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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Burkina Faso

    Millet, maize, and sorghum are the most important food commodities for household consumption. Millet is the staple of the most vulnerable households, whilemaize and sorghum also contribute to the food basket of a majority of all households. Sankaryare market is the largest and most important market in Ouagadougou and supplies other markets within the country and region. Koudougou is located in one of the most populated areasin the country, where a majority of households depend on themarket for their food needs. Djibo is in the highly vulnerable Sahelian zone. Pouytenga is an assembly market for productsfrom Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, and Togo. Solenzo is a rural market located in the middle of a surplus production zone. Bobo Dioulasso isimportant center for both consumption and production – it functions as both the economic capital of Burkina Faso and islocated in an important cereal production zone.

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    Source: Forum on Early Warning and Early Response
    Country: Chad

    Sorghum, millet, white maize, and local and imported rice are the most important food commodities. Millet is most heavily consumed in the eastern and northern regions of the country. Local rice is another basic food commodity, especially for poorer households. Imported rice and white maize are most commonly consumed in and around the capital. The Marché d'Atrone in N’Djamena, the capital city, is the largest market for cereals. Moundou is an important consumer center for sorghum and the second largest market afterthe capital. The Abéchémarketislocated in a northern production area. The Sarh market is both a localretail market and a cross-border market.

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    Source: IRIN
    Country: Mali, Niger, Senegal

    DAKAR, 30 May 2013 (IRIN) - As violence rages in northern Nigeria, and international peacekeepers gear up to keep the peace in northern Mali, fears abound that Islamist movements will spread across borders, stoking instability elsewhere in the region, including Senegal which is not immune to the spread of extremist rhetoric, argues a just-published report by the Institute of Security Studies (ISS).

    Four Islamic brotherhoods dominate, religious and political life in Senegal: the Qadiri, the Tijani, the Mouride, and the Layenne, each of them made up of leaders (or shaykhs) and followers (murids). In general, they are perceived as providing a barrier against the spread of fundamentalist dogma in the country, but the report says growing radical rhetoric is creeping in.

    In the past, fundamentalists seeking to wield power in Senegal's mosques pitted themselves against the brotherhoods, saying they needed to reform their form of Islam, said report author Bakary Sambe of the Centre of Religious Studies at the Université Gaston Berger de Saint Louis. But they soon realized this strategy would not work, and instead went for a strategic truce, he said, focusing on common causes such as a call to stamp out what they call "bad values" such as homosexuality and the secular state.

    Brotherhood imams are increasingly asserting how "clean" and pure the form of Islam that they preach is, and thus they have taken on this reformist discourse, said Sambe.

    According to the report/study, which involved researchers interviewing 400 Senegalese in the capital Dakar, its suburbs, and the towns and surrounding areas of Thiès, Mbour and Saint Louis, some 30 percent of interviewees said they had encountered the argument that they were not practising a true form of Islam.

    Wahhabists (a conservative form of Sunni Islam) have allegedly criticized the brotherhoods for promoting the worship of individual imams - known in Senegal as marabouts - over worship of the Prophet Mohammed, said Sambe. In Thiès, for instance, many interviewees spoke of a mosque that did not support the right kind of Islam, and that worshipped men, over the faith.

    "More and more, fundamentalist groups, such as Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb [AQIM], are tapping into national causes and giving them a religious spin, to create national ideologies - that is part of their new strategy," said an imam in the Dakar neighbourhood of SICAP Baobab, who preferred anonymity.

    While the majority of mosques shy away from fundamentalist preaching, the rhetoric has become more extreme in a significant minority, he said.


    Senegal sits at a sometimes uncomfortable crossroads: It is both an important African member of Islamic networks, and at the same time a traditional ally of the West.

    According to the report, Senegal has inherited its former colonizer France's secular governance structure, yet 95 percent of its inhabitants are Muslims, and they are increasingly voicing concerns about the way the country is being run. While the brotherhoods have great influence in determining who gets into power in Senegal, their impact is often greater in other areas. For instance, while 90 percent of Senegalese children attend non-religious state-run or private schools, many thousands attend Koranic schools, run by marabouts, with an unregulated curriculum, and in many cases unknown funders.

    "The idea of strict secularism in a 95 percent Muslim country does not necessarily fit comfortably," said Sambe. "Many see the French-educated elites who have led the country, as having failed. They want an Islamic alternative."

