene la erosión del suelo y mejora la calidad de la tierra.

    16,000 familias en 6 departamentos ya reciben asistencia Bajo el esquema de asistencia por activos, el PMA apoya actualmente a 16,000 familias afectadas por la roya del café en seis departamentos de Guatemala, Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Huehuetenango, El Quiché y San Marcos. Las familias beneficiarias son seleccionadas con criterios de elegibilidad y priorización para garantizar que se seleccionan a las que más lo necesitan. Entre los criterios están: 1) Que presenten alta vulnerabilidad, 2) Que posean un terreno de menos de una manzana con siembra dañada por la canícula 2012-2013, o con el 50 por ciento de pérdidas en el último ciclo de cosecha o que no tengan tierra, 3) Que no tengan reservas de alimentos o ingresos, 4) Que en el hogar haya menores de 5 años, 5) Que la cabeza de familia sea una mujer, y 6) Que haya miembros con capacidades especiales o de edad avanzada, entre otros.


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    Source: Caritas
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali

    L’eau et la nourriture ne sont pas toujours abondantes dans la région du Sahel. Mais une chose l’est : c’est le soleil.

    Caritas aide les communautés dans le camp de réfugiés de Mentao, au Burkina Faso, à tirer au maximum profit de la chaleur torride de la région en fournissant aux réfugiés maliens des cuisinières solaires.

    Elles ressemblent à des antennes paraboliques retournées, mais sont extrêmement utiles dans les zones où la collecte de bois pourrait provoquer la déforestation, ou même des problèmes avec la population locale, à cause de l’épuisement des ressources.

    De fait, les cuisinières solaires sont bien plus rapides que les modes de cuisine traditionnels. Le riz, les haricots et la nourriture grillée peuvent être prêts en à peine 30-40 minutes.

    Une femme, après avoir utilisé un de ces fourneaux, a dit : « Ça nous évite de devoir chercher du bois, et ça nous maintient en bonne santé. Cuisiner est maintenant beaucoup plus rapide pour nous. »

    Un autre avantage est que la nourriture préparée par les réfugiés n’a désormais plus le goût de fumée. Des milliers de Touaregs ont fui du Mali au Burkina Faso en 2012, suite à la guerre sévissant dans leur pays. Il y a actuellement plus de 50 000 réfugiés maliens dans le pays, qui vivent dans trois grands camps et dans d’autres endroits. Ils vivent dans un environnement très difficile, balayé par des vents violents et soumis à des températures extrêmes, où famine et sécheresse sont monnaie courante.

    Soixante cuisinières solaires ont été données aux réfugiés début 2014 grâce à un partenariat entre Caritas et le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les Réfugiés (UNHCR).

    Les cuisinières coûtent à peine plus de 200 dollars (100 000 FCFA) et peuvent fonctionner pendant dix ans.

    Caritas aide aussi les réfugiés maliens du camp Mentao en leur fournissant du bétail et des aliments pour animaux.


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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Sudan
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    Syria: Violence continues in and around Damascus, with government shelling and retaliation attacks from opposition fighters. Armed confrontations are also reported in the northwest, near the Syria–Turkey border, including in Lattakia where heavy fighting has continued for two weeks. To date, over nine million people are in need of assistance, and more than 2.6 million have fled the country. In late March, successful negotiations allowed food distribution to four million people. This was the first dispatch to all provinces for six months.

    Sudan: Airstrikes and ground attacks by government forces and pro-government militias continue to be reported in Darfur following a surge in rebel attacks. In late March, over 100 villages were razed in South Darfur, and clashes in the region have caused the displacement of over 200,000 people since January. Local sources have reported dozens of civilians killed.

    Solomon Islands: Tropical Cyclone Ita caused heavy rain and triggered severe flooding across the archipelago, affecting over 50,000 people – a tenth of the population – mostly in Guadalcanal province. To date, local authorities have reported 23 deaths and 30 people missing. Overcrowded evacuation centres and water contamination are raising fears of disease outbreaks. Other affected communities are reported to be in remote areas and islands that are difficult to reach.

    Last update: 08/04/2014 Next Update: 15/04/2014

    Global Emergency Overview Web Interface


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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Mali
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    08-04-2014 Faits et chiffres

    L’année 2013 a été marquée par une nette croissance des activités du CICR au Mali; conséquence de l’augmentation des besoins des populations affectées par le conflit.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Guatemala

    The Coffee Rust Crisis is hitting households’ economies in the small village of La Conquista. One of those is Iliana’s: Her husband relocated to Mexico to find work. She grew and sold plantains and bananas, but they are not as profitable as coffee. In order to make ends meet she did not enroll her eldest daughter in school. Fortunately between May and October, WFP and the Government of Guatemala will provide food and technical assistance to the families of La Conquista to help them overcome this crisis.

    GUATEMALA CITY. --Iliana Miranda Alvarez lives in the community of La Conquista, Department of San Marcos. She is 31 years old, married, and mother of five children: two girls and three boys. The youngest one is only one year and five months old. Just like her neighbor’s, her family’s main source of income is coffee. Iliana and her husband own a lot of land in which they grow coffee and bananas. The lot is small and yields are low, to supplement their income and cover the family´s basic expenses, Iliana’s husband works as a migrant labourer.

    Coffee Rust: The Silent Plague That Began 2 Years Ago
    Since 2012, La Conquista (in Guatemala) and other coffee growing communities in Central America have been affected by a plague of Coffee Rust. The result: Coffee crop yields have been reduced drastically during the 2012-2013 harvest season and no change is expected for the current 2013-2014 season. The impact has been considerably negative on families whose main source of income is coffee production. Heads of households are forced to find jobs in nearby coffee plantations, but these have also been hit by the plague. Iliana’s husband used to work for “La Union” plantation, which was also the source of income for many other locals. With coffee trees affected by the Coffee Rust at home and nearby plantations, Iliana’s husband was forced to go to Mexico in search of work. He was successful, but now he has to factor in additional expenses, such as transportation fares and living expenditures, which have reduced the family’s income by 10 percent, when compared to the previous year. The highest family income is 450 Quetzals (US$58), which doesn’t even cover a quarter of the cost of Guatemala’s Basic Food Basket- nutritional necessities, which is around 2,900 Quetzals (US$376) a month.

