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ReliefWeb - Updates

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    Source: European Commission Humanitarian Aid department
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger


    Third modification 29/11/2013

    In Mali, due to the intensification of security incidents on roads between the capital and regional cities, there is an increase in air transport needs, especially between the main cities of the 3 north regions.
    In addition to the UNHAS flights, and given the urgency of the situation, DG ECHO recommends the extension of the ECHO Flight project to be able to facilitate access to humanitarian actors in northern Mali.

    An ECHO Flight aircraft is going to operate from 1st January 2014 for a duration of 4 months. 70 flying hours per month are planned as well as the opening of an ECHO Flight base either in Mopti or Gao.
    To address these new and unforeseen needs, it is necessary to decrease the amount of this HIP from 54 000 000 EUR to 53 400 000 EUR (see revised section 5.2) and to transfer the balance of 600 000 EUR to the ECHO Flight HIP 2014.

    Second modification 25/05/2013

    The operating environment remains complex and less predictable in the north, with volatile security conditions leading to increased risks for the population and humanitarian partners in some areas. Insecurity is also impacting on transport and commerce.

    Access for humanitarian actors has improved in the central regions, but remains limited in the north (threats of mines, attacks by armed groups, etc.). However, humanitarian actors mainly NGOs are active in the three northern regions (Timbuktu, Gao and Kidal). Activities also continue in the rest of the country without security challenges

    On 30 April, the estimated number of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) has reached 300 783 according to OCHA. UNHCR estimates that 173,779 Malian refugees are living in neighbouring countries as of 24 April.

    Partners continue to observe the movement of people from north to south and vice versa. According to IOM, 14,408 people were observed moving from south to north. In addition, 23,501 people were observed moving from north to south. 62% of the total of 37,900 people were reported as moving in both directions between 12 January and 31 March. Food insecurity, precarious economic conditions, lack of basic services and violence are the main reasons for the movements from north to south.

    The very low level of people returning to the north includes civil servants which is having a negative impact on attempts to restart public services and improve access to basic social services (water, education, health).

    Deteriorating food security remains the major concern as the lean season begins, especially in the northern regions which are already past the crisis threshold (IPC 3).
    Currently, at least one in five households in the north is facing a severe food shortage. In Kidal region at least one in five households is facing an extreme lack of food, surpassing the emergency phase (IPC 4). Updated figures of people affected in the North are not yet available but will surpass the initial 585,000 people estimated as being food insecure.

    Lack of income as well as difficulties in accessing markets is also having an impact on the preparations for this year's agricultural season, as the most vulnerable households have little access to the limited amount of seeds available in markets. In addition, there is an overall lack of cash availability in most of the rural areas, as a consequence of the disruption of commercial activities.

    Based on the above reported needs, DG ECHO has decided to allocate an additional EUR 12 million under this HIP to meet outstanding needs in basic social services (water, education, health) in a context of a deteriorating food security situation.

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Eritrea, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen

    Small swarms arrive in Horn of Africa

    Recent reports indicate that Desert Locust infestations are present in coastal areas of northern Somalia that were affected last month by a rare tropical cyclone.

    The cyclone brought heavy rains and flooding. Adult groups and a few small swarms are thought to have crossed the Gulf of Aden from southern Yemen to coastal areas of northern Somalia on winds associated with the cyclone. So far, two areas appear to be affected: the northeast where mature gregarious adults were seen copulating this week on the coast between Las Koreh and Bosaso, and on the northwest coast where there were unconfirmed reports of hopper bands west of Berbera near Gerisa. Survey teams are being mobilised to confirm the infestations.

    As it is the beginning of the winter breeding season, egg-laying in areas of recent rains will cause hatching, hopper band formation and a further increase in locust numbers in the coming months.

    The situation continues to remain very serious in Yemen where an increasing number of new generation immature swarms are forming on the northern coast of the Red Sea, and in Eritrea as control operations continue against hopper bands on the central coast near Massawa where new swarms may form shortly.

    In Sudan, breeding is underway on the Red Sea coast in the Tokar Delta, and adults have appeared further south towards the border of Eritrea. Survey and control operations are in progress.