    Many youths - at least 40 percent of whom are estimated to be unemployed - feel they have been failed by a political system that cannot provide jobs, yet they are also disappointed with the brotherhoods, and thus seek a more modern version of Islam.

    "We met youths who were determined; who were prepared to plant bombs if they were asked to. This is new here, and it's serious," said Sambe, adding: "The brotherhoods must adapt to attract more youths."

    Radical discourse can appeal to a minority of these youths, who want to join a cause and feel they have few alternatives, said the Dakar imam.

    Of course, there is a big difference between pushing for a more fundamental form of Islam, and a moving towards practising violent Jihad: the two should not be conflated, said participants at an Open Society of West Africa (OSIWA)-hosted seminar to launch the ISS report.

    Mali spillover?

    Nevertheless, given Senegal is a neighbour of Mali, and given it has "structural, institutional and geopolitical vulnerabilities, it could become a target of reprisals by radical Islamists who have occupied northern Mali," said Col Djibril Ba, ex-second in command at the National Gendarmerie, at the seminar. Since the start of the Mali crisis, Senegal's security and defence forces have been running a security early warning system to avert any instability, he said.

    The detonation of two car bombs on 23 May in Niger - one near a military barracks in Agadez, the other in Arlit, the site of a French-run uranium mine, reportedly instigated by militant leader Mokhtar Belmokhtar - has rattled security forces across the region. Senegal, like Niger, plays host to France's economic, military and diplomatic interests, and is contributing troops to the International Support Mission to Mali (MISMA), which could make it vulnerable as a target, said Col Ba.

    Senegal's porous borders with its neighbours - Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Gambia - and insufficient capacity and resources to sufficiently control these borders, create the conditions for trafficking and criminality of all sorts, including weapons, said Ba. "Even the USA, with countless highly sophisticated techniques and a newly erected border wall, cannot control its southern borders," he said.

    But not all are too concerned. Idrissa Diop, a researcher at the Ecole Normale in Dakar, reflected the views of many others IRIN spoke to. He is a Muslim and was seated beside his Christian friend and colleague from Kolda Region: "We live together here - he is my big brother, we share all our religious festivities. Religion should bring people together. The moment it starts separating people, there is something wrong. The kind of fundamentalism we see among certain groups in Mali could never be replicated here," he told IRIN. "We wouldn't tolerate it."

    ISS recommendations

    ISS says more needs to be done to avert any trouble. It calls for an early warning security alert system to be set up, with religious groups, government ministries, security personnel and others involved to track and analyse incidents that occur.

    It also calls on leaders to start a dialogue with religious leaders in Senegal to try to jointly limit the spread of extremist discourse in mosques and elsewhere.

    The long-debated problem of how to better regulate what goes on in Koranic schools was debated at a Dakar seminar discussing the report's findings.

    Senegal's police, military police (gendarmes) and army should work very closely together, exchanging information and intelligence on any security concerns, said Ba. The synergy between them needs to be improved both in Senegal, and among regional allies' security and defence forces, he said.

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    Source: Norwegian Refugee Council
    Country: Kenya, Somalia

    Nashon TAdo

    NRC in partnership with UNHCR, Microsoft and HP has launched a project on access to technology in education for communities in Dadaab. The project aims to bring innovative solutions to address challenges faced in education in the refugee camps through the use of technology.

    More than 100 participants attended the launch. Members of both the refugee and host communities who are benefiting from NRC’s Youth Education Pack (YEP) project came together to celebrate the occasion together with relief agencies including CARE, Handicap International, Islamic Relief Kenya, Lutheran World Foundation and Windle Trust.

    Prior to the launch, the team visited the Youth Education Centre in Dagahaley for a two-hour ceremony hosted by NRC. The celebration was opened by Dr. Marangu Njogu, Country Director of Windle Trust Kenya. He reiterated the value of education for refugees and the importance of supporting new innovations that provide meaningful solutions to challenges faced by refugees. “The CTA Project is transforming education in Dadaab”, he said.

    Some of the students interviewed by NRC during the launch expressed their optimism about the project and highlighted their contribution in the project design through activities such as making leather covers to protect computers from dust and humidity.

    To demonstrate some of the system’s networking functionalities, a Skype connection call was made to Geneva’s UNHCR Innovation’s Operations Officer and participants were able to engage in a real-time interaction with him. He expressed support and excitement about the project and listened to views shared by the students attending the launch.