    Bananas and Plantains Can’t Replace Coffee
    Despite their efforts to commercialize alternative crops, such as bananas and plantains, the women of La Conquista are bearing the brunt of the Coffee Rust crisis. To their dismay, the production and market prices of bananas and plantains are simply not enough to replace coffee. In the face of ec0nomic hardship, Iliana had to resort to a coping strategy to save money: This year she decided not to enroll her eldest daughter in school simply because her family cannot afford the cost of uniforms and books. But at this stage any savings could not be enough. The situation will only worsen come May, which is the beginning of the Lean Season. Prices of staple foods such as maize will rise in the local market, making it harder for Coffee-Rust affected families to access nutritious foods.

    La Conquista will receive WFP assistance
    Fortunately La Conquista will receive food and technical assistance from WFP and the Government of Guatemala. In exchange for building assets, the families in La Conquista will receive food to supplement their incomes between May and October, which is the critical Lean Season. The most vulnerable families will receive food rations with maize, beans, and vegetable oil to cover 50 percent of their food needs for the next six months. WFP works in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture, which will also provide technical assistance to the community to improve soil conservation and raise crop yields. Iliana and other women in the community have started to build live fences (groups of trees, bushes, etc.) on their plots to prevent soil erosion and to improve soil quality in preparation for the technical assistance in the months to come.

    16,000 Families in 6 Departments Are Receiving Assistance
    Besides the families in La Conquista, WFP currently supports 16,000 families affected by the Coffee Rust in six departments: Guatemala, Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Huehuetenango, El Quiche, and San Marcos. The beneficiary families are selected on criteria defined by WFP to guarantee that the most-in-need households receive assistance. Families are selected based on the following:

    1. High vulnerability.
    2. Own a small land plot with damaged crops caused by the 2012-2013 dry season, 50% of the crops were affected during the last crop cycle, or the family does not own land at all.
    3. No food stocks.
    4. Children under 5 years old live in the household.
    5. Women as head of the household.
    6. Members with special needs, elderly people, etc.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali
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    Ce rapport présente la situation humanitaire des mois de Janvier, février et mars 2014. Il a été produit sur la base des informations collectées auprès des partenaires humanitaires.

    I. Bref aperçu de la situation humanitaire

    Sur le plan sociopolitique, la classe politique reste toujours divisée sur les perspectives électorales de 2015 surtout en ce qui concerne l’éventuelle révision de la constitution et la mise en place du Sénat. Les partis de la majorité et ceux de l’opposition continuent de sensibiliser leurs militants afin de rallier le maximum de personnes à leurs positions respectives. La tension politique actuelle reste verbale ; cependant si elle devait évoluer en manifestations violentes, celles-ci pourraient avoir un impact négatif sur la situation et l’action humanitaire.

    Sur le plan de la cohabitation entre les populations, le trimestre a été marqué par un conflit survenu le 21 janvier 2014 entre agriculteurs et éleveurs dans le village de Tendangou dans la province de la Kompienga. Ce conflit a occasionné un mort, quatre blessés, 430 personnes déplacées et de nombreux dégâts matériels. Pour restaurer la quiétude et soutenir les populations affectées, le gouvernement burkinabè a dépêché sur les lieux, la ministre des Droits Humains et de la Promotion Civique. Le Conseil national de secours d’urgence et de réhabilitation (CONASUR) soutenu par ses partenaires a fourni aux populations affectées une assistance en vivres et non vivres. La Croix Rouge Burkinabè a également apporté aux victimes une assistance composée de vivres et de non vivres.

    Concernant la crise des réfugiés, selon l’UNHCR et la CONAREF1 , l’opération d’enrôlement biométrique dont les résultats ont été publiés en mars 2014, a permis d’enregistrer trente-quatre mille quatre-vingt-cinq (34.085) réfugiés contre 49.975 personnes enregistrées lors de l’opération de niveau II menée en 2012. La majorité des réfugiés sont sur les sites de Mentao (12.300 réfugiés), Goudoubo (9.973 réfugiés), Sagnioniogo (1.911 réfugiés) et Bobo-Dioulasso (1.154) et 25% de réfugiés installés dans les zones hors camps (Inabao, Tin-Hedja, Dibissi, Déou, etc.), dans la province de l’Oudalan.

    Quant à la gestion de la crise nutritionnelle, selon la dernière enquête nutritionnelle nationale réalisée du 28 août au 26 septembre 2013, la prévalence de la malnutrition aigüe est de 8.2 % de MAG2 dont 1.7% de MAS3 . Sur la base de ces chiffres et des corrections effectuées en tenant compte des orientations internationales, ce sont au moins 430.000 enfants malnutris dont 115.000 de forme sévère et 315.000 enfants malnutris modérés qui devraient bénéficier d’une prise en charge en 2014. Au niveau des camps de réfugiés il ressort que certains enfants sont à risque de malnutrition aigüe. En effet, les prévalences MAG et MAS sont respectivement égales à 5.5% et 2.1% à Mentao, 10.6% et 1.0% à Goudebou contre 3.4% et 0.8% à Sag-nioniogo.

    Sur le plan de la sécurité alimentaire, les résultats de l’atelier du Cadre Harmonisé tenu en mars montre qu’actuellement 19 provinces sont sous pression, soit une population vulnérable estimée à 3.278.949 (18% de la population totale du Burkina Faso) nécessitant la mise en place d’actions de résilience pour protéger les moyens d’existence. Par ailleurs, les résultats définitifs de la campagne agricole 2013-2014 donnent les chiffres suivants :

    • production céréalière nationale définitive: 4.869.723 tonnes, en légère baisse de 0,6% par rapport à la campagne écoulée, mais en hausse de 15,3% par rapport à la moyenne des cinq dernières campagnes.

    • taux de couverture des besoins céréaliers par province :

      • 10 provinces déficitaires (TCBC4 <90%),
      • 15 provinces en situation d’équilibre (TCBC compris entre (90 et 120%),
      • 20 provinces excédentaires (TCBC>120%).