    Efforts continue to control an outbreak in northwest Mauritania that developed in October. Control operations are in progress against hopper bands and groups of hoppers and adults.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Mali, Niger, Nigeria

    Faits saillants

     La situation épidémiologique a été difficile en 2013 pour le Niger et risque de l’être encore en 2014. Plus de moyens sont nécessaires pour y répondre.

     Les premiers réfugiés maliens quittent le Niger alors que d’autres y arrivent.

     L’appui au système communautaire de référencement médical, une initiative de résilience qui fait école à Tahoua.

     Plus de 15 000 sinistrés des suites d’inondations à Diffa

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    Source: Government of Niger
    Country: Niger, Nigeria

    Arrêté du Gouvernement du Niger accordant le bénéfice du statut temporaire de réfugiés aux nigérians

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    Source: World Bank
    Country: Mali

    WASHINGTON, December 6, 2013 - The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors today approved US$121.42 million in grants to support the Government of Mali as it works to rehabilitate basic infrastructure and restore productive economic activity, and address climate change impacts while building resiliency in communities that have been impacted by the country’s recent crisis.

    “Mali is now on the path to recovery as key milestones have been reached towards the resolution of the recent political and security crises,” said Ousmane Diagana, World Bank Country Director for Mali. “We are delighted to support the Government’s plans and actions to rebuild infrastructure and promote climate change resiliency. Today’s projects will contribute towards reducing the vulnerability of the many communities and families affected by the multiple impacts of the crisis.”

    The first International Development Association (IDA)* grant of $US100 million will support the Mali Government’s Reconstruction and Economic Recovery Project, and will contribute directly to the recovery objectives set by the Government in the 2013-14 Plan for the Sustainable Recovery of Mali (Plan pour la Relance Durable du Mali, PRED).

    The Reconstruction and Economic Recovery Project will primarily focus on the rehabilitation of existing schools and education facilities, and also finance the infrastructure needs of local governments in the South that are host to internally displaced people affected by the crisis. This targeted support for service delivery will allow the conflict affected population to overcome the loss of productive assets and reinstate access to public infrastructure and services.

    “The Reconstruction and Economic Recovery Project will promote engagement, dialogue and coordination among key stakeholders, especially at the community level in the planning and implementation oversight of investments, and in the process lay the foundations for greater social cohesion and local governance,” explained Zié Coulibaly, World Bank Senior Infrastructure Specialist and project Task Team Leader.

    The second grant of US$21.42 million will fund Mali’s Natural Resources Management in a Changing Climate (NRMCC) project, designed to expand the use of sustainable land and water management practices in certain communities that are highly vulnerable to climate change impacts such as drought, land degradation, deforestation and flooding.

    The NRMCC funding includes an IDA* contribution of US$12 million, an additional US$6.57 million from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), and US$1.85 million from the Less Developed Countries Fund (LDCF). The Mali Government will provide US$1 million.

    “The NRMCC Project will achieve its objective through the implementation of capacity building, biodiversity conservation and support to poverty reduction activities through an ecosystem-based adaptation approach,” said Maman Sani Issa, Senior Environmental Specialist and World Bank Task Team Leader for the project. “This ecosystem-based approach integrates conservation, restoration and the sustainable management of territories to enable people to adapt to climate change and ultimately to increase their resilience.”

    *The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, helps the world’s poorest countries by providing loans (called “credits”) and grants for projects and programs that boost economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve poor people’s lives. IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 81 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. Resources from IDA bring positive change for 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day. Since 1960, IDA has supported development work in 108 countries. Annual commitments have increased steadily and averaged about $15 billion over the last three years, with about 50 percent of commitments going to Africa.


    In Washington
    Aby Toure
    tel : (202) 473-8302

    In Bamako
    Moussa Diarra
    tel : 223 20 22 2283

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    Source: ODI - Humanitarian Policy Group
    Country: Somalia

    The research findings are also available as a policy brief: “Al-Shabaab engagement with aid agencies”.

    Somalia is one of the most dangerous environments in the world for aid workers and humanitarian organisations. One of the largest obstacles to reaching people in need of humanitarian assistance is the militant armed group Al-Shabaab.

    Al-Shabaab’s sophisticated system for monitoring and controlling aid, the demands placed on aid agencies and the consequences of failed negotiations are revealed in this research.