    “Access to ICT helps populations everywhere, including those in difficult circumstances to obtain vital skills that they need to build new futures for themselves”, notes Jeffery Avina, Microsoft’s Director of Citizenship and Community Affairs for Middle East and Africa.

    “This partnership has empowered the youth to imagine and realize their full potential by connecting them to greater opportunities for education, employment and entrepreneurship in line with the recently launched Microsoft-4-Afrika initiative. Through this partnership, Microsoft will actively engage in Africa’s economic development to improve its global competitiveness”, says Avina.

    The Technology in Education Project was initiated in 2012 and targets three main areas for improvement: formal education, vocational training and community e-learning. 32 computers have been distributed to primary schools in 2013, to help teachers maintain student enrolment and performance standards. Computer laboratories have also been set up in secondary schools, equipped with 20 workstations each to all for teaching of computer studies and more than 145 students have enrolled for information technology classes.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan


     MSF continues to respond to refugees & returnees as rainy season begins (MSF, 30/05/13)

     Le ralentissement du commerce céréalier nigérian menace la sécurité alimentaire au Sahel (IRIN, 28/05/13)

     Selon le président nigérien, le Tchad est une cible des islamistes (France24, 27/05/13)

     New Strife in Darfur Leaves Many Seeking Refuge (New York Times, 24/05/13)

     La FAO souligne le potentiel considérable du manioc pour l’agriculture du XXIème siècle (Xinhua, 28/05/13)

     Hinda Deby élue présidente de l’Organisation des Premières Dames d’Afrique contre le SIDA (, 30/05/13)

     Santé : Le chef de l’Etat demande une surveillance accrue (Le Progrès, 27/05/13)

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    Source: Agence France-Presse
    Country: Mali

    05/30/2013 18:21 GMT

    NOUAKCHOTT, 30 mai 2013 (AFP) - Le Mouvement arabe de l'Azawad (MAA), un des groupes armés du nord du Mali, va se joindre aux négociations qui ont lieu à Ouagadougou sur l'organisation de la présidentielle fin juillet au Mali, en particulier à Kidal (nord), a annoncé jeudi à l'AFP son porte-parole.

    Des responsables du MAA ont rencontré à Nouakchott Tiébilé Dramé, l'émissaire de Bamako chargé des négociations avec les groupes du nord du Mali sur la tenue du premier tour de la présidentielle du 28 juillet.

    Il "nous a conviés aux négociations de Ouagadougou sur les futures élections au Mali" a affirmé le porte-parole, Mohamed Elmouloud Ramdhan.

    "Nous avons accepté de nous y rendre, nous le ferons dans deux à trois jours" a-t-il ajouté, en précisant que les "négociations de Ouagadougou permettront d'arriver à un accord intérimaire pour l'organisation des élections et non à un accord définitif sur le nord du Mali".

    M. Dramé était arrivé mercredi à Nouakchott porteur d'un message du président Dioncounda Traoré à son homologue mauritanien Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, absent de son pays pour des analyses et des soins en France, selon une source officielle.

    "La solution du problème du Nord exige d'associer toutes les parties, ainsi que tous les pays voisins" a indiqué M. Dramé qui a quitté Nouakchott jeudi.

    Le Burkina Faso a lancé lundi à Ouagadougou des négociations sur la question de Kidal, ville du nord du Mali occupée par la rébellion touraeg du Mouvement national de libération de l'Azawad (MNLA) et ses alliés qui y refusent la présence de l'armée et de l'administration maliennes.

    La présidentielle doit se tenir sur toute l'étendue du territoire malien, y compris Kidal, ce qui suppose théoriquement la présence de représentants du pouvoir central de Bamako et de l'armée malienne.

    Le MAA, qui, contrairement au MNLA n'est pas sécessioniste, est présent dans le nord du Mali, y compris dans la région de Kidal où il a des relations tendues avec la rébellion touareg.

    Les Arabes sont une minorité dans le territoire de l'Azawad (nord du Mali), berceau des Touaregs, eux-mêmes minoritaires dans tout le Mali.


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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    West Africa can be divided into three agro-ecological zones or three different trade basins (West Basin, Central Basin and East Basin). Both important for understandin gmarket behavior and dynamics.