    Enfin, au cours de ce premier trimestre 2014, le Ministre de l’Action Sociale et de Solidarité Nationale, en collaboration avec le Coordonnateur humanitaire du Burkina Faso, a procédé au lancement du plan de réponse stratégique 2014-2016, en présence du Coordonnateur Humanitaire Régional pour le Sahel. Au total, vingt et une organisations ont soumis 56 projets dans ce plan de réponse stratégique d’un coût total de 109 millions de dollars afin de soulager les personnes affectées par l’insécurité alimentaire, la malnutrition et la crise malienne.


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    Source: Government of Canada
    Country: Benin, Canada, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Rwanda

    The Government of Canada is committed to sport and play as powerful tools to achieving health, education and conflict-resolution goals in developing countries.

    To mark the first International Day of Sport for Development and Peace, Canada announced today $5.3 million to Right To Play for the Advancing Health, Education and Development for Children and Youth (AHEAD) project in West and Francophone Africa.

    Canada’s support over the coming year will contribute to the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of more than 235,000 vulnerable children and youth, particularly girls, in Benin, Ghana, Liberia, Mali and Rwanda through:

    • twice-weekly sport and play activities;
    • establishing child and youth-led groups such as clubs and sport leagues;
    • training for teachers, coaches, caregivers and children and youth in health, education, gender equality, inclusion and child protection; and
    • constructing and rehabilitating gender-sensitive play spaces, classrooms and sanitation facilities.

    The AHEAD project will also encourage teachers, coaches and community members to use the sport and play approach to support the healthy development of children and youth in their communities.

    Canada and Right to Play have been working together for 12 years in the area of sport for development.

    Right To Play is a Toronto-based international organization that uses sport and play to educate and empower vulnerable children and youth in more than 20 countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

    Canada working with Right to Play to improve the health and education of children in the developing world


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    Source: Caritas
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali

    Food and water are not always abundant in the Sahel region. But one thing that is, is sunshine.

    Caritas has been helping communities in Mentao refugee camp, Burkina Faso, make the most of the region’s scorching heat by providing Malian refugees with solar cookers.

    They look like upturned satellite dishes but are incredibly useful in an area where gathering firewood can cause deforestation and problems with the local people over the depletion of resources.

    In fact, the solar cookers are much quicker than traditional ways of cooking. Rice, beans and grilled food can be ready in just 30-40 minutes.

    One woman who used the stove said, “It saves us from having to find wood, it helps keep us healthy. Cooking is much quicker for us nowadays.”

    Another advantage is that the food the refugees prepare no longer tastes of smoke.

    Thousands of Tuaregs fled to Burkina Faso from Mali in 2012 as a result of war in their homeland. There are currently over 50,000 Malian refugees in the country, living in three main camps plus other places. They live in a very difficult environment, battered by violent winds and extreme heat and where famine and droughts are common.

    Sixty solar cookers were given out to refugees at the beginning of 2014 thanks to a partnership between Caritas and the United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR).

    The cookers cost just over US$200 (100,000 FCFA) to produce and last up to ten years. Caritas also helps the Malian refugees in the Mentao camp by providing livestock and animal feed.


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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Malawi

    In 2004, WFP implemented a food-for-assest project in Phalombe distict in southern Malawi. Ten years later, the farmers who took part in the project are self-sufficient - no longer left high and dry when the weather turns against them.

    Natural disasters, such as prolonged dry spells and flooding, are a leading cause of hunger in Malawi’s southern district of Phalombe. The risk of disaster here has increased due to climate change, environmental degradation and population growth. However, a group of farmers working on the Chakalamba irrigation scheme, started through a WFP food-for-asset (FFA) project, have shown how adapting to a changing climate can reduce risks and provide solutions to hunger.

    Hard work

    “Hunger used to hit us badly because we could no longer depend on good rains for successful harvests," says group secretary Dafter Chiwaya. "It was clear the climate was changing. But this changed in 2004 when we took part in WFP’s FFA project.”

    In partnership with the Salvation Army, WFP implemented a year-long FFA project in which some 75 community members received maize and peas in exchange for constructing an irrigation scheme with WFP-provided materials.

    “Each morning we started digging at 6 o'clock," he says. "We were happy to do the hard work because it was something that we were building for our own future.”

    By the project’s end in 2005, the group had finished six dams, a water intake and a distribution system. Today the Chakalamba irrigation scheme reaches over 50 hectares, where 250 members from eight surrounding villages grow maize, beans, cabbage, potatoes and tomatoes. They estimate that, thanks to the scheme, they produce up to 10 tonnes of food each year while, before the project, they could only harvest once a year after the rainy season. It was never enough for their families.

    All year round

    ”This year, WFP provided emergency food assistance in Phalombe district to respond to food shortages experienced by some 100,000 vulnerable people. The farmers of Chakalamba were not among those who needed assistance.

    “During the nine years that we’ve had this scheme, we’ve never received emergency food assistance from WFP," he says. "We now have food all year round.”

    The Chakalamba irrigation scheme allows the group to harvest three or four times a year, including during the dry season with water from the Lunguni River filling the their irrigation channels.

    “Last year, the bad rains ruined the crop but, because of the scheme, we were able to cultivate even after the rains,’ explains group chairman Henry Tebulo.

    The group has more recently benefitted from support from a government project, which consolidated WFP’s FFA project by providing fertilizer and constructing additional water canals and pipes.

    Building on momentum

    With higher incomes from increased food production and sales, the farmers have been able to make significant changes to their lives and livelihoods.

    “Using the proceeds from irrigation farming, we're able to send our children to school, build strong houses with iron sheets and buy inputs for the next harvest.”

    In 2014, WFP is building on the momentum of past success by implementing more FFA projects in other disaster-prone areas to bring benefits to more farmers and their families.

    This is part of WFP’s fight to eliminate hunger, known as the Zero Hunger Challenge, through which WFP is working to ensure that all Malawians have access to a plentiful supply of food - just like the Chakalamba farmers.