    Drawn from over 80 interviews with former Al-Shabaab officials, aid workers and civilians, this research details difficulties faced by aid agencies attempting to operate in Al-Shabaab controlled areas during the 2011 famine. Al-Shabaab’s Humanitarian Coordination Office forced aid agencies to complete registration forms and other documentation that laid out general conditions for access, with negotiations with the militant group also resulting in payments of registration fees (as much as $10,000). The consequences for breaking the rules were extreme: outright hostility, expulsions, attacks and harassment.

    The majority of the research focuses on events in 2011, but highlights Al-Shabaab’s ongoing methods of control and regulation in areas under the group’s control; far from having disappeared, the group remains present in large parts of the country, continuing to pose a tremendous obstacle to humanitarian action.

    This research into humanitarian negotiations with Al-Shabaab in Somalia, is part of the larger research project ‘Humanitarian negotiations with armed non-state actors’ which has also investigated negotiations with Afghanistan; Darfur, Sudan; and Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile, Sudan.

    Read the full report

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    Source: Amnesty
    Country: Mali

    Les autorités maliennes doivent libérer les enfants emprisonnés

    Les autorités maliennes doivent immédiatement remettre en liberté cinq enfants qui sont maintenus en captivité depuis plus de sept mois dans un centre de détention militaire, a déclaré Amnesty International samedi 30 novembre à l’occasion du lancement, à Bamako, de son rapport Agenda pour les droits humains.

    Une délégation d’Amnesty International menée par le secrétaire général, Salil Shetty, a rencontré les cinq adolescents, âgés de 15 à 17 ans, dans le centre de détention de Camp 1 de la gendarmerie, à Bamako.

    L’un d’eux est un enfant soldat qui avait rejoint le Mouvement pour l’unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l’Ouest (MUJAO). Les quatre autres ont été arrêtés en raison de leurs liens supposés avec des groupes armés.

    « Nous avons été horrifiés à la vue de ces jeunes garçons, traumatisés, détenus avec des adultes dans des conditions déplorables, a déclaré Salil Shetty. Il s’agit d’une violation évidente du droit national et du droit international, et ils doivent être immédiatement remis en liberté. »

    « Des enfants ne doivent que rarement, voire jamais, être maintenus en détention. L’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant doit être une considération primordiale dans tout acte qui concerne des enfants. »

    Un des garçons, âgé de 16 ans, a été arrêté à Kidal par les forces de sécurité maliennes il y a plus de deux mois, alors qu’il sortait d’un magasin et qu’une grenade a explosé de l’autre côté de la rue. Les agents l’ont accusé d’avoir lancé la grenade et l’ont frappé, lui ont bandé les yeux et ont attaché ensemble les mains et les pieds. Ils l’ont aussi brûlé avec une cigarette sur les bras.

    Un autre garçon, de 15 ans, extrêmement pauvre, a rejoint le MUJAO car il avait entendu dire qu’il payait ses recrues. Il a quitté le mouvement au bout de plusieurs mois, sans avoir jamais été payé, et il a été arrêté par les forces de sécurité maliennes dans son village natal de Kadji, près de Gao. Les soldats maliens l’ont ligoté et frappé dans le dos, et ils lui ont bandé les yeux.

    « Les autorités maliennes nous ont assuré qu’elles n’avaient aucun enfant soldat en détention, mais il est évident que cela n’est pas vrai, a déclaré Salil Shetty. Le gouvernement a signé en juillet 2013, avec l’ONU, un protocole visant à la libération, au transfert et à la protection des enfants associés à des groupes armés, et il doit respecter ses engagements. »

    Le rapport que lance Amnesty International aujourd’hui, Agenda pour les droits humains, demande que des enquêtes approfondies et indépendantes soient menées sur les graves atteintes aux droits humains commises au cours des deux dernières années par toutes les parties au conflit.

    Depuis le début de la crise, Amnesty International a rassemblé des informations sur 14 homicides illégaux perpétrés par des groupes armés dans le nord du pays, et sur d’autres atteintes terrifiantes aux droits humains. Un couple a ainsi été lapidé à mort en juillet 2012 pour avoir eu des relations sexuelles hors mariage et, en septembre 2012, six personnes ont subi l’amputation de la main droite et du pied droit devant une foule, à Gao. Les mains et les pieds amputés ont ensuite été exposés au commissariat de police.