    The three major agro-ecological zones are the Sahelian, the Sudanese and the Coastal zones where production and consumption can be easily classified. (1) In the Sahelian zone, millet is the principal cereal cultivated and consumed particularly in rural areas and increasingly, when accessible, in urban areas. Exceptions include Cape Verde where maize and rice are most important, Mauritania where sorghum and maize are staples, and Senegal with rice. The principal substitutes in the Sahel are sorghum, rice, and cassava flour (Gari), the latter two in times of shortage. (2) In the Sudanese zone (southern Chad, central Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, southern Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Serra Leone, Liberia) maize and sorghum constitute the principal cereals consumed by the majority of the population. They are followed by rice and tubers, particularly cassava and yam. (3) In the Coastal zone, with two rainy seasons, yam and maize constitute the most important food products. They are supplemented by cowpea, which is a significant source of protein.

    The three trade basins are known as the West, Central, and East basins. In addition to the north to south movement of particular commodities, certain cereals flow horizontally. (1) The West basin refers to Mauritania, Senegal, western Mali, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and The Gambia where rice is most heavily traded. (2) The Central basin consists of Côte d'Ivoire, central and eastern Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Togo where maize is commonly traded. (3) The East basin refers to Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Benin where millet is traded most frequently. These three trade basins are shown on the map above.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Most households in Southern Africa depend on maize as their main source of food and energy, given the high volumes and ease with which it is produced. Alternative food crops that are consumed as substitutes include rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, and tubers such as cassava and potatoes. Consumption of these substitutes occurs mainly when maize is not available or among those households in areas where such substitutes are more easily available (for example, cassava in northern Mozambique). The majority of rural households do grow the other cereals — especially sorghum and millet, which are more drought resilient — in relatively small quantities as a buffer in bad production years for maize. Furthermore, wealthier households (especially in urban areas) with access to a variety of costlier cereals (such as rice and wheat) do consume them to diversify their diets. While wheat is widely consumed in the form of bread, it is produced in relatively small quantities in the region.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

    L'Afrique de l’Ouest peut être divisée en trois zones agro-écologiques ou en trois bassins commerciaux (bassins de l’ouest, bassin du centre, bassin de l’est). Les deux sont importants pour l'interprétation du comportement et de la dynamique du marché.

    Les trois principales zones agro-écologiques incluent la zone Sahélienne, la zone Soudanaise et la zone Côtière où la production et la consommation peuvent être facilement classifiées. (1) Dans la zone Sahélienne, le mil constitue le principal produit alimentaire cultivé et consommé en particulier dans les zones rurales et de plus en plus par certaines populations qui y ont accès en milieux urbains. Des exceptions sont faites pour le Cap Vert où le maïs et le riz sont les produits les plus importants, la Mauritanie où le blé et le sorgho et le Sénégal où le riz constituent des aliments de base. Les principaux produits de substitution dans le Sahel sont le sorgho, le riz, et la farine de manioc (Gari), avec les deux derniers en période de crise. (2) Dans la zone Soudanienne (le sud du Tchad, le centre du Nigéria, du Bénin, du Ghana, du Togo, de la Côte d'Ivoire, le sud du Burkina Faso, du Mali, du Sénégal, la Guinée Bissau, la Serra Leone, le Libéria) le maïs et le sorgho constituent les principales céréales consommées par la majorité de la population. Suivent après le riz et les tubercules particulièrement le manioc et l’igname. (3) Dans la zone côtière, avec deux saisons de pluie, l’igname et le maïs constituent les principaux produits alimentaires. Ils sont complétés par le niébé, qui est une source très significative de protéines.

    Les trois bassins commerciaux sont simplement connus sous les noms de bassin Ouest, Centre, et Est. En plus du mouvement du sud vers le nord des produits, les flux de certaines céréales se font aussi horizontalement. (1) Le bassin Ouest comprend la Mauritanie, le Sénégal, l’ouest du Mali, la Sierra Leone, la Guinée, le Libéria, et la Gambie où le riz est le plus commercialisé. (2) Le bassin central se compose de la Côte d'Ivoire, le centre et l’est du Mali, le Burkina Faso, le Ghana, et le Togo où le maïs est généralement commercialisé. (3) Le bassin Est se rapporte au Niger, Nigéria, Tchad, et Bénin où le millet est le plus fréquemment commercialisé. Ces trois bassins commerciaux sont distingués sur la carte ci-dessus.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Afghanistan, Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen, South Sudan (Republic of)


    2012 was a record year for CERF as we received more requests for funding than ever. CERF responded and dispersed US$485 million to 546 projects in 49 countries and territories – the highest amount since its inception. Whilst the countries of the United Nations and other partners showed great generosity, the level of funding required from CERF in 2012 shows that crises worldwide continue to proliferate.
    Since CERF’s inception, 125 General Assembly members, regional governments and observers, private donors and the public have trusted us to allocate and manage a total of $2.8 billion in grants to 87 countries and territories around the world.