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    Source: Government of Guatemala
    Country: Guatemala

    Guatemala, 8 abril (AGN).- El representante en Guatemala de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO, por sus siglas en inglés), Diego Recalde, es doctor en Economía y Comercio por la Universidad La Sapienza (Roma, Italia). Trabajó en Honduras como oficial en el Programa Mundial de Alimentos y como coordinador de la Unidad de Reducción de la Pobreza del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, entre otras experiencias. La Agencia Guatemalteca de Noticias conversó con él sobre esos aspectos en este país centroamericano.

    ¿Cómo entender el problema del hambre? - ¿Es un tema económico, social o político?

    El problema fundamental es la pobreza, el hambre es consecuencia. Abajo hay una raíz muy grande del problema, de orden estructural, que tiene que ver con cuestiones históricas, de política. Siempre hubo un tema de concentración de las tierras; uno tendría que remontarse a la época de la Colonia. Hay 1.4 millones de hogares en las zonas rurales de Guatemala, de los cuales el 12.6 por ciento se dedica a actividad agropecuaria y no poseen tierras.

    De ese mismo porcentaje de población rural, que es de arriba del 50 por ciento, más del 60 por ciento tienen extensiones pequeñitas, entre 0.1 y cuatro hectáreas. O sea, ahí podrían tener un pequeño patio para hacer autoconsumo y no hay para más, tienen que emigrar. Pero estas situaciones no son exclusivas de Guatemala, se repite en América Latina y el mundo. El reto de ese 73 por ciento que vive en situaciones estructurales de pobreza es comenzar a tener una línea base cubierta.

    ¿Cuál es esa base?

    Significa tener programas de salud montados adecuadamente, cubriendo a los grupos que son más vulnerables a la pobreza, la desnutrición y el hambre. Cubrir a las madres embarazadas, que haya vigilancia en el crecimiento del niño, el programa materno-infantil de 0 a 2 años con el cumplimiento de controles y mediciones; si hay necesidad de dar un suplemento de vitaminas, darlo. Entonces, ese es el paquete y ese es un poco el plan de la Ventana de los Mil Días y del Pacto Hambre Cero.

    Es cumplir esa línea base, es el cumplimiento de lo mínimo que tiene que hacer cualquier país para tener a esos grupos más vulnerables que pueden caer en esa situación de desnutrición más grave. Eso tiene que ver con acceso a agua potable segura, tener la visión nutricional para tener en el patio de la casa un mínimo de alimentos para la familia y eso implica también una cultura de nutrición distinta.

    Tiene que haber una base de donde partimos, y ese es el programa que está montando muy bien el Gobierno. No estamos en posición de evaluar logros, pero creo que las acciones están ahí muy claras, ahí está el detalle de la programación que en general el programa de Naciones Unidas apoya. Se está generando una base de datos, donde se sabe quién está haciendo qué y en cuál territorio. Creo que todo eso permitirá tener más cifras de análisis, más capacidad de tomar decisiones, de creación de política pública.

    ¿Cuál sería el siguiente paso?

    Ahora todo eso debe consolidarse a un siguiente nivel, a una política social. Mover de un programa, que es esencialmente fundamental para mantener a la población más vulnerable en un buen estado de salud. Y esa es un poco la preocupación, qué pasará en el futuro. Cómo institucionalizamos este tipo de enfoque que incluye todos esos elementos y eso es obligación del Estado.

    Esa política tendría que estar ya en marcha…

    De hecho se está haciendo. Desde 2005 se buscó una política social más integradora, elevar la política y después bajarlo a planes y programas con el presupuesto público de los años venideros. Venga quien venga, lo importante es tener garantizado ese mínimo de cumplimiento de derechos, porque el Estado tiene que cumplir esos derechos de los ciudadanos.

    Acceso a educación, alimentación y salud. Quisiera señalar que eso es solo línea base, eso debe hacerlo cualquier país, la pregunta es: cómo sacamos de la pobreza al 60 por ciento de las personas. Esa es la gran pregunta; si ahora estamos trabajando sobre la base, después tendremos una generación que tendrá capacidad de tener igualdad en su crecimiento y su futuro. En países desarrollados como Finlandia, todavía hay paquetes de salud y de educación.

    Allá todavía dan alimentación escolar todos los días. Debe haber un acompañamiento con visión de desarrollo en los territorios, involucra todo lo que hemos hablado más la parte productiva. Porque la pobreza no se combate sino con más producción.

    Guatemala es un país con gran riqueza natural y mucha biodiversidad, ¿por qué hay hambre en un país que puede producir para sus 15 millones de habitantes?

    Básicamente ha habido un degrado de las tierras y una repartición donde cada vez el agricultor tiene menos tierra, y debe vender su fuerza laboral en tierras vecinas. No hay una capacidad de resistencia a la gran expansión del monocultivo. La tenencia de tierras y la expansión de la frontera agrícola es un tema que hay que atender.

    Si se deforesta Petén, verán qué pasa con los ríos, con la vida silvestre, con la capacidad del suelo de sobrevivir a ponerle monocultivos por largos períodos. Hay un tema de cómo se produce la frontera agrícola; los pobres viven en tierras degradadas. Los mayas también se terminaron por un tema de densidad poblacional y por un problema de sobre aprovechamiento de sus recursos naturales, esa es una de las teorías de las que más se ha recogido. El modelo de desarrollo de Europa es teniendo productores individuales, juntándose, acopiando en un lugar, envasar, vender y repartir las ganancias de la venta. Es el desarrollo económico local.

    Cuál es el apoyo que actualmente da FAO a Guatemala

    Hay un marco de coordinación de país definido con el Gobierno. Hay intervenciones para apoyar el Programa de Agricultura Familiar para el Fortalecimiento, en extensión rural, el de desarrollo rural. Estamos cambiando el marco muestral para la Encuesta Nacional Agropecuaria con el INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística) que será con estándar internacional. FAO es un ente de conocimiento, no somos un ente financiero.

    ¿Cómo ven la implementación del Pacto Hambre Cero y cuáles son los planes de largo plazo que FAO ve?

    Es que si usted ve, solo hay una estrategia en la línea de producción y cuatro en la de nutrición, entonces insisto en el concepto: en la medida en que usted genere producción, usted podrá salir de la pobreza, y aumentar la producción en zonas rurales es un tema de FAO, por eso impulsamos el tema de agricultura familiar, dado que este año es el Internacional de la Agricultura Familiar, y eso está establecido en el plan del Pacto Hambre Cero.