    Le rapport fait aussi état de l’exécution extrajudiciaire dont auraient été victimes au moins 40 civils accusés d’être proches des groupes armés. Les chercheurs d’Amnesty International ont parlé avec un homme qui a vu des soldats jeter des corps dans un puits à Sevaré, en janvier 2013. Une puanteur pestilentielle se dégageait du puits.

    Le procureur de Sevaré a indiqué qu’il avait diligenté une enquête sur ces homicides mais, à ce jour, Amnesty International n’a reçu aucune information sur les résultats de ces investigations.

    La délégation d’Amnesty a rencontré les familles des plus de 20 soldats qui ont disparu après avoir été enlevés du camp militaire de Kati en mai 2012. Ils étaient soupçonnés d’avoir fomenté un contre coup d’État contre le général Amadou Haya Sanogo, qui avait dirigé le coup d’État de mars 2012 au Mali. Les familles des victimes se réjouissaient de la détention du général Sanogo, qui a été arrêté et inculpé de meurtres, assassinats et séquestration mercredi 27 novembre 2013.

    Sagara Binto Maïga, présidente du Collectif des épouses et parents des bérets rouges disparus, a déclaré : « Depuis la disparition de nos fils et de nos maris, nous n’avons aucune nouvelle. Nous voulons savoir où ils sont, ce qui leur est arrivé et s’ils sont en vie ou non. »

    Elle a ajouté : « Nous avons finalement obtenu un rendez-vous avec le ministre de la Défense cette semaine. Nous lui avons dit que nous marcherions nues s’il ne nous disait pas ce qui est arrivé à ceux qui nous sont chers. Nous avons donné comme date limite l’arrivée de la délégation d’Amnesty International. Il nous a dit d’être patientes et qu’ils faisaient ce qu’ils pouvaient. Le lendemain même, Sanogo a été arrêté et inculpé. »

    « Amnesty International a pris connaissance avec satisfaction des efforts déployés par le gouvernement pour rétablir la justice et l’État de droit, a déclaré Salil Shetty. Nous prions le gouvernement de veiller en permanence à ce que des enquêtes approfondies et transparentes soient menées sur toutes les allégations faisant état d’atteintes aux droits humains, conformément aux dispositions du droit international. »

    Amnesty International a aussi recueilli des informations sur des cas de viol et autres sévices sexuels infligés à des femmes et des jeunes filles par des membres de groupes armés, dont le Mouvement national pour la libération de l’Azawad (MNLA).

    Une jeune fille de 16 ans a déclaré aux chercheurs d’Amnesty International qu’elle avait été violée à de nombreuses reprises pendant deux jours par des membres d’un groupe armé qui l’avaient capturée à Gao, la ville où elle vivait. L’organisation demande l’ouverture d’une enquête sur les allégations de violences sexuelles, la poursuite en justice des auteurs présumés de ces faits et la mise en place de programmes d’aide afin que les victimes bénéficient d’une assistance médicale et psychologique.

    « La population malienne est profondément traumatisée par les événements de ces deux dernières années, a déclaré Salil Shetty. Veiller à ce que l’ensemble des responsables présumés de violations des droits humains soient déférés à la justice est indispensable à la construction d’une paix durable au Mali. C’est la seule manière d’aider le pays à tourner cette page douloureuse de son histoire. »

    La Cour pénale internationale a annoncé en janvier 2013 qu’elle ouvrirait une enquête sur les crimes de guerre commis au cours de la dernière année du conflit. Amnesty International accueille cette décision avec satisfaction mais exhorte le procureur à s’intéresser à l’ensemble des allégations de crimes dans le pays, notamment aux violations imputées aux forces maliennes de sécurité.

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    Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
    Country: Mali, Niger, Nigeria

    Operational Context

    • The crisis in northern Mali since 2012 has forced some 50,000 Malians into exile into Niger. It has also led to the return of 5,124 nationals of Niger previously living in the Gao area. Most refugees live in the three camps established in Tillaberi region in 2012, namely Abala, Mangaize and Tabareybarey. In 2013, in an attempt to adapt to the specific needs of nomadic refugees, two “refugee hosting areas” were established in Intikane and Tazalit, Tahoua region. These are vast areas where nomadic Malian refugees can settle freely with their livestock enabling them to live according to their traditional and pastoral way of life with grazing land for their animals. In 2013, after the French and Ecowas military intervention and the creation of the MINUSMA force, refugees have continued to cross into Niger. Following the presidential elections in July-August 2013, a back-and-forth movement between Niger and the areas of origin in Mali has been observed. Some refugees have also asked UNHCR for return assistance. Even though in UNHCR’s own assessment the situation in Northern Mali does not yet call for an organized voluntary repatriation, UNHCR decided to respect the will of the refugees and to assist those who wish to return home.