    I would like to express my great appreciation to the 69 Member States, several corporations, regional governments and dozens of private individuals that invested more than $427 million in CERF in 2012. This is a remarkable show of support and solidarity in tough economic times.

    CERF cannot address all needs, but with a relatively small amount of money, it can lay the groundwork that enables quicker and more effective humanitarian responses. CERF provides money for life-saving, humanitarian activities during those critical first days of a disaster, ensuring that emergency operations do not fail due to a lack of funding. CERF funding also helps to improve the coordination of responses. UN agencies have to work together to agree on what is required and where.

    The need for CERF funding will be substantial in 2013. Conflicts, violence, floods, earthquakes, droughts, preventable diseases – alone or in combination – will drive millions of people into desperate need in 2013.

    Emergency humanitarian operations to help them will cost the world billions of dollars. I appeal to UN Member States, the private sector and individuals to continue supporting CERF so that it can continue to do what it does so well, ensure that critical and timely life-saving assistance gets to those most in need.

    Valerie Amos
    Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs
    And Emergency Relief Coordinator

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Mali

    Access in northern pastoral areas undermined by residual effects of insecurity and lean season


    • IPC Phase 3: Crisis levels of food insecurity have remained stable in pastoral areas where the lean season is underway, and IPC Phase 2: Stress acute food insecurity outcomes are also stable in the riverbelt zones. Improving trade flows, the gradual economic recovery, and ongoing deliveries of humanitarian assistance since March should prevent any deterioration in food security in areas of concern.

    • Northern markets continue to recover. Food prices are unchanged or up slightly from last month by five to ten percent, but still above the five-year average by 15 percent in Timbuktu and by as much as 35 percent in Gao.

    • Available supplies of off-season cereal crops (rice and wheat) in the Office du Niger area, the Western Sahel, the Kayes region, and parts of livelihood zone 3 in Timbuktu are helping to improve food availability in these areas.

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    Source: IFRC
    Country: Lesotho

    Period covered by this Ops Update: 10 December 2012 to 30 April 2013. This update represents a six-month summary of the operation.

    Appeal target (current): CHF 1,119,000

    Appeal coverage: 32%

    Appeal history:

    • This Emergency Appeal was initially launched on 15 October, 2012 for CHF 1,119,000 for 9 months to assist 8000 beneficiaries.

    • In December 2012, funds amounting to CHF 100,000 was contributed by the IFRC’s Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF)

    • Operations Update no. 1 was issued on 31 October 2012 and Operations Update no. 2 on 27 November 2012.

    Summary: Lesotho has been facing a food security crisis which has affected 725,215 people to date. Lesotho Red Cross Society (LRCS) launched an appeal in November 2012 to address the prevailing situation in the five districts of the country. In early December, activities were started to assist 1,600 households comprising of 8,000 beneficiaries in all five districts of Quthing, Mafeteng, Kena, Thaba-Tseka and Mokhotlong. Activities included both field and garden crops. The intended food aid commodities of pulses, beans, maize and oil had not been procured at the time due to limited funding

    In December 2012, LRCS was able to procure the much needed food aid commodities. LRCS and IFRC through the Disaster Management Office agreed on a food aid modality which aimed to avoid a free handout (that is, distribution of food for free), instead the communities should decide on the community works which will benefit from food for work initiatives. These include for example, a soil conservation project was a priority targeting Mafeteng district due massive significant land degradation.

    Registration extended to include households where the members are vulnerable but cannot do physical work; including households that are food insecure and further disadvantaged as they cannot carry out food for work activities due to their health status.

    To date, seeds have been distributed and training given to food insecure households in coordination with relevant government stakeholders. Severe weather conditions, however, threaten to hamper progress made under this Emergency Appeal. Food distribution is in progress in the Mokhotlong district for general food distribution, food for work and nutrition.