    Ese modelo lo acompañamos conjuntamente con el MAGA, y ese es el único tema que está en el área de producción, entonces yo mal podría hablar y opinar sobre los temas de compensación social, de apoyo a aspectos nutricionales, los cuales son importantísimos. Para salir de la pobreza debe abordarse el tema de producción y empleo en las zonas rurales. AGN


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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal
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    HIGHLIGHTS

    · Two-week increase in IDPs in Bangui, from 177,000 to 203,500. Total in CAR stands at 628,500.

    · Over 325,000 CAR refugees in neighbouring Cameroon, Chad, DRC and Congo, more than 89,700 since December 2013.

    · Threatening situation for at least 15,000 Muslims, trapped in Bangui and other areas in CAR.

    · More than250,000 IDPs in north-eastern Nigeria, according to NEMA assessment.

    · 157 suspected cases of Ebola including 101 deaths reported in Guinea as of 7 April.


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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    04/09/2014 15:08 GMT

    BAMAKO, April 9, 2014 (AFP) - Mali's new prime minister said on Wednesday he was forming a government which would prioritise security and reconciliation as the deeply-divided nation recovers from months of ruinous conflict.

    Former planning minister Moussa Mara, 39, was promoted to the premiership on Saturday after Mali's first post-war prime minister Oumar Tatam Ly quit just six months into office.

    Mara, 39, said that "the safety of all Malians wherever they are, and on the whole national territory" would be the focus of his administration as he gave his first public address.

    Reconciliation is also at the top of the agenda, he said at a ceremony transferring the premiership in Bamako, adding that Malians needed "to mend the social fabric that has been particularly traumatised by the troubles of the previous years".

    President Ibrahima Boubacar Keita's office gave no reason for the resignation of Ly and his ministers, but it later emerged that the outgoing prime minister had become frustrated over being unable to enact reforms in the administration.

    Mara said he wanted to strengthen governance and public services, improving relations between citizens and the state.

    "We will lead the government with the mindset of absolute integrity among its members," he said, promising loyalty to Keita.

    Mara is expected to announce his cabinet team by the end of the week.

    The new administration will be expected to make good on the president's pledge when he was inaugurated last September to unite Mali, get the economy back on track and end endemic corruption.

    Keita's landslide victory in the first presidential polls since 2007 was seen as crucial for unlocking more than $4 billion (2.9 billion euros) in aid promised by international donors who halted contributions in the wake of Mali's 2012 coup.

    Army officers angry at the level of support they had received to combat a separatist Tuareg rebellion in Mali's vast desert north overthrew the democratically elected government of president Amadou Toumani Toure on March 22, 2012.

    In the chaos that followed, the Tuareg seized control of an area larger than France before being ousted by Al-Qaeda-linked groups which imposed a brutal interpretation of Islamic law on the local population, carrying out punitive amputations and executions.

    Their actions drew worldwide condemnation and prompted France to launch a military offensive at Mali's behest in January last year that ousted the Islamists.

    sr-cs/stb/ft/hmn


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    Source: World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
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    L’essentiel:

    • Les prévisions climatiques saisonnières indiquent que le cumul pluviométrique pendant la saison des pluies pourrait être déficitaire en Guinée, au Libéria et en Sierra Léone.
    • La situation pastorale est marquée par l’appauvrissement des pâturages et la perturbation des circuits de transhumance dans les zones de conflits dans la région.
    • Les prix sur les marchés sont en général à la baisse ou stables dans la plupart des marchés, en partie à cause de la faible demande des ménages.
    • 4 895 000 personnes sont actuellement en phase crise et plus en Gambie, au Mali, au Niger, au Sénégal et au Tchad selon l’avis du PREGEC.

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    Source: European Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Malawi, Niger, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

    •The European Union and the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have had a steadfast and generous partnership in promoting sustainable rural development to improve the lives of the poor for over ten years.

    •The EU is the biggest donor to the FAO, contributing US$1.2 billion to FAO’s field programme from 2008-2013.

    •New projects signed between the EU and FAO in 2013 alone amounted to nearly US$ 200 million, of which 87% are funded through the EU’s delegations.

    •The partnership has been instrumental in helping the two organisations achieve maximum impact with their work; working together on the ground in developing countries worldwide, improving food security in emergencies, employing research to foster food safety and quality, and sharing know-how and involving partners in policy-making.

    •The European Community became a member of FAO in 1991. Since 1993 arrangements have been in place concerning technical cooperation between the two institutions. Following years of close collaboration, in 2004 the European Commission and FAO became strategic partners.

    •In 2011, the European Commission, FAO, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP) signed a Strategic Framework of Cooperation to increase the capacity of the international community to deliver effective, coordinated, timely and sustainable support to food security and nutrition.

    •The Partnership has strengthened both organisations in their work to achieve their shared goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger and contribute to the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly MGD 1 of reducing by half the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015.

    •In terms of geographical distribution, about 40% of FAO EU projects are executed in Africa, followed by Asia (18%), the Near East (11 %) and Latin America (8%).The rest goes to Europe (7%), and Interregional cooperation (15%).

    Food Facility – a joint response to rising food prices

    Cooperation between FAO and the EU reached a peak with the €1 billion EU Food Facility; the EU’s quick and massive response to rising food prices, set up in 2008.

    A report published in 2013 on the Food Facility showed that in three years, it had improved the lives of over 59 million people in 49 countries, and provided indirect support for 93 million others (by for instance enabling people to benefit from increased opportunities for trade in the area, and to learn improved skills from neighbouring farmers). The report also showed that the €1 billion facility has led to the vaccination of over 44.6 million livestock, and helped to train 1.5 million people in agricultural production.

    The Food Facility aimed to increase agricultural production in 49 of the world's poorest countries by encouraging producers to increase supply, helping them to deal with the impact of volatile food prices on local communities and increasing farmers' ability to produce food, as well as improve the way that agriculture is managed.