    • Since the declaration of a state of emergency in May 2013 in Adamawa, Yobe and Borno states in northern Nigeria, thousands of displaced persons (Niger citizens, Nigerian refugees, and third country nationals) have sought refuge in Diffa region, southeast Niger. The local population has generously received the outflow of persons fleeing violence in Nigeria by hosting them in their families and communities. UNHCR, in coordination with partners, provides protection and humanitarian assistance through a community-based approach. The out-of-camp programme in Diffa focuses on strengthening the resilience of the affected population and the local communities hosting them.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Angola, Malawi, South Africa

    The cholera situation in southern Angola is being responded to.

    South Africa:
    The City of Tshwane declared a state of disaster following a severe thunderstorm on the evening of 28 November 2013 and subsequent severe weather conditions from 29 November to 1 December 2013, causing widespread damage to property and infrastructure.

    In its latest update the Malawi Vulnerability Assessment Committee found that about 1.85 million people will be at risk of food insecurity between October 2013 and March 2014, representing a 27 % increase since May 2013, when 1.46 million people were estimated to be food insecure. The number of districts reporting food insecurity has also increased from 21 to 24 out of a total of 28 districts.

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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali

    Abidjan (ICRC) – A campaign to immunize and remove parasites from livestock is starting today in Oudalan province, in the north of Burkina Faso. The Burkinabé Red Cross Society is carrying out the campaign in cooperation with the Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries and with support from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

    "The campaign covers nearly 200,000 animals belonging to some 30,000 people, including Malian refugees," said Romain Kima, in charge of disaster preparedness and response at the Burkinabé Red Cross. "We are going to vaccinate all the animals and rid the small livestock of parasites. We want to reduce the risk of an outbreak of disease and preserve people's main source of income."

    Since the beginning of the conflict in Mali in 2012, the people living in this remote area of Burkina Faso have been joined by several tens of thousands of Malian refugees and their livestock. In some grazing and watering areas, a threefold increase in the concentration of livestock has made the herds more vulnerable to epidemic disease.

    The influx is also putting a strain on a local economy that had already been struggling. To help the resident population, the Burkinabé Red Cross, supported by the ICRC, provided food aid in May for farmers and herders in Oudalan province.

    For further information, please contact:
    Moussa Ouattara, ICRC Burkina Faso, tel: +226 50 30 56 85
    Léa Doua, ICRC Abidjan, tel: +225 08 08 49 64

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network, Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
    Country: Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo


    • Les pauses pluviométriques de juin/juillet ainsi que l’arrêt des pluies au cours la première quinzaine de septembre dans le Sahel tchadien et à l’est et ouest du Niger entraîneront une baisse importante des productions.

    • Une production moyenne à bonne demeure attendue dans la région comme annoncé lors de la dernière réunion du PREGEC de septembre 2013 à Niamey avec cependant des baisses localisées dans plusieurs zones du Sahel, du fait des pauses pluviométriques et de l’arrêt précoce des pluies.

    • L’approvisionnement des marchés demeure globalement satisfaisant dans la région. Les récoltes en cours des différentes cultures améliorent les disponibilités alimentaires auprès des ménages qui dépendent moins des achats, contribuant ainsi à la baisse saisonnière des prix.

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    Source: International Committee of the Red Cross
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali

    Abidjan (CICR) – Une campagne de vaccination et de déparasitage du bétail débute aujourd’hui dans la province de l'Oudalan, dans le nord du Burkina Faso. Elle est conduite par la Croix-Rouge burkinabè, en collaboration avec le ministère des Ressources animales et halieutiques et avec le soutien du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR).