    On behalf of Lesotho Red Cross (LRCS), IFRC would like to thank all partners contributing to this appeal including British Red Cross, Japanese Red Cross, Red Cross of Monaco, Swiss Red Cross and Netherlands Red Cross who contributed to this operation so far.

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    Source: ACT Alliance
    Country: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger

    Appeal Target: US$ 299,991Balance Requested: US$ 211,351

    Geneva, 31 May 2013 Dear Colleagues,

    Mali is now the epicentre of a triple crisis currently affecting the Sahel i) The continued humanitarian impact of acute crisis of 2012 due to factors such as drought in 2011, high food prices and low agriculture production; ii) The underlying chronic nature of food insecurity, malnutrition and the erosion of resilience in the region; and iii) The current Mali crisis, which has resulted in the significant displacement of IDPs within the country and an on-going exodus of refugees to neighbouring countries.

    As of 27 January 2013, 15,208 new Malian refugees had arrived in Burkina Faso (5,002), Mauritania (8,468) and Niger (1,738). These figures may vary depending on the escalation of the situation in the combat zones. Based on monitoring of bus stations and certain public routes (pigasses) on 21 of February 2013, IOM estimates that Bamako is the district hosting more displaced (21% of total, 7908 households). Mopti (16%, 6122 households) and Segou (17%, 6553 households) also have a large number of IDPs. The total is 260,655.

    An update on 22 February states that the risk of food insecurity is increasing in the north, where WFP had previously estimated that 585,000 people were food insecure and 1.2 million were at risk of food insecurity. It is estimated that in 2013, 660,000 children under 5 will suffer from malnutrition and 210,000 of those from severe acute malnutrition (SAM).

    According to ACT Mali Forum needs assessment report, issues as education, protection, human rights (SGBV) needs are strongly highlighted. Therefore Food security, Education, Protection, Human rights, WASH, Reconciliation and peace building, Assistance to returnees, early recovery and resilience will be part of the emergency response.

    Requesting members in this appeal are; Christian Aid, Diakonia Sweden, ICCO, LWR, NCA. This full appeal replaces the preliminary appeal issued on the 19th of March 2013. The appeal target has been greatly reduced and is now $300,000. The appeal funding will complement the existing work of members in the country in responding to the current crisis.

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    Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
    Country: Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal

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    Source: Forced Migration Review, University of Oxford
    Country: Afghanistan, Burundi, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Rwanda, Somalia, Syrian Arab Republic, World, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Fragile states are risky environments. Many states fail in their responsibilities to their citizens but those states which are fragile, failed or weak are particularly liable to render their citizens vulnerable. Failures of authority or legitimacy can lead to the emergence of significant organised violence; the impact of this can then be compounded by the failure of the state to protect its citizens, especially minorities. Thus conflict as a cause of displacement often correlates with state fragility, whether as a symptom or a cause of fragility, and the ability of fragile states and their neighbours to deal with displacement has become a key indicator of failure or progress.

    This issue of FMR attempts to go behind the definitions, typologies and indicators to explore some of the concepts and realities. The articles that follow also look at a variety of cases where displacement and state fragility go together or where countries are emerging from conflict-related displacement and fragility. They also discuss some of the humanitarian and development responses.

    State fragility may play a significant role in forced migration relating to natural disasters or environmental crises, as failures in governance affect the vulnerabilities of populations and their ability to adapt and be resilient. We will be following up on some of these issues in FMR 45, due out in December 2013, which will have ‘Crisis migration’ as its theme.

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Senegal


    • An additional 1,470 children under five with severe acute malnutrition were treated in the month of April, bringing the total admissions so far this year to 4,419 SAM cases.

    • The Region of Diourbel has seen a 50% rise in admissions from 444 children with SAM admitted in March to 657 admitted in April. This region has already treated 61% of the SAM cases targeted for all of 2013 in just four months of mostly post-harvest season (January –April).

    • The number of nutrition facilities has gone up from 817 to 832 in the month of May, reaching 88% of the yearly target. In addition, 161 villages in the Regions of Kedougou, Kolda, Sedhiou and Tambacounda have completed their 3-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) process.

    • In May CERF (OCHA) gave USD 466,760 to UNICEF Senegal, which brings emergency funding to 29% of estimated needs.