    Two thirds of the 232 projects which received funding from the Food Facility were based on agricultural production or providing access to agricultural materials (like seeds and fertiliser). Statistics show that projects involved have seen an average 50% increase in production.

    Over €600 million of the €1Bn Food Facility was channelled through eight UN agencies and the World Bank, €284 million of which have been managed by the FAO, allowing it to carry out 31 operations in 28 countries.

    In June 2013 the EU received the first ever Jacques Diouf Award from the FAO, in recognition of its pioneering work on the EU Food Facility. José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, accepted the award on behalf of the EU at a ceremony in the 38th FAO Conference in Rome.

    Global Governance for Hunger Reduction programme – €30 million

    The Global Governance For Hunger Reduction programme contributes to concretely improving the way in which the global community works together to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, as well as to improve food security governance at global, regional and national levels. The proposed Action will seek and promote close collaboration between selected projects, programmes and processes supported by FAO and the EU with other partners, as well as reinforce collaboration between the FAO, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP).

    Global governance in food security relies heavily on an effective Committee of Food Security (CFS) and this programme has ensured that both stakeholders and experts are involved in the process, in coordination with other relevant bodies such as the Standing Committee on Nutrition.

    Partnership on the ground: Agriculture in Zambia

    In March 2014, the FAO and the EU, in partnership with the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, launched the Conservation Agriculture Scaling Up (CASU) project which aims to reduce hunger, improve food security, nutrition and income while promoting the sustainable use of natural resources in Zambia. The agricultural production of smallholder farmers in Zambia, has, in the past, been affected by soil degradation, high costs of materials, poor produce markets and poor farming practices. This project will contribute to government efforts to increase crop production and productivity for small and medium scale farmers in Zambia by using ‘Conservation Agriculture’, which is based on three principles: minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation in order to minimise damage to the environment. Conservation agriculture saves labour, makes efficient use of agricultural inputs (such as seeds and fertilisers), produces higher yields and is better for the environment. It also makes crops more resilient against drought and prevents soil erosion. This four year project (2013 – 2017), at a total cost of €11 million, is implemented in 31 districts across 9 provinces in Zambia.

    The project will benefit a total of 21,000 Lead Farmers, (who train the other farmers,) and an additional 315,000 Follower Farmers (who learn from the Lead Farmers), of which at least 40% should be women.

    Partnership on the ground: Climate Smart Agriculture in Malawi, Vietnam and Zambia

    Climate change and food security are two of the most pressing challenges of our time, and cannot be tackled in isolation from each other.

    In 2012, the European Union and EPIC (the FAO’s Economics and Policy Innovations for Climate-Smart Agriculture programme) launched Climate-Smart Agriculture in Malawi, Vietnam and Zambia.

    The idea behind the project is to look at the connection between climate change and food security and then work with governments, local institutions and universities to provide a ‘Climate Smart Approach’ in response; supporting activities ranging from research to policy support and investment proposals For example, the project has studied Conservation Agriculture, which can, potentially, increase productivity through better soils and help farmers adapt to climate change through better water retention. It also can help mitigate climate change by trapping carbon in the soil.

    In particular, the project helps to support the countries of Malawi, Vietnam and Zambia to secure the necessary policy, technical and financial conditions to enable them to sustainably increase agricultural productivity and income, as well as to build both resilience and the ability of agricultural and food systems to adapt to the effects of climate change. It also enables them to seek opportunities to reduce and remove Green House Gases in order to meet their national food security and development goals.

    Partnership on the ground: Giving farmers the right tools in Niger

    A five year, €6 million multi-donor initiative to intensify agriculture in Niger has achieved increases in production of up to 100 percent in over half of Niger's farmer villages.

    Since September 2008, the Ministry of Agriculture, the FAO and EU have been supporting the intensification of agriculture by strengthening a network of cooperative shops providing inputs (such as fertilisers, seeds, equipment, etc.) with €6 million in support under a programme known as IARBIC.

    Through this vast network, well-priced and good quality agricultural inputs, ordered by the farmers’ organisations, are reaching over half of the agricultural villages in Niger, where average yield increases of 100 percent for sorghum and 81 percent for millet have now been recorded. In addition, IARBIC has provided a wide range of skills to farmers, ranging from full agricultural training, to management and accounting for a farmer organisation or a business, such as an input shop.

    Good practices developed by this programme have been included in Niger's new hunger reduction strategy, "Nigeriens Nourish Nigeriens" (3N), such as the shops run by farmer organisations and improved access to financial and advisory services.

    For more information

    EU and FAO’s partnership:

    www.fao.org/europeanunion

    Food Facility:

    http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/how/finance/food-facility_en.htm


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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Guatemala
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    Interpretación de los datos: A nivel nacional el precio del quintal de maíz pasó de Q109.00 en febrero de 2014 a Q121.00 en marzo de 2014 -incremento del 11 por ciento-. Es normal el aumento en este mes, lo cual se debe a que no existe cosecha del grano en ninguna Región del país lo cual provoca que la oferta disminuya en los principales mercados del país. Es necesario aclarar que la existencia actual del grano en los mercados es suficiente para cubrir la demanda de la población.

    La cosecha de la Región Norte que recién concluyó fue sujeta al almacenamiento por parte de acopiadores y comerciantes de esta Región, cuyo propósito es contar con suficiente grano para poder venderlo en el mercado en los meses de mayo a agosto, periodo en el cual regularmente se observan los precios más altos del año.

    El precio por quintal cotizado en marzo de 2014 es Q9.00 más alto que en marzo del 2007, Q27.00 más alto que en marzo de 2008, Q11.00 más bajo que en marzo de 2009, Q6.00 más alto que en marzo de 2010, Q47.00 más bajo que en marzo de 2011, Q21.00 más bajo que en marzo de 2012 y Q7.00 más alto que en marzo de 2013.


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    Source: European Commission
    Country: Angola, Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Somalia, Swaziland, South Sudan

    Summary: 9 April 2014, Brussels - A new programme worth €33 million to improve land governance and help improve the food and nutrition security of family farmers and vulnerable communities in Sub Saharan Africa, was announced today by Development Commissioner, Andris Piebalgs. This will be done, among other things, through the application, at country level, of some Voluntary Guidelines set up by the international community in 2012 to improve land governance.