    « Cette campagne concerne près de 200 000 animaux appartenant à quelque 30 000 personnes, dont des réfugiés maliens. Nous allons les vacciner et déparasiter le petit bétail. Nous voulons réduire les risques d'épidémie et préserver la principale source de revenu de la population », explique Romain Kima, chargé de la préparation et de la réponse aux catastrophes à la Croix-Rouge burkinabè.

    Depuis le début du conflit au Mali en 2012, les habitants de cette région reculée du Burkina Faso ont accueilli plusieurs dizaines de milliers de réfugiés maliens et leur bétail. Sur certains pâturages et points d'eau, la concentration des animaux a été multipliée par trois, affaiblissant les troupeaux rendus plus vulnérables aux risques d'épidémies.

    Cet afflux fragilise également l’économie locale, qui était déjà précaire. Pour aider la population résidente, la Croix-Rouge burkinabè, soutenue par le CICR, a fourni en mai de cette année une aide alimentaire à des agriculteurs et éleveurs de la province de l'Oudalan.

    Informations complémentaires :

    Moussa Ouattara, CICR au Burkina Faso, tél. : +226 50 30 56 85
    Léa Doua, CICR Abidjan, tél. : +225 08 08 49 64

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    Source: European Commission Humanitarian Aid department
    Country: Angola, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe

    The activities proposed hereafter are still subject to the adoption of the financing decision ECHO/WWD/BUD/2014/01000

    AMOUNT: EUR 7 000 000

    1. Context

    The previous regional DIPECHO HIP for Southern Africa and Indian Ocean 2012-2013 was covering Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique and Namibia. During the period of implementation of the programmes under this funding, several financing decisions were approved to address emergency needs arising from drought (Angola, Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe), floods (Lesotho, Mozambique) and cyclones (Madagascar) cross-out the region. The situation on the ground confirms high vulnerability of the hazards exposed populations in the region and still lacking local capacity to prepare and to response to disasters. DIPECHO-supported programmes under current HIP will incorporate, even stronger than in the previous years, resilience-based approaches, contributing to holistic development strategies framed within regional and national policies.

    The DIPECHO HIP for 2014 has a regional coverage, with special focus on the countries where DG ECHO has been repeatedly reacting in emergency interventions - aiming at emergency preparedness and addressing the context specific vulnerabilities with aim to enhance resilience of the hazards-exposed communities.

    The 2014 plan targets the three countries prioritized in the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) for this region: Madagascar, Malawi and Mozambique. In addition, Lesotho and Zimbabwe have been integrated because large proportions of the population have been recurrently affected by seasonal food insecurity in the last three years. Any other country in the region targeted by the regional DRR initiatives will also be considered in the perspective of preparedness.

    The Southern Africa and Indian Ocean region is extremely vulnerable to weather hazards, namely tropical cyclones, floods, droughts and strong winds. There is lack of resilience to the climate extremes-related shocks that negatively affect highly sensitive livelihoods and economies.

    Repeated shocks erode communities’ ability to fully recover, leading to increased fragility and vulnerability to subsequent disasters. The vulnerability situation is further compounded by negative socio-economic factors prevailing in the region, such as high HIV prevalence rate, extreme poverty and high population density. The nature and pattern of weather-related disasters is shifting and becoming unpredictable, increasing in frequency, intensity and magnitude as a result of climate change.

    Although some parts of the region have registered marked improvements in cereal crop production, due largely to government subsidies, food and vulnerability assessments indicate that rural populations continue to face critical food shortages due to reliance on rain-fed agriculture, declining soil fertility and land degradation.

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    Source: European Commission Humanitarian Aid department
    Country: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan (Republic of)

    The activities proposed hereafter are still subject to the adoption of the financing decision ECHO/WWD/ BUD/2014/01000

    AMOUNT: EUR 84 000 000

    1. CONTEXT

    The displacement crisis in the region is both acute and protracted. As a direct consequence of two decades of instability, about 1.3 million refugees, mainly from Somalia but also from Sudan, South Sudan and Eritrea, have fled the consequences of recurrent droughts coupled with clashes and armed conflict to find refuge in neighbouring countries particularly in Ethiopia and Kenya. In addition, almost 1.5 million people are internally displaced in Somalia and Ethiopia.