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Nigeria

    Elevated levels of food insecurity in northeast Nigeria due to the effects of conflict


    • Due to intensifying civil insecurity, a state of emergency has been declared for northeastern Nigeria. This had lead to additional fatalities, population displacements, and disruptions to market, trade, and income generating activities. Household food stocks in the affected areas also depleted earlier than normal this year due to below-average 2012/13 crop production. As a result, poor households in Borno and Yobe states will face Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity until September.

    • In areas affected by last season's floods, households became market dependant earlier than normal and are having difficulties accessing food due to above-normal staple food prices. In flood-affected areas, poor households will be Stressed (IPC Phase 2) through September.

    • In the rest of the country, prices for major staple foods are above both last year's levels and the five-year average. However relatively normal income levels, as well as early green harvests, will enable households to access food normally. Households in these areas will face Minimal (IPC Phase 1) food insecurity through the entire outlook period.

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    Source: US Agency for International Development
    Country: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, United Republic of Tanzania, World

    One year ago, on the eve of the 2012 G8 Summit, President Obama announced the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, ushering in a new phase of global investment in food security and nutrition.

    A joint initiative launched under the United States’ G8 Presidency, the New Alliance builds on progress and commitments – both to agriculture and a modern approach to development – made in 2009 at the L’Aquila G8 Summit. It calls on African leaders, the private sector and development partners to accelerate responsible investment in African agriculture and lift 50 million people out of poverty by 2022.

    As the President’s global hunger and food security initiative, Feed the Future serves as the principal vehicle through which the United States contributes to the New Alliance. In line with the foundational principles of Feed the Future, the New Alliance supports country-driven approaches to development with input and collaboration from local organizations and leaders to ensure lasting results for smallholder farmers and their families,

    In the first year of implementation after its launch, the New Alliance has looked to Feed the Future’s innovative, comprehensive approach as a model for fostering transparency and accountability, increasing private investment, expanding access to new technologies, and fostering a supporting policy environment. We are confident that with the collective commitments of our partners, we will carry the momentum forward on these goals.

    We know from experience that the path to sustainable global food security across the entire continuum from farm to market to table can’t be forged by governments alone. That’s why the New Alliance matches effective government policy of African governments with targeted investment from the private sector and the commitment of donors and other development partners to catalyze and support Africa’s potential for rapid and sustainable agricultural growth.

    A year later, we can see that this consistent, coordinated effort to reverse a long history of underinvestment in African agriculture is paying off in a variety of important ways. As noted by USAID Administrator Shah in a speech last week at the Chicago Council on Global Affairs’ annual Global Food Security Symposium, the New Alliance has grown into a $3.75 billion public-private partnership representing commitments from more than 70 global and local companies to increase the incomes of smallholder farmers through essential actions like expanding seed production and distribution, and developing infrastructure. A recent Grow Africa report estimates that over $60 million has already been invested over the past year to help link smallholder farmers to commercial markets, with some 800,000 people reached through training, services and market access.

    Meanwhile, six African nations have been making critical, market-oriented policy reforms to foster the right conditions for investment and growth in the agriculture sector. Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire and Mozambique have all developed Cooperation Frameworks that solidify their participation in the New Alliance and align with their Country Investment Plans in support of the African Union’s Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program.

    These joint endeavors have accomplished a lot in a relatively short period of time. At its launch in 2012, the New Alliance supported a package of “Enabling Actions” designed to spur agricultural growth and incentivize greater private sector investment in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on smallholder farmers and women. In 2013, under the leadership of the United States, we’ve moved many of these Enabling Actions forward, including:

    Launching the Agriculture Fast Track Fund, a multi-donor trust fund housed in the African Development Bank that will increase the number of investment-ready agricultural infrastructure projects in New Alliance countries by defraying front-end project development costs the private sector may not shoulder alone

    Convening an international conference in partnership with G8 countries and the World Bank on Open Data for Agriculture, in order to develop options for establishing a global platform to share reliable agricultural and related information relevant to African countries, farmers, researchers and policy makers

    Launching a Technology Platform to assess the availability of improved agricultural technologies, identify constraints to their adoption, and create a roadmap to accelerate the adoption of these technologies among farmers

    We’ve also seen progress on the ground in our New Alliance countries. In Ethiopia, DuPont recently opened a state-of-the-art seed processing plant and warehouse that will help 35,000 smallholder maize farmers increase their yields by as much as 50 percent. Ghana Nuts, once a recipient of U.S. Government development assistance, is now a leading agro processor and signed a letter of intent under the New Alliance to promote soya and expand maize procurement and processing in Ghana. The Government of Tanzania’s decision this year to end a longstanding export ban on maize, rice and other crops will help rural farmers collect fair prices for their harvests. And just eight months after officially joining the New Alliance last September on the margins of the 2012 UN General Assembly, Mozambique, Cote d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso have also begun implementing key policy reforms to improve efficiency and transparency, and boost incomes of smallholders employed throughout the agriculture sector in their countries.