    Roughly 1.2 billion people worldwide live without permanent homes, land access or formal property rights, a reason which is often used for their land to be attributed to large scale land investors. Therefore, land governance issues are strongly linked to key challenges such as food scarcity, water shortages or urban and population growth.

    Speaking ahead of the high level conference on land tenure, due to take place today at the European Parliament in the presence of President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso, Commissioner Piebalgs said: "I am convinced that these land tenure guidelines, which recognise farmers' ownership and access rights, are essential to achieve efficient, sustainable and inclusive agriculture, and to promoting human rights and peace in society. This new programme will help farmers, and specially women, to make a living and feed their families, without fear of losing their property."

    Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development, Dacian Cioloș, who will also attend today's event, added: "Improving land tenure management is a key challenge to strengthen family farms, encourage investments in agriculture and increase food security. We need to support African countries concretely by sharing our experience in this field to make sure that guidelines and voluntary processes are translated into national legislation or into standard contracts for local governments."

    Other activities of this new programme include:

    • the development of new land registration tools and digital land registry techniques for example through satellite images

    • support to local organisations and civil society groups in making farmer groups (particularly women and young people) aware of their land rights so they are able to maintain them

    • formalisation measures will be put in place to make land use legitimate; e.g. the provision of property deeds and relevant documentation to recognise land rights

    The programme will be rolled out across ten African countries: Angola, Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Somalia, South Sudan and Swaziland.

    The UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) contributes to the in-country implementation of the programme: in Somalia, it will carry out an in-depth assessment on territorial rights and will set up strategies on land management. In Kenya it will review and harmonise the national strategies, policies and legislation required for strengthening of institutions and for the building up of future strategies.

    Ahead of the event, Maria Helena Semedo, Deputy Director General of the FAO said: "Any solutions for eradicating poverty must examine the ties between rights, entitlements, opportunities and poverty, with a special emphasis on empowering the most vulnerable. Only an empowered population, with secure rights and a stake in their future can move a nation forward and transform natural assets into wealth."

    Background

    The concept of this programme is to apply at country level the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT), adopted by the Committee of World Food Security (CFS) in 2012. They were seen as a major step forward by the international community to improve land governance at a global level.

    Land governance is a particular challenge in many developing countries; particularly for smallholder farmers who often struggle to gain recognition for a communal area or agricultural investments. Many countries suffer from the lack of a transparent and effective land ownership system, with no public registration system. Fragile states are particularly volatile in terms of land tenure. Setting up a clear legislative framework for land registration and governance in this context is crucial.

    The issue of land ownership will become increasingly important as the world population is expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050. Additional pressure is put on land through food and biofuel production, as well as the importance of preserving forest basins and climate change.

    Today's 'High-Level Conference on Property Rights: Land Tenure Security, the Missing Key to Eradicating Poverty' will be hosted by Commissioner Piebalgs and MEP Nirj Deva at the European Parliament, from 2pm-7pm. Other high level invitees included President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso, Dacian Cioloș, European Commissioner for Agriculture, HE Raymond Tshibanda, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Democratic Republic of Congo, HE Pierre Mabiala, Minister for Land Affairs and Public Domain, The Republic of Congo, HE Mamadou Sangafowa Coulibaly, Minister of Agriculture, The Ivory Coast, Maria Helena Semedo, Deputy Director General FAO and Klaus Deininger, Lead Economist at the World Bank.

    Today's event marks ten years of strategic cooperation between the EU and the FAO.

    For more information:

    Website of EuropeAid Development and Cooperation DG:

    http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/index_en.htm

    Website of the European Commissioner for Development Andris Piebalgs:

    http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/piebalgs/index_en.htm

    Registration for the "High-Level Conference on Property Rights - the missing key to eradicating poverty" and to follow it live:

    https://app.getresponse.com/site/propertyrights/webform.html?wid=1811001...


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
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    To project food security outcomes, FEWS NET uses scenario development. In this methodology, an analyst uses current evidence to develop assumptions about the future and compare their possible effects. The following report outlines assumptions at the regional level. Assumptions are also developed at the country level; these are likely to be more detailed. Together, the regional and national assumptions are the foundation for the integrated analysis reported in FEWS NET’s Food Security Outlooks and Outlook Updates. Learn more about our work here.

    FEWS NET’s Food Security Outlook reports for April - September 2014 are based on the following regional assumptions:

    Seasonal Performance . AGROCLIMATOLOGY

    • Following a late start of the season, the remainder of the Southern African monsoon season in March and April will likely be near normal in terms of total rainfall across the region, especially in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, and Zambia. Crop performance is therefore expected to remain good in most of the region except parts of Angola, Tanzania, and northern Namibia where current rainfall performance indicates that below normal seasonal outcomes are likely to occur.

    • Early cessation of rains is not expected in most areas that experienced a delayed start of season (parts of eastern Zambia, southern Malawi, and northern/central Mozambique). This will allow late planted crops to reach maturity without compromising yields. This outcome is indicated by an analysis of factors, including short-term forecasts, current soil moisture conditions, recent rainfall, and likelihood of rainfall following recent 5-year trends. The same analysis however indicates a likelihood of dryness between March and the end of season in localized parts of northern Malawi, and central Mozambique.

    FARM AND OFF-FARM LABOR OPPORTUNITIES AND REMITTANCES

    • Throughout the region, it is expected that agriculture labor opportunities will be at levels typical for the April - September period. Farmers will focus on harvesting, processing, storage, and marketing during the first part of the outlook period. As is normal, labor opportunities are expected to start declining during the second part of the outlook period. In localized areas with second season agricultural activities, labor opportunities will remain available through September.

    • Migrant labor opportunities in South Africa are expected to remain constrained as labor costs continue to rise due to demands for increased minimum wages, and the protracted labor disputes in the farming and mining sectors. While most households typically rely less on remittances over this outlook period, it is likely that remittance levels to neighboring countries with significant migrant populations (Lesotho, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe) will fall below typical levels.