    The region is also regularly exposed to natural disasters such as droughts, floods, landslides, epidemics outbreaks such as Acute Watery Diarrhoea, Malaria, Meningitis, Measles (and Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Uganda) as well as diseases affecting livestock. In 2013 the region has been affected by yellow fever and a worrying polio outbreak, setting back global eradication efforts.

    Since the 2010-2011 severe food and nutrition crisis in the region, which led to the declaration of famine in Somalia2 , the overall food security situation has improved as a result of sufficient rainfall, decent harvests and significant international assistance.

    However, unprecedented levels of vulnerability, especially in the arid and semi-arid lands, slowing down the recovery and recurrent droughts coupled with still unaddressed structural development challenges and conflicts have undermined the effects of long term development.

    Recurrent shocks coupled with still unaddressed structural development challenges and conflicts have many negative consequences such as internal population displacements, destruction of livelihood assets, erosion of coping mechanisms, extreme poverty, food insecurity and under-nutrition, occasionally resulting in violence.

    Therefore, building the resilience3 of vulnerable communities in the Horn of Africa to inevitable future shocks is of paramount importance It is in line with the committemnts taken through the EU Communication on Resilience4 , which aims at tackling the underlying key risks and address the structural causes of vulnerability and with the SHARE initiative (Supporting Horn of Africa Resilience).

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    Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan


    • Despite the 2013 harvest in the Sahel being equivalent to the last five years average, preliminary figures indicate that at least 13 million people (excluding Nigeria) are still food insecure, due to limited access to food. The agricultural production of the poorest households is insufficient to restore their livelihoods and is expected to cover only their nutritional needs for the next two to three months. Thereafter they will depend entirely on markets.

    • Aggravating factors such as high food prices, population displacements and floods have further affected the livelihoods of vulnerable and food insecure households.

    • FAO is assisting more than 1.7 million beneficiaries in the Sahel by supporting food and livestock production, and providing livelihood protection and technical assistance.

    • To date, FAO has received USD 25.6 million for its operations in the Sahel. Additional funding is urgently needed to support vulnerable farmers, herders and pastoralists in the Sahel and to restore the agricultural productive means of vulnerable communities affected by conflict in Mali in the northern regions of Timbuktu, Gao, Kidal and Mopti.

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    Source: World Food Programme
    Country: Malawi

    In 2013, WFP Malawi organised a study tour for smallholder farmers as part of its Purchase for Progress initiative.

    As part of its direct support to farmers through the Purchase for Progress (P4P) initiative, WFP organised a 2013 study tour so that farmers could learn from one of its most successful farmer organisations (FOs), Mwandama Farmer Organisation from Zomba district in southern Malawi.

    Since forming in 2005 with initial support from the Millennium Village Project, Mwandama’s accomplishments have been impressive. By 2009, a 2,500 MT grain bank had been completed which now stores surplus production, a small percentage of which is contributed in compensation for inputs like fertilizer. In early 2010, Mwandama first successfully sold to WFP and has since been among one of the most active and successful FOs on the P4P roster. The organisation has been awarded a total of 11 contracts amounting to nearly 750mt of commodities, earning the equivalent of roughly US$ 176,000.

    With more sales and better prices than ever before, the members of Mwandama have increasingly reoriented themselves from being subsistence farmers to empowered actors in the commercial agriculture market.

    Business skills

    As part of Mwandama’s business strategy, the members use a portion of their profits to employ a full-time warehouse manager to oversee the stored food and all related business activities of the cooperative. This was an important step for Mwandama as hiring a manager with seasoned business skills has improved the members’ own knowledge of business and has better positioned their farming efforts for viable success.

    “Thanks to the support from WFP through P4P, Mwandama has increased its sales, sells at better and fairer prices and now understands how to deliver food that meets globally accepted quality standards to many buyers on the market,” said warehouse manager Bornwell Kaunga.

    He noted that Mwandama’s first sale to WFP was the first time the smallholders were able to see the tangible benefits of working as together in a business-oriented cooperative as well as see the possibilities for a larger business model by reinvesting their earnings.

    When the P4P team arrived with the farmers, the enthusiastic group immediately began asking questions as they set off to tour the warehouse. The farmers were keen to learn how Mwandama was able to become a successful self-sufficient business, asking questions ranging from legal business questions to member expectations to leadership skills.