    While these are just a few examples of the strides made since last May, we also know that there are still challenges ahead to ensure that the New Alliance makes a tangible and lasting contribution to poverty reduction and food security and nutrition across Sub-Saharan Africa. In June, the United Kingdom will host the 2013 G8 Summit, continuing the momentum of this effort with a major “Nutrition for Growth” event that will call on global leaders to make the commitments needed to prevent undernutrition. More African countries are expected to join the New Alliance this year as well.

    By continuing to build our evidence base so we can focus on what works, and by supporting access and adoption of tools and technologies for smallholder farmers, we can spur transformative, agriculture-based growth and advance improved nutrition, particularly in the first 1,000 days between pregnancy and a child’s second birthday. Through Feed the Future, and together with our partners from African and donor governments, the private sector, civil society, and the research community, the U.S. Government will continue to be a strong advocate for the New Alliance as we strive to meet President Obama’s challenge to end extreme poverty in the next two decades.

    Read the May edition of the Feed the Future newsletter to learn more about New Alliance progress. For even more about progress on global food security and nutrition, stay tuned for the second Feed the Future progress report, coming this summer.

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    Source: UN Children's Fund
    Country: Cameroon, Nigeria


     The Health and Nutrition week (SASNIM) was organized in the 10 regions from 26 to 30 April; 1,152,045 children aged 6-59 months received vitamin A and 1,349,937 children aged 12-59 months were dewormed in the Far North and North region. 1,727,391 (101%) children under 5 received Polio drops (OPV), and 38,790 pregnant women received Intermittent Preventive treatment (IPT).

     A mass screening of acute malnutrition in the North and Far North region was carried out during [the Mother and Child Health and Nutrition Action Week (SASNIM), reaching 90% of children. Out of 1,420,145 children 6-59 months estimated to be covered, 1,288,475 children were enrolled in the mass screening with MUAC, 425,892 in the North region and 862,583 in the Far North. 50,583 MAM cases and 9,269 SAM cases were found and referred to outpatient centres. 10 health districts out of 43 require urgent action.

     A 10 member delegation led by the UN Foundation team consisting of US Congressional aides and Rotary International visited Garoua - North Region to look at Child Survival and HIV initiatives from April 27 – May 2nd 2013.

     Following the declaration of state of emergency on May 14 in Nigeria, the actions carried out by Nigerian Government towards the Boko Haram rebels in Maiduguru State (neighbor of Cameroon) may lead to displacement of population from Nigeria to Cameroun. Some Cameroonians living near Nigeria Borno State are moving into Far North region of Cameroon.

     91 suspected cases of measles have been reported in the North and Far North, but no epidemic has been declared.

     UNICEF has started distribution of 396 mobile phones to extend the initial telephone fleet established by WHO at health centres in the Far North and North regions. The telephones will be used to provide prompt information in the epidemiological surveillance weekly system that has included key indicators on nutrition (admissions and deaths of SAM in outpatient’s and inpatient facilities).

     From April 25 to May 14, a cross-sectoral mission completed its work visiting 60 flood-affected school sites spanning the Extreme North and North to assess the condition of schools, WASH

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    Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
    Country: Malawi

    Maize, rice, and cassava are the most important food commodities. Markets selected represent the entire geographic length of the country: two markets in each of the north, center, and south. In the north, Karonga is one of the most active markets in maize and rice and is influenced by informal cross-border trade with Tanzania. Mzimba is a major maize producing area in the northern region. Salima, in the center along the lake, is an important market where some of the fishing populations are almost entirely dependent on the market for staple cereals. Mitundu is a very busy peri-urban market in Lilongwe. In the south, the Lunzu market is the main supplier of food commodities such as maize and rice for Blantyre. The Bangula market in Nsanje district was chosen to represent the Lower Shire area, covering Chikwawa and Nsanje districts.

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