    PEST INFESTATIONS AND DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    • The International Red Locust Control Organization for Central and Southern Africa’s (IRLCO-CSA) points to fewer outbreaks of the armyworm over the 2013/14 rainy season due to the control measures put in place following last season’s outbreaks. The February report forecasts that as the rainy season comes to an end (April-June), armyworm outbreaks will recede in the endemic areas of Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and southern Tanzania. However, isolated incidents of late outbreaks could occur in Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique in the period up to May, possibly impacting crops.

    • According to the IRLCO-CSA Red Locusts are expected to have successfully bred and formed hopper groups and bands during late February in the outbreak areas of Ikuu-Katavi plains, Malagarasi Basin and Wembere plains (Tanzania), Lake Chilwa/Lake Chiuta plains (Malawi), Buzi-Gorongosa plains (Mozambique), the Dimba plains (Mozambique), and Kafue Flats (Zambia). If uncontrolled, the hoppers will likely form adult swarms by April, into May - which will migrate from outbreak areas posing serious threat to crops and pasture in neighboring countries. Some swarms may migrate as far as Zimbabwe, Botswana, Angola as well as Tanzania’s East Africa neighbors.

    • The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the January 2014 Malagasy Locust Update reported that mature and immature adults as well as hoppers were detected in various areas in the outbreak, invasion, concentration, and multiplication areas of Madagascar. Copulation and egg-laying were also observed during this period. With these conditions in place, and the favorable ecological conditions and vast dispersion of parental populations, it is expected that locust activities will increase and outbreaks will occur in several places in the coming months. These outbreaks, though above average, are however expected to be less severe due to ongoing control efforts. Impact on crop production is therefore expected to be less severe than last year.

    Markets and Trade

    • With the new harvest expected to be available by April, most households across the region are expected to reduce their dependence on markets for staple foods, reducing pressure on local markets, and subsequently leading to the typical seasonal drop in food prices. However, given the higher levels maintained throughout 2013/14 season, prices on most markets are likely to remain above those of their respective five-year averages. Delayed harvests in several parts of the region where the onset of the rains was late and erratic, will tend to keep prices in these localized markets higher for a longer period than normal.

    • With current seasonal performance indicating near normal (average) production levels in most of the region, it is expected that upcoming 2014 crop harvests will boost staple food supplies between April and September, and provide incentives for local and cross-border traders to embark on purchases for export. South Africa will remain the major source of exports to neighboring structurally grain deficit countries. Despite a significantly lower (by 65 percent) projected carryover over stock as at May 1st 2014, the exportable surplus is likely to remain at par with last season given the expected 6.1 percent increase in overall production. While exports are expected to remain robust over the 2014/15 season, it is expected that export volumes over the outlook period will be typically low - as most countries will largely rely on nationally produced food following the April – June harvest period.

    • While overall export demand from the region’s other top maize producers (Zambia and Tanzania) is expected to remain high, pressure on available stocks will be less in the April to September outlook period since it is still quite early in the marketing season. Zambia is expected to continue the policy to restrict maize and maize meal exports (allowing only government-to-government and World Food Program (WFP) exports) given that this year’s harvest is likely to remain at par with last year due to the delayed start of season in some of the productive districts in the Eastern province and the expected lower carryover stocks due to the tighter supplies last season. Malawi is also likely to maintain its export ban though it is expected that despite increased border policing, informal trade in both Zambia and Malawi will continue as traders buy up current supplies while prices are relatively low. Zambia’s Food Reserve Agency’s (FRA) maize purchase program is scheduled to take place between June and September, and, if the attractive prices offered in previous years are maintained, there will likely be significant volumes of informal cross-border maize in-flows into Zambia from neighboring Tanzania and Malawi during the period of the FRA purchase program.

    • Tanzania’s 2013 bumper crop harvest has led to prices of maize and rice remaining atypically stable across most markets between December 2013 and March 2014. However, there is increased likelihood for below average rainfall (from March to May 2014) along northern Tanzania, which will be a third consecutive season of below average rainfall in these areas. Consequently maize and rice prices will likely increase albeit moderately between March and June due to high demand in markets in northern Tanzania, southeastern and coastal Kenya. Prices are then expected to decline seasonably from July onwards with increased supplies during the masika and msimu harvests (July-September) in Tanzania. Cross border outflows of maize from Tanzania to neighboring Zambia and Malawi are likely to be limited given the expected comparatively lower selling prices in these two countries.

    • While Malawi is one of the top maize producers in the region, mixed expectations in terms of harvest prospects are likely to lead to limited domestic availability for the 2014/15 consumption period, and limited surplus stock for export. This, along with export restrictions, will likely result in informal cross border trade patterns similar to those observed in 2013/14. Informal imports (mainly from Mozambique and Zambia) are likely to be more robust as traders take advantage and buy up stock during the harvest period when prices levels are relatively lower.

    • The recent price spikes in maize on the South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX) are expected to abate, following the positive impacts of recent rainfall performance and increased area planted to maize. This downturn could also be supported by increased stability in international prices on the back of positive supply outlook in corn production. Nonetheless, the depreciation of the Rand and the speculative behavior of grain exporters will also impact on SAFEX price trends. The expected downturn over the outlook period could be less significant if the local currency continues to depreciate (as it has done in recent months – dropping 23 percent year-on year since February 2013) due to prevailing macro economic conditions.

    • International crude oil prices were stable between December and January. However, fuel prices continued to increase in some importing countries due to the depreciation of the local currency vis-à-vis the U.S. dollar and changing fuel price policies. Over the outlook period, fuel price trends in FEWS NET countries will vary depending not only on the international market conditions, but also on the design and implementation of local fuel import and price policies.

    Humanitarian Assistance

    • Humanitarian assistance needs are expected to be minimal throughout the region during the outlook period as most poor households will rely on own production and labor exchange. However, emergency food assistance distributions are expected to continue in flood and cyclone affected parts of the region, especially in Madagascar and several districts in Mozambique’s main river basins. This assistance will be provided by national governments and their partners. Input and seeds distribution will also be provided to enable second season planting in areas where this is practiced.

    • In areas where the season has performed poorly, on-going vulnerability and food security assessments will determine the number of people likely to face acute food insecurity in the 2014/15 consumption period and the level of humanitarian assistance that may be required.


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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen
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