    “The main thing I’ve learnt is that by working hard to improve the business part of our organisation we can improve our family situations,” said Clement Mpoto, a farmer from Kaso FO in Dowa district. “We have learnt that we need to really strategize and prepare for the coming years.”

    Tools for success

    With higher incomes, smallholders are able to reinvest their income in other complementary areas of development, such as paying for school fees, medicine and vital agricultural inputs like fertilizer, to free themselves from the cycle of poverty and hunger.

    “After seeing the Mwandama model, I think it would be good to designate a certain amount of production that a member has to contribute to the FO stock in exchange for loans or inputs. This would make sure that the business moves forward as we could produce and sell more,” said Mr. Mpoto. “It is very encouraging to see their success.”

    By learning the tools for success and autonomy through P4P, such as post-harvest handling, marketing and management, the organisations are steadily increasing their incomes and strategically investing their earnings to improve their lives. While WFP encourages FO growth by providing the steady demand for the smallholders’ surpluses, none of the progress seen today among the smallholders would be possible without their own initiative, hard work and perseverance.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Chad

    The availability of harvests and animal products help improve food security


     Cereal production for the 2013-2014 growing season is up 12 percent compared to the five-year average. However, despite of this overall gain, certain regions (Kanem, Wadi-Fira, Barh-El Ghazel, and Hajer Lamis) have been reporting large production shortfalls of approximately 50 percent due to a late start-of-season, poor rainfall distribution, and an earlier than normal end to the rainy season.

     Ongoing cereal harvests, together with the availability of dairy products and market garden crops, are bolstering food stocks and are improving food security. Affordable food prices are also making cereals accessible to market dependant households. Under these conditions, most very poor households are able to meet their basic food needs and, thus, will experience Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity through at least December 2013.

     However between January and March 2014, households in the North Ouara, Wadi–Fira, Kanem, Barh-El Ghazel, Hadjer Lamis, North Guera, and North Batha regions will be more dependent than usual on market purchases. This, along with atypically high food prices, will make food access more difficult. As a result, poor households will likely face Stressed (IPC Phase 2) food security outcomes during this period.

     During the peak of the 2014 lean season (June to September), households in Wadi–Fira and Barh-El Ghazel will likely face food consumption gaps. During this time, acute food security outcomes are expected to deteriorate to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) levels.

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    Source: Assessment Capacities Project
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe, South Sudan (Republic of)

    Snapshot 3 - 10 December

    In Syria, the conflict has been going on for over 1,000 days, and to date, the war has displaced 6.5 million people internally and forced 2.3 million to cross into neighbouring countries. Meanwhile, Washington indicated that it has been in talks with Islamist opposition factions non-linked to Al-Qaeda, in order to push for a negotiated settlement to the crisis.

    In the Philippines, an estimated 14 million people have been affected by Typhoon Haiyan to date, according to OCHA. The number of displaced currently stands at 4 million, including 3.8 million residing outside of evacuation centres, and an initial multi-cluster assessment indicated that 2.5 million people are in need of food assistance. The death toll currently stands at 5,924 people, with another 1,770 still reported as missing.

    In Central African Republic, several days of unprecedented clashes between rival militias caused at least 390 deaths and hundreds of injured in the capital Bangui, and triggered the displacement of an estimated 108,000 people. In response to this upsurge in violence, the African Union peacekeeping mission and France announced the scale-up of their forces on the ground, and French troops started disarmament operations. Meanwhile, a draft UN Security Council resolution is circulating to authorise the expansion of international troops and the extension of their mandate.

    Updated: 10/12/2013 Next Update: 17/12/2013

    Global Emergency Overview Web Interface

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    Ongoing harvests of food crops improve food security


    • Average ongoing harvests are improving cereal availability across the country. In addition to this improvement, in-kind wage payments to poor households and declining cereal prices are strengthening household cereal access. This should ensure adequate food consumption for households in southern Mali and will keep them in Minimal (IPC Phase 1) acute food insecurity through March 2014.

    • Improving security conditions in the north are helping households rebuild their livelihoods. Though conditions are not yet completely back to normal, the steady improvement in household incomes, the availability of wild plant foods, early harvests, and humanitarian assistance are enabling households to meet their needs. Accordingly, these households will also experience Minimal (IPC Phase 1) food insecurity between now and March 2014.